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Stoiqeidhc Kbantik Fusik

Proteinmenec lseic asksewn


Tsoc Epitropkhc
1 Ianouarou 2013

Perieqmena
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46
46
46
46
46
47
47
47
47
47
47


. .
. . . . . . . .

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48
48
48
49
49
50

iii

Katlogoc Sqhmtwn
1

2
3

4
5

6
7

9
10

(x) = 2e2|x| . |x| 2,



(x) . . . . . . . . . p
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 2x2
(x) = 4 2/x
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
p e
, 3 (x)/ 2/L () 3 (x)/(2/L) () , x/L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
, 1 (x)/(2/L) ,
x/L. . . . . . . . . .
p
, a30 (r)
, r/a0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .
1 (x) = e|x| () 2 (x) = 2e2|x| (). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
V (x)/V0 = cosh x ( ) x. V (x)/V0
1 + (1/2)(x)2 x = 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R ( ) E/V0
E V0 . E = V0
, E > V0 . . .
V (x)/V0 = ex /(1 + ex ) ( )
x. 0, . .
E.
,
hEi E.
[hEi E, hEi + E] ( ) ' 68%.

iv

2
4

7
8

11
14

25

28
29

36

Mjhma 11
'Askhsh 1

|(x)|2 dx = 1.

(1)

, (, 0) (0, ), x = 0
N . ,

2x

, x (, 0)
N e
(x) = N
, x=0

2x
Ne
, x (0, )
(x) ( |(x)|2 ) , (x) = (x).
(1) + 0 . (1) :
Z
Z
|(x)|2 dx = 2
|(x)|2 dx

0
Z
=2
|N |2 e4x dx
0
Z
2
= 2|N |
e4x dx.
0

0 e4x dx 1/4, (1)


:

|N | = 2.
,1 .
'Askhsh 2

. ,

2x

, x (, 0)
2e
(x) =
2
, x=0

2x
2e
, x (0, )
(x)
|x| 2, P (|x| 2) , :
Z

|(x)|2 dx

P (|x| 2) =
2

|(x)|2 dx

=2
0

2e4x dx

=2
0

Z
=4

e4x dx,

1H

epilog aut enai kajar jma smbashc. Ap th stigm pou h

epilogc tou prosmou tou

|N |

||2

enai h fusik metromenh posthta, h smbash

den ephrezei th fusik tou problmatoc, kajc

|N |2 > 0.

(x) = (x) [2, 2] [ ] [0, 2].


R 2 4x
e
dx = (1 e8 )/4, :
0
P (|x| 2) = 1 e8 .
.

(x) ( 1)
P (|x| 2) = 1 e8 = 0.99966456 ( 8 ),
|x| 2 100%.
e2|x| ,
x = 0.

1: (x) = 2e2|x| . |x| 2,


(x)
.
(x) e|x| ( > 0)
Schrodinger -
V (x) (x), (x) - Dirac.
91 . .
'Askhsh 3

,
, (1) .2
:
Z
|(r)|2 dV = 1,

(2)

V .
, dV = 4r2 dr.3
2 'Ena suqn ljoc pou gnetai enai na grfei kanec R |(r)|2 dr , kat analoga me thn monodistath perptwsh.
0
3 Genik, se sfairikc suntetagmnec isqei ti dV = r 2 sin drdd. 'Omwc h oloklrwsh mac sunrthshc f (r) pou
mno aktinik exrthsh dnei

R
V

f (r)dV =

R 2
0

R
0

sin d

r2 f (r)dr =

R
0

4r2 f (r)dr.

qei

,
Z

(|N |2 e2r )4r2 dr


Z
r2 e2r dr.
= 4|N |2

|(r)|2 dV =

2 2r

0 r e
dr = 1/4 , (2) :
r

|N | =
.

.
'Askhsh 4

, (x), x x + dx,
2

(x) = |(x)|2 = |N |2 x2 e2x .



(x) ( )
( 2). , (x)
, :
0 (x) = 0
2

2|N |2 xe2x 4|N |2 x3 e2x = 0


|N |x(1 2x2 ) = 0,

x. :

|N | = 0, x = 0 x = 1/ 2. ,
, . ,

00 (0) > 0. (x), 00 (1/ 2) < 0.
(x)

1
x = .
2
.
'Askhsh 5

(1), |(x)|2
[|(x)|2 ] = L1 .
,
[(x)] = L1/2 .
.
'Askhsh 6

(2), |(r)|2
[|(r)|2 ] = L3 .
,
[(r)] = L3/2 .
.
3

2: (x) = 4

2/x2 e2x .

