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Prostate Cancer in Points of View of Foods, Herbs and Vitamins

By Kyle J. Norton

I. In Foods' Points of View The widespread of prostate cancer, once considered a disease of aging male, now have become major concerns of governments and scientific community in South East Asian with tendency to effect even younger age population. Suggestions emerged of over consuming bad fats in any time in history accompanied with unhealthy diet and life style may be the possible causes of the disease, linking to the economic prosperity over 2 decades. oods for diseases! management have been prescribed in folk medicine over thousands of year as one of best medicine of nature in preventing and treating diseases, including prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth with possibility of spreading to the distant parts of the body. "ost prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during physical #rectum$ e%ams. A. y!es of "e#etables may red$ce ris% of Prostate cancer &. Cr$cifero$s "e#etables &ruciferous vegetables are the group of vegetables belonging to the family 'rassicaceae, including cauliflower, cabbage, cress, bok choy, broccoli etc.. Epidemiological studies has demonstrated reduced risk of prostate cancer in cruciferous consumption. (ndole)*)carbinol, a major chemical compound in &rucifers, are found to be effective in inhibiting prostate cancer by blocking initiation through induction of phases ( and (( deto%ification pathways and suppressing prostate cancer progression, through down)regulated cell signaling pathways#+$. (ts derivative *,*!) ,iindolylmethane #,("$, showed to activate the A"-.#regulator of cellular energy homeostasis$ signaling pathway, associated with suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin #mT/0$#cell regulator$, down) regulation of androgen receptor #A0$ e%pression, and induction of apoptosis in both androgen)sensitive prostate cancer cells#2$. Erucin #E0$, derived from (sothiocyanates #(T&s$ in crucifers, may hold an anti progressive property in prostate cancer as it showed an effect in increasing significantly p2+ protein e%pression # regulator of cell cycle progression at 1+ and S phase$ and E0.+22 phosphorylation#cell regulation$ in a dose)dependent

manner to inhibit -&*#3uman prostate cell line$ cell proliferation#*$. Sulforaphane #S 4$ in crucifers also inhibited prostate cancer cell line through impacting epigenetic pathways#5$. '. omato Tomato is a red, edible fruit, genus Solanum, belonging to family Solanaceae, native to South America. 'ecause of its health benefits, tomato is grown world wide for commercial purpose and often in green house. Studies of tomato, linking to reduced risk of prostate caner have produced inconsistent results.#6$#7$#8$#9$#:$. 0egardless to these mi%ed results, intake of lycopene and specific tomato products acknowledged by many researchers is associated in reduced risk prostate cancer. ;ycopene, a lipid soluble carotenoid molecule found in tomato and Alpha #<$)tomatine, a saponin presented in tomato, showed to e%ert its tumor suppressing effects by increased apoptosis and lower proliferation of tumor cells.#+=$#++$. According to the 4orthwestern >niversity "edical School, in a recent prospective dietary analysis identified lycopene as the carotenoid with the clearest inverse relation to the development of prostate cancer#+2$#+*$. (n Androgen)independent ,>+56 prostate cancer cells, Apo)lycopenals or other lycopene metabolites, significantly reduced cell proliferation through alteration of the normal cell cycle#+5$. (n 'A;'2c nude mice, lycopene caused ,>+56 cells to accumulate in the 1#=$21#+$ #&ell cycle$phase and to undergo apoptosis in a dose)dependent manner#+6$. (. )arlic 1arlic is a natural superfood healer for its natural antibiotic with antiviral, antifungal, anticoagulant and antiseptic properties. 1arlics intake, are related to decreased risk of prostate cancer#+8$, in a reviewed study with evidence from +*2,+:2 subjects#+9$. S)allylcysteine #SA&$ derived from garlic, suppressed the proliferation of -&)* cells and led to cell cycle arrest at the 1=21+ &ell cycle$phases, as well as inducing cell apoptosis which was accompanied by the decreased e%pression of 'cl)2 and increased e%pression of 'a% and caspase 9#+:$. ,iallyl disulfide #,A,S$ another compound in garlic, at 26 and 5= micro" concentrations induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in -&)* cells through increased e%pression of caspases#e%tent of apoptosis$#2=$ #*, :, and +=$, proapoptotic protein 'a%#Apoptosis regulator$#2+$. *. +weet !otato Sweet potato is a large, starchy, sweet tasting tuberous roots vegetable,

genus (pomoea, belonging to the family &onvolvulaceae. (ts young leaves can be made into a delicious dish in &hinese foods but some species of batatas are actually poisonous. Sweet potato #(pomoea batatas$ leaves, a favor vegetable consumed e%tensively in Africa and Asia, containing rich sources of dietary polyphenols #anthocyanins and phenolic acids$ e%erted its significant antiproliferative activity in some prostate cancer cell lines without damaging to normal prostate epithelial cells. S-1E #Sweet potato e%tract$ altered cell cycle progression, reduced clonogenic survival, modulated cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory molecules and induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer -&)* cells both in vitro and in vivo#22$. (n nude mice testing, the e%tract inhibited growth and progression of prostate tumor %enografts by ?86@#2*$. ,. )in#er )in#er -Aingiber officinale$ or ginger root is the genus Aingiber, belonging to the family Aingiberaceae, native to Tamil. (t has been used in traditional and &hinese medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroparesis, constipation, edema, difficult urination, colic, etc. 1inger e%tract #1E$ and 7)gingerol. a chemical constituent found in ginger root, synergistically inhibited proliferation of -&)* cells#25$. ,aily oral feeding of +== mg2kg body weight of 1E, inhibited growth and progression of -&)* %enografts by appro%imately 67 @ in nude mice and reduced proliferation inde% and widespread apoptosis compared with controls#26$. (n the comparison of 1E and an artificial Buasi)mi%ture #"i%$ formulated by combining four most)active ginger constituents at concentrations eBuivalent, 1E showed 2.5)fold higher tumor growth)inhibitory efficacy than "i% in human prostate tumor %enografts#27$. .. +!inac/ Suggestion of intake of typical green and yellowvegetable and spinach were associated to reduced risk factors for prostate cancer#28$ and risk of aggressive prostate cancer decreased with increasing spinach consumption#29$. Spinach e%tract #4A/$ e%erted its anti profileration of the human -&A cell line -&* by 4A/)induced 1+ delay and prolonged cell cycle prolongation as a result of downregulation of the protein e%pression of pp0b#tumour suppressor pathway$#2:$and E2 transcription factors#*=$. (n human prostatic cancer #-&A$ cell lines ,>+56 and -&*, showed an inhibition of cellular proliferation occurred in a dose)dependent manner, increasing numbers of 1+ cells #&ell cycle$and reducing 0/S#reactive

o%ygen species$ levels#*+$. 0. C/ili !e!!er &hili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus &apsicum, belonging to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The fruit has been used in human history for spices and cultivated for commercial profits. &apsaicin, a chemical constituent of chili pepper e%erted its antiproliferative activity correlates with o%idative stress induction and apoptosis and potently suppresses the growth of human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo#*2$, inducing the apoptosis of both androgen receptor #A0$)positive #;4&a-$ and )negative #-&)*, ,>)+56$ prostate cancer cell lines associated with an increase of p6*, p2+, and 'a%#**$#*5$. &apsaicin in other study showed to induce apoptosis in -&)* cells#-rostate cancer$ via 0/S#reactive o%ygen species$ generation, C4.#tumorigenetic regulator$ activation, ceramide accumulation, and second, e%tracellular signal)regulated protein kinase #E0.$ activation#*6$. 1. Carrot Studies of ,ietary intake of the carotenoids beta)carotene and lycopene found in carrot for its reduced risk of prostate cancer has produced inconsistent results. Some studies suggested that dietary intake of beta) carotene and its main vegetable sources was largely unassociated with prostate cancer risk, whereas intake of lycopene and tomato)based foods was weakly associated with a reduced risk#*7$. (n antio%idant study, some researchers suggested that beta)carotene supplementation in men with low dietary beta)carotene intakes were associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer#*8$ and vegetable and carotene intake was associated with lower risk of prostate cancer among Capanese#*9$. >nfortunately, there is a report of intake of beta)carotene supplement may increase prostate cancer incidence, 2*@ higher and mortality, +6@ higher in comparison with those not receiving#*:$. 2. 3$s/room "ushroom is a standard name of white button mushroom, the fleshy, spore) bearing fruiting body of a fungus produced above ground on soil or on its food source, (t is a genus A. "uscaria, belonging to the family Amanitaceae and has been cultivation in many cultures all over the world for foods and health benefits. "ushroom (nonotus obliBuus #(. obliBuus$ petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions was found effectively against human prostate cancer cell line -&*

by inhibition effects on 4/ production and 4 )D' luciferase activity in cells produced by the differentiation of white blood cells in 0AE 275.8 cells and cytoto%icity#5=$. Also in human androgen)independent cancer -&)* cells, water)soluble e%tract #-/E$ of the fresh oyster mushroom e%erted most significant cytoto%icity on -&)* cells comparisin to 2 other mushroom species with cytoto%icity and induced apoptosis mediated in dose)dependent manner#5+$. -olysaccharide).F #-S.$, an e%tract of the mushroom, induced significantly tumor suppression in a reduction of tumor proliferation and apoptosis enhanced, by lowering the decrease in number of white blood cells, accompanied by increased numbers of tumor)infiltrating &,5G and &,9G T cells.#52$. &4. Bean s!ro$ts eaten raw or cooked, bean sprouts are common ingredient in Asian cuisine, made from sprouting beans. (soliBuiritigenin isolated from bean sprout, used in treatment on the migration, invasion and adhesion characteristics of ,>+56 human prostate cancer showed to inhibit basal and E1 )induced cell#proliferation5 migration, invasion in doses dependent#5*$ and cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in ,>+56 human prostate cancer cells and "AT);y;u #";;$ rat prostate cancer cells, through inhibition of Erb'* signaling and the -(*.2Akt ##anti)apoptosis and increased cell proliferation$pathway#55$. /ther researchers also suggested that these inhibition are associated with an evident disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the release of cytochrome c and Smac2,iablo#a mitochondrial protein$, and the activation of caspase):#apoptosis$#56$. B. y!es of fr$it may red$ce ris% of !rostate cancer &. 3an#osteen fr$it "angosteen fruit, a tropical fruit growth in South East Asia is a tropical evergreen tree originated in the Sunda (slands and the "oluccas of (ndonesia. (n 220v+ and ;4&a-, and prostate epithelial cells #-rE&s$, standardiHed mangosteen fruit e%tract #" E$, showed its inhibited effect by suppressing tumor growth in a %enograft tumor model without causing damage to non) tumorigenic prostate epithelial cell and induced to%icity#57$. -olyphenols, the main chemical constituent of the fruit e%tract also targeted multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis in prostate cancer#58$. <)"angostin, a %anthone derived from -olyphenols of mangosteen fruit, targeted cell cycle)related proteins

involved in prostate carcinogenesis#59$. '. 6on# Pe!!er or Indian lon# !e!!er >sed as a spice and seasoning, ;ong -epper or (ndian long pepper is a flowering vine in the family -iperaceae. -iperlongumine #-;$, a natural alkaloid presented in the fruit of the ;ong pepper, e%erted its effect on prostate cancer by downregulation of Akt downstream signaling#apoptosis, cell proliferation$ resulted in decrease of mT/0&+ #nutrient2energy$activity and autophagy #cell degradation$stimulation#5:$. -; also found to induce rapid depletion of the Androgen receptor #A0$ in prostate cancer #-&$ cells which is an early indication of prostate cancer#6=$. (n human prostate cancer ,>+56, -&)* and ;4&a- cells, piperine, another an alkaloid from black and long peppers, e%hibited anti)proliferative effect in human prostate cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and autophagy#6+$. (. Pome#ranate Pome#ranates is a fruit)bearing small tree, genus -unica, belonging to family ;ythraceae, native to (ran but has been cultivated in Asian since ancient time. -/"%, a omegranate #-E$ formula currently approved for clinical trials, effectively inhibited survivin #baculoviral inhibitor$, induced apoptosis, retarded the rate of tumor growth in skeleton#62$. -olyphenols, main chemical compounds from pomegranate fruit e%tracts #- Es$, slightly decreased secretion of matri% metalloproteinase #""-$)2 but not ""-): #e%pression usually seen in invasive and highly tumorigenic cancers$ from both prostate cell lines#6*$. /ther polyphenol derivative, ellagic acid #EA$ than to urolithin #>A$ converted from Ellagitannins #ETs$ from pomegranate juice #-C$, sgnificantly decreased cell proliferation by e%hibiting synergism in -&)* cells#65$. *. +trawberry Strawberries is a genius of ragaria I ananassa belongs to the family 0oseaceae. They have been grown all over the world with suitable climate for commercial profits and for health benefits. 'erry juice study, including strawberry, showed to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation, not involve caspase)dependent apoptosis, but in cell)cycle arrest, by down)regulation of the e%pression of cdk5, cdk7, cyclin ,+ and cyclin ,*#,ecrease the proliferative activity #66$. (n fact major classes of berry phenolics, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, ellagitannins,

gallotannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids are found to be effective in inhibition the growth of many human cancer cell lines, including prostate #;4&a-$ tumor cell lines at concentrations ranging from 26 to 2== micro g2m;.#67$. &rude e%tracts #26= microg2m;$ from strawberry and its pure compounds #+== microg2m;$also found to inhibit prostate #;4&a-, ,>+56$ cancer cells#68$. ,. )ra!es 1rape is a woody vines of the genus Jitis, belong to the family Jitaceae, native to southern Turkey. isetin, a chemical compound found in grape inhibited prostate cancer cell lines through downregulation of the -(*.2Akt #anti)apoptosis and increased cell proliferation$and the mT/0#energy sources$ pathways#69$. Another chemical constituent pterostilbene, in dose)dependent inhibited cellular proliferation, through activation of e%pression of A"-.#cellular energy homeostasis$ and the p6*#antigens$ but in p6* positive ;4&a- cells, pterostilbene blocked the progression of cell cycle at 1+ phase by inducing p6* e%pression and further up)regulating p2+ e%pression and in p6* negative, induced apoptosis in -&* cells#6:$. -iceatannol found in grape, e%hibited potential anticancer properties by suppressing proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells, through cell)cycle arrest, upregulation of antibody antigens and apoptotic activity and down)regulation of cancer cell proliferation#7=$. .. A!!le A!!le is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, a species of the rose family 0osaceae. (t is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. The tree is originated in &entral Asia. Apple peel e%tract #A-E$, e%erted its anti cancer effects by significant decreasing in growth and enhancing clonogenic survival of human prostate carcinoma &E0220nu+ and ,>+56 cells, through a 1=)1+#&ell cycle$ phase arrest#7+$. (n the study of ,oes an apple a day keep the oncologist awayK showed an inverse association of apple intake and incidence of cancer#72$. 0. Pa!aya -apaya is a species of &arica -apaya, belongs to the family &aricaceae and native to the tropics of the Americas, and was first cultivated in "e%ico and several centuries. 'enHylisothiocyanate #'(T&$, a solvent of papaya fruit inhibited cancer cell

line through induced apoptosis by converging two major pathwaysL the death receptor mediated e%trinsic and the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway#7*$. (n the role of diet, papaya is found effectively #more than 22.8 g2d #6=th percentile$ in reduced prostate cancer risk by 8.5 #Adjusted /0 8.5 #:6@ &( +.+8)57.9$#75$. ;ycopene, a major chemical constituent in tomato, also in papaya, in prospective and retrospective epidemiological studies indicated of an inverse relationship between lycopene intake and prostate cancer risk in vitro and in vivo e%periments#76$. 1. A!ricot Apricot tree is about 9M+2 m tall and a trunk up to 5= cm diameter belonging to the family 0osaceae. Apricot is classified with the family of the plum and has yellow to orange, often tinged red on the side which is e%posed to the sun. Ethanolic e%tracts #*=@$ of apricot showed to inhibit the growth of -&)* and ;4&a- #-rostate cancer cell lines$ cellsN induce apoptosis and alter cell kineticsN down regulated E0alpha #estrogen receptor <$, $ and -.&) alpha#interaction with the cell membrane$ protein, and demonstrate good binding ability to both mouse uterine estrogen receptors and ;4&a- human androgen receptors#77$. 2. A"ocado A"ocados are a commercially valuable fruit and are cultivated in tropical climates throughout the world, it is a green)skinned, pear)shaped fruit that ripens after harvesting and native to the &aribbean, "e%ico, South America. Ehole)blood fatty acids testing indicated that higher intakes of dietary "> A#monounsaturated fatty$ with principal source of dietary avocado intake was inversely related to prostate cancer#78$. Acetone e%tract of avocado, containing carotenoids and tocopherols showed to inhibit the growth of both androgen)dependent #;4&a-$ and androgen) independent #-&)*$ prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. (ncubation of -&)* cells with the avocado e%tract led to 1#2$2" cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in p28#cell cycle inhibitor$ protein e%pression#79$. &4. Citr$s fr$its ruits of the genus &itrus, native to southern and southeast Asia, include grapefruit, lemon, orange, etc. Study of incidence of prostate caner in 4orth (ndia compared to South (ndia, showed a positive decreased risk of increasing dietary consumption of tea, citrus fruits and melon#7:$. &itrus consumption is associated with reduced

