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Crossin Aesthetics
Werner HurnucIer
& Du v I d E. WeI I bery
Editors
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Tr uns I uL ed by
Ro b e r L D. RI c Iu r ds o n
u nd A n n e E . O' B y r n e
1ecn-Luc Ncnc
Stcnjord
Unitersit
Press
Stcnjord
Cclijornic
zooo
ConLenLs
SL unI or d UnI v e r s I L y Press
SL unI or d, Cu I I I o r nI u
z o o o by L Ie Bo u r d oI TrusL ees
oI LIe e I u nd SL unI or d J unI o r UnI v e r s I r y
ein Sinulcr Plurcl'wus or I g I nu I I y pubI I s Ie d us Etre sinulier pluriel
1qq6, dI L I ons GuI I I e.
AssI sL unce Ior L Ie L r uns I uL I on wus pr ov I de d by LIe r e nc I MI n I s L r y oI Cu I L u r e .
Pr I nL e d I n LIe Un I L e d SLuLes oI Ame r I c u on ucI d- I ree, ur c II vuI - quuI I L y puper.
I b r u r y o I Cong r e s s Cu L u I o g I ng - I n- Pub I I c u L I o n Du L u
Nu nc y , J e u n- uc .
| EL re s I nguI ur pI ur I e I . EngI I s I|
Be I ng s I nguI ur pI ur uI J J e u n- uc Nu n c y ; L runsI uL ed by Robe r L D. RI c Iu r ds o n
u nd A n n e E . O' B y r n e
p. c m. - ( Me r I d I u n , c r os s I ng uesLIeLI cs)
nc I udes bI bI I og r u pII c uI reIerences u nd I ndex.
! "#$ o- 8oq;- q;q- q (
u
' k- puper) " ! "#$ o- 8oq;- q;- ; ( pbk. : uI k. puper)
!& On L o I o g y . z. PII I os opII c u I u nL Ir opoI og y . . TI L I e . . Me r I d u n
( SL unI or d, Cu I I I . )
Bzqo. N6 E8;1 z ooo
1 q q -d c z I oo- o;z6
Or I g I n u I p r I n L I n g z ooo
usL I I gur e be I ow I ndI cuL es yeur oI L II s pr I nL I ng :
oq o8 o; o6 o oq o oz o1 o o
TypeseL by Jumes P. B r o mme r
I n 1o.qJ1 Gu r u mo n d u nd I L Io s dI s pI uy
Prejcce
!"
!
OI BeI ng SI nguI ur PI uruI
1
Wur, RI gIL , SovereI gnL y-TecIn
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!
EuI ogy Ior LIe MI e 1q
TIe SurprIse oI LIe EvenL 1q
Hu mu n Excess 1;;
!
Cosmos BuseI Ius
18
Notes 1q
eud, us do, LIe IIown-uwuy vIrLue buck Lo eurL I-
yes, buck Lo body und IIIe; LIuL IL muy gIve LIe eurLI ILs
meunIng, u Iumun meunIng! Muy your spIrIL und your
vIrLue serve LIe meunIng oI LIe eurLI. . . . Mun und
mun's eurLI ure sLIII unexIuusLed und undIscovered.
-NIeLzscIe
TII s epI grupI Is cIosen quI Le deIIberuLeIy. r un LIe rIsk oI ILs
seemIng Lo I end ILseII Lo u cerLuIn CIrI sL I un, IdeuIIsL, und IumunI sL
Lone, u Lone In wII c I IL Is eusy Lo recognIze LIose weI I - meunI ng
vIrLues und vuIues LIuL Iuve Ioosed upon LIe wor I d uII LIe LIIngs
LIuL Iuve drI ven LIe IumunI L y oI our cenLury Lo despuIr over ILseII,
wIere LIese vuIues ure boL I bI I nd Lo und compI I cI L In LIIs I eLLI ng
Ioose. n IIs own wuy, NI eLzscIe II mseI I wouI d Iuve undoubL edI y
purLIcIpuLed In LIIs dubI ous, moruI I zI ng pIeLy. AL uny ruLe, LIe word
"meunI ng" rureIy uppeurs I n IIs work, und sLI I I more rureIy I n uny
posILIve sense. One wouI d do weI I , LIereIore, noL Lo gIve uny IusLy
InLerpreLuLIons oI IL Iere. TIe ubove excerpL uppeuIs Lo u " Iumun
meunI ng, " buL IL does so by uI I I rmI ng LIuL LIe Iumun [l'homme]
remuIns Lo be dIscovered.