'Askhsh 7

(x) = |(x)|2 = |N |2 x2 ex
, (x) = (x). (x) (, ), P (|x| < ) , 1, P (|x| < ) = 1.
P (|x| < ) = P (x 0) + P (x 0) ( (, )
(, 0] [0, )),
P (x 0) + P (x 0) = P (|x| < )
P (x 0) + P (x 0) = 1.
(x) = (x)
Z

(x)dx =

(x)dx
0

P (x 0) = P (x 0).
:
P (x 0) =

1
.
2

. (
)

p
|N | (: |N |2 = 2 /),
P (x 0) (x) [0, ).
'Askhsh 8

(x) ,

|(x)|2 dx < .

1 (x) 3 (x)
, . .
'Askhsh 9

A. , , [] = L1 . ( 5)

[(x)] = L1/2 (x) , .


B.
,
[] = L2 . (x) 4 , .
C. , [] = L1 .
, [(r)] = L3/2 ( 6).
(r) 3/2 , .
.
'Askhsh 10

(x) , .
() = 0, .

Mjhma 12
'Askhsh 1

 = ~2 2 /2mL2 . n = 1 n = 3
E = E3 E1 = 9  = 8,
n m
L:
En = n2 ,
 . E
n = 3
n = 1,
8 = E
hc
8 =

hc
=
.
8
= 1200
hc ' 12000 eV
,
'

5
eV,
4

.
.
'Askhsh 2

n = 3 (n = 1 ,
n = 2 ...).
r
2
3x
3 (x) =
sin
.
L
L
[0, L/3], P (0 x L/3) , :
Z

L/3

|3 (x)|2 dx

P (0 x L/3) =
0

2
=
L

R L/3
0

L/3

sin2

3x
dx.
L

sin2 (3x/L)dx = L/3, :


P (0 x L/3) =

1
.
3

, n = 3
( 3). ;

p
3: , 3 (x)/ 2/L () 3 (x)/(2/L) () ,
x/L.
'Askhsh 3

L ,
n = 1,
r
2
x
sin
, x [0, L]
1 (x) =
L
L
( 4)
1 (x) = |1 (x)|2 =

2
x
sin2
,
L
L

x [0, L]

1 (x) ,
01 (x) = 0

x
x 
2
2 sin
cos
=0
L
L
L L
2x
sin
=0
L
2x
=
L
L
x= ,
2
Z. , x [0, L],
= 0, 1, 2. 1 (x) x = 0, L/2, L. x = 0 x = L
, 1 (0, L) = 0. x = L/2 1 (x) ,
1 (L/2) = 2/L 001 (L/2) < 0. ,

L
x= .
2
.

,
1 (x). ;
7

4: , 1 (x)/(2/L)
, x/L.
'Askhsh 4

m
L = 10a0 ' 5
:
~2 2
2mL2
(h/2)2 2
=
2mL2
1 h2
=
8 mL2
1 (hc)2
.
=
8 (mc2 )L2

E1 =

, mc2 ' 0.5 MeV. , hc ' 12000 eV


.
:
E1 ' 1.44 eV
( ) .
'Askhsh 5

, ,
n = 1 n = 2,
E = E2 E1 = 4E1 E1 = 3E1 .
,
hc

hc
=
E
hc
=
.
3E1

E =

E1 ' 1.44 eV ( 4),


3000
.
.

Mjhma 13
'Askhsh 1

( x ),
. .
'Askhsh 2

,
Z
hxi =
x|(x)|2 dx.

(3)

f (x) = x|(x)|2 , f (x) = f (x), f (x)


.
,
hxi = 0.
.

.
, (: |N |2 = 16a5 /)
(3).
'Askhsh 3

(r), :
Z
Z
hri =
r|(r)|2 dV = 4
r3 |(r)|2 dr.
V

(4)


(2):
Z
4
r2 |(r)|2 dr = 1
0
Z

2
4|N |
r2 e2r dr = 1
0

R
0

2 2r

r e

dr = 1/4 , :
r

.
|N | =

(3) ,
Z

r3 |(r)|2 dr

hri = 4
0
3

= 4

R
0

r3 e2r dr.

r3 e2r dr = 3/84 , :
hri =

10

3
.
2


, .
er , , [] = L1 . hri, , [hri] = L.
, hri 1/, .
, , .
, 3
.
,
= 1/a0 , a0 = ~2 /me e2 ' 0.5
Bohr ( 5).
3,
( r = 0) hri =
3a0 /2 ' 0.75
. (
) .

p
5: , a30 (r) , r/a0 .