all)cancer incidences, according to the study of cancer incidence among 52,58= Capanese adults in the /hsaki 4ational 3ealth (nsurance &ohort#8=$. /ral administration of 1old ;otion #1;$, an e%tract of multiple varieties of citrus peels containing abundant flavonoid, showed the deduction of both the weights #68@)+==@ inhibition$ and volumes #89@):5@ inhibition$ of the tumors without any adverse to%icity, accompanied by mechanistic down) regulation of the protein levels of inflammatory enHymes #inducible nitric o%ide synthase, i4/S and cycloo%ygenase)2, &/O)2$, metastasis #matri% metallopeptidase)2, ""-)2 and ""-):$, angiogenesis #vascular endothelial growth factor, JE1 $, and proliferative molecules, as well as by the induction of apoptosis in prostate tumors#8+$. >nfortunately, some studies did not show an association between intake of citrus fruits and the risk of prostate cancer#82$. &&. Bitter melon 'itter melon, a e%tremely bitter fruit, is a tropical and subtropical vine belonging to the family &ucurbitaceae, native in Asia, Africa, and the &aribbean. Treatment of bitter melon e%tract #'"E$ in prostate cancer, enhanced 'a% e%pression#involved in p6*)mediated apoptosis$ and induced -A0-#a nuclear protein implicated in ,4A repair$ cleavage#during apoptosis$, delayed the progression to high)grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia #precede the development of prostate adenocarcinoma$ and displayed appro%imately 6+@ reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen e%pression in mice#8*$. "&-*=, from bitter melon seeds induced apoptosis in -(4 and -&a cell lines in vitro and suppressed -&)* growth in vivo with no effect on normal prostate cells#85$. 'itter melon leaf e%tract #'";E$ inhibited the secretion of ""-)2, ""-):#metastasis$ and urokinase plasminogen activator #u-A$#invasion and metastasis$ from rat prostate cancer cell line #-;S+=$#86$. C. 7t/ers &. Fla8seed la% seed is native to the region of the eastern "editerranean to (ndia and also known as common fla% or linseed. la% is an erect annual plant, it can grow to +.2 m tall. The leaves are 2=M5= mm long and * mm broad. Enterolactone and enterodiol, mammalian lignans derived from dietary fla%seed may obstruct or delay the progressed prostate cancer cell proliferation via vascular endothelial growth factor#JE1 $)associated pathways#87$. /ther study indicated that diet supplemented with 6@ fla%seed inhibits the growth and development of prostate cancer in the

T0A"- model#88$ and la%seed)supplemented diet showed to lower prostate cancer proliferation rates and associated with biological alterations that may be protective for prostate cancer#89$. '. Ve#etable oil Jegetables oil is a triglyceride e%tracted from a plant. (ncreased levels of "> A)rich vegetable oil##including olive oil, canola or peanut oil$$ intake were associated with a progressive reduction in prostate cancer risk#8:$. 3ydrogenated soybean oil #S3S/$ showed remarkably strong anticarcinogenic activity against prostate cancer in the rat model and 6@ dietary supplementation with S3S/ inhibited the growth of prostate cancer by 9=@ in vivo#9=$. (. Honey The rich golden liBuid is the miraculous product made by bees using nectar from flowers. (t is considered as one of healthy sweet food for replacing the use of white sugar and artificial sweetener by many people. &hrysin, a natural flavone commonly found in honey, and honey itself showed to e%ert its antiproliferative effect on -&)* cells in a dose) and time) dependent manner#9+$ *. C/ic%!ea 1arbanHo beans also known as chickpea is an edible legume of genus &icer and the family abaceae, high in protein and minerals. (t is one of the earliest cultivated vegetables, native to "iddle East. 8 protease inhibitor concentrates #-(&s$ isolated from chickpea showed a significant inhibition the ;4&a- prostate cancer cells in concentrations tested of 26)5== Pg2ml#92$. ,. 7li"e oil E%tra virgin olive oil #EJ//$, was found to significantly affect the growth of 3&T ++7 tumours %enografted in athymic mice#9*$. -olyphenols, found in E%tra virgin olive oil #EJ//$, e%erted chemopreventive effects towards different organ specific cancers, affecting the overall process of carcinogenesis by inhibition of ,4A synthesis, modulation of 0/S production, regulation of cell cycle arrest, modulation of survival2proliferation pathways#95$. /ther study suggested that -olyphenols can directly interact with specific steps and2or proteins regulating the apoptotic process in different ways depending on their concentration, the cell system, the type or stage of the pathological process#96$.

.. Blac% !e!!er 'lack pepper, is a flowering vine in the family -iperaceae, its fruits used as a spice and seasoning -iperine, a major alkaloid constituent of black pepper, inhibited the proliferation of ;4&a-, -&)*, 220J+ and ,>)+56 prostate cancer cells in a dose dependent manner and induced apoptosis resulted in caspase activation in ;4&a- and -&)* cells#97$. Q)caryophyllene o%ide #&-/$, a sesBuiterpene isolated from essential oils of medicinal plants such as guava #-sidium guajava$, oregano #/riganum vulgare ;.$, cinnamon #&innamomum spp.$ clove #Eugenia caryophyllata$, and black pepper #-iper nigrum ;.$ not only inhibited the constitutive activation of -(*.2A.T2mT/02S7.+ #anti) apoptosis and increased cell proliferation and nutrientMhormonal signaling network$ pathway signaling cascade but also down)regulated the e%pression of various downstream gene products that mediate cell proliferation #cyclin ,+$, survival #bcl)2, bcl)%;, survivin, (A-)+, and (A-)2$, metastasis #&/O) 2$, angiogenesis #JE1 $, and increased the e%pression of p6* and p2+#98$. 0. )reen tea 1reen tea containing more amount of antio%idants than any drinks or food with the same volume, is the leaves of &amellia sinensis, undergone minimal o%idation during processing, originated from &hina. 1reen tea has been a precious drink in traditional &hinese culture and used e%ceptional in socialiHation for more than 5=== thousand years. 'ecause of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world. 1reen tea catechins #1T&s$, a potent chemical constituent containing #)$) epigallocathechin, #)$)epicatechin, #)$)epigallocatechin)*)gallate, #)$) epicatechin)*)gallate, in treatment of preprostate cancer men reduced lower urinary tract symptoms, improved coe%istent benign prostate hyperplasia and reached a statistical significance in the case of (nternational -rostate Symptom Scores#99$. (n green tea polyphenols study, epigallocatechin)*)gallate #E1&1$ e%erted its anti cancer effect on signaling pathways in -&a#9:$. Also combination admiration of Buercetin and green tea, showed a significant increase in the inhibition of proliferation, androgen receptor and phosphatidylinositol *) kinase2Akt signaling#tumor genesis in early stage$, and stimulation of apoptosis#:=$. (n short, 1reen tea, a potent anti prostate cancer with activities of heritable alterations of gene e%pression and chromatin organiHation without changes in ,4A seBuence induced multistep process

of carcinogenesis#:+$ may be considered as a natural treatment in vary types of cancer. 1. Fermented soybean !rod$cts ermented soybean products are made from fermenting soybeans and filamentous fungus, along with water and salt after a period of sometime. (n the Capan, incidence of prostate caner in aging men are low compared with the Eestern world, suggestion of these result may be tradition Capanese diet related. &onsumption of fish, all soybean products, tofu #bean curds$, and natto #fermented soybeans$ was associated with decreased risk of /0s #Estimates of age)adjusted odds ratios$ which supported traditional Capanese diet rich in soybean products and fish against prostate cancer#:2$. (n &hina, suggestion of reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with consumption of soy foods and isoflavones found abundantly in fermented soybean products#:*$. >nfortunately, the epidemiological data, linking ferment soybean products to reduced risk of prostate cancer are inconsistent including miso. The prevalence and widespread of prostate cancer may be diet, demographic and life style related disease#:5$#:6$#:7$. Suggestions and intentions are for prevention of prostate cancer to develop in the first place or used conjunction with conventional medicine in treating the disease. Eating healthy, with plenty of vegetables and fruits has always been considered as a preventive engagement in human history. R;et foods be your medicine and let medicine be your foodsR by 1reek physician 3ippocrates #57=)*88 '&$. C/inese +ecrets o Fatty 6i"er And 7besity 9e"ersal >se The 0evolutionary indings To Achieve /ptimal 3ealth And ;oose Eeight /varian &ysts And -&/S Elimination 3olistic System (n E%istence That Eill Show Sou 3ow To -ermanently Eliminate All Types of /varian &ysts Eithin 2 "onths 'ack to "ost common Types of &ancer httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca2p2blog)page.html 'ack to .yle C. 4orton 3ome page httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca 9eferences

#+$ -hytochemicals from cruciferous vegetables, epigenetics, and prostate cancer prevention by E Eatson 1, " 'eaver ;, E Eilliams ,, 3 ,ashwood 0, 3o E.#-ub"ed$ #2$ Activation of A"-)activated protein kinase by *,*!),iindolylmethane #,("$ is associated with human prostate cancer cell death in vitro and in vivo by &hen ,, 'anerjee S, &ui T&, .ong ,, Sarkar 3, ,ou T-. #-ub"ed$ #*$ Antiproliferative activity of the dietary isothiocyanate erucin, a bioactive compound from cruciferous vegetables, on human prostate cancer cells by "elchini A, Traka "3, &atania S, "iceli 4, Taviano " , "aimone -, rancisco ", "ithen 0 , &osta &.#-ub"ed$ #5$ -romoter de)methylation of cyclin ,2 by sulforaphane in prostate cancer cells by 3su A, Eong &-, Su A, Eilliams ,E, ,ashwood 03, 3o E. #-ub"ed$ #6$ ;ow prostate concentration of lycopene is associated with development of prostate cancer in patients with high)grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia by "ariani S+, ;ionetto ;2, &avallari "*, Tubaro A5, 0asio ,6, ,e 4unHio &7, 3ong 1"8, 'orro "9, Simmaco ":.#-ub"ed$ #7$ A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk by 1iovannucci E, 0imm E', ;iu S, Stampfer "C, Eillett E&. #-ub"ed$ #8$ A prospective study of lycopene and tomato product intake and risk of prostate cancer by .irsh JA, "ayne ST, -eters >, &hatterjee 4, ;eitHmann " , ,i%on ;', >rban ,A, &rawford E,, 3ayes 0'#-ub"ed$ #9$ ;ycopene2Tomato consumption and the risk of prostate cancerL a systematic review and meta)analysis of prospective studies by &hen C, Song S, Ahang ;.#-ub"ed$ #:$ The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prev2:ntion of prostate cancerL a meta)analysis of observational studies by Etminan ", Takkouche ', &aamaUo)(sorna .#-ub"ed$ #+=$ Alpha)tomatine attenuation of in vivo growth of subcutaneous and orthotopic %enograft tumors of human prostate carcinoma -&)* cells is accompanied by inactivation of nuclear factor)kappa ' signaling by ;ee ST, Eong - , 3e 3, 3ooper C,, "ustafa "0.#-ub"ed$ #++$ Alpha)tomatine induces apoptosis and inhibits nuclear factor)kappa ' activation on human prostatic adenocarcinoma -&)* cells by ;ee ST, Eong - , &heah S&, "ustafa "0.#-ub"ed$ #+2$ ;ower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levelsL results of a prospective analysis by 1ann -3, "a C, 1iovannucci E, Eillett E, Sacks ", 3ennekens &3, Stampfer "C.#-ub"ed$

#+*$ (nverse associations between plasma lycopene and other carotenoids and prostate cancer by ;u TS, 3ung C&, 3eber ,, 1o J;, 0euter JE, &ordon)&ardo &, Scher 3(, "arshall C0, Ahang A .#-ub"ed$ #+5$ ;ycopene and apo)+2!)lycopenal reduce cell proliferation and alter cell cycle progression in human prostate cancer cells by ord 4A, Elsen A&, Auniga ., ;indshield ';, Erdman CE Cr.#-ub"ed$ #+6$ ;ycopene inhibits the growth of human androgen)independent prostate cancer cells in vitro and in 'A;'2c nude mice by Tang ;, Cin T, Aeng O, Eang CS.#-ub"ed$ #+7$ Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancerL evidence from +*2,+:2 subjects by Ahou O , ,ing AS, ;iu 4'.#-ub"ed$ #+8$ Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancerL a population)based study by 3sing AE, &hokkalingam A-, 1ao ST, "adigan "-, ,eng C, 1ridley 1, raumeni C Cr.#-ub"ed$ #+9$ Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancerL a population)based study by 3sing AE, &hokkalingam A-, 1ao ST, "adigan "-, ,eng C, 1ridley 1, raumeni C Cr.#-ub"ed$$ #+:$ S)allylcysteine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in androgen) independent human prostate cancer cells by ;iu A, ;i ", &hen ., Sang C, &hen 0, Eang T, ;iu C, Sang E, Se A#-ub"ed$. #2=$ E%pression of caspases *, 7 and 9 is increased in parallel with apoptosis and histological aggressiveness of the breast lesion by Jakkala ", -VVkkW -, Soini S.#-ub"ed$ #2+$ Effects of diallyl disulfide #,A,S$ on e%pression of apoptosis associated proteins in androgen independent human prostate cancer cells #-&)*$ by 1ayathri 0, 1unadharini ,4, Arunkumar A, Senthilkumar ., .rishnamoorthy 1, 'anudevi S, Jignesh 0&, Arunakaran C.#-ub"ed$ #22$ -olyphenol)rich sweet potato greens e%tract inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by .arna -, 1undala S0, 1upta "J, Shamsi SA, -ace 0,, Sates &, 4arayan S, Aneja 0.#-ub"ed$ #2*$ -olar biophenolics in sweet potato greens e%tract synergiHe to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth by 1undala S0, Sang &, ;akshminarayana 4, Asif 1, 1upta "J, Shamsi S, Aneja 0. #-ub"ed$ #25$ 1inger phytochemicals e%hibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation by 'rahmbhatt ", 1undala S0, Asif 1, Shamsi SA, Aneja 0. #-ub"ed$ #26$ 'enefits of whole ginger e%tract in prostate cancer by .arna -, &hagani S, 1undala S0, 0ida -&, Asif 1, Sharma J, 1upta "J, Aneja 0.#-ub"ed$

#27$ Enterohepatic re)circulation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth)inhibitory activity of ginger e%tract by 1undala S0, "ukkavilli 0, Sang &, Sadav -, Tandon J, Jangala S, -rakash S, Aneja 0.#-ub"ed$ #28$ A case)control study of prostatic cancer with reference to dietary habits by /ishi ., /kada ., Soshida /, Samabe 3, /hno S, 3ayes 0', Schroeder 3.#-ub"ed$ #29$ -rospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer by .irsh JA, -eters >, "ayne ST, Subar A , &hatterjee 4, Cohnson &&, 3ayes 0'N -rostate, ;ung, &olorectal and /varian &ancer Screening Trial.#-ub"ed$ #2:$ Enterohepatic re)circulation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth)inhibitory activity of ginger e%tract by 1undala S0, "ukkavilli 0, Sang &, Sadav -, Tandon J, Jangala S, -rakash S, Aneja 0.#-ub"ed$ #*=$ >niBue natural antio%idants #4A/s$ and derived purified components inhibit cell cycle progression by downregulation of pp0b and E2 in human -&* prostate cancer cells by 'akshi S, 'ergman ", ,ovrat S, 1rossman S. #-ub"ed$ #*+$ Slowing tumorigenic progression in T0A"- mice and prostatic carcinoma cell lines using natural anti)o%idant from spinach, 4A/))a comparative study of three anti)o%idants by 4yska A, Suttie A, 'akshi S, ;omnitski ;, 1rossman S, 'ergman ", 'en)Shaul J, &rocket -, 3aseman C., "oser 1, 1oldsworthy T;, "aronpot 00.#-ub"ed$ #*2$ Effect of capsaicin on prostate cancer cells by ,XaH);aviada (.#-ub"ed$ #**$ &apsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen)independent, p6* mutant prostate cancer cells by "ori A, ;ehmann S, /!.elly C, .umagai T, ,esmond C&, -ervan ", "c'ride E3, .iHaki ", .oeffler 3-.#-ub"ed$ #*5$ &apsaicin, a component of red peppers, induces e%pression of androgen receptor via -(*. and "A-. pathways in prostate ;4&a- cells by "alagarie)&aHenave S, /lea)3errero 4, Jara ,, ,XaH);aviada (.#-ub"ed$ #*6$ Apoptosis induced by capsaicin in prostate -&)* cells involves ceramide accumulation, neutral sphingomyelinase, and C4. activation by SYncheH A", "alagarie)&aHenave S, /lea 4, Jara ,, &hiloeches A, ,XaH) ;aviada (.#-ub"ed$ #*7$ -rostate cancer and dietary carotenoids by 4orrish AE, Cackson 0T, Sharpe SC, Skeaff &".#-ub"ed$ #*8$ Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta)carotene, and vitamin & intakes and prostate cancer risk by .irsh JA, 3ayes 0', "ayne ST,