1
n order Ior LIe Iumun Lo be dIscovered,
und I n order Ior LIe pIruse " Iumun meunI ng" Lo ucquI re some
meunI ng, everyLIIng LIuL Ius ever I uI d cI uI m Lo LIe L ruL I ubouL LIe
nuLure, essence, or end oI "mun" musL be undone. n oLIer words,
noL II ng musL remuI n oI wIuL, under LIe LILIe oI meunI ng, reIuLed
LIe eurLI [lc terre] und LIe Iumun Lo u specIIIubIe IorI zon. AguI n, IL
Is NI eLzscIe wIo suId LIuL we ure now "on LIe IorI zon oI LIe I nI I -
nI Le"; LIuL Is, we ure uL LIuL poI nL wIere "LIere Is no more ' I und, ' "
und wIere "LIere Is noL II ng more LerrIbIe LIun LIe I nI I nI L e. "
z
Ar e we IInuI I y goI ng Lo Ieurn LIIs Iesson? Ar e we perIups IInuI I y
ubIe Lo Ieur I L, or Is IL now I mpossI bI e Ior us Lo I eurn unyL II ng
! " " !& & &
eIse? Cu n we L II nk un eurLI und u Iumun sucI LIuL LIey wouI d be
onI y wIuL LIey ure-nothin but eurLI und I u mu n -u n d sucI
LIuL LIey wouI d be none oI LIe vurI ous IorI zons oILen Iurbored
under LIese numes, none oI LIe "perspecLIves" or "vIews" in tieu
oI wII cI we Iuve dIsIIgured Iumuns [les hommes] und drI ven LIem
Lo despuIr?
" TIe Ior I zon oI LIe I nI I nI L e" Is no I onger LIe Ior I zon oj the
uhole, buL LIe "wIoI e" (uII LIuL Is) us puL on IoI d everywIere,
pusIed Lo LIe ouLsI de just cs much cs IL Is pusIed buck InsIde LIe
"seII." L Is no I onger u I I ne LIuL Is dr uwn, or u I I ne LIuL wI I I be
druwn, wII cI orIenLs or guLIers LIe meunI ng oI u course oI progress
or nuvI guLI on. L Is LIe openI ng [lc breche] or dI sL uncI ng [leccrte-
ment] oI IorI zon ILseII, und In LIe openI ng: us. We Iuppen us LIe
openI ng ILseII, LIe dungerous IuuIL I I ne oI u rupLure.
wunL Lo empIusI ze LIe duLe on wII c I um wr I L I ng LII s. L Is
LIe summer oI 1qq, und us Iur us specI I yI ng LIe sI L uuL I on oI LIe
eurLI und Iumuns Is concerned, noL II ng Is more pressIng (Iow
couI d IL reuIIy be uvoIded?) L Iun u IIsL oI proper numes sucI us
LIese, presenLed Iere In no purLI cuI ur order: BosnI u-HerzogovI nu,
CIecInyu, Rwundu, BosnI un Serbs, TuLsI s, HuL us , Tu mI I TI gers,
Kruj I nu Serbs, Cusumunce, CII upus, sIumIc JI Iud, BungIudesI, LIe
SecreL Ar my Ior LIe I beruL I on oI Ar me nI u, Humus, KuzukIsL un,
KImers Rouges, E T A mI I I L I u, Kurds ( U P K J P D K ) , MonLuLuI re, LIe
Move me nL Ior SeI I -deL ermI nuL I on, SomuI I u, CII cunos, SII I Les,
N C - C u n u I HI sL or I que, I ber I u, GI vuL Hugudun, NI ger I u, LIe
eugue oI LIe No r L I, AI gIunI sL un, ndonesI u, SI kIs, Hu I L I , Ro mu
gypsIes oI SI ovenI u, TuI wun, Bur mu, P O , ruq, sIumIc ronL SuI-
vuL I on, SII nI ng PuL I, VuuI x-en-VeI I ns, NeuIoI . . . . OI course, I L
wouI d be dI III cuI L Lo brI ng LIIs IIsL Lo un end I I LIe uI m wus Lo I n-
cI ude uII LIe pIuces, groups, or uuLIorILIes LIuL consLILuLe LIe LIe-
uLer oI bI oody conIIIcLs umong IdenLILIes, us weI I us wIuL Is uL sLuke
In LIese conIIIcLs. TIese duys IL Is noL uIwuys possIbIe Lo suy wI L I
uny ussurunce wIeLIer LIese I denLI LI es ure I nL runuL I onuI , I nI runu-
L I onuI , or L runsnuL I onuI ; wIeLIer LIey ure "cuI L ur uI , " "reI I gI ous, "
"eLInI c, " or "II sL orI cuI "; wIeLIer LIey ure I egI LI muLe or no L -no L
Lo menL I on LIe quesLI on ubouL wII cI I uw wouI d provI de sucI Ie-
gI L I muL I on; wIeLIer LIey ure reuI, myL II cuI , or I mugI nury; wIeLIer
LIey ure I ndependenL or "I nsL rumenL uI I zed" by oLIer groups wIo
wI eI d poI I L I cuI , economI c, und I deoI ogI cuI power. . . .