'Askhsh 4

2, f (x) = x|(x)|2 = x (x)(x) + hxi ,


hxi = 0.
.
'Askhsh 5

2 4, f (x) = x|(x)|2 +
hxi , hxi = 0. ,
p
p
x = hx2 i hxi2 = hx2 i.

11

hx2 i.
,
Z
hx2 i =
x2 |(x)|2 dx

Z
2
x4 ex dx.
= |N |2

|N |2 = 2

p
p
R
2
/ x4 ex dx = (3/42 ) /,
hx2 i =

3
.
2

r
x =

3
.
2

, ,
. ;
'Askhsh 6

x = 0,
. a
x ( a > 0),
hxi = a.
.

,
.
'Askhsh 7

,
A =

hA2 i hAi2 .

,
hA2 i =

3
X

Pn a2n = P1 a21 + P2 a22 + P3 a33 =

n=1

hAi =

3
X

1
2

Pn an = P1 a1 + P2 a2 + P3 a3 = 0.

n=1

,
1
A = .
2
.

12

'Askhsh 8

, P (a)da A
a a + da. :
Z

P (a)da = 1
1

(1 a2 )da = 1.

N
1

R1
1

(1 a2 )da = 4/3, :
N=

3
.
4

.
'Askhsh 9

, hA2 i hAi:
hA2 i =

a2 P (a)da =

hAi =

aP (a)da =
1

R1

1 a2 (1 a2 )da = 4/15
hAi = 0. ,

R1
1

3
4
3
4

a2 (1 a2 )da

1
Z 1

a(1 a2 )da.

a(1 a2 )da = 0, hA2 i = 1/5

1
A = .
5
.
'Askhsh 10

e|x| ( > 0)
. , , e|x|
. , ,
.
, . (x) e|x|
, , x = 0, .
1 (x) 2 (x) 1 = 1 2 = 2 , 2 > 1 1 (x) . .

,
.

13

6: 1 (x) = e|x| () 2 (x) =

2e2|x| ().

Mjhma 14
'Askhsh 1

-, x-
(x px )
(x)(px ) ~
(x)(mvx ) ~
vx

~
,
mx

vx x- m .
- px = mvx .
(hvx i = hvy i = hvz i = 0)
,4 hvx2 i = hvy2 i = hvz2 i, hv2 i = 3hvx2 i,
v2 = vx2 + vy2 + vz2 .
, hKi
1
mhv2 i
2
1
= m(3hvx2 i)
2
~2
3
m 2
2 m (x)2
3 ~2  a0 2

,
2 ma20 x

hKi =

,
a0 Bohr. x ' 102
, ~2 /ma20 ' 27.2 eV a0 ' 0.5
hKi 10 keV.
( ) .
4 To

epiqerhma aut enai epiqerhma summetrac. H en lgw upjesh anamnetai na ploiretai se na katllhlo ssthma

axnwn (p.q. sto ssthma hremac tou hlektronou) pou h kumatosunrthsh qei sfairik summetra.

14


, , . ,
vx ~/m(x) hvx i = 0
hvx2 i = (vx )2 ~2 /m2 (x)2 . hKi = (1/2)mhvx2 i
, hKi 1 keV.
,
3, .
x-, 3, .
3 (
-),
.
'Askhsh 2

-,
(x)(px ) ~
vx

~
,
mx

m . (..
), x a0 , a0 Bohr.
~
ma0
~ me2

m ~2
e2
c
~c
c,

vx

- Bohr , a0 = ~2 /me2
= e2 /~c .
vx

c
108 cm s1 .
137


( 1 ).
;
'Askhsh 3

1, m
x, ( ) :
hKi

3 ~2  a0 2
.
2 ma20 x

, , fm (1015 m 105 a0 ).
,
hKi 100 GeV.

15

hKi  mc2 ' 0.5 MeV,


( !) .
Krel ' cp,
2 ,
2
3 e a0
hKrel i
,
a0 x
= e2 /~c . 1/100, e2 /a0 10 eV a0 /x 105 ,
hKrel i 1 GeV.
.

, ,
.
a , , hKi 1/a2
.

(
), ,
, -
. ,
, . ,

.
,
.
,
. ,
hKi 1/a.
.
.
, . 688.
,
( ) - .
,
.
,
, . ,

. 3 hKi 1 GeV
- 1 MeV,
.
'Askhsh 4

-,
(x)(p) ~.
m = 1 mg x ' 0.1 mm, :
v 1022 cm s1 .
.
16

'Askhsh 5

, , . , , , , ,
.
, 6 .
21 .
.
'Askhsh 6

-,
(x)(p) ~
~
mp x
~ me a0

me a0 mp x

e2 me a0
~ mp x

e2 me a0
c
~c mp x
me a0

c.
mp x

mp ' 1024 g x ' 106 cm,


v 103 cm s1 .
.
'Askhsh 7

1, m
x :
hKi

3 ~2  a0 2
.
2 ma20 x


hKp i
me
=
103  1,
hKe i
mp
.
.