&hatterjee 4, Subar A , ,i%on ;', Albanes ,, Andriole 1;, >rban ,A, -eters >N -;&/ Trial.#-ub"ed$ #*9$ 0elationship between vegetable and carotene intake and risk of prostate cancerL the CA&& study by >mesawa ", (so 3, "ikami ., .ubo T, SuHuki ., Eatanabe S, "ori ", "iki T, Tamakoshi AN CA&& Study 1roup#-ub"ed$ #*:$ -rostate cancer and supplementation with alpha)tocopherol and beta) caroteneL incidence and mortality in a controlled trial by 3einonen /-, Albanes ,, Jirtamo C, Taylor -0, 3uttunen C., 3artman A", 3aapakoski C, "alila 4, 0autalahti ", 0ipatti S, "VenpVV 3, Teerenhovi ;, .oss ;, Jirolainen ", Edwards '..#-ub"ed$ #5=$Anti)inflammatory and anticancer activities of e%tracts and compounds from the mushroom (nonotus obliBuus by "a ;, &hen 3, ,ong -, ;u O. #-ub"ed$ #5+$&ytoto%ic effect of oyster mushroom -leurotus ostreatus on human androgen)independent prostate cancer -&)* cells by 1u S3, Sivam 1. #-ub"ed$ #52$ -olysaccharide). augments doceta%el)induced tumor suppression and antitumor immune response in an immunocompetent murine model of human prostate cancer by Eenner &A, "artHen "0, ;u 3, Jerneris "0, Eang 3, Slaton CE.#-ub"ed$ #5*$ (soliBuiritigenin inhibits migration and invasion of prostate cancer cellsL possible mediation by decreased C4.2A-)+ signaling by .won 1T, &ho 3C, &hung ES, -ark .., "oon A, -ark C3.#-ub"ed$ #55$ (soliBuiritigenin #(S;$ inhibits Erb'* signaling in prostate cancer cells by Cung C(, &hung E, Seon "0, Shin 3., .im EC, ;im SS, &hung ES, -ark .., -ark C3.#-ub"ed$ #56$ (soliBuiritigenin induces apoptosis by depolariHing mitochondrial membranes in prostate cancer cells by Cung C(, ;im SS, &hoi 3C, &ho 3C, Shin 3., .im EC, &hung ES, -ark .., -ark C3.#-ub"ed$ #57$ Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardiHed mangosteen fruit e%tract by ;i 1+, -etiwala S"+, -ierce ,0+, 4onn ;2, Cohnson C#-ub"ed$ #58$ -olyphenols from the mangosteen #1arcinia mangostana$ fruit for breast and prostate cancer by ;i 1, Thomas S, Cohnson CC.#-ub"ed$ #59$ <)"angostin, a %anthone from mangosteen fruit, promotes cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer and decreases %enograft tumor growth by Cohnson CC, -etiwala S", Syed ,4, 0asmussen CT, Adhami J", SiddiBui (A, .ohl A", "ukhtar 3.#-ub"ed$ #5:$ -iperlongumine promotes autophagy via inhibition of Akt2mT/0

signalling and mediates cancer cell death by "akhov -, 1olovine ., Teper E, .utikov A, "ehraHin 0, &orcoran A, Tulin A, >HHo 01, .olenko J". #-ub"ed$ #6=$ -iperlongumine induces rapid depletion of the androgen receptor in human prostate cancer cells by 1olovine .J, "akhov -', Teper E, .utikov A, &anter ,, >HHo 01, .olenko J".#-ub"ed$ #6+$ -iperine inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and autophagy by /uyang ,S, Aeng ;3, -an 3, Ou ;3, Eang S, ;iu .-, 3e O3.#-ub"ed$ #62$ -omegranate e%tract inhibits the bone metastatic growth of human prostate cancer cells and enhances the in vivo efficacy of doceta%el chemotherapy by Eang S, Ahang S, (Bbal S, &hen A, Eang O, Eang SA, ;iu ,, 'ai ., 0itenour &, .ucuk /, Eu ,.#-ub"ed$ #6*$ Ellagic acid inhibits migration and invasion by prostate cancer cell lines by -itchakarn -, &hewonarin T, /gawa ., SuHuki S, Asamoto ", Takahashi S, Shirai T, ;imtrakul -.#-ub"ed$ #65$ -omegranate Cuice "etabolites, Ellagic Acid and >rolithin A, Synergistically (nhibit Androgen)(ndependent -rostate &ancer &ell 1rowth via ,istinct Effects on &ell &ycle &ontrol and Apoptosis by JicinanHa 0, Ahang S, 3enning S", 3eber ,.#-ub"ed$ #66$ (nhibition of cancer cell proliferation and suppression of T4 )induced activation of 4 kappa' by edible berry juice by in ,, 'lanchette ", 'arrette S, "oghrabi A, 'Zliveau 0.#-ub"ed$ #67$'lackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry e%tracts inhibit growth and stimulate apoptosis of human cancer cells in vitro by Seeram 4-, Adams ;S, Ahang S, ;ee 0, Sand ,, Scheuller 3S, 3eber ,.#-ub"ed$ #68$(solation and identification of strawberry phenolics with antio%idant and human cancer cell antiproliferative properties by Ahang S, Seeram 4-, ;ee 0, eng ;, 3eber ,.#-ub"ed$ #69$ ,ietary flavonoid fisetinL a novel dual inhibitor of -(*.2Akt and mT/0 for prostate cancer management by Adhami J", Syed ,4, .han 4, "ukhtar 3.#-ub"ed$ #6:$ Activation of A"-. by pterostilbene suppresses lipogenesis and cell) cycle progression in p6* positive and negative human prostate cancer cells by ;in J&, Tsai S&, ;in C4, an ;;, -an "3, 3o &T, Eu CS, Eay T,. #-ub"ed$ #7=$ 'iological activity of piceatannolL leaving the shadow of resveratrol by -iotrowska 3, .ucinska ", "urias ".#-ub"ed$ #7+$ Antiproliferative effects of apple peel e%tract against cancer cells by

0eagan)Shaw S, Eggert ,, "ukhtar 3, Ahmad 4.#-ub"ed$ #72$ ,oes an apple a day keep the oncologist away by 1allus S, Talamini 0, 1iacosa A, "ontella ", 0amaHHotti J, ranceschi S, 4egri E, ;a Jecchia &.#-ub"ed$ #7*$ ,ietary isothiocyanate mediated apoptosis of human cancer cells is associated with 'cl)%; phosphorylation by 'asu A, 3aldar S.#-ub"ed$ #75$ 0oles of diet, lifetime physical activity and o%idative ,4A damage in the occurrence of prostate cancer among men in .lang Jalley, "alaysia by Shahar S, Shafurah S, 3asan Shaari 4S, 0ajikan 0, 0ajab 4 , 1olkhalkhali ', Aainuddin A".#-ub"ed$ #76$ "ultitargeted therapy of cancer by lycopene by van 'reemen 0', -ajkovic 4.#-ub"ed$ #77$ -hytosterol -ygeum africanum regulates prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo by Shenouda 4S, Sakla "S, 4ewton ;1, 'esch)Eilliford &, 1reenberg 4", "ac,onald 0S, ;ubahn ,'.#-ub"ed$ #78$Associations of whole)blood fatty acids and dietary intakes with prostate cancer in Camaica by Cackson ",, Ealker S-, Simpson)Smith &", ;indsay &", Smith 1, "c arlane)Anderson 4, 'ennett (, &oard .&, Aiken E,, Tulloch T, -aul TC, Ean 0;.#-ub"ed$ #79$(nhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado e%tractL role of lipid)soluble bioactive substances by ;u TS, Arteaga C0, Ahang T, 3uerta S, 1o J;, 3eber ,#-ub"ed$ #7:$ A case control study on prostate cancer in ,elhi by Tyagi ', "anoharan 4, 0aina J.#-ub"ed$ #8=$ &itrus consumption and cancer incidenceL the /hsaki cohort study by ;i ET, .uriyama S, ;i T, 4agai ", 3oHawa A, 4ishino S, Tsuji (. #-ub"ed$ #8+$ -otent anti)cancer effects of citrus peel flavonoids in human prostate %enograft tumors by ;ai &S, ;i S, "iyauchi S, SuHawa ", 3o &T, -an "3. #-ub"ed$ #82$ &itrus fruits intake and prostate cancer riskL a Buantitative systematic review by 'ae C", ;ee EC, 1uyatt 1.#-ub"ed$ #8*$ 'itter melon e%tract impairs prostate cancer cell)cycle progression and delays prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in T0A"- model by 0u -, Steele 0, 4erurkar -J, -hillips 4, 0ay 0'.#-ub"ed$ #85$ 0ibosome)inactivating proteins isolated from dietary bitter melon induce apoptosis and inhibit histone deacetylase)+ selectively in premalignant and malignant prostate cancer cells by Oiong S,, Su ., ;iu O3, Sin ;3, .irschenbaum A, Sao S, 4arla 1, ,i eo A, Eu C', Suan S, 3o S", ;am SE, ;evine A&.#-ub"ed$

#86$ "omordica charantia leaf e%tract suppresses rat prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo by -itchakarn -, /gawa ., SuHuki S, Takahashi S, Asamoto ", &hewonarin T, ;imtrakul -, Shirai T.#-ub"ed$ #87$ la%seed)derived enterolactone is inversely associated with tumor cell proliferation in men with localiHed prostate cancer by AHrad ", Jollmer 0T, "adden C, ,ewhirst ", -olascik TC, Snyder ,&, 0uffin "T, "oul CE, 'renner ,E, ,emark)Eahnefried E.#-ub"ed$ #88$ Effect of fla%seed supplementation on prostatic carcinoma in transgenic mice 'S ;in O, 1ingrich C0, 'ao E, ;i C, 3aroon AA, ,emark)Eahnefried E.#-ub"ed$ #89$ la%seed supplementation #not dietary fat restriction$ reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery by ,emark)Eahnefried E, -olascik TC, 1eorge S;, SwitHer '0, "adden C , 0uffin "T 5th, Snyder ,&, /wHar ., 3ars J, Albala ,", Ealther -C, 0obertson &4, "oul CE, ,unn '., 'renner ,, "inasian ;, Stella -, Jollmer 0T.#-ub"ed$ #8:$ "en who consume vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated fatL their dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer #4ew Aealand$ by 4orrish AE, Cackson 0T, Sharpe SC, Skeaff &".#-ub"ed$ #9=$ Selectively hydrogenated soybean oil e%erts strong anti)prostate cancer activities by Cung "S, &hoi 4C, /h &3, Shin 3., Soon S3.#-ub"ed$ #9+$ &hrysin reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis in the human prostate cancer cell line pc)* by Samarghandian S, Afshari CT, ,avoodi S. #-ub"ed$ #92$&hickpea #&icer arietinum$ and other plant)derived protease inhibitor concentrates inhibit breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro. by "agee -C, /wusu)Apenten 0, "c&ann "C, 1ill &(, 0owland (0.#-ub"ed$ #9*$ Analgesic, anti)inflammatory and anticancer activities of e%tra virgin olive oil by eHai ", Senovilla ;, Cema[ ", 'en)Attia "#-ub"ed$. #95$ "odulatory effects of polyphenols on apoptosis inductionL relevance for cancer prevention by ,!Archivio ", Santangelo &, ScaHHocchio ', Jar\ 0, ilesi &, "asella 0, 1iovannini &.#-ub"ed$ #96$ Apoptosis in cancer and atherosclerosisL polyphenol activities by 1iovannini &, ScaHHocchio ', Jar\ 0, Santangelo &, ,!Archivio ", "asella 0.#-ub"ed$ #97$ -iperine, a 'ioactive &omponent of -epper Spice E%erts Therapeutic Effects on Androgen ,ependent and Androgen (ndependent -rostate &ancer &ells by Samykutty A, Shetty AJ, ,akshinamoorthy 1, 'artik "", Cohnson 1;, Eebb ', Aheng 1, &hen A, .alyanasundaram 0, "unirathinam 1.#-ub"ed$ #98$ Q)&aryophyllene o%ide inhibits growth and induces apoptosis through

the suppression of -(*.2A.T2mT/02S7.+ pathways and 0/S)mediated "A-.s activation by -ark .0, 4am ,, Sun 3", ;ee S1, Cang 3C, Sethi 1, &ho S., Ahn .S.#-ub"ed$ #99$ &hemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high)grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasiaL a preliminary report from a one)year proof)of)principle study by 'ettuHHi S, 'rausi ", 0iHHi , &astagnetti 1, -eracchia 1, &orti A. #-ub"ed$ #9:$ "odulation of signaling pathways in prostate cancer by green tea polyphenols by .han 4, "ukhtar 3.#-ub"ed$ #:=$Enhanced inhibition of prostate cancer %enograft tumor growth by combining Buercetin and green tea by Eang -, Jadgama CJ, Said CE, "agyar &E, ,oan 4, 3eber ,, 3enning S".#-ub"ed$ #:+$ Epigenetic effects of green tea polyphenols in cancer by 3enning S", Eang -, &arpenter &;, 3eber ,.#-ub"ed$ #:2$ A case)control study of diet and prostate cancer in CapanL possible protective effect of traditional Capanese diet by Sonoda T, 4agata S, "ori ", "iyanaga 4, Takashima 4, /kumura ., 1oto ., 4aito S, ujimoto ., 3irao S, Takahashi A, Tsukamoto T, ujioka T, AkaHa 3.#-ub"ed$ #:*$ Soy and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in &hina by ;ee "", 1omeH S;, &hang CS, Eey ", Eang 0T, 3sing AE. #-ub"ed$ #:5$ Soy intake and cancer riskL a review of the in vitro and in vivo data by "essina "C, -ersky J, Setchell .,, 'arnes S.#-ub"ed$ #:5$ "editerranean ,iet and -rostate &ancer 0isk and "ortality in the 3ealth -rofessionals ollow)up Study by .enfield SA, ,upre 4, 0ichman E;, Stampfer "C, &han C", 1iovannucci E;.#-ub"ed$ #:6$ A prospective study of demographics, diet, and prostate cancer among men of Capanese ancestry in 3awaii by Severson 0., 4omura A", 1rove CS, Stemmermann 14.#-ub"ed$ #:7$ Alcohol consumption, smoking, and other risk factors and prostate cancer in a large health plan cohort in &alifornia #>nited States$ by 3iatt 0A, Armstrong "A, .latsky A;, Sidney S.#-ub"ed$ II. In Herbs' Points of View The widespread of prostate cancer, once considered as a disease of aging male, now have become major concerns of governments and scientific community in South East Asian with tendency to spread to younger age population. Suggestions emerged of over consuming bad fats in any time in history accompanied with unhealthy diet and life style may be the possible

causes of the disease, linking to the economic prosperity over 2 decades. 3erbal medicine for diseases! management have been prescribed in folk medicine over thousands of year as one of best medicine of nature in preventing and treating diseases, including prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth with possibility of spreading to the distant parts of the body. "ost prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during physical #rectum$ e%ams. &. Aloe "era Aloe Jera is species of succulent plant in the genus Aloe, belonging to the amily Oanthorrhoeaceae, native to Sudan. (t has become very popular for commercial cultivation due to its health benefits. Aloe vera has been used in herbal medicine in treating many kinds of disease, including wound, burn healing, minor skin infections, sebaceous cysts, diabetes, and elevated of cholesterol, etc. (t is also one of many popular herb studied in scientific ways with some conflicted results. Aloe)emodin, a chemical constituent in Aloe vera, inhibited both proliferation and anchorage)independent growth of -&* cells through activation of the downstream substrates of mT/0&2, Akt and -.&< causes of apoptosis, cell proliferation#+$. prostate cancer, ;4&a- e%pression of 4) acetylated by cytosolic 4)acetyltransferase #4AT$ activity and m04A inhibited by aloe)emodin in doses depending manner through its kinase activity in cellular transformation#2$#*$. 2. Cascara sa#rada Cascara sa#rada is a species of buckthorn, genus 0hamnus, belonging to the family 0hamnaceae, native to western 4orth America, it!s bark has been used in traditional medicine for gastrointestinal support. and it is thought to have a la%ative and natural cleansing, etc., effect. Emodin, a cemical compoubd found in &ascara sagrada, inhibited cellular migration and invasion in prostate cancer through downregulate &O&05 e%pression which is involved in promoting invasion and metastasis in tumors#5$. (n human prostate cancer cell ;4&a-, amodin increased apoptosis and decreased in cell proliferation through down regualting the e%pression of e%pression of androgen receptor #A0$ and prostate specific antigen #-SA$ and upregulating the e%pression of p6*#Anti tumor antigen$ and p2+## regulator of cell cycle progression at 1+ and S phase$#6$, (n other study, Emodin enhanced the cytoto%ic effectiveness of chemotherapeutic drugs in prostate cancer cells through 0/S#reactive