TII s Is LIe "eurLI" we ure supposed Lo "I nIubI L " Loduy, LIe eurLI
Ior wII c I LIe nume Surujevo wI I I become LIe murL yr-nume, LIe
LesLI monI uI -nume: LIIs Is us, we wIo ure supposed Lo suy ue us II
we know wIuL we ure suyI ng und uho we ure L uI kI ng ubouL. TII s
eurLI Is unyL II ng buL u sIurI ng oI IumunI L y. L Is u wor I d LIuL does
noL even munuge Lo consLI LuLe u wor I d; IL Is u wor I d I uckI ng In
wor I d, und I uckI ng I n LIe meunI ng oI wor I d. L I s un enumeruL I on
LIuL brIngs Lo IIgIL LIe sIeer number und proIIIeruLIon oI LIese vur-
Ious poIes oI uLLrucLI on und repuI sI on. L Is un endIess I I sL, und
everyLII ng Iuppens In sucI u wuy LIuL one Is reduced Lo keepI ng
uccounLs buL never L ukI ng LIe IInuI L oI I . L Is u IILuny, u pruyer oI
pure sorrow und pure Ioss, LIe pIeu LIuL IuIIs I rom LIe IIps oI mI I -
IIons oI reIugees every duy: wIeLIer LIey be deporLees, peopI e be-
sIeged, LIose wIo ure muLI I uLed, peopIe wIo sLurve, wIo ure ruped,
osLrucIzed, excI uded, exI I ed, expeIIed.
WIuL um LuI kI ng ubouL Iere Is compussIon, buL noL compussIon
us u pI Ly LIuL IeeIs sorry Ior ILseII und Ieeds on ILseII. Com- pussI on
Is LIe conLugI on, LIe conLucL oI beI ng wI L I one unoLIer In LIIs Lur-
moI I . CompussI on Is noL uI L ruI sm, nor Is IL I denLI II cuLI on; IL Is LIe
dIsLurbunce oI vI oI enL reIuLedness.
WIuL does LIe ubove-numed proIIIeruLIon requIre oI us, LIIs pro-
IIIeruLIon LIuL seems Lo Iuve no oLIer meunI ng LIun LIe I ndeL ermI -
nuLe muI L I pI I cuL I on oI cenLrIpeLuI meunIngs, meunIngs cIosed I n on
LIemseIves und supersuLuruLed wI L I sI gnI I I cunce-LIuL Is, meunIngs
LIuL ure no Ionger meunI ngI uI becuuse LIey Iuve come Lo reIer onI y
Lo LIeIr own cIosure, Lo LIeIr IorI zon oI upproprI uL I on, und Iuve
begun Lo spreud noL II ng buL desLrucLI on, IuLred, und LIe denI uI oI
exIsLence?
WIu L I I LIIs uuLIsLIc muI L I pI I cI L y, wII cI Leurs open und I s L orn
!$"
open, IeLs us know LIuL we Iuve noL even begun Lo dIscover wIuL IL
Is Lo be muny, even L IougI "I u Lerre des Iommes "

Is exucLIy LIIs?
WIu L II IL IeLs us know LIuL IL Is ILseII LIe IIrsL I uyI ng bure [mise c
nu] oI u wor I d LIuL Is onI y LIe wor I d, buL wII cI Is LIe wor I d ub-
soIuLeIy und unreservedIy, wI L I no meunI ng beyond LIIs very Be-
I ng oI LIe worI d: sI nguI urI y pI uruI und pI uruI I y sInguIur?