, , ,
. ,
. (
)
.
, , .
,
17


Chandrasekhar ( 1.44 M ) , .
, ,
. (
) ,
.
.
'Askhsh 8

1 m = mn ( ),
3 ~2  a 0  2
2 mn a20 x
3 ~2 me  a0 2

2 me a20 mn x

hKi

~2 /me a20 10 eV, me /mn 103 (a0 /x) 108 ,


hKi 100 MeV.
( ) .

,
.
'Askhsh 9


, (
). eV,
, ,
. ,
MeV, ( 8).
.
'Askhsh 10


,

. P E/V ,
(.. )
E 1 eV,
3
. V 1
,
P 1

eV
6
3 10 atm.


Bohr .
18

, . 1 Matm ,
.
, 3.3 3.6 Matm,
. , 100 Gatm.

19

Mjhma 15
'Askhsh 1

,
. , , p = i~(d/dx),


Z
d

i~
hpi =
dx
dx

Z


d
= i~||2 + i~
dx
dx
Z
d

dx
= i~
dx

Z
=
pdx

= hpi,
= ( ),
.
hpi = hpi,
= hpi = 0.

(5)

,
hpi = 0.
.

(5) , , .
(5) , = , hpi = 0.
hpi = 0, = .
2
, (x) = N e(x /2)+i , R, .
hpi = 0.
'Askhsh 2

N .
Z
|(x)|2 dx = 1,


r
2

|N | =

20

(x)
p2 (x)dx



d
d
=
(x) i~
i~
(x)dx
dx
dx

Z
d2 (x)
= ~2
(x)
dx
dx2

Z
2
2
(N ex /2 )( + 2 x2 )N ex /2 dx
= ~2

Z
Z
2
2
2
= ~ |N |2
ex dx ~2 2 |N |2
x2 ex dx

r
r
r

= ~2
~2 2

= ~2 .
2
p
p = hp2 i hpi2 hpi = 0 ( 1),
:
r

.
p = ~
2
hp2 i =

p
x = 1/ 2.
p = ~ /2, (x)(p) = ~/2,
-, (x)(p) ~/2.

2
(x) ex (x)(p).
'Askhsh 3

~2 d2

+ V (x) = H,
2m dx2

,
H
Z

(x)[H(x)]dx

hEi =

(x)[E(x)]dx

=E

|(x)|2 dx.

|(x)|2 dx = 1,

hEi = E.
.

21

'Askhsh 4

hE 2 i:
Z
2
2 (x)]dx
(x)[H
hE i =

Z
H(x)]dx

=
(x)H[

(x)H[E(x)]dx
=

=E
(x)[H(x)]dx

Z
(x)[E(x)]dx
=E

Z
2
|(x)|2 dx.
=E

E =

hE 2 i hEi2 , hEi = E ( 3)
Z
|(x)|2 dx = 1,


E = 0.
.
'Askhsh 5

` = rp , ` = (`x , `y , `z ),
r = (x, y, z) p = (px , py , pz ),
`z = xpy ypx .
z- :
`z = x
py y px .
py = i~(/y) px = i~(/x)
:



`z = i~ x
y
.
y
x
.
'Askhsh 6

hpi hpi0 0 = ei .
Z
hpi0 = ( 0 ) p 0 dV
Z
= (ei ) p(ei )dV
Z
= ei ei pdV
Z
= pdV
= hpi.

22


hpi = hpi0 .
.

,
. , A
B = A ei , R,
.

Born, = ||2
. 0 0 = ei ,
, 0 = | 0 |2 = |ei |2 = ||2 |ei |2 =
||2 = . ,
( ) ,
0 .
'Askhsh 7

1 6, .
'Askhsh 8

:
2
= p .
K
2m

(x)K(x)dx
Z
1
=
(x)
p2 (x)dx
2m

hKi =

hp2 i
.
2m

2 , hp2 i = ~2 /2.
hKi =
.