o%ygen spiecies$)mediated suppression of multidrug resistance and hypo%ia inducible factor)+#influence cell metabolism, cell survival and angiogenesis to maintain biological homeostasis$#7$. (. )reen tea 1reen tea contains more amount of antio%idants than any drinks or food with the same volume, and is the leaves of &amellia sinensis, undergone minimal o%idation during processing, originated from &hina. 1reen tea has been a precious drink in traditional &hinese culture and used e%ceptional in socialiHation for more than 5=== thousand years. 'ecause of their health benefits, they have been cultivated for commercial purposes all over the world. Epigallocatechin)*)gallate #&hit)nanoE1&1$, a phytochemical in green tea, e%erted a significant inhibition of tumor growth and secreted prostate) specific antigen levels compared with E1&1 and control groups, trough induction of poly #A,-)ribose$ polymerases cleavage, increase in the protein e%pression of 'a%#involved in p6*)mediated apoptosis$ with accompanied decrease in 'cl)2#family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death$, and activation of caspases#mechanisms of apoptosis$ and reduction in .i)78 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen#8$. (n androgen)independent prostate cancer, synthetic derivative, E1&1 #E1&1)-$ and E1&1 treatment suppressed the growth of the tumor correlated with the decrease of serum -SA level together with the reduction in tumor angiogenesis and an increase in apoptosis on prostate cancer cells#9$. (n anticancer drug cisplatin, E1&1 ehnaced the effectiveness of the chemo agent in reduction of cell survival of prostate cancer cell line -&* and induced apoptosis#:$. *. Pome#ranate Pome#ranates is a fruit)bearing small tree, genus -unica, belonging to family ;ythraceae, native to (ran but has been cultivated in Asian since ancient time. -/"%, a pomegranate e%tract #-E$ formula, e%hibited potent in vitro cytoto%icity in metastatic castration)resistant -&a cells through inhibition of survivin, induced apoptosis, retarded &5)2 tumor growth in skeleton and significantly enhanced the efficacy of doceta%el#&hemodrug$ in athymic nude mice#+=$. Ellagic acid #EA$ converted from Ellagitannins #ETs$ found in from pomegranate juice #-C$ showed to induce apoptosis in both cell lines, ,>)+56 and -&)* through induced cell cycle arrest in S phase associated with decreased cyclin '+ and cyclin ,+ levels in regulation of cell cycle progression#++$. -omegranate juice #-C$ -C components luteolin,

ellagic acid, and punicic acid together found to inhibit growth of hormone) dependent and hormone)refractory prostate cancer cells and their migration, increase the e%pression of cell adhesion genes and decrease e%pression of genes involved in cell cycle control through suppression micro04As #mi04As$, decrease several oncogenic mi04As, and inhibit the chemokines receptor type 5 #&O&05$2S, +< chemota%is a%is#decreased -SA cell migration$#+2$. .. )arlic )arlic -Alli$m sati"$m5 is a species in the onion genus, belonging to family Amaryllidaceae, native to central Asia. (t has been used popularly in traditional and &hinese medicine in treating common cold and flu to the -lague, blood pressure cholesterol levels, natural antibiotic, etc. (n androgen)independent prostate cancer, garlic)derived organosulfur compound S)allylmercaptocysteinesuppresses invasion and cell motility of androgen)independent prostate cancer cells via the up)regulation of cell) adhesion molecule E)cadherin#;oss of E)cadherin e%pression has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis$#+7$. 1arlic compound diallyl disulfid,a oil soluble organosulfur compound of garlic, e%erted its antiproliferative and inhibited effect on prostate cancer cells, through induction of ,4A damage in a dose dependent manner#+8$. 1arlic constituent diallyl trisulfide #,ATS$, induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells is mediated in part by suppression of O(A-#a protein that stops apoptotic cell death$ protein e%pression#+9$. 8. C/amomile C/amomile is also known as camomile, common name of many species daisy)like plants in the family Asteraceae. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antispasmodic and anti)inflammatory constituents and to treat menstrual cramps and sleep disorders, reduce cramping and spastic pain in the bowels, relieve e%cessive gas and bloating in the intestine, etc. -henolic profile of chamomile showed to inhibited the cell proliferation and to reduce (;)9 #an important mediator of the immune reaction in the innate immune system response$ levels in -&* prostate cancer cells#+:$. Traditional 'otanical Supplement)+=+ #T'S)+=+$, including the e%tracts of -ana% ginseng, cranberry, green tea, grape skin, grape seed, 1anoderma lucidum and chamomile, showed to inhibit in hormone)refractory -&)* cells and large aggressive -&)* tumors cell growth in a dose)dependent manner#2=$. (n human cancer cell lines -&)*, A)65: and "& )8,

&hamomile!s essential oils, induced cytoto%icity of prostate carcinoma cell #-&)*$, significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma #A65:$ and human breast cancer #"& )8$ cell lines#2+$. 1. 7nion The onion is a close relation of garlic plant in the genus Allium, belonging to the family Alliaceae. (t is often called the Rking of vegetablesR because of its pungent taste and found in a large number of recipes and preparations, spanning almost the totality of the world!s cultures. ,epending on the variety, an onion can be sharp, spicy, tangy, pungent, mild or sweet. ,ata from southern European populations showed intake of allium vegetables, including onion are inversely associated reduced risk of several common cancers, including prostate cancer#22$. isetin, a chemical constituent found in /nion, in prostate cancer, it e%erted anti cell profilerative effect as a dual inhibitor of the -(*.2Akt #anti) apoptosis and increased cell proliferation$ and the mT/0#regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription$ pathways#2*$. Tuercetin, also found in onion, inhibited the prostate cancer line -&)* through ,4A fragmentation and protein e%pressions of 'cl)2, 'cl)%;, 'a% and caspase)* #cell apoptosis$ pathways#25$. 2. $rmeric $rmeric is a perennial plant in the genus &urcuma, belonging to the family Aingiberaceae, native to tropical South Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as anti)o%idant, hypoglycemic, colorant, antiseptic, wound healing agent, and to treat flatulence, bloating, and appetite loss, ulcers, ecHema, inflammations, etc. (n -&)*" prostate cancer cell line, e%tract from turmeric, showed significant inhibitory effects on anti profilerative ability in -&)*" in clonogenic assays#26$. ,emetho%ycurcumin #,"&$, one of mjor chemical constituents found in turmeric, e%erted it antitumor effects on prostate cancer cells via A"-.##cellular energy homeostasis$$)induced down)regulation of 3S-8= #upregulated by and to%ic chemicals, particularly heavy metals$ and E1 0#over e%pression of epidermal growth factor receptor have been associated with a number of cancers$#27$#28$. &urcumin, a non)nutritive yellow pigment derived from the turmeric showed a inhibitory effects on the e%pression of 4 )D' #a transcription factor that has crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation and apoptosis$correlated with their effects on growth inhibition and apoptosis stimulation in -&)*

cells#29$. &4. )insen# 1inseng is a slow)growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, the genus -ana%, belonging to the family Araliaceae. ,epending to the climate where it grows, ginseng can be classified mainly into -ana% ginseng Asian ginseng #root$, 0ed ginseng, wild ginseng, American ginseng #root$. (n a highly metastatic -&)*" prostate cancer cell line, 1insenoside 0g* #0g*$, a bioactive e%tract from ginseng, suppressed migration of -&)*" cells by down)regulating AT-+#a molecular water channel protein$ e%pression through p*9 #highly e%pressed in aggressive and invasive cancers$"A-.#(ncreased "A-. e%pression and activity in primary human carcinoma$ pathway and some transcription factors acting on the AT-+ promoter#2:$. 1insenoside 2=#S$)0h2 of 1insenosides, a main component of ginseng, found to be effective in proliferative inhibition on androgen)dependent and )independent prostate cancer cells#*=$. ormula of 'otanical Supplement)+=+ #T'S)+=+$, containing -ana% ginseng, cranberry, green tea, grape skin, grape seed, 1anoderma lucidum and chamomile showed a significant inhibition of tumor growth and invasion in a dose) dependent manner#*+$. &&. )ra!e +eed :8tract )ra!e +eed :8tract is the commercial e%tracts from whole grape seeds containing many concentrations, including vitamin E, flavonoids, linoleic acid, oligomeric proanthocyanidins#/-&s$, etc.. The herb has been used in traditional medicine as antio%idant, anti)inflammatory agents and to treat skin wounds with less scarring, allergies, macular degeneration, arthritis, enhance circulation of blood vessels, lower cholesterol, etc. 1rape seed e%tract #1SE$, inhibited 3AT#3AT mutations are associated to certain cancers$, leading to decreased A0#plays roles in prostate development and cancer #-&a$$)mediated transcription and cancer cell growth, and implicate 1SE as a novel candidate for therapeutic activity against prostate cancer#*2$. '212 from total 1SE, derived from -rocyanidin '2 *,*])di)/)gallate, a 'iologically Active &onstituent of 1rape Seed E%tract inhibited cell growth, decreased clonogenicity#colony e%pansion$, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptotic death, in various human -&a cell lines#**$. (n a highly metastatic androgen)independent -&* prostate cancer, 1rape seed e%tract #1SE$, inhibited ,4A)binding activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa ' #4 kappa'$#a transcription factor that has

crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation and apoptosis$, which in turn decreased 4 kappa')dependent u-A#in tumor invasion and metastasis$ transcription#**$. &'. ;ans/en -+al"ia miltiorr/i<a B$n#e5 ;an +/en is also known as 0ed Sage 0oot. The bitter and slightly cold herb has been used in T&" as antithrombotic, antihypertonic #lowering blood pressure$, antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti)inflammatory, sedative agent and to treat dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, palpable tumors, angina,restlessness, insomnia, irritability, etc., by enhancing the functions of heart and liver channels. Tanshinones, a chemical constituent found in &hinese herb ,an Shen, was found to be effective in inhibition of the growth of prostate cancer sell lines, in a dose)dependent manner through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction#*5$ specially in ;4&a- cells and several androgen)independent -&a cell, through suppression of prostate cancer growth and androgen receptor#A0$ signaling.#*6$ or through induction of 1+ arrest via activation of p6*#tumor antigen$ signaling and inhibition of A0 in ;4&a- cells#*7$. &(. )in%#o biloba )in%#o biloba is oldest living tree species, genus 1inkgo, belonging to the family 1inkgoaceae, native to &hina, from temperate Hone to subtropical Hone and some parts of north America. (t has been used in traditional herbal medicine in treating impotence, memory loss,respiratory diseases, circulatory disorders and deafness as well as preventing drunkenness, and bedwetting. 1inkgetin, isolated from leaves of 1inkgo biloba ;, inhibited -&)* cells in a concentration)dependent manner, through significantly increased the sub) 1+#detection of cumulative apoptosis$ ,4A contents of cell cycle by activated caspase)* #mechanisms of apoptosis$ and weakened the e%pression of survival genes such as 'cl)2, 'cl)%;,#family of regulator proteins that regulate cell death$ Survivin #baculoviral inhibitor$, and &yclin ,+#regulating cell cycle progression$ at protein and m04A levels#*8$. >nfortunately, Some reseachers suggested that there were no associations for use of ginkgo biloba in reduced risk of prostate cabcer#*9$#*:$ &*. 6icorice -)lycyrr/i<a )labra5 6icorice -)lycyrr/i<a )labra5 also known as sweetwood, is the genus 1lycyrrhiHa, belonging to the family abaceae, native to the "editerranean and certain areas of Asia. The herb has been used in traditional medicine to

treat skin diseases, coughs, constipation, bronchitis, inflammation. ;icochalcone)A, isolated from licorice, induced modest level of apoptosis of androgen)independent -&)* prostate cancer cells through the cell cycle progression arresting cells in 122", accompanied by suppression of cyclin '+ and cdc2#cell division cycle 2$#5=$. (soangustone A #(AA$ in licorice, attenuated the growth of prostate cancer cell cultures and %enograft tumors attributed to inhibition of the 1+2S phase cell cycle transition and the accumulation of p28#cell cycle inhibitor$#5+$. /ther chemical compound such as 1lycyrrhetinic acid found in licorice, in the e%periment of prostate cancer cell line ,>)+56, inhibited proliferation and growth of these cells by inducing apoptosis, through down regulated e%pression of 4 )D' #p76$. #52$. &,. Pe!!ermint Pe!!ermint is a hybrid mint with small purple or white flowers and downy leaves, in the genus "entha, belonging to the family ;amiaceae, native to Europe. The herb has been used in folk medicine as analgesic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, decongestant, agent and to relieve gas, nausea, and stomach pain due to an irritable bowel, intestinal cramps, or indigestion, infecttion, etc. Essential oils of peppermint e%erted its cytoto%ic effect against of prostate cancer #;4&a-$ cell lines#5*$. "enthol, a naturally isolated from peppermint oil, induced cell death in -&)* cells independent to &a#2G$ influ% pathways#55$. Ehen combined with +alpha,26)dihydro%yvitamin ,#*$ ^+alpha,26#/3$#2$,#*$_, the most active form of vitamin ,#*$, menthol increased an anti)proliferation activity of +alpha,26#/3$#2$,#*$ in ;4&a- prostate cancer cells, through evoking the increase in ^&a#2G$_#56$. &.. =olfberry =olfberry is the common name for the fruit of two very closely related species, the genus of ;ycium, belong to family Solanaceae, native to native to southeastern Europe and Asia. ;ycium barbarum polysaccharides #;'-s$ in dose and time)dependently inhibited the growth of both -&)* and ,>)+56 cells through e%hibiting the breakage of ,4A strands of -&)* and ,>)+56 cells and induced apoptosis#57$. E%tract from ;ycium barbarum. showed an inhibited effect against -&* cell proliferation#58$. &1. 9osemary 0osemary is a perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle)like leaves,

the genus 0osmarinus, belonging to the family ;amiaceae. (ts fresh and dried leaves has been used freBuently in traditional "editerranean cuisine and as flavor foods while barbecuing. -olyphenols isolated from rosemary, inhibited prostate cancer cell through targeting multiple signaling pathways involved in cell cycle modulation and apoptosis#59$. &arnosic acid #&A$, a polyphenolic diterpene, isolated from rosemary, induced apoptosis of -&)* cells, by activation of --2A#play critical roles in cell cycle and apoptosis$ through modulation of Akt2(..24 )D' pathway#5:$. Taking altogether, The above herbs have shown effectively in reduced risk and treatments of prostate cancer, through induced apoptosis, e%hibited anti proliferation of prostate cancer cell line in cell cycle arrest, down regulation of pro cell growth pathways, etc.. -lease consult with your doctor or related field specialist before applying. &hinese Secrets To atty ;iver And /besity 0eversal >se The 0evolutionary indings To Achieve /ptimal 3ealth And ;oose Eeight /varian &ysts And -&/S Elimination 3olistic System (n E%istence That Eill Show Sou 3ow To -ermanently Eliminate All Types of /varian &ysts Eithin 2 "onths 'ack to 0esearched articles ) -oints of view of Jitamins, oods and 3erbs httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca2p2blog)page`25.html 'ack to .yle C. 4orton 3ome page httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca 9eferences #+$ Aloe)emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mT/0 comple% 2 by ;iu ., -ark &, ;i S, ;ee .E, ;iu 3, 3e ;, Soung 4., Ahn CS, 'ode A", ,ong A, .im 'S, ,ong A.#-ub"ed$ #2$ Effect of inhibition of aloe)emodin on 4)acetyltransferase activity and gene e%pression in human malignant melanoma cells #A*86.S2$ by ;in SS, Sang C3, 3sia T&, ;ee C3, &hiu T3, Eei S3, &hung C1.#-ub"ed$ #*$ Aloe)emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mT/0 comple% 2 by ;iu ., -ark &, ;i S, ;ee .E, ;iu 3, 3e ;, Soung 4., Ahn CS, 'ode A", ,ong A, .im 'S, ,ong A.#-ub"ed$ #5$ Emodin inhibits invasion and migration of prostate and lung cancer cells