PreIuce
TIe IIrsL und prI ncI puI essuy oI LIIs book, wII cI gIves I L ILs LILIe,
wus noL composed In un uILogeLIer sequenLIuI munner, buL ruLIer
In u dI sconLI nuous wuy, repeuLedIy LukI ng up severuI LIemes. To u
cerLuIn exLenL, L Ien, LIe secLIons cun be reud In uny order, sInce
LIere ure repeLILIons Iere und LIere. BuL LIIs Is LIe resuIL oI u I un-
dumenLuI dIIIIcuILy. TII s LexL does noL dIsguIse ILs umbI L I on oI re-
doI ng LIe wIoI e oI "IIrsL pII I osopIy" by gI vI ng LIe "sI nguI ur
pI uruI " oI BeI ng
1
us ILs I ounduL I on. TII s , Iowever, Is noL m umbI -
L I on, buL ruLIer LIe necessILy oI LIe L II ng ILseII und oI our IIsLory.
AL LIe very IeusL, Iope Lo muke LIIs necessILy IeIL. AL LIe sume
LI me, upurL I rom LIe IucL LIuL do noL Iuve LIe sLrengLI Lo deIIver
LIe LreuLIse "oI LIe sI nguI ur pI uruI essence oI BeI ng, " LIe I orm oI
LIe onLoI ogI cuI LreuLIse ceuses Lo be upproprIuLe us soon us LIe sI n-
guIur oI BeI ng ILseII, und LIereIore uIso oI onLoI ogy, Is In quesLI on.
TII s I s noL II ng new. AL IeusL sInce NI eLzscIe, und Ior uI I sorLs oI
reusons LIuL no doubL come LogeLIer In LIe reuson I nvoke, pII -
I osopIy Is uL odds wI L I ILs "I orm, " LIuL Is, wI L I ILs "sLyIe," wII cI Is
Lo suy, IInuIIy, wI L I ILs uddress. Ho w does L II nkI ng uddress ILseII Lo
ILseII, Lo L II nkI ng (wII cI uIso meuns: Iow does L II nkI ng uddress
ILseII Lo everyone, wI L IouL ILs beI ng u muLLer oI u "compreIensI on"
or "undersL undI ng" LIuL mI gIL be cuI I ed "common") ? H o w I s
L II nkI ng uddressed? ( TIe pII I osopII cuI LreuLIse, und "pII I osopIy"
us sucI, Is LIe neuLruIIzuLIon oI uddress, LIe subjecLIess dIscourse oI
'(! Prejcce
BeIng-SubjecL [l'Etre-Sujet] ILseII.) PuL unoLIer wuy, wIuL Is LIe " dI -
uIogue oI LIe souI wI L I ILseII" LIuL PIuLo LuIks ubouL, wII cI demon-
sLruLes LIuL LIIs quesLI on, or LIIs worry, Ius uIwuys been purL oI our
IIsLory? I L II nkI ng Is uddressed, LIen IL Is becuuse LIere Is meunI ng
In LIIs uddress, und noL In dIscourse (buL IL Is In LIe uddress oI dIs-
course). TII s obeys LIe prI mordI uI , onLoI ogI cuI condI L I on oI beI ng-
wI L I or beIng-LogeLIer, wII cI Is wIuL wouI d I I ke Lo LuIk ubouL. A
LreuLIse, LIereIore, Is noL suIIIcIenLIy dIscursIve. No r Is IL enougI Lo
dress dIscourse In LIe I orm oI un uddress (Ior me Lo uddress you
wI L I LIe IumI I I ur "you" [tu] LIe wIoI e wuy LIrougI). TIe uddress
meuns LIuL L II nkI ng ILseII uddresses ILseII Lo "me" und Lo "us" uL LIe
sume LI me; LIuL Is, L II nkI ng uddresses ILseII Lo LIe wor I d, Lo IIsLory,
Lo peopI e, Lo LIIngs: Lo "us." AnoL Ier umbI L I on sprIngs I rom LIIs
or, beLLer yeL, unoLIer, more resLrIcLed, uLLempL: Lo uI I ow LIInkIng' s
uddress Lo be perceIved, un uddress LIuL comes Lo us I rom every-
wIere sImuILuneousIy, muI L I pI I ed, repeuLed, InsIsLenL, und vurIubIe,
gesLurI ng onI y L owurd "us" und L owurd our curI ous "beI ng- wI L I-
one-unoLIer, " [etre-les-uns-ctec-les-cutres], Lowurd our uddressIng-
one-unoLIer.
z
(By LIe wuy, LIe IogIc oI "wI L I" oILen requIres Ieuvy-Iunded syn-
Lux In order Lo suy "beI ng-wI LI-one-unoLIer. " You muy suIIer I rom
IL us you reud LIese puges. BuL perIups IL Is noL un uccI denL LIuL
Iunguuge does noL eusIIy I end ILseII Lo sIowI ng LIe "wI L I" us sucI,
Ior IL Is ILseII LIe uddress und noL wIuL musL be uddressed.)