23

~2
.
4m

Mjhma 16
'Askhsh 1

~/2, ~ = 2 eV.
n = 5,


1
E5 = 5 +
~
2
11
~.
E5 =
2
~ = 2 eV,
E5 = 11 eV.
.
'Askhsh 2

~/2, ~ = 4 eV.
, 3 3 .
n = 3,


1
E3 = 3 +
~
2
7
E3 = ~.
2
~ = 4 eV,
E3 = 14 eV.
.
'Askhsh 3

n (x) ,
n (x) = |n (x)|2 .
Z

Z
n (x)dx =

(x)dx.
0

P (x 0) P (x 0) n (x) (, 0] [0, ) , P (x 0) = P (x 0).


P (x 0) + P (x 0) = 1,
P (x 0) = 1/2.
.
'Askhsh 4

n, .
'Askhsh 5

V (x) = V0 cosh x x = 0 V0 . McLaurin,


1
V (x) = V (0) + V 0 (0)x + V 00 (0)x2 + O(x3 ),
2
24

O(x3 ) x3 . ,
1
V (x) V0 + V0 2 x2 .
2
x = 0
( 7).
~/2 V0 x,
m V (x) =
V0 cosh x
1
E = V0 + ~.
2
V (x) = m 2 x2 /2,
m 2 = V0 2
r
V0
.
=
m

1
E = V0 + ~
2

V0
.
m

, , ,
.

7: V (x)/V0 = cosh x ( )
x. V (x)/V0 1 + (1/2)(x)2
x = 0.

'Askhsh 6


: 1) , 2) c0 + c1 x2 , 3)
. .
25

'Askhsh 7

m 2 x2 /2,
m 2 a2 = 
a2 =


,
m 2

 a ~, m ,
.  = ~,
r
~
a=
.
m
.
'Askhsh 8

~, m , p0 .
p2 /2m,
p20
=
m
p20 = m,
 ~, m
.  = ~,
p0 = ~m.
p0
p = =
2

~m
.
2

.
'Askhsh 9

v0 p0
~, m
, p0 = mv0 . p0 = ~m ( 8),
r
v0 =

~
.
m

.
'Askhsh 10


E=

1
~.
2

= 1013 Hz ~ ' 6.58 1015 eV s,


E ' 3.3 meV.
( ) .

26

Mjhma 17
'Askhsh 1

(x) eikx ,
1
, , k = 2
.
1
p = ~k = 2~
. :
=

h
p

2~
1
2~

=
.
=

' 3.14
.
.
'Askhsh 2

,
A = A+ eikx + A eikx

, A+ eikx A eikx .



A 2


R=
A+
A = 3, A+ = 5,
R = 36%.
.
'Askhsh 3

= 6 kV q = 4e,
V0 = q = 4e 6 kV = 24 keV. E = 25 keV,

!2

E E V0
R=
(6)

E + E V0
:
R ' 44.4%.
.
'Askhsh 4

(6), E V0 ,
R ( 8).
R E V0 , .

27

8: R ( ) E/V0
E
V0 . E = V0 ,
E > V0 .
'Askhsh 5

(6) E
V0 , .
'Askhsh 6

(6) .
, x = 0,
.
Planck
~, .
( 9) , .
E V0
, . .

.
. , . 258.
Schrodinger V (x) = V0 ex /(1 + ex ),
.
'Askhsh 7

3 q = 2e (
-4) = 8 kV. E = 25 keV V0 = q = 16 keV (6),
:
R = 6.25%.
.
28

9: V (x)/V0 = ex /(1 + ex ) ( )
x. 0, .

'Askhsh 8

E V0 T ,
.

29

Mjhma 18
'Askhsh 1

L
r
2m(V0 E)
2L
(7)
T 'e
, =
~2
E V0 .

( ,
)
,
.
'Askhsh 2

Tp THe+ -4 (4 He+ ) .
-4 ,
V0 -4 .5
, , , (V0 E)
. (7) , :
T ' e

, -4, m
. ,
THe+ ' e
' e

mHe+

' e2

4mp

' e

mp


mp 2

= (Tp )2 ,
mHe+ ' 4mp . Tp = 103 ,
:
THe+ = 106 .
.
'Askhsh 3

(7) V0 E = 13.6 eV ' ~2 /2ma20 :


s
2m ~2
1
'
= .
2
2
~ 2ma0
a0
L = 4
' 8a0 , (7) :
T ' e16 .
.
5 Aut

sumbanei bbaia epeid to forto tou prwtonou enai dio me to forto tou intoc hlou-4.

30

'Askhsh 4

, L . (7), :
T ' e48 .
.
'Askhsh 5



.
, , ,
. .