by downregulating the e%pression of chemokine receptor &O&05 by /k S, .im S", .im &, 4am ,, Shim 'S, .im S3, Ahn .S, &hoi S3, Ahn .S. #-ub"ed$ #6$ Emodin induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cell ;4&a- by Su &O, Ahang OT, .ang ;,, Ahang -C, &hen EE, ;iu EE, ;iu TE, Ahang CS.#-ub"ed$ #7$ &hemosensitiHation by emodin, a plant)derived anti)cancer agentL mechanism of action by Sun S.#-ub"ed$ #8$ /ral administration of naturally occurring chitosan)based nanoformulated green tea polyphenol E1&1 effectively inhibits prostate cancer cell growth in a %enograft model by .han 4, 'harali ,C, Adhami J", SiddiBui (A, &ui 3, Shabana S", "ousa SA, "ukhtar 3.#-ub"ed$ #9$ Effect of a prodrug of the green tea polyphenol #)$)epigallocatechin)*) gallate on the growth of androgen)independent prostate cancer in vivo by ;ee S&, &han E., ;ee TE, ;am E3, Eang O, &han T3, Eong S&. #-ub"ed$ #:$ Epigallocatechin)*)gallate promotes apoptosis and e%pression of the caspase :a splice variant in -&* prostate cancer cells by 3agen 0", &hedea JS, "intoff &-, 'owler E, "orse 30, ;adomery "0.#-ub"ed$ #+=$ -omegranate e%tract inhibits the bone metastatic growth of human prostate cancer cells and enhances the in vivo efficacy of doceta%el chemotherapy by Eang S, Ahang S, (Bbal S, &hen A, Eang O, Eang SA, ;iu ,, 'ai ., 0itenour &, .ucuk /, Eu ,.#-ub"ed$ #++$ -omegranate Cuice "etabolites, Ellagic Acid and >rolithin A, Synergistically (nhibit Androgen)(ndependent -rostate &ancer &ell 1rowth via ,istinct Effects on &ell &ycle &ontrol and Apoptosis by JicinanHa 0, Ahang S, 3enning S", 3eber ,.#-ub"ed$ #+2$ Specific pomegranate juice components as potential inhibitors of prostate cancer metastasis by Eang ;, 3o C, 1lackin &, "artins)1reen ". #-ub"ed$ #+*$ &ytoto%ic effect of the pentacyclic o%indole alkaloid mitraphylline isolated from >ncaria tomentosa bark on human Ewing!s sarcoma and breast cancer cell lines by 1arcXa 1imZneH ,, 1arcXa -rado E, SYenH 0odrXgueH T, ernYndeH Arche A, ,e la -uerta 0.#-ub"ed$ #+5$ The antiproliferative effects of >ncaria tomentosa e%tracts and fractions on the growth of breast cancer cell line by 0iva ;, &oradini ,, ,i ronHo 1, ,e eo J, ,e Tommasi 4, ,e Simone , -iHHa &.#-ub"ed$ #+6$ Anticancer activity of the >ncaria tomentosa #Eilld.$ ,&. preparations with different o%indole alkaloid composition by -ilarski 0, ilip ', EietrHyk C, .uraa ", 1ulewicH ..#-ub"ed$

#+7$ 1arlic)derived S)allylmercaptocysteine is a novel in vivo antimetastatic agent for androgen)independent prostate cancer by 3oward EE, ;ing "T, &hua &E, &heung 3E, Eang O, Eong S&.#-ub"ed$ #+8$ 1rowth suppressing effect of garlic compound diallyl disulfide on prostate cancer cell line #-&)*$ in vitro by Arunkumar A, Jijayababu "0, .anagaraj -, 'alasubramanian ., Aruldhas "", Arunakaran C.#-ub"ed$ #+9$ 1arlic constituent diallyl trisulfide suppresses %)linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in prostate cancer cells in culture and in vivo by .im S3, 'ommareddy A, Singh SJ.#-ub"ed$ #+:$ 3erbal infusionsN their phenolic profile, antio%idant and anti) inflammatory effects in 3T2: and -&* cells by .ogiannou ,A, .alogeropoulos 4, .efalas -, -olissiou "1, .aliora A&.#-ub"ed$ #2=$The effect of a novel botanical agent T'S)+=+ on invasive prostate cancer in animal models by Evans S, ,iHeyi 4, Abrahamsson -A, -ersson C. #-ub"ed$ #2+$ Activities of ten essential oils towards -ropionibacterium acnes and -&) *, A)65: and "& )8 cancer cells by Au S, Su 3, ;iang ;, u S, Efferth T, ;iu O, Eu 4.#-ub"ed$ #22$ /nion and garlic use and human cancer by 1aleone &, -elucchi &, ;evi , 4egri E, ranceschi S, Talamini 0, 1iacosa A, ;a Jecchia &.#-ub"ed$ #2*$ ,ietary flavonoid fisetinL a novel dual inhibitor of -(*.2Akt and mT/0 for prostate cancer management by Adhami J", Syed ,4, .han 4, "ukhtar 3.#-ub"ed$ #25$ Effects of Buercetin on insulin)like growth factors #(1 s$ and their binding protein)* #(1 '-)*$ secretion and induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by C. Jijayababu "0, Arunkumar A, .anagaraj -, Arunakaran #-ub"ed$ #26$ &ombinatorial cytoto%ic effects of &urcuma longa and Aingiber officinale on the -&)*" prostate cancer cell line by .urapati .0, Samikkannu T, .adiyala ,', Aainulabedin S", 1andhi 4, Sathaye SS, (ndap "A, 'oukli 4, 0odrigueH CE, 4air "-.#-ub"ed$ #27$ ,emetho%ycurcumin "odulates -rostate &ancer &ell -roliferation via A"-.)(nduced ,own)regulation of 3S-8= and E1 0 by 3ung &", Su S3, ;in 3S, ;in C4, ;iu ;&, 3o &T, Eay T,.#-ub"ed$ #28$ 1rowth factor receptor e%pression in anal sBuamous lesionsL modifications associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus and human immunodeficiency virus#3uman -atholog$ #29$ Effects of cyclohe%anone analogues of curcumin on growth, apoptosis and 4 )D' activity in -&)* human prostate cancer cells by Eei O, ,> AS, &ui OO, Jerano ", "o 0T, Tang A., &onney A3, Aheng O, Ahang ..

#-ub"ed$ #2:$ 1insenoside 0g* attenuates cell migration via inhibition of aBuaporin + e%pression in -&)*" prostate cancer cells by -an OS, 1uo 3, 3an C, 3ao , An S, Ou S, Oiaokaiti S, -an S, ;i OC.#-ub"ed$ #*=$ Stereospecificity of hydro%yl group at &)2= in antiproliferative action of ginsenoside 0h2 on prostate cancer cells by ;iu C, ShimiHu ., Su 3, Ahang &, Cin , .ondo 0.#-ub"ed$ #*+$ The effect of a novel botanical agent T'S)+=+ on invasive prostate cancer in animal models by Evans S, ,iHeyi 4, Abrahamsson -A, -ersson C. #-ub"ed$ #*2$ 1rape seed e%tract regulates androgen receptor)mediated transcription in prostate cancer cells through potent anti)histone acetyltransferase activity by -ark SS, ;ee S3, &hoi .&, Seong A0, &hoi 3., ;ee /3, 3wang 3C, Soon 31.#-ub"ed$ #*2$ -rocyanidin '2 *,*])di)/)gallate, a 'iologically Active &onstituent of 1rape Seed E%tract, (nduces Apoptosis in 3uman -rostate &ancer &ells Jia Targeting 4 )D', Stat*, and A-+ Transcription actors by Tyagi A, 0aina ., Shrestha S-, "iller ', Thompson CA, Eempe " , Agarwal 0, Agarwal &.#-ub"ed$ #**$ 4 kappa')dependent regulation of urokinase plasminogen activator by proanthocyanidin)rich grape seed e%tractL effect on invasion by prostate cancer cells by >chino 0, "adhyastha 0, "adhyastha 3, ,hungana S, 4akajima S, /mura S, "aruyama ".#-ub"ed$ #*5$ 'ioactive tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiHa inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in mice by 1ong S, ;i S, ;u S, ;i ;, Abdolmaleky 3, 'lackburn 1;, Ahou C0.#-ub"ed$ #*6$ Tanshinones from &hinese medicinal herb ,anshen #Salvia miltiorrhiHa 'unge$ suppress prostate cancer growth and androgen receptor signaling by Ahang S, Eon S3, Ciang &, ;ee 3C, Ceong SC, ;ee E/, Ahang C, Se ", .im S3, ;b C.#-ub"ed$ #*7$ Activation of p6* signaling and inhibition of androgen receptor mediate tanshinone ((A induced 1+ arrest in ;4&a- prostate cancer cells by Eon S3, ;ee 3C, Ceong SC, ;b C, .im S3.#-ub"ed$ #*8$ 1inkgetin induces apoptosis via activation of caspase and inhibition of survival genes in -&)* prostate cancer cells by Sou /3, .im S3, .im ', Sohn EC, ;ee 3C, Shim 'S, Sun ", .won '", .im S3.#-ub"ed$ #*9$ Specialty supplements and prostate cancer risk in the J(Tamins and ;ifestyle #J(TA;$ cohort by 'rasky T", .ristal A0, 4avarro S;, ;ampe CE, -eters >, -atterson 0E, Ehite E.#-ub"ed$ #*:$ 1inkgo biloba and risk of cancerL secondary analysis of the 1inkgo

Evaluation of "emory #1E"$ Study by 'iggs ";, Sorkin '&, 4ahin 0;, .uller ;3, itHpatrick A;.#-ub"ed$ #5=$ ;icochalcone)A, a novel flavonoid isolated from licorice root #1lycyrrhiHa glabra$, causes 12 and late)1+ arrests in androgen)independent -&)* prostate cancer cells by u S, 3sieh T&, 1uo C, .unicki C, ;ee "S, ,arHynkiewicH A, Eu C".#-ub"ed$ #5+$ &,.2 and mT/0 are direct molecular targets of isoangustone A in the suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth by ;ee E, Son CE, 'yun S, ;ee SC, .im SA, ;iu ., .im C, ;im SS, -ark C3, ,ong A, ;ee .E, ;ee 3C. #-ub"ed$ #52$ +9<)glycyrrhetinic acid targets prostate cancer cells by down)regulating inflammation)related genes by Shetty AJ, Thirugnanam S, ,akshinamoorthy 1, Samykutty A, Aheng 1, &hen A, 'osland "&, .ajdacsy)'alla A, 1nanasekar ".#-ub"ed$ #5*$ Seasonal variation in content, chemical composition and antimicrobial and cytoto%ic activities of essential oils from four "entha species by 3ussain A(, Anwar , 4igam -S, Ashraf ", 1ilani A3.#-ub"ed$ #55$ "enthol regulates T0-"9)independent processes in -&)* prostate cancer cells by .im S3, 4am C3, -ark EC, .im 'C, .im SC, So (, Ceon C3. #-ub"ed$ #56$ "enthol Enhances an Antiproliferative Activity of +alpha,26) ,ihydro%yvitamin ,#*$ in ;4&a- &ells by -ark EC, .im S3, .im 'C, .im SS, So (, Ceon C3.#-ub"ed$ #57$ ;ycium barbarum polysaccharides induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells and inhibits prostate cancer growth in a %enograft mouse model of human prostate cancer by ;uo T, ;i A, San C, Ahu , Ou 0C, &ai SA. #-ub"ed$ #58$ ^E%traction and isolation of active component for inhibiting -&* cell proliferation in vitro from the fruit of ;ycium barbarum ;_.^Article in &hinese_ by ;iu O;, Sun CS, ;i 3S, Ahang ;, Tian '&.#-ub"ed$ #59$ -olyphenols from the "editerranean herb rosemary #0osmarinus officinalis$ for prostate cancer. by -etiwala S", -uthenveetil A1, Cohnson CC.#-ub"ed$ #5:$ &arnosic acid modulates Akt2(..24 )D' signaling by --2A and induces intrinsic and e%trinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma -&)* cells by .ar S, -alit S, 'all E', ,as -..#-ub"ed$ III. In Vitamins' Points 7f View A. Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a general term of Jitamin A 0etinol, retinal, beta)carotene, alpha)carotene, gamma)carotene, and beta)crypto%anthin best known for its functions for vision health and antio%idant scavenger and essential for growth and differentiation of a number of cells and tissues. 0ecommended intakes of vitamin A, according to the (nstitute of "edicine of the 4ational Academies #formerly 4ational Academy of Sciences$ is 7== cg daily as e%tremely high doses #d:=== mg$ can be to%icity, causing dry, scaly skin, fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, bone and joint pains, headaches, etc. &. 9etinols 0etinols derived from vitamin A, most often are used in medical field in regulation of epithelial cell growth. Suggestion of serum retinol, linking to risk of prostate cancer have produced inconclusive results. Study of Serum retinol and risk of prostate cancer, showed that higher serum of retinol elevates risk of prostate cancer by Buintiles of baseline and *)year serum retinol concentrations and by change in serum retinol levels from baseline to * years#+$. but the study by the Erasmus >niversity, indicated the otherwise#2$#*$and Capan)3awaii &ancer Study, .uakini "edical &enter, showed that none of the micronutrients is strongly associated with prostate cancer risk. including serum of retinol#5$. 0etinoic acid #0A$, a metabolite of retinol, was found to be effective in suppression of carcinogenesis in tumorigenic animal models for the skin, oral, lung, breast, bladder, ovarian and prostate#6$. (n prostate cancer ;4&aand -&* cells, all)trans)retinoic acid #at0A$ inhibited angiogenesis prostate cancer cell growth and identify retinoic acid receptor alpha as the receptor through up)regulation of retinoic acid receptor beta up)regulation and down regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation#7$. (n androgen)responsive human prostate cancer cells, retinoids, the synthetic derivatives of retinol, showed to inhibit the growth of prostate caner cells and the formation and degradation of gap junctions#are ensembles of intercellular channels that permit the e%change of small growth regulatory molecules between adjoining cells$, through modulation#8$. (n androgen receptor)negative #A0#)$$ prostate cancer cells, all)trans retinoic acid #AT0A$, induced the growth arrest through alteration of 3/O'+*#genetic variant in 3/O'+* increased risk of prostate cancer by a +=)2=)fold$ e%pression as a result of epigenetic modifications#9$. (n mice study of p28#.ip+$#cell cycle suppressor gene$ deficiency prostate cancer, :)cis retinoic acid #:c0A$ was found effectively in suppression of prostate cell proliferation #-E&-$ and

increased cellular biological aging#:$. 2. Carotenoids-beta>carotene, al!/a>carotene, #amma>carotene and beta>cry!to8ant/in5 &arotenoids, plant pigments, converted to vitamin A after intake, play an important role in prevention and treatment of some diseases through it antio%idant effects. "easured serum of -lasma carotenoids, retinol once considered as a maker for risk of prostate cancer, have produced an inconsistent result. According to the >niversity of /%ford, there was no associations between plasma concentrations of carotenoids, retinol, or tocopherols and overall prostate cancer risk. The inverse associations of lycopene and the sum of carotenoids with the risk of advanced disease may involve a protective effect#+=$. >nfortunately, the study by red 3utchinson &ancer 0esearch &enter indicated that high serum beta)carotene concentrations were associated with increased risk for aggressive, clinically relevant prostate cancer#++$ and the 3arvard "edical School showed no associated at all#+2$. Epidemiological studies of carotenoids in reduced risk of prostate cancer have also been inconclusive. Q)(onone, a cyclic sesBuiterpene and an end)ring analog of Q)carotene, in ,>+56 and -&)* cells induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the 1+ phase and in ,>+56 cells, initiated the degradation of reductase, suppressed the net growth of ,>+56 cells by 8*@#+*$. &ombination of vitamin A and vitamin ,, showed an effectiveness in induction of prostate cancer cells apoptosis through enhanced the e%pression of 'a%#involved in p6*)mediated apoptosis$ and reduced the e%pression of &yclin ,+#in regulating cell cycle progression$#+5$. /ral administration of Q)carotene #'&$ inhibited the proliferation of -&)* cells at 2= P" '& at +2 h of incubation#+6$. uco%anthin, a marine carotenoid found in brown algae, inhibited the growth of ;4&ap prostate cancer cells through cell cycle arrest with SA-.2C4.#involved in proliferation, apoptosis, motility$ activation#+7$ or induces 1+ arrest with 1A,,56 gene#growth arrest and ,4A)damage inducible$ e%pression#+8$. (n human androgen)independent prostate carcinoma -&)* cells, oral administration of a low or a high dose of lycopene #5 and +7mg2kg$ and a single dose of Q)carotene #+7mg2kg$ twice a week for 8 wk, suppressed the growth of prostate tumor cells associated with reduction of proliferation #attenuation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen e%pression$ and with interference of the insulin)like growth factor + signaling #increased plasma insulin)like growth factor)binding protein)* levels$#+9$.