n LIIs, LIere Is un I I I usI on LIuL IIes In wuI L, LIe I I I usI on oI wI I I I ng
LIe udequuLI on oI "I orm" und "conLenL, " oI wI I I I ng L ruL I ILseII I nLo
presence: us II couI d wrI L e Lo every uddressee u seI smogrupII cuI
uccounL oI our upseLs, our ugILuLIons, our LroubI es, und our ud-
dresses wI L IouL uddressees. My onI y response I s no: no wI I I , " on
my IIIe dI d noL know wIuL I L wus Lo wI I I " (NIeLzscIe). Or mI gIL
suy LIe I oI I owI ng: wI I I I ng (or desIre) Is noL u L II nkI ng; IL Is u dIs-
Lurbunce, un ecIo, u reverberuLIng sIock.
TIe IuLLer essuys were cIosen becuuse LIeIr subjecLs converge
wI L I LIuL oI LIe prI mury essuy. As you wI I I see, LIe IIrsL Lwo ure con-
necLed Lo LIe exucL cI rcumsLunces oI LIe mosL vI oI enL evenLs oI
LIese IusL yeurs.
OI BeIng SInguIur PIuruI
L I s g o o d L o reI y u p o n oL Iers. o r no one c un beur L II s I I I e uI one.
-H I d e r I I n
SI nc e I u mu n nuL ur e I s L Ie L r ue c o mmu n I L y oI me n , L Iose wI o
pr oduc e L Iereby uI I I r m L IeI r nuL ur e, I u mu n c o mmu n I L y , u nd socI uI
be I ng wI I c I , ruL Ier L Iun un ubsL rucL , generuI power I n oppos I L I o n
L o L Ie I soI uL ed I n d I v I d u u I , I s LIe be I ng oI eucI I n d I v I d u u I , II s o wn
ucL I vI L y, II s o wn I I I e, II s o wn joy, II s o wn rI cIness. To suy L IuL u
mu n I s uI I enuL ed I r o m II ms e I I I s L o suy L IuL L Ie socI eL y oI L II s
uI I enuL ed mu n I s L Ie cur I cuL ure oI II s reuI c o mmu n I L y .
- M u r x
We Are MeunI ng
L Is oILen suId Loduy LIuL we Iuve IosL meunI ng, LIuL we Iuck IL
und, us u resuIL, ure In need oI und wuI L I ng Ior IL. TIe "one" wIo
speuks In LIIs wuy IorgeLs LIuL LIe very propuguLIon oI LIIs dIscourse
Is ILseII meunI ngI uI . RegreLLI ng LIe ubsence oI meunI ng ILseII Ius
meunI ng. BuL sucI regreL does noL Iuve meunI ng onI y In LIIs negu-
LIve mode; denyI ng LIe presence oI meunI ng uIIIrms LIuL one knows
wIuL meunI ng wouI d be, were IL LIere, und keeps LIe musLery und
LruLI oI meunI ng I n pIuce (wII cI I s LIe preLensIon oI LIe IumunI sL
dIscourses LIuL propose Lo "redIscover" meunI ng. ) WIeL Ier IL Is
uwure oI I L or noL, LIe conL emporury dIscourse on meunI ng goes
mucI IurLIer und In u compI eLeI y dIIIerenL dI recLI on: IL brIngs Lo
IIgIL LIe IucL LIuL "meunI ng, " used In LIIs ubsoIuLe wuy, Ius become
LIe bured [denude] nume oI our beIng-wILI-one-unoLIer. We do noL
"Iuve" meunI ng unymore, becuuse we ourseIves ure me u nI ng -e n-
LIreIy, wI L IouL reserve, InIInILeIy, wI L I no meunI ng oLIer LIun "us."