31

Mjhma 19
'Askhsh 1

,
Z L

hEi =
Hdx
0
!
!
r
r
Z L
1
2
2
1
1 + i
1 + i
=
2 H
2
3
3
3
3
0
!
!
r
r
Z L
1
1
2
2
1 i
H 1 + i
2
=
3 2
3
3
3
0
Z L
Z L
Z
Z
2 L
1 L
2
2

1 dx.
H1 dx +
H2 dx + i
H2 dx i
H
=
3 0 1
3 0 2
3 0 1
3 0 2

1 = E 1 1
H
2 = E 2 2 ,
H

1
hEi = E1
3

2
|1 | dx +
3
2

Z
0

2
|2 | dx + i
E2
3
2

1 2 dx

Z L
2
i
1 dx.
3 0 2

|1 |2 dx = 1

0
L

Z
Z

|2 |2 dx = 1

0
L

1 2 dx = 0

0
L

2 1 dx = 0.

:
1
E1 +
3
1
= E1 +
3
= 3E1 .

hEi =

2
E2
3
2
(4E1 )
3

E1 = 3 eV,
hEi = 9 eV.
.
'Askhsh 2

1,
1 2
E +
3 1
1
= E12 +
3
1
= E12 +
3
= 11E12 .

hE 2 i =

32

2 2
E
3 2
2
(4E1 )2
3
2
16E12
3


E =

hE 2 i hEi2 ,

, 1,
:

E = E1 2 = 3 2 eV.
.
'Askhsh 3

||2 dx = 1
Z
Z
2
|1 |2 dx +
|N |

|4 | dx

|2 | dx + 2


= 1.

|n |2 dx = 1,

:
|N |2 (1 + 1 + 2) = 1
1
|N |2 = .
4
, ,
|N | =

1
.
2

.
'Askhsh 4

hxi
Z
x|n |2 dx, n = 0, 2, 4

0 , 2 4 ,
x|n |2 , n = 0, 2, 4 ,

hxi = 0.
'Askhsh 5

1 ,
1
1
E0 + E1 .
2
2
, ~ = m = = 1,
hEi =

1
2
3
E1 = ,
2
E0 =

:
hEi = 1.
.
33

'Askhsh 6

2,
hE 2 i =
, E =

1 2 1 2
5
E + E = .
2 1 2 2
4

p
hE 2 i hEi2 ,
E =

1
.
2

.
'Askhsh 7

,
. .
'Askhsh 8

t = 0
(0) = c0 0 + c1 1 ,
t :
(t) = c0 0 eiE0 t/~ + c1 1 eiE1 t/~ ,
E0 E1 1 2 , .
E0 = 1/2 E1 = 3/2 ( ~ = m = = 1),

1 
(t) = 0 eit/2 + 1 e3it/2 .
2

34

Mjhma 20
'Askhsh 1

-,
E ' ~.

(8)

= 107 s ~ 1027 erg s 1015 eV s (8) :


E 108 eV.
.
'Askhsh 2

E ( ) , hEi E 108 eV
( 1). , ,
' 68% E [hEi E, hEi + E] ( 10).
. hi = 10000
,
hEi =

hc
hi

12000 eV

10000
' 1.2 eV.
'

,
=
=

hc
E
hc
.
hEi + E

E/hEi  1 ,
1
1
1
=
hEi + E
hEi 1 + (E/hEi)



1
E 2
E
=
+O
1
hEi
hEi
hEi2


E
1
1

hEi
hEi
1
E

,
hEi hEi2
O(E 2 /hEi2 ) (E/hEi)2 , .
hc
hc

E.
hEi hEi2
hi + .

,
hi =

hc
' 10000

hEi

( )
=

hc
E 104
.
hEi2

.
35

10: E. ,
hEi E.
[hEi E, hEi + E] ( ) ' 68%.

'Askhsh 3

, . .
'Askhsh 4

(8), ,
. ,
(8) -.
.
'Askhsh 5

(8) 1016 s,
E 10 eV.
.

36

Mjhma 21
'Askhsh 1

(2),
Z

|(r)|2 dV = 1

4|N |

r2 e2r dr = 1.

R
0

e2r dr = 1/4,
1
|N | = .

.
'Askhsh 2

,
Z

r|(r)|2 dV

hri =

V
Z

=4

r3 e2r dr,

(A.U.)

1.
:
3
hri =
(A.U.)
2

R
0

r3 e2r dr = 3/8,


Bohr, .
'Askhsh 3

,
( (5)).
( 1),
hpi = 0.
.