>nfortunately, the study by the 4ational &ancer (nstitute, indicated that there is not enough evidences to for a strong support for population)wide implementation of high)dose antio%idant supplementation for the prevention of prostate cancer. 3owever, beta)carotene supplementation in men with low dietary beta)carotene intakes were associated with reduced risk of this disease#+:$. Taking altogether, without going into reviews, vitamin A and its synthetic version induced apoptosis and e%hibited anti proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines through cell cycle arrested and attenuated cancer progressive pathways and may be considered as potent agents in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer. 'ut no doubt, certain vitamins and minerals deficiencies may play a critic role in the influence of development of prostate cancer. /ver doses can lead to to%ic symptoms. -lease make sure you follow the guideline of the (nstitute of "edicine of the 4ational Academies. &hinese Secrets To atty ;iver And /besity 0eversal >se The 0evolutionary indings To Achieve /ptimal 3ealth And ;oose Eeight /varian &ysts And -&/S Elimination 3olistic System (n E%istence That Eill Show Sou 3ow To -ermanently Eliminate All Types of /varian &ysts Eithin 2 "onths 'ack to 0esearched articles ) -oints of view of Jitamins, oods and 3erbs httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca2p2blog)page`25.html 'ack to .yle C. 4orton 3ome page httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca 9eferences #+$ Serum retinol and risk of prostate cancer by "ondul A", Eatters C;, "VnnistW S, Eeinstein SC, Snyder ., Jirtamo C, Albanes ,.#-ub"ed$ #2$ Serum retinol and prostate cancer. 3ayes 0', 'ogdanovicH C , Schroeder 3, ,e 'ruijn A, 0aatgever CE, Jan der "aas -C, /ishi ., Soshida /.#-ub"ed$ #*$ Serum retinol and prostate cancer riskL a nested case)control study in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial by Schenk C",

0iboli E, &hatterjee 4, ;eitHmann " , Ahn C, Albanes ,, 0eding ,C, Eang S, riesen ",, 3ayes 0', -eters >.#-ub"ed$ #5$ Serum micronutrients and prostate cancer in Capanese Americans in 3awaii by 4omura A", Stemmermann 14, ;ee C, &raft 4E.#-ub"ed$ #6$ 0etinoids and their biological effects against cancer by AliHadeh , 'olhassani A. .havari A, 'athaie SA, 4aji T, 'idgoli SA #-ub"ed$ #7$ Effect of an all)trans)retinoic acid conjugate with spermine on viability of human prostate cancer and endothelial cells in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo by Jourtsis ,, ;amprou ", Sadikoglou E, 1iannou A, Theodorakopoulou /, Sarrou E, "agoulas 1E, 'ariamis SE, Athanassopoulos &", ,rainas ,, -apaioannou ,, -apadimitriou E. #-ub"ed$ #8$ 0etinoids regulate the formation and degradation of gap junctions in androgen)responsive human prostate cancer cells by .elsey ;, .atoch -, Cohnson .E, 'atra S., "ehta --.#-ub"ed$ #9$ AT0A inhibits the proliferation of ,>+56 prostate cancer cells through reducing the methylation level of 3/O'+* gene by ;iu A, 0en 1, Shangguan &, 1uo ;, ,ong A, ;i S, Ahang E, Ahao ;, 3ou -, Ahang S, Eang O, ;u C, 3uang '.#-ub"ed$ #:$ p28#.ip+$ deficiency promotes prostate carcinogenesis but does not affect the efficacy of retinoids in suppressing the neoplastic process by Taylor E, "athias A, Ali A, .e 3, Stoynev 4, Shilkaitis A, 1reen A, .iyokawa 3, &hristov ..#-ub"ed$ #+=$ -lasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and the risk of prostate cancer in the European -rospective (nvestigation into &ancer and 4utrition study by .ey TC, Appleby -4, Allen 4E, Travis 0&, 0oddam AE, Cenab ", Egevad ;, Tjenneland A, Cohnsen 4 , /vervad ., ;inseisen C, 0ohrmann S, 'oeing 3, -ischon T, -saltopoulou T, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos ,, -alli ,, Jineis -, Tumino 0, 'errino , .iemeney ;, 'ueno)de)"esBuita 3', Tuirfs C0, 1onHYleH &A, "artineH &, ;arraUaga 4, &hirlaBue ",, ArdanaH E, Stattin -, 3allmans 1, .haw .T, 'ingham S, Slimani 4, errari -, 0inaldi S, 0iboli E.#-ub"ed$ #++$ Serum lycopene, other carotenoids, and prostate cancer riskL a nested case)control study in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial by -eters >, ;eitHmann " , &hatterjee 4, Eang S, Albanes ,, 1elmann E-, riesen ",, 0iboli E, 3ayes 0'.#-ub"ed$ #+2$ (ntake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer by 1iovannucci E, Ascherio A, 0imm E', Stampfer "C, &olditH 1A, Eillett E&.#-ub"ed$

#+*$ Q)ionone induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human prostate tumor cells by Cones S, ernandes 4J, Seganehjoo 3, .aturu 0, Tu 3, Su A, "o 3.#-ub"ed$ #+5$ Synergistic effect and mechanism of vitamin A and vitamin , on inducing apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by Sha C, -an C, -ing -, Ouan 3, ;i ,, 'o C, ;iu ,, 3uang S.#-ub"ed$ #+6$ ,iverse effects of Q)carotene on secretion and e%pression of JE1 in human hepatocarcinoma and prostate tumor cells by &hen 3S, 3uang S", Sang &", 3u ";.#-ub"ed$ #+7$ uco%anthin induces 1A,,56A e%pression and 1+ arrest with SA-.2C4. activation in ;4&ap human prostate cancer cells by Satomi S. #-ub"ed$ #+8$ uco%anthin, a natural carotenoid, induces 1+ arrest and 1A,,56 gene e%pression in human cancer cells by Soshiko S, 3oyoku 4.#-ub"ed$ #+9$ 1rowth inhibitory efficacy of lycopene and Q)carotene against androgen)independent prostate tumor cells %enografted in nude mice by Sang &", Sen ST, 3uang &S, 3u ";.#-ub"ed$ #+:$ Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta)carotene, and vitamin & intakes and prostate cancer risk by .irsh JA, 3ayes 0', "ayne ST, &hatterjee 4, Subar A , ,i%on ;', Albanes ,, Andriole 1;, >rban ,A, -eters >N -;&/ Trial.#-ub"ed$ B. Vitamin B com!le8 B.&. Vitamin B' Vitamin B' also known as 0iboflavin, is a water)soluble, yellow)orange organic compound found abundantly in milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, green vegetables, etc. The vitamin is essential for normal cellular growth and function and best known for converting energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates during metabolism and its antio%idant effects in o%idation)reduction reactions. Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth with possibility of spreading to the distant parts of the body. "ost prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during physical #rectum$ e%ams. /ver e%pression of riboflavin carrier protein #0&-$ in prostate cancer patient may be used as a marker in )targeted diagnosis and for the assessment of vascular metabolism in tumors#7$. (n localiHed both androgen)dependent and independent prostate cancer cell lines, antibodies to chicken 0&- inhibited

incorporation of tritiated thymidine into ,4A and prevented riboflavin uptake in -&* prostate cancer cells#8$. /ther suggestion of elevated plasma concentrations of choline and vitamin '2 may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer#9$. Epidemiological studies, linking vitamin '2 in reduced risk of prostate cancer have produced inconsistent results. (n prostate cancer cell line cancer #;n&ap$, vitamin '2 intakes were not associated with prostate cancer survival#+$ and dietary supplements, including vitamn '2 effective treatments for -& patients is not supported by sound clinical evidence#2$. ;uckily, in the study of &ancer 0esearch and -roduct ,evelopment ;aboratory, (mmunal ;td, active mi%ture A"L ;)arginine, ;)histidine, ;) methionine, ;)phenylalanine, ;)tyrosine, ;)tryptophan, ;)ascorbate, ,) biotin, pyrido%ine, riboflavin, adenine, ;#)$malate$, induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway and 1+ arrest in -&)* cells and in -&)* %enografts#*$. Also in the interaction of interaction between Q)cyclode%trin #Q&,$ or hydro%ypropyl)Q)cyclode%trin #3-Q&,$ and riboflavin #0 $ indicated that both 0 )Q&, and 0 )3-Q&, comple%es were cytoto%ic to -&* prostate cancer cells#5$. /ther suggestion showed a weak associations between prostate cancer incidence and dietary intake of riboflavin and between riboflavin intake and prostate cancer mortality#6$. 'ut in the study of the role of diet in prostate cancer, researchers suggested that intake of linoleic acid and riboflavin #in subjects 6= years and over$ could be protective when compared with control subjects#+=$ (n the study of the effects of irradiated riboflavin on androgen)independent human, by >niversidade Estadual de &ampinas, showed that riboflavin photoproducts are cytoto%ic to these cells in a as;) as)dependent manner, through inhibited matri%)degrading proteases#invloved both the process of E&" remodeling and angiogenesis, and in a potential causal relationship between these processe$ caused downregulation of JE1 #vascular endothelial growth factor $ and upregulation of T("-+#inhibitor of metalloproteinases$#:$. Taking altogether, riboflavin carrier protein #0&-$ may be considered as a marker in targeted diagnosis of prostate cancer and vitamin '2 is a vital component of any treatment plan instead of sole means of cancer prevention and treatment in -rostate cancer patients. /ver doses for a prolong period may cause symptoms of skin rashes, hypersensitivity, high blood pressure etc., please make sure you follow the guideline of the (nstitute of "edicine of the 4ational Academies.

9eferences #+$ /ne)carbon metabolism)related nutrients and prostate cancer survival by .asperHyk C;, all ., "ucci ;A, 3gkansson 4, Eolk A, Cohansson CE, Andersson S/, AndrZn /#-ub"ed$ #2$ ,ietary supplements and prostate cancerL a systematic review of double) blind, placebo)controlled randomised clinical trials by -osadHki -, ;ee "S, /nakpoya (, ;ee 3E, .o 'S, Ernst E.#-ub"ed$ #*$ A mi%ture of amino acids and other small molecules present in the serum suppresses the growth of murine and human tumors in vivo by .ulcsYr 1, 1aYl ,, .ulcsYr -(, SchulcH h, &HWmpWly T#-ub"ed$ #5$ 4on)inclusion comple%es between riboflavin and cyclode%trins by de Cesus "', raceto ; , "artini " , -ickholH ", erreira &J, de -aula E#-ub"ed$ #6$ ,ietary intake of ' vitamins and methionine and prostate cancer incidence and mortality by 'assett C., Severi 1, 3odge A", 'aglietto ;, 3opper C;, English ,0, 1iles 11.#-ub"ed$ #7$ 0iboflavin carrier protein)targeted fluorescent >S-(/ for the assessment of vascular metabolism in tumors by Cayapaul C, Arns S, ;ederle E, ;ammers T, &omba -, 1Vtjens C, .iessling #-ub"ed$ #8$ 'iochemical characteriHation of riboflavin carrier protein #0&-$ in prostate cancer by Cohnson T, /uhtit A, 1aur 0, ernando A, SchwarHenberger -, Su C, (smail " , El)Sayyad 3(, .arande A, Elmageed AA, 0ao -, 0aj "#-ub"ed$ #9$ /ne)carbon metabolism and prostate cancer riskL prospective investigation of seven circulating ' vitamins and metabolites by Cohansson ", Jan 1uelpen ', Jollset SE, 3ultdin C, 'ergh A, .ey T, "idttun /, 3allmans 1, >eland -", Stattin -#-ub"ed$ #:$ A possible anti)proliferative and anti)metastatic effect of irradiated riboflavin in solid tumours by de SouHa TueiroH .&, AambuHHi E , Santos de SouHa A&, da Silva 0A, "achado ,, Custo 1A, &arvalho 3 , -eppelenbosch "-, erreira &#-ub"ed$ #+=$ The role of diet in prostate cancer by .aul ;, 3eshmat "S, .ovi C, Cackson "A, Cackson A1, Cones 1E, Edson ", Enterline C-, Eorrell 01, -erry S;#-ub"ed$ B.'. Vitamin B. Jitamin '7, also known as pyrido%ine, is a water soluble vitamin found abundantly in green peas, yams, broccoli, asparagus and turnip greens,-eanuts, sunflower seeds, cashews and haHelnuts, meat, fish etc., with

functions of amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, brain health, and liver deto%ification, etc. Epidemiological studies, focusing pyrido%ine in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer have been inconclusive. Study of the link between intake of olate, "ethionine, and Jitamins ')+2, ')7 and -rostate &ancer 0isk in American Jeterans, showed no evidence for associations between ' vitamins #folate, '+2, and '7$ and -& risk#+$ and (n the one)carbon metabolism and prostate cancer risk, researcher found no convincing evidence for a protective role of one)carbon metabolism against prostate cancer#2$. ,ietary methyl groups#methionine, one)carbon units and choline #or the choline metabolite betaine$ showed a a protective effect on the development of higher grades of prostate cancer in the R3i)mycR mouse model of prostate cancer#*$. /ther suggestion indicated that high vitamin ') 7 intake may improve prostate cancer survival among men with a diagnosis of localiHed)stage disease#5$. A case)control study of diet and prostate cancer, included *29 men diagnosed with prostate cancer before the age of 86 years and *29 age)matched population controls, vitamin '7 was associated to reduced risk of prostate cancer#6$ 'ack to .yle C. 4orton 3ome page httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca 9eferences #+$ Associations between (ntake of olate, "ethionine, and Jitamins ')+2, ')7 and -rostate &ancer 0isk in American Jeterans by Jidal A&, 1rant ,C, Eilliams &,, "asko E, Allott E3, Shuler ., "c-hail ", 1aines A, &alloway E, 1erber ;, &hi CT, reedland SC, 3oyo &.#-ub"ed$ #2$ ,ietary factors of one)carbon metabolism and prostate cancer risk by Eeinstein SC, StolHenberg)Solomon 0, -ietinen -, Taylor -0, Jirtamo C, Albanes ,.#-ub"ed$ #*$ -rogression of prostate carcinogenesis and dietary methyl donorsL temporal dependence by Shabbeer S, Eilliams SA, Simons 'E, 3erman C1, &arducci "A.#-ub"ed$ #5$ /ne)carbon metabolism)related nutrients and prostate cancer survival by .asperHyk C;, all ., "ucci ;A, 3gkansson 4, Eolk A, Cohansson CE, Andersson S/, AndrZn /.#-ub"ed$ #6=$ A case)control study of diet and prostate cancer by .ey TC, Silcocks -', ,avey 1., Appleby -4,

B.(. Vitamin B&' Vitamin B&', also known as cobalamin, a water)soluble vitamin, found abundantly in a variety of foods, such as fish, shellfish, meat, eggs, dairy products, etc. plays an important role in regulating the functions of nervous system and formation of blood. Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth with possibility of spreading to the distant parts of the body. "ost prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during physical #rectum$ e%ams. Epidemiological studies linking levels of plasma of vitamin '+2 in reduced risk of prostate cancer have produced inconclusive results, it may be due to single nucleotide polymorphisms in '#+2$)related genes #"T0, "T00, >T2, T&42, T&4+, &>'4, and ">T$, tT&#involved in many processes in the body, such as protein production, protein transport, and the cycle of cell division$, holo)transcobalamin#markers of vitamin '+2 deficiency$, holo)haptocorrin, folate, and homocysteine#a non)protein <)amino acid and can be recycled into methionine or converted into cysteine with the aid of ') vitamins$#+$. Study from the >niversity of 'ristol, showed that the increased '+2 and holo)haptocorrin concentrations associated to positive correlation with prostate cancer risk#2$#*$. 'ut the >niversity of 'ergen, in a prospective cohort in 4orway #n i *+8 ===$ study, showed no association between vitamin '+2 status and prostate cancer risk#5$. (n a clinical trial of dietary supplements and prostate cancer, found that a combination of antio%idants, isoflavones, lycopenes, minerals, plant oestrogens and vitamins, including vitamin '+2 significantly decreased -SA levels compared with placebo#6$. Taking altogether, without going into reviews, combination of treatment included vitamin '+2 may be associated to reduced risk of prostate cancer. /ver doses of the vitamin may induce symptoms of to%icity, including headache, giddiness and abnormal heart functioning, etc., please make sure to follow the guideline of the (nstitute of "edicine of the 4ational Academies. 9eferences #+$ The causal roles of vitamin '#+2$ and transcobalamin in prostate cancerL can "endelian randomiHation analysis provide definitive answers by &ollin