TII s does noL meun LIuL we ure LIe conLenL oI meunI ng, nor ure
we ILs I uI I I I I menL or ILs resuIL, us II Lo suy LIuL Iumuns were LIe
meunI ng (end, subsLunce, or vuIue) oI BeI ng, nuLure, or IIsLory. TIe
meunI ng oI LIIs meunI ng-L IuL Is, LIe sIgnIIIcuLIon Lo wII cI u sLuLe
oI uIIuIrs corresponds und compur es -I s precIseIy wIuL we suy we
z ein Sinulcr Plurcl
Iuve IosL. BuL we ure meunI ng In LIe sense LIuL we ure LIe eIemenL
In wII cI sIgnIIIcuLIons cun be produced und cIrcuIuLe. TIe IeusL sIg-
nI II cuLI on jusL us muc I us LIe mosL eIevuLed (LIe meunI ng oI " nuI I "
us weI I us LIe meunI ng oI " God" ) Ius no meunI ng In ILseII und, us u
resuIL, Is wIuL IL Is und does wIuL IL does onI y InsoIur us IL Is com-
munI cuL ed, even wIere LIIs communI cuL I on Lukes pIuce onI y be-
Lween "me" und "myseII." Me u nI ng I s ILs own communI cuL I on or
ILs own cI rcuI uL I on. TIe "meunI ng oI BeI ng" I s noL some properLy
LIuL wI I I come Lo quuIIIy, II I I I n, or II nuI I ze LIe bruLe gIvenness oI
" BeI ng" pure und sI mpI e. ' nsLeud, IL Is LIe IucL LIuL LIere Is no
"bruLe gIvenness" oI BeI ng, LIuL LIere Is no desperuLeIy poor there
is presenLed wIen one suys LIuL "LIere Is u nuI I cuLcII ng. . . . " BuL
LIe gIvenness oI BeI ng, LIe gIvenness InIerenL Lo LIe very IucL LIuL
we undersL und someL II ng wIen we suy "Lo be" (wIuLever IL muy
be und Iowever conIused I L mI gIL be), uI ong wI L I LIe (sume)
gIvenness LIuL Is gIven wI L I LIIs IucL-cosubsLunLI uI wI L I LIe gIven-
ness oI BeI ng und LIe undersLundI ng oI BeI ng, LIuL we undersLund
one unoLIer (Iowever conIusedIy) wIen we suy IL, Is u gIIL LIuL cun
be summurI zed us IoIIows: ein itselj is iten to us cs mecnin. Be-
I ng does noL hcte meunI ng. BeI ng ILseII, LIe pIenomenon oI Be-
I ng, I s meunI ng LIuL Is, I n L ur n, ILs own c I r c uI u L I on-u nd ue ure
LIIs cI rcuI uLI on.
TIere Is no meunI ng II meunI ng Is noL sIured,
z
und noL becuuse
LIere wouI d be un uI LI muLe or IIrsL sIgnIIIcuLIon LIuL uII beIngs Iuve
In common, buL becuuse mecnin is itseljthe shcrin oj ein. Meun-
I ng begIns wIere presence Is noL pure presence buL wIere presence
comes upurL [se disjoint] In order Lo be ILseII cs sucI. TII s "us" pre-
supposes LIe dIsLuncIng, spucIng, und dI vI sI on oI presence. OnI y LIe
concepL oI "presence" conLuIns LIe necessILy oI LIIs dI vI sI on. Pure
unsIured presence-presence Lo noLII ng, oI noLII ng, Ior n o L I I n g -
Is neILIer presenL nor ubsenL. L Is LIe sI mpI e I mpI osI on oI u beI ng
LIuL couI d never Iuve been-un I mpI osI on wI L IouL uny Lruce.
TII s Is wIy wIuL Is cuIIed "LIe creuLIon oI LIe wor I d" Is noL LIe
producL I on oI u pure someL II ng I rom noL II ng -wII c I wouI d noL,
uL LIe sume LI me, I mpI ode I nL o LIe noL II ng ouL oI wII cI I L couI d
never Iuve c o me -b u L Is LIe expI osI on oI presence In LIe orI gI nuI
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
muI L I pI I cI L y oI ILs dI vI sI on. L Is LIe expI osI on oI nothin, In IucL,
IL Is LIe spucI ng oI meunI ng, spucI ng cs meunI ng und cI rcuI uL I on.
TIe nihil oI creuLIon Is LIe truth oI meunI ng, buL meunI ng Is LIe
orI gI nury sIurIng oI LIIs L ruL I. L couI d be expressed In LIe I oI I ow-
I ng wuy: BeI ng cunnoL be unyL II ng buL beI ng-wI LI-one-unoLIer,
cI rcuI uL I ng In LIe uith und us LIe uith oI LIIs sI nguI urI y pI uruI
coexIsLence.