, . ,
, .
, x-
px = i~

.
x

r


=
+
+
.
x
x r x
x

37





1 sin
= i~ sin cos
+ cos cos

.
x
r r

r sin
= (r, , ),

Z
hpx i =
(r, , )px (r, , )dV.
V

.
` = 0 ,

.
() |`| = ~ Bohr.
'Askhsh 4

~, m e . p0
, p20 /m ,
me4 /~2 .
me4
p20
= 2
m
~
me2
p0 =
.
~

p = 1/ 3 ,

me2
p = .
~ 3
.
'Askhsh 5

, , .
, , . .

3 4 15
.
'Askhsh 6

`2 = `(` + 1)~2 ` = 0 ,
` = 0.
.

,
` = (`x , `y , `z )
3.

38

'Askhsh 7

E1 E2 1 2 , ( )
1
2
1
E2 = .
8
E1 =


1
2
E1 + E2 .
3
3
:
hEi =

1
hEi = .
4
.
'Askhsh 8

p
E = hE 2 i hEi2 hE 2 i = 3/32 ( ),
:
1
E = .
4 2
.
'Askhsh 9

, ,
,
2
E2 = 1/8 . .
'Askhsh 10

n (r) En
n (r, t) = n (r)eiEn t/~ .

n (r) 1 (r) = (1/ )er En E1 = 1/2 ,


:
1 (r, t) = 1 (r)eit/2
.

39

(A.U.)

Mjhma 22
'Askhsh 1

d ` = 2,
p
|`| = ~ `(` + 1)

(9)

:
|`| =

6~.

.
'Askhsh 2

s ` = 0, (9)
|`| = 0.
.
'Askhsh 3

He+ 4s, n = 4.

En '

13.6Z 2
n=4
eV E4 ' 3.4 eV.
Z=2
n2

He+ 4s
WI = E4 ' 3.4 eV.
.
'Askhsh 4

332 , n = 3 `
` = 0, 1, 2. .
'Askhsh 5

` = 1,
2p. .
'Askhsh 6

` = 1 ,
4p 3s, 2s, 1s 3d.
.
'Askhsh 7

p
p

|`| = 6 2~ = 72~ =
8(8 + 1)~ |`| =
`(` + 1)~, ` =
8. m` 8, 7, ..., 1, 0, 1, ...7, 8,
z m` = 8, `z = m` ~ = 8~.

`z
2 2
cos =
=
.
|`|
3
.
40

'Askhsh 8

N .
Z

n`m
n0 `0 m0 dV = nn0 ``0 mm0 ,
V


Z
Z
||2 dV = |N |2
V

|100 |2 dV + 2

|211 |2 dV +

|322 |2 dV

1 = |N |2 (1 + 2 + 1)
1
|N | = .
2

h`z i =

1
(h`z i100 + 2h`z i211 + h`z i322 ).
4

h`z i100 = 0
h`z i211 = ~
h`z i322 = 2~,

h`z i = ~.
.
'Askhsh 9

(2),
Z

|210 |2 dV = 1

V
2

|N |
R
0

d
0

sin cos d
0

r4 er dr = 1.

cos2 sin d = 2/3

R
0

r4 er dr = 24,

1
|N | = .
4 2
.
'Askhsh 10

n, `, m
n = 1, 2, 3, ...
` = 0, 1, ..., n 1
m = `, ..., 0, ..., `,
A, B E, . .

41

Mjhma 23
'Askhsh 1

, -
`
` = B ,
~

(10)

B Bohr. ` = 3, |`| = 2 3~.


(10) :

|` | = 2 3B .
.
'Askhsh 2

Zeeman, ` ` 1
m = 0, 1. .
'Askhsh 3

(10),
`z
~
= B m` .

(` )z = B

322 m` = 2,
:
(` )z = 2B .
.
'Askhsh 4

SternGerlach, (
) 2` + 1. ` = 2,
. .
'Askhsh 5

m` ,
( ) .
.

42

Mjhma 24
'Askhsh 1

` = 0,
.
(..
z), 2s + 1 s . 2s + 1 = 6

5
s= .
2
.
'Askhsh 2

Zeeman, 2s + 1 = 2
. .
'Askhsh 3

, E
B
E = B

s
B
= 2B
~
= 2B Bms .
ms = 1/2, 1/2 , Zeeman
,
,
= B B.
.
'Askhsh 4

p
|s| = ~ s(s + 1) s = 1/2 ,

|s| =

3
~.
2

.
'Askhsh 5


cos =

sz
ms
=p
,
|s|
s(s + 1)

s = 1/2 ms = 1/2
1
cos = .
3
.

43

'Askhsh 6

,
= c + c ,
, - (ms = +1/2) (ms = 1/2), . ( ) c c ,
,
|c |2 + |c |2 = 1
P+ + P = 1.
,
P+ |c |2 P |c |2 -
- ,
.

z-
~
hsz i = .
4





~
~
2
2
hsz i = |c | +
+ |c |
2
2
~
~
= P + P ,
2
2

(P+ , P ) = (3/4, 1/4).
.