S", "etcalfe &, -almer T", 0efsum 3, ;ewis SC, Smith 1,, &o% A, ,avis ", "arsden 1, Cohnston &, ;ane CA, ,onovan C;, 4eal ,E, 3amdy &, Smith A,, "artin 0".#-ub"ed$ #2$ &irculating folate, vitamin '+2, homocysteine, vitamin '+2 transport proteins, and risk of prostate cancerL a case)control study, systematic review, and meta)analysis by &ollin S", "etcalfe &, 0efsum 3, ;ewis SC, Auccolo ;, Smith 1,, &hen ;, 3arris 0, ,avis ", "arsden 1, Cohnston &, ;ane CA, Ebbing ", 'enaa .3, 4yggrd /, >eland -", 1rau "J, 'aron CA, ,onovan C;, 4eal ,E, 3amdy &, Smith A,, "artin 0"#-ub"ed$ #*$ -lasma folate, vitamin '+2, and homocysteine and prostate cancer riskL a prospective study by 3ultdin C, Jan 1uelpen ', 'ergh A, 3allmans 1, Stattin -.#-ub"ed$ #5$ Serum folate and vitamin '+2 concentrations in relation to prostate cancer risk))a 4orwegian population)based nested case)control study of *=== cases and *=== controls within the CA4>S cohort by de Jogel S, "eyer ., redriksen j, >lvik A, >eland -", 4yggrd /, Jollset SE, Tell 1S, Tretli S, 'jerge T.#-ub"ed$ #6$ ,ietary supplements and prostate cancerL a systematic review of double) blind, placebo)controlled randomised clinical trials by -osadHki -, ;ee "S, /nakpoya (, ;ee 3E, .o 'S, Ernst E.#-ub"ed$ C. Vitamin C The widespread of prostate cancer, once considered a disease of aging male, now have become major concerns of governments and scientific community in South East Asian with tendency to effect even younger age population. Jitamin &, also known as ;)ascorbic acid, is a water)soluble vitamin, found in fresh fruits, berries and green vegetables. (t is best known for its free radical scavengers activity and regenerating o%idiHed "itamin E for immune support. Epidemiological studies, linking vitamin & in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer have produced inconsistent results. (n reviewed studies e%amined the relationship between prostate cancer and antio%idants indicated that there is no strong evidence for a beneficial effect of selenium, vitamin &, or beta)carotene, in reduced risk of prostate cancer and effect of dietary antio%idants on prostate cancer remains undefined and inconclusive#+$. Supplemental vitamin &, in +**9 cases of prostate cancer among 2: *7+ men during up to 9 years of follow)up, also showed no strong

support for high)dose antio%idant supplementation for the prevention of prostate cancer#2$. /n Androgen)independent #,>+56$ and androgen)dependent #;4&a-$ human prostate cancer cell lines, vitamin & inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation through production of unidentified free radical#s$ generation of hydrogen pero%ide#*$ and -&)* through reactive o%ygen specie#5$ or through increased with temperature in cancer cells#6$. &ombination of e*/5k& nanoparticles #4-s$ and Ascorbic acid #AA$ enhanced cytoto%icity of -&)* cells, through created hydro%yl radicals via an o%idative stress process#7$. /n intravenous #i.v.$ vitamin & or ascorbic acid #ascorbate, vitamin & treatment depleted Adenosine triphosphate-AT-$ #transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism$ and induced autophagy in sensitive prostate cancer cellsl#;a-&5$and in five of the si% tested prostate cancer cell linesm#8$. (n a study of mi%ture of nutrients #4"$ containing lysine, proline, ascorbic acid and green tea e%tract, showed that 4" inhibited prostate cancer cell line -&)* and ,>)+56 through suppression of the secretion of u)-A subunit +#correlated with matri% proteolysis, cell adhesion, motility, and invasion$ #9$. &ombination of "onensin and vitamin & study showed an enhancement of vitamin & in e%hibition of the effect of "onensin in induced apoptosis through increased generation of intracellular reactive o%ygen species and by induction of a transcriptional profile characteristic of an o%idative stress response#:$. (n redo%)active form of vitamin &, ascorbate induced apoptosis through induction of cell cycle arrest#+=$. Taking altogether, without going through the reviews, vitamin & may be effective in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer through generation of reactive o%ygen species#0/S$, or cell cycle arrest when used alone or combination with other chemo)agents or phytochmecials. ,aily ingestion of high)dose vitamin & may be considered safe, but in rare incidence, overdoses in a prolonged period of time, may cause intra)renal o%alate crystal deposition, a fatal nephroto%icity#++$#22$. 9eferences #+$ ,ietary antio%idants and prostate cancerL a review by Jance T", Su C, ontham ET, .oo S(, &hun /.#-ub"ed$ #2$ Supplemental and dietary vitamin E, beta)carotene, and vitamin & intakes and prostate cancer risk by .irsh JA, 3ayes 0', "ayne ST,

&hatterjee 4, Subar A , ,i%on ;', Albanes ,, Andriole 1;, >rban ,A, -eters >N -;&/ Trial#-ub"ed$ #*$ Effect of vitamin & on prostate cancer cells in vitroL effect on cell number, viability, and ,4A synthesis by "aramag &, "enon ", 'alaji .&, 0eddy -1, ;a%manan S#-ub"ed$ #5$ Effect of vitamin & on androgen independent prostate cancer cells #-&* and "at);y);u$ in vitroL involvement of reactive o%ygen species)effect on cell number, viability and ,4A synthesis by "enon ", "aramag &, "alhotra 0., Seethalakshmi ;#-ub"ed$ #6$ -ero%idase)like activity of e*/5kcarbon nanoparticles enhances ascorbic acid)induced o%idative stress and selective damage to -&)* prostate cancer cells by An T, Sun &, ;i ,, Ou ., 1uo C, Eang &.#-ub"ed$ #7$ Effect of ascorbic acid on reactive o%ygen species production in chemotherapy and hyperthermia in prostate cancer cells by ukumura 3, Sato ", .eHuka ., Sato (, eng O, /kumura S, ujita T, Sokoyama >, Eguchi 3, (shikawa S, Saito T#-ub"ed$ #8$ -harmacological ascorbate induces cytoto%icity in prostate cancer cells through AT- depletion and induction of autophagy by &hen -, Su C, &halmers ', ,risko C, Sang C, ;i ', &hen T#-ub"ed$ #9$ ,own)regulation of urokinase plasminogen activator and matri% metalloproteinases and up)regulation of their inhibitors by a novel nutrient mi%ture in human prostate cancer cell lines -&)* and ,>)+56 by 0oomi "E, .alinovsky T, 0ath ", 4iedHwiecki A#-ub"ed$ #:$ "onensin is a potent inducer of o%idative stress and inhibitor of androgen signaling leading to apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by .etola ., Jainio -, ey J, .allioniemi /, (ljin .#-ub"ed$ #+=$ Ascorbate e%erts anti)proliferative effects through cell cycle inhibition and sensitiHes tumor cells towards cytostatic drugs by rWmberg A, 1utsch ,, SchulHe ,, Jollbracht &, Eeiss 1, &Hubayko , Aigner A#-ub"ed$ #++$ atal vitamin &)associated acute renal failure by "c3ugh 1C, 1raber ";, reebairn 0&.#-ub"ed$ #+2$ Ascorbic acid overdosingL a risk factor for calcium o%alate nephrolithiasis by >rivetHky ", .essaris ,, Smith A,.#-ub"ed$ ; . Vitamin ; Vitamin ; is a fat)soluble secosteroids found in small amount in few foods, including salmon, mackerel, sardines and tuna. The vitamin plays an important role in modulation of cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, tumor growth suppression and promotion in absorption of minerals,

including calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and Hinc. The widespread of prostate cancer, once considered as a disease of aging male, now have become major concerns of governments and scientific community in South East Asian with tendency to spread to younger age population. Suggestions emerged of over consuming bad fats in any time in history accompanied with unhealthy diet and life style may be the possible causes of the disease, linking to the economic prosperity over 2 decades. 3erbal medicine for diseases! management have been prescribed in folk medicine over thousands of year as one of best medicine of nature in preventing and treating diseases, including prostate cancer. )enetic m$tation 1enetic mutation of Jitamin ,)deactivating enHyme &S-25A+may be associated to increased risk of prostate cancer. (n a .orean cohort suggested that five &S-25A+ seBuence variants #rs225957+, rs2259*6:, rs7=22::, rs2696529, rs59=::6: had a significant association with prostate cancer risk#+$N vitamin , receptor #J,0$ gene #two J,0 seBuence variants #rs25=9987 and rs22*:+92$, may play an important role in the onset and progression of prostate cancer#2$. /thers study of vitamin , pathway genes, J,0, &S-28'+, and &S-25A+, in prostate cancer showed an conflict result of that genotypes of &S-28'+ and &S-25A+ were not associated with prostate cancer risk, but polymorphisms in the J,0 gene may be#*$#5$#6$. (n common genetic variation of the calcium)sensing receptor#&aS0$, the 3arvard School of -ublic 3ealth showed that &aS0 may be involved in -&a progression#6a$ Vitamin ; !lasma Suggestions of plasma used in measurement of risk of prostate have been controversial with many inconsistent results, epidemiologically. The population)based cohort study of +587 prostate cancer patients to assess disease recurrence2progression and prostate cancer)specific mortality #-&S"$ risks associated with serum levels of 26#/3$ vitamin , ^26#/3$,_, showed no evidence of serum vitamin , levels measured after diagnosis associated to prostate cancer prognosis#7$ and according to the /regon 3ealth n Science >niversity prospective cohort of older men also found no association between serum 26)/3 vitamin , levels and subseBuent risk of prostate cancer.#7a$. 'ut according to the 3arvard "edical School, suboptimal vitamin , status #especially during the winter2spring season$,

and both 26#/3$, and +,26#/3$2, may play an important role in preventing prostate cancer progression#8$ and higher prediagnostic plasma 26#/3$, might be associated with improved prostate cancer prognosis#9$. (n the variation of above, some researchers suggested that plasma 26#/3$, levels associated to common variation among several vitamin ,)related genes##&S-28A+, &S-20+, &S-28'+, 1&, &S-25A+, 0O0A, and J,0$ and calcium)sensing receptor #&aS0$were associated with lethal prostate cancer risk#:$#+=$#++$. A report of survival in veterans with prostate cancer indicated a veterans who are initially vitamin , deficient and both initial and follow)up vitamin , deficiency are associated with decreased likelihood of survival after prostate cancer diagnosis#+2$. /ther suggestions, linking vitamin , in reduced risk of prostate cancer and prostate cancer)related health disparities in African)American men were greatly involved at least in part the result of widespread hypovitaminosis , within the African) American population.#+6$. /e efficacy Jitamin , most active form, +,26,#*$ in an e%periment of a stable prostate cancer cell line -&* with &S-25A+ promoter inhibited gene e%pression of &S-25A+ through enhancement and regulation of a protein kinase &.2 selective inhibitor#+*$N e%hibited tumor suppressive mi04As in patient prostate tissue, thus decreased proliferation in primary cells and cancer cells and suppressed migration and clonal growth of prostate cancer cell in a mi04A)dependent manner#+5$. A report from the "edical >niversity of South &arolina, showed that vitamin ,#*$ supplementation at 5=== (>2d for + year, in patients with low)risk prostate cancer under active surveillance may benefit from vitamin ,#*$ supplementation#+7$ and eliminated any significant differences in circulating concentrations of 26#/3$, between African American and white men#+8$. >nfortunately, the >niversity of /slo study within 4orwegian health studies indicated a increased risk of prostate cancer related to a high 26#/3$, concentration only during the summer and autumn due to vitamin , itself or to other factors associated with sun e%posure#+9$. The discrepancy between the results of studies of solar e%posure and studies of serum 26)/3, may be related to methodological differences and to uncertainties regarding the critical period for vitamin , e%posure#+:$. ;ow levels of >J radiation2vitamin , are indeed associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in individual men#2=$. Taking altogether, without going into reviews, although it is controversial, vitamin , may be effectively and selectively in reduced risk and treatment

for prostate cancer in hypovitamin , deficient men and without e%posure to >J sunlight and the disagreement of amount of vitamin , intake and plasma level in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer may still need further studies. /ver doses of vitamin , supplement may cause e%cessive calcium absorption, calcification, >rinary stones etc. please make sure to follow the guideline of the (nstitute of "edicine of the 4ational Academies. 9eferences #+$ 1enetic variants in the &S-25A+ gene are associated with prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness in a .orean study population. by /h CC+, 'yun SS2, ;ee SE2, 3ong S.2, Ceong &E2, &hoi ES*, .im ,5, .im 3C6, "yung S&7#-ub"ed$ #2$ 1enetic variations in J,0 associated with prostate cancer risk and progression in a .orean population by /h CC, 'yun SS, ;ee SE, 3ong S., Ceong &E, .im ,, .im 3C, "yung S&#-ub"ed$ #*$ &omprehensive association analysis of the vitamin , pathway genes, J,0, &S-28'+, and &S-25A+, in prostate cancer by 3olick &4, Stanford C;, .won E", /strander EA, 4ejentsev S, -eters >.#-ub"ed$ #*$ 1enetic variants in the vitamin d receptor are associated with advanced prostate cancer at diagnosisL findings from the prostate testing for cancer and treatment study and a systematic review by &hen ;, ,avey Smith 1, Evans ,", &o% A, ;awlor ,A, ,onovan C, Suan E, ,ay (4, "artin 0", ;ane A, 0odrigueH S, ,avis ", Auccolo ;, &ollin S", 3amdy , 4eal ,, ;ewis SC#-ub"ed$ #6$ 0eview and meta)analysis on vitamin , receptor polymorphisms and cancer risk by 0aimondi S, Cohansson 3, "aisonneuve -, 1andini S#-ub"ed$ #6a$ &ommon genetic variation of the calcium)sensing receptor and lethal prostate cancer risk by Shui (", "ucci ;A, Eilson .", .raft -, -enney .;, Stampfer "C, 1iovannucci E#-ub"ed$ #7$ &irculating levels of 26)hydro%yvitamin , and prostate cancer prognosis by 3olt S., .olb S, u 0, 3orst 0, eng A, Stanford C;.#-ub"ed$ #8$ A prospective study of plasma vitamin , metabolites, vitamin , receptor polymorphisms, and prostate cancer by ;i 3, Stampfer "C, 3ollis C', "ucci ;A, 1aHiano C", 3unter ,, 1iovannucci E;, "a C#-ub"ed$ #9$ -rediagnostic plasma vitamin , metabolites and mortality among patients with prostate cancer by ang , .asperHyk C;, Shui (, 3endrickson E, 3ollis 'E, all ., "a C, 1aHiano C", Stampfer "C, "ucci ;A,

1iovannucci E#-ub"ed$ #:$ Jitamin ,)related genetic variation, plasma vitamin ,, and risk of lethal prostate cancerL a prospective nested case)control study by Shui (", "ucci ;A, .raft -, Tamimi 0", ;indstrom S, -enney .;, 4imptsch ., 3ollis 'E, ,upre 4, -latH EA, Stampfer "C, 1iovannucci E#-ub"ed$ #+=$ &ommon genetic variation of the calcium)sensing receptor and lethal prostate cancer risk by Shui (", "ucci ;A, Eilson .", .raft -, -enney .;, Stampfer "C, 1iovannucci E#-ub"ed$ #++$ Jitamin ,)related genes, serum vitamin , concentrations and prostate cancer risk by Ahn C, Albanes ,, 'erndt S(, -eters >, &hatterjee 4, reedman 4,, Abnet &&, 3uang ES, .ibel AS, &rawford E,, Eeinstein SC, &hanock SC, SchatHkin A, 3ayes 0'N -rostate, ;ung, &olorectal and /varian Trial -roject Team#-ub"ed$ #+2$Jitamin d and prostate cancer survival in veterans by ,er T+, 'ailey 'A2, Soussef ,+, "anning T*, 1rant E'5, -eiris A4#-ub"ed$ #+*$ (nhibition of protein kinase &.2 reduces &yp25a+ e%pression and enhances +,26)dihydro%yvitamin ,#*$ antitumor activity in human prostate cancer cells by ;uo E, Su E,, "a S, &hernov ", Trump ,;, Cohnson &S. #-ub"ed$ #+5$ Tumor suppressor micro04As, mi0)+== and )+26b, are regulated by +,26)dihydro%yvitamin , in primary prostate cells and in patient tissue by 1iangreco AA, Jaishnav A, Eagner ,, inelli A, leshner 4, Jan der .wast T, Jieth 0, 4onn ;.#-ub"ed$ #+6$ Jitamin ,* supplementation, low)risk prostate cancer, and health disparities by 3ollis 'E, "arshall ,T, Savage SC, 1arrett)"ayer E, .indy "S, 1attoni)&elli S#-ub"ed$ #+7$ Jitamin ,* supplementation at 5=== international units per day for one year results in a decrease of positive cores at repeat biopsy in subjects with low)risk prostate cancer under active surveillance by "arshall ,T, Savage SC, 1arrett)"ayer E, .eane TE, 3ollis 'E, 3orst 0;, Ambrose ;3, .indy "S, 1attoni)&elli S.#-ub"ed$ #+8$ Jitamin ,* supplementation #5=== (>2d for + y$ eliminates differences in circulating 26)hydro%yvitamin , between African American and white men by 1arrett)"ayer E, Eagner &;, 3ollis 'E, .indy "S, 1attoni)&elli S.#-ub"ed$ #+9$ Jitamin ,, season, and risk of prostate cancerL a nested case)control study within 4orwegian health studies by "eyer 3E, 0obsahm TE, 'jerge T, 'rustad ", 'lomhoff 0.#-ub"ed$ #+:$ Jitamin ,, sunlight, and the epidemiology of prostate cancer by SchwartH 11.#-ub"ed$