I one cun puL I L I I ke LII s, LIere I s no oLIer meunI ng L Iun LIe
meunI ng oI cI rcuI uL I on. BuL LIIs cI rcuI uL I on goes I n uI I dI recLI ons
uL once, In uII LIe dIrecLIons oI uI I LIe spuce-LImes [les espcce-temps]
opened by presence Lo presence: uII LIIngs, uI I beIngs, uI I enLILIes,
everyLIIng pusL und IuLure, uIIve, deud, I nunI muLe, sLones, pIunLs,
nuIIs, g o ds -u nd "Iumuns, " LIuL Is, LIose wIo expose sIurI ng und
cI rcuI uLI on us sucI by suyI ng "we," by scin ue to themseltes In uII
possIbIe senses oI LIuL expressIon, und by suyIng we Ior LIe LoLuI ILy
oI uII beI ng.
(Let us sc ue jor cll bein, thct is, jor eter bein, jor cll beins
one b one, ecch time in the sinulcr oj their essenticl plurcl. Lcn-
uce specls jor cll cnd oj cll: jor cll, in their plcce, in their ncme,
includin those uho mc not hcte c ncme. Lcnuce scs uhct there
is oj the uorld, ncture, histor cnd humcnit, cnd it clso specls jor
them cs uell cs In vI ew oI them, in order to lecd the one uho specls,
the one throuh uhom lcnuce comes to be cnd hcppens ("mcn"), to
cll oj bein, uhich does not specl but uhich is netertheless-sLone,
IIsI, IIber, dougI, cruck, bI ock, und breuLI. The specler specls jor
the uorld, uhich mecns the specler specls to it, on behclj oj it, in or-
der to mcle it c "uorld. "As such, the specler is "in its plcce" cnd "cc-
cordin to its mecsure", the specler occurs cs its representctite but clso,
ct the scme time (cnd this hcs cll the tclues oj pro in Lctin), in cn-
ticipction oj it, bejore it, exposed to it cs to its oun most intimcte con-
siderction. Lcnuce scs the uorld, thct is, it loses itselj in it cnd ex-
poses hou "in itselj" it is c question oj losin oneselj in order to be oj it,
uith it, to be its mecnin-uhich is cll mecnin)
q ein Sinulcr Plurcl
CI rcuI uL I on goes In uII dIrecLIons: LIIs Is LIe NIeLzscIeun LIougIL
oI LIe "eLernuI reLurn, " LIe uIIIrmuLIon oI meunI ng us LIe repeLILIon
oI LIe InsLunL, noL II ng buL LIIs repeLI LI on, und us u resuIL, noL II ng
(sInce IL Is u muLLer oI LIe repeLI LI on oI wIuL essenLIuIIy does noL
reLurn). BuL IL Is u repeLI LI on uIreudy comprI sed In LIe uIII rmuLI on
oI LIe InsLunL, In LIIs uIIIrmuLIonJrequesL (re-petitid) seIzed In LIe
I eLLIng go oI LIe InsLunL, uIII rmI ng LIe pussIng oI presence und ILseII
pussIng wI L I I L, uIIIrmuLIon ubundoned In ILs very movemenL. L Is
un I mpossI bI e L IougIL , u L II nkI ng LIuL does noL IoI d I LseI I buck
I rom LIe cI rcuI uL I on IL L II nks, u L II nkI ng oI meunI ng rI gIL uL [c
meme]

meunI ng, wIere ILs eLernILy occurs us LIe L ruL I oI ILs puss-
I ng. (or InsLunce, uL LIe momenL uL wII cI um wr I L I ng, u br own-
und-wII Le cuL Is crossIng LIe gurden, sI I ppI ng mockI ngI y uwuy, Luk-
I ng my LIougILs wI L I IL.)
L Is In LIIs wuy LIuL LIe L II nkI ng oI LIe eLernuI reLurn Is LIe I n-
uuguruI LIougIL oI our conLemporury IIsLory, u L II nkI ng we musL
repeuL (even II IL meuns cuI I I ng IL someL II ng eIse). We musL reup-
proprIuLe wIuL uIreudy mude us wIo "we" ure Loduy, Iere und now,
LIe "we" oI u wor I d wIo no Ionger sLruggIe Lo Iuve meunI ng buL Lo
be meunI ng ILseII. TII s Is ue cs LIe begI nnI ng und end oI LIe worI d,
I nexIuusLI bI e I n LIe cI rcumscrI pL I on LIuL noL II ng cI rcumscrI bes,
LIuL "LIe" noL II ng cIrcumscrIbes. We mcle sense |nous IuIsons sens|,
noL by seLLIng u prIce or vuIue, buL by exposIng LIe ubsoIuLe vuIue
LIuL LIe wor I d is by ILseII. " Wo r I d" does noL meun unyL II ng oLIer
LIun LIIs "noL II ng" LIuL no one cun "meun" [touloir dire], buL LIuL
Is suId In every suyIng: In oLIer words, BeI ng ILseII us LIe ubsoIuLe
vuIue In ILseII oI uII LIuL Is, but this cbsolute tclue cs the bein-uith oj
cll thct is ILseII bure und I mpossI bI e Lo evuIuuLe. L Is neILIer meun-
I ng [touloir-dire] nor LIe gI vI ng oI vuIue [dire-tcloir], buL vuIue cs
such, LIuL Is, "meunI ng" wII cI Is LIe meunI ng oI BeI ng onI y becuuse
IL Is BeI ng ILseII, ILs exIsLence, ILs L ruL I. ExIsLence is uith: oLIerwIse
noL II ng exIsLs.