, P+ + P = 1 , hsz i > 0,
. ;
'Askhsh 7

p
sz = hs2z i hsz i2 ( ) hs2z i = ~2 /4,

3
sz =
~.
4
.
'Askhsh 8


|s|
~
p
= 2B s(s + 1)

|| = 2B

( ), s = 1/2 :
|| =

44

3B .

'Askhsh 9

,
.
- (0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, ...),
.
, Higgs
s = 0.
, .
.
'Askhsh 10


, .. s = 1 (
~ = 1) 3, . ,
. ,
, , ,
, , / . .

45

Mjhma 25
'Askhsh 1

En = E1 n2 , n = 1, 2, 3, ...
E1 = ~2 2 /2mL2 , 1 eV. Pauli, 2s + 1 = 2 (3/2) + 1 = 4
. s = 3/2,
:
4 n = 1
4 n = 2
2 n = 3

Etot = 4E1 + 4E2 + 2E3
= 4E1 + 4(4E1 ) + 2(9E1 )
= 4E1 + 16E1 + 18E1
= 38E1 .
E1 = 1 eV, :
Etot = 38 eV.
.
'Askhsh 2

n = 2
n = 3,
Emin = E3 E2
= 9E1 4E1
= 5E1 .
E1 = 1 eV :
Emin = 5 eV.
.
'Askhsh 3

(, , ),

. ,
Etot = 0.
.
'Askhsh 4

, .
46

'Askhsh 5

, , ,
( , , ).
.
'Askhsh 6

, s = 0
. ,
.
, Z . ,
.
'Askhsh 7

, - .
, .
, 42 He ( ),
. .
'Askhsh 8

. ,
(x1 , x2 ) = (x2 , x1 ), .
,
( ) .
,
. .
'Askhsh 9

1s1 2s1 He S = 0,
. S = 1, .
Pauli, S = 1
S = 0.
,
, S = 1 .
.
'Askhsh 10

( ).
Pauli, .
.

47

Qrsima oloklhrmata
, .
, , .
, , .
,
.
To ekjetik oloklrwma

ex dx,

I() =
0

Re{} > 0,
. :
Z
ex dx
I() =
0


1 x
e
=

0
1
= .

ex dx =

1
.

(.. )

Z
xn ex dx, n = 0, 1, 2, ...
0

,
I().

Z

xn ex dx,

In () =

n = 0, 1, 2, ...


n = 0,
Z
I0 () =
ex dx.
0

I1 () :
Z
I1 () =
xex dx
0


Z
1 x
1 x
=
xe
+
e
dx

0
0


1
= 2 ex

0
1
= 2.

48

I1 () = 1/2 . I2 () = 2/3 .

.
( ) In ()
, n. :
Z

xn ex dx =

n!
n+1

n = 0, 1, 2, ...

To gkaousian oloklrwma

,
Z
2
ex dx,
I() =

Re{} > 0,
. I() :

 Z
Z
2
2
ey dy
ex dx
I 2 () =

Z Z
(x2 +y 2 )
dxdy.
e
=

e(x +y ) R2 .
(r, ) :
I 2 () =

d
0

rer dr


0

2
1
= 2 er
2

= .

ex dx =

(.. )
Z
2
x2n ex dx, n = 0, 1, 2, ...

,
I().

Z

x2n ex dx,

In () =

n = 0, 1, 2, ...


n = 0,
r
Z

x2
.
I0 () =
e
dx =

49

I1 () :
Z
2
I0 ()

ex dx
=


r
Z
2

ex dx
=


r
Z
2
1

=
x2 ex dx.
2

p
I1 () = (1/2) /.
Z
2
I1 ()

x2 ex dx
=


r
Z
2
1

x2 ex dx
=
2

r
Z
2
3

x4 ex dx.
=
2
4

p
I2 () = (3/42 ) /.

. ( )
In () , n. :
r
Z

(2n)!
2n x2
, n = 0, 1, 2, ...
x e
dx =
n
n!(4)



Z
2
ex +x dx,

, , Re{} > 0 .

:



x2 x = x2 x




2
2
2
= x 2x
+
2
2 42
4

2
2

,
= x

2
4

x2 +x

e[x(/2)] e /4 dx

Z
2
2 /4
=e
e[x(/2)] dx.

dx =

e[x(/2)] dx =

r
=

50

eu du

u = x (/2).
Z

ex

+x

dx = e

51

/4