#2=$ Jitamin , and the epidemiology of prostate cancer by SchwartH 11. #-ub"ed$ :. Vitamin : The widespread of prostate cancer, once considered a disease of aging male, now has become major concerns of governments and scientific community in South East Asian with tendency to effect even younger age population. Epidemiological studies, linking vitamin E in reduced risk of prostate cancer have produced conflict results. (t may be due to age related, smoking habit, gene mutation, types of tocopherol, etc. Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth with possibility of spreading to the distant parts of the body. "ost prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during physical #rectum$ e%ams. /e conflict res$lts The Selenium and Jitamin E &ancer -revention Trial #SE;E&T$ showed an adverse effect of dietary supplement with vitamin E significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer among healthy men through illustration per +=== person)years.#+$or prevented the development of prostate cancer in the population of relatively healthy men#2$. (n the study of combination used of vitamin & and E of total of +5,75+ male physicians in the >nited States initially aged 6= years or older, including +*=8 men with a history of prior cancer at randomiHation, also suggested that neither vitamin E nor & supplementation reduced the risk of prostate or total cancer#*$. -ositively, on prostate cancer #-&a$, in 4)methyl)4)nitrosourea #"4>$)induced epithelial dysplasia in the rat ventral prostate #J-$, animals fed a controlGo) tocopherol #&TGoT$ significantly attenuated the adverse effects of "4> in the J- through the deceased epithelial dysplasia, along with the cell proliferation inde%, 1ST)pi and &o%)2 immunoe%pression#*$. Some researchers insisted that different forms of vitamin E e%ert different effects on prostate cancer, with alpha)tocopherol potentially increasing and gamma) tocopherol potentially decreasing risk of the disease#6$. /e ser$m of toco!/erol (n the study of the effects of Serum <)tocopherol and o)tocopherol in prostate cancer patient showed that higher serum <)tocopherol was associated with significantly lower prostate cancer risk and by contrast, risk

was non)significantly elevated among men with higher o)tocopherol concentrations#+2$. Some researchers suggested that higher prediagnostic serum concentrations of alpha)tocopherol, but not dietary vitamin E, was associated with lower risk of developing prostate cancer, particularly advanced prostate cancer#+*$. 'ut in the Alpha)Tocopherol, 'eta)&arotene &ancer -revention #AT'&$ Study, showed that risk of prostate cancer reduced with high serum tocopherols and higher circulating concentrations of the major vitamin E fractions, alpha)tocopherol and gamma)tocopherol#+5$ and higher alpha) tocopherol #and not beta)carotene or retinol$ status increases overall prostate cancer survival#+6$. /e benefits Study of 9)wk)old male T0A"- mice fed =.+@ o)TmT or a control diet for +7 weeks, observation of nuclear factor)erythroid 2)related factor 2 #4rf2$, showed that o)tocopherol)rich mi%ture of tocopherols #o)TmT$ inhibited &p1 methylation #promoters of genes can lead to their silencing, a feature found in a number of human cancers $ in the 4rf2 promoter in the prostate of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate #T0A"-$ and in T0A"-)&+ cells#7$. (n prostate cancer, combination use of 4A1)+ and Jitamin E succinate #JES$, showed the enhancement of JES in d*)fold increase in the half)life of 4A1)+ m04A through transcriptional2post) transcriptional mechanism in a p*9 kinase)dependent manner#8$. /n prostate cancer in male smokers. long)term supplementation with alpha)tocopherol substantially reduced prostate cancer incidence and mortality#9$. (n the study of the incidence of prostate cancer risk associations of alpha)tocopherol, gamma)tocopherol, and selenium, indicated that risk of prostate cancer declined, but not linearly, with increasing concentrations of alpha) tocopherolN gamma)tocopherol, men in the highest fifth of the distribution had a fivefold reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer than men in the lowest fifth#:$. Alpha)Tocopherol, 'eta)&arotene &ancer -revention Study of 2:,+** innish male smokers aged 6=)7: years, showed a decreased risk of prostate cancer with oral administration of daily <)tocopherol #6= mg$ for a median of 7.+ years and lower prostate cancer mortality#+=$. /ther suggestion of inhibitory prostate cancer activities of p)T and o)T #than <)T$ may be as a result of due trapping of reactive nitrogen species and their capacity to generate side)chain degradation products#++$. Taking altogether, most researchers agreed that intake of alpha)tocopherol

may be beneficiary in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer accompanied with diet, life style change#+7$#+8$#+9$. /ver doses of vitamin E supplement can cause symptoms of blurred vision, weakness, diHHiness, nausea, diarrhea, etc., please make sure you follow the guideline of the (nstitute of "edicine of the 4ational Academies. C/inese +ecrets o Fatty 6i"er And 7besity 9e"ersal >se The 0evolutionary indings To Achieve /ptimal 3ealth And ;oose Eeight /varian &ysts And -&/S Elimination 3olistic System (n E%istence That Eill Show Sou 3ow To -ermanently Eliminate All Types of /varian &ysts Eithin 2 "onths 9eferences #+$ Jitamin E and the risk of prostate cancerL the Selenium and Jitamin E &ancer -revention Trial #SE;E&T$ by .lein EA, Thompson (" Cr, Tangen &", &rowley CC, ;ucia "S, 1oodman -C, "inasian ;", ord ;1, -arnes 3;, 1aHiano C", .arp ,,, ;ieber "", Ealther -C, .lotH ;, -arsons C., &hin C;, ,arke A., ;ippman S", 1oodman 1E, "eyskens ; Cr, 'aker ;3#-ub"ed$ #2$ Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancersL the Selenium and Jitamin E &ancer -revention Trial #SE;E&T$ by;ippman S", .lein EA, 1oodman -C, ;ucia "S, Thompson (", ord ;1, -arnes 3;, "inasian ;", 1aHiano C", 3artline CA, -arsons C., 'earden C, *rd, &rawford E,, 1oodman 1E, &laudio C, EinBuist E, &ook E,, .arp ,,, Ealther -, ;ieber "", .ristal A0, ,arke A., Arnold .', 1anH -A, Santella 0", Albanes ,, Taylor -0, -robstfield C;, Cagpal TC, &rowley CC, "eyskens ; Cr, 'aker ;3, &oltman &A Cr.#-ub"ed$ #*$ Jitamins E and & in the prevention of prostate and total cancer in menL the -hysicians! 3ealth Study (( randomiHed controlled trial by 1aHiano C", 1lynn 0C, &hristen E1, .urth T, 'elanger &, "ac adyen C, 'ubes J, "anson CE, Sesso 3,, 'uring CE#-ub"ed$ #5$ -rotective effect of o)tocopherol)enriched diet on 4)methyl)4) nitrosourea)induced epithelial dysplasia in rat ventral prostate by Sanches ;,, Santos SA, &arvalho C0, Ceronimo 1,, avaro EC, 0eis ",, elisbino S;, Custulin ;A Cr#-ub"ed$ #6$ ,ietary antio%idants and prostate cancerL a review by Jance T", Su C, ontham ET, .oo S(, &hun /..#-ub"ed$

#7$ A o)tocopherol)rich mi%ture of tocopherols maintains 4rf2 e%pression in prostate tumors of T0A"- mice via epigenetic inhibition of &p1 methylation by 3uang S, .hor T/, Shu ;, Saw &;, Eu TS, Suh 4, Sang &S, .ong A4#-ub"ed$ #8$ Jitamin E succinate induces 4A1)+ e%pression in a p*9 kinase) dependent mechanism by Shim ", Eling TE #-ub"ed$ #9$ long)term supplementation with alpha)tocopherol substantially reduced prostate cancer incidence and mortality by 3einonen /-+, Albanes ,, Jirtamo C, Taylor -0, 3uttunen C., 3artman A", 3aapakoski C, "alila 4, 0autalahti ", 0ipatti S, "VenpVV 3, Teerenhovi ;, .oss ;, Jirolainen ", Edwards '..#-ub"ed$ #:$ Association between alpha)tocopherol, gamma)tocopherol, selenium, and subseBuent prostate cancer by 3elHlsouer .C, 3uang 3S, Alberg AC, 3offman S, 'urke A, 4orkus E-, "orris CS, &omstock 1E#-ub"ed$ #+=$ Effects of <)tocopherol and Q)carotene supplementation on cancer incidence and mortalityL +9)Sear postintervention follow)up of the Alpha) Tocopherol, 'eta)&arotene &ancer -revention Study by Jirtamo C, Taylor -0, .ontto C, "VnnistW S, >triainen ", Eeinstein SC, 3uttunen C, Albanes ,.#-ub"ed$ #++$ &ancer prevention by different forms of tocopherols by Sang &S, Suh 4#-ub"ed$ #+2$ Serum <)tocopherol and o)tocopherol concentrations and prostate cancer risk in the -;&/ Screening TrialL a nested case)control study by Eeinstein SC, -eters >, Ahn C, riesen ",, 0iboli E, 3ayes 0', Albanes ,#-ub"ed$ #+*$ Serum and dietary vitamin E in relation to prostate cancer risk by Eeinstein SC, Eright "E, ;awson .A, Snyder ., "VnnistW S, Taylor -0, Jirtamo C, Albanes ,.#-ub"ed$ #+5$ Serum alpha)tocopherol and gamma)tocopherol in relation to prostate cancer risk in a prospective study by Eeinstein SC, Eright "E, -ietinen -, .ing (, Tan &, Taylor -0, Jirtamo C, Albanes ,#-ub"ed$ #+6$ Associations between alpha)tocopherol, beta)carotene, and retinol and prostate cancer survival by Eatters C;, 1ail "3, Eeinstein SC, Jirtamo C, Albanes ,#-ub"ed$ #+7$ "editerranean ,iet and -rostate &ancer 0isk and "ortality in the 3ealth -rofessionals ollow)up Study by .enfield SA, ,upre 4, 0ichman E;, Stampfer "C, &han C", 1iovannucci E;.#-ub"ed$ #+8$ A prospective study of demographics, diet, and prostate cancer among men of Capanese ancestry in 3awaii by Severson 0., 4omura A", 1rove CS, Stemmermann 14.#-ub"ed$

#+9$ Alcohol consumption, smoking, and other risk factors and prostate cancer in a large health plan cohort in &alifornia #>nited States$ by 3iatt 0A, Armstrong "A, .latsky A;, Sidney S.#-ub"ed$ F. Vitamin K Vitamin K#.+, phylloBuinoneN .2, menaBuinones$, is a fat soluble vitamin, found abundantly in leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and 'russels sprouts, etc. (t is best known for promotion of coagulation and bone health. Prostate cancer is defined as a condition in which the cells of prostate has become cancerous, causing abnormal cell growth with possibility of spreading to the distant parts of the body. "ost prostate cancers are slow growing and enlarged prostate and prostate cancer may be detected during physical #rectum$ e%ams. Epidemiological studies focused in the synthetic version of vitamin .#Jk*$ in reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer have proven successful in certain e%tents. (n human prostate cancer cells #,>+56$ implanted mice, administration of &2vitamin .#*$ showed to e%hibit serum alkaline ,4ase #,4ase ($ and acid ,4ase #,4ase (($ known as circulating tumour marker accompanied by a decrease in ,4A e%pression of the tumor cells#+$. Administration of vitamin & #Jit &$, vitamin .* #Jit .*$, or vitamin &Lvitamin .* combinations against a prostate cancer cell line #,>+56$, suggest that vitamin treatment with individual vitamins affects the cytoskeleton#a series of intercellular proteins that help a cell with shape, support, and movement$, the mitochondria, and other membranous components of the cell#2$. Jitamin .5 #J.5$ is a synthetic version of vitamin ., inhibited proliferation in -&)* cells with an (&6= value of about 2=.:5 micro", through cell cycle arrest at the S phase, disruption of the energy production in the surface of cell membrane, up regulation apoptotic and down regulation of proliferative pathways#*$. Alpha)tocopheryl succinate #alpha) T/S$, the redo%)silent vitamin E analogue used in combination with J.*, showed to induce efficiently cell death that resembles autoschiHis#cell death$, through cell demise, lipid pero%idation, ,4A damage, cytoskeleton alteration, lysosomal)mitochondrial perturbation, and release of cytochrome c without caspase activation#5$, (n a A prostate carcinoma cell line derived from the transgenic murine prostate cancer model #T0A"-$, combination of of ascorbateLmenadione #J& G J.#*$, induced cell death by autoschiHis, included cytokeletal changes conducive to cytoplasmic blebbing, self) e%cisions, and progressive nuclear alteration, through a%idative stress#6$. and

the &o)administration of the vitamins also enhanced the antitumour activity 6) to 2=)fold, with increased cytoto%icity through redo% cycling and increased o%idative stress#7$. /n a human prostate carcinoma cell line #,>+56$, the co administration also showed to enhance cytoto%icity through increased o%idative stress, subseBuent membrane damage, and ,4A fragmentation #8$. "enaBuinones #vitamin .#2$ in the study of its association with overall cancer incidence and mortality, showed to associate with a reduced risk of incident and fatal cancer#9$ including prostate cancer#:$. Taking altogether, co administration of synthetic vitamin .* and other vitamins such as vitamin & is associated to reduced risk and treatment of prostate cancer, though cell cycle arrest, up regulation of anti profilerative and down regulation of cancer promoter pathways or increased o%idative stress. /verdoses can induce symptoms of Skin rash, ,iarrhea, 4ausea, Jomiting, Anemia, etc. -lease make sure you follow the guideline of the (nstitute of "edicine of the 4ational Academies. 9eferences #+$ (n vivo reactivation of ,4ases in implanted human prostate tumors after administration of a vitamin &2.#*$ combination by Taper 3S, Camison C", 1illoteau% C, 1win &A, 1ordon T, Summers C;#-ub"ed$ #2$ Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy aspects of synergistic antitumor activity of vitamin & ) vitamin .* combinations against human prostatic carcinoma cells by 1illoteau% C, Camison C", Jenugopal ", 1iammar ,, Summers C;#-ub"ed$ #*$ Jitamin .5 induces tumor cytoto%icity in human prostate carcinoma -&) * cells via the mitochondria)related apoptotic pathway by Ciang S, Sang C, Sang &, "eng , Ahou S, Su ', .han ", Sang 3#-ub"ed$ #5$ alpha)Tocopheryl succinate promotes selective cell death induced by vitamin .* in combination with ascorbate by Tomasetti ", Strafella E, Staffolani S, Santarelli ;, 4euHil C, 1uerrieri 0#-ub"ed$ #6$ &ell death by autoschiHis in T0A"- prostate carcinoma cells as a result of treatment by ascorbateL menadione combination by 1illoteau% C, Camison C", 4eal ,0, Summers C;#-ub"ed$ #7$ Synergistic antitumour activity of vitamins & and .* against human prostate carcinoma cell lines by Jenugopal ", Camison C", 1illoteau% C, .och CA, Summers ", 3oke C, Sowick &, Summers C;.#-ub"ed$ #8$ low cytometric and ultrastructural aspects of the synergistic antitumor activity of vitamin &)vitamin .* combinations against human prostatic

carcinoma cells by Camison C", 1illoteau% C, Jenugopal ", .och CA, Sowick &, Shah 0, Summers C;#-ub"ed$ #9$ ,ietary vitamin . intake in relation to cancer incidence and mortalityL results from the 3eidelberg cohort of the European -rospective (nvestigation into &ancer and 4utrition #E-(&)3eidelberg$ by 4imptsch ., 0ohrmann S, .aaks 0, ;inseisen C.#-ub"ed$ #:$ ,ietary intake of vitamin . and risk of prostate cancer in the 3eidelberg cohort of the European -rospective (nvestigation into &ancer and 4utrition #E-(&)3eidelberg$ by 4imptsch ., 0ohrmann S, ;inseisen C.#-ub"ed$ &hinese Secrets To atty ;iver And /besity 0eversal >se The 0evolutionary indings To Achieve /ptimal 3ealth And ;oose Eeight /varian &ysts And -&/S Elimination 3olistic System (n E%istence That Eill Show Sou 3ow To -ermanently Eliminate All Types of /varian &ysts Eithin 2 "onths 'ack to 0esearched articles ) -oints of view of Jitamins, oods and 3erbs httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca2p2blog)page`25.html 'ack to .yle C. 4orton 3ome page httpL22kylejnorton.blogspot.ca 3ealth 0esearcher and Article Eriter. "aster in "athematics and 'A in Eorld ;iterature and ;iterary criticism. All articles written by .yle C. 4orton are for information n education only, please consult your ,octor n 0elated field specialist before applying.