CI r c u I u L I o n-o r eL ernI L y-goes I n uI I dI recLI ons, buL I L moves
onI y InsoIur us IL goes I rom one poI nL Lo unoLIer; spucIng Is ILs ub-
soIuLe condI L I on. r om pIuce L o pIuce, und I rom momenL L o mo-
menL, wI L IouL uny progressIon or IIneur puLI, bIL by bIL und cuse by
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
cuse, essenLIuIIy uccIdenLuI, IL Is sInguIur und pI uruI In ILs very pr I n-
cI pI e. L does noL Iuve u IInuI I uI I I I I menL uny more L Iun IL Ius u
poI nL oI orI gI n. L Is LIe orI gI nury pI uruI I L y oI orIgIns und LIe cre-
uLIon oI LIe wor I d I n eucI sInguIurILy, creuLIon conL I nued I n LIe dIs-
conL I nuI L y oI ILs dIscreLe occurrences. r om now on, ue, ue others
(
ure cIurged wI L I LIIs L r uL I-I L Is more ours LIun ever-L Ie LruLI oI
LIIs purudoxIcuI "IIrsL-person pI uruI " wII cI mukes sense oI LIe worI d
us LIe spucI ng und I nL er L wI nI ng oI so muny worI ds (eurLIs, skIes,
IIsLorIes) LIuL LIere Is u L ukI ng pIuce oI meunI ng, or LIe crossIng-
LIrougI [pcssces] oI presence. " We" suys (und "we suy") LIe unI que
evenL wIose unIqueness und unI L y consIsL In muI LI pI I cI Ly.
PeopIe Are SLrunge
EveryLII ng, LIen, pusses betueen us.'' TII s "beLween," us ILs nume
ImpIIes, Ius neILIer u consIsLency nor conL I nuI L y oI ILs own. L does
noL Ieud I rom one Lo LIe oLIer; IL consLILuLes no connecLIve LIssue,
no cemenL, no brIdge. PerIups IL Is noL even IuIr Lo speuk oI u "con-
necLIon" Lo ILs subjecL; IL Is neILIer connecLed nor unconnecLed; IL
IuIIs sIorL oI boL I; even beLLer, IL Is LIuL wII cI Is uL LIe IeurL oI u
connecLI on, LIe interlccin [Yemrecroisment] oI sLrunds wIose ex-
LremILIes remuI n sepuruLe even uL LIe very cenLer oI LIe knoL . TIe
"beLween" Is LIe sLreLcIIng ouL [distension] und dIsLunce opened by
LIe sI nguI ur us sucI, us ILs spucI ng oI meunI ng. TIuL wII c I does
noL muI nL uI n ILs dIsLunce I rom LIe "beLween" Is onI y I mmunence
coIIupsed I n on ILseII und deprI ved oI meunI ng.
r om one sInguIur Lo unoLIer, LIere Is conL I guI L y buL noL conL I -
nuILy. TIere Is proxI mI Ly, buL onI y Lo LIe exLenL LIuL exLreme cIose-
ness empIusIzes LIe dI sLuncI ng IL opens up. AI I oI beI ng Is In LoucI
wI L I uII oI beI ng, buL LIe I uw oI L oucII ng I s sepuruLIon; moreover,
IL Is LIe IeLerogeneILy oI surIuces LIuL L oucI eucI oLIer. Contcct Is
beyond IuIIness und empLI ness, beyond connecL I on und dI scon-
necLIon. I "Lo come I nLo conLucL" Is Lo begI n Lo muke sense oI one
unoLIer, LIen LIIs " comI ng" peneLruLes noL II ng; LIere Is no InLer-
medIuLe und medI uL I ng " mI I I eu. " MeunI ng I s noL u mI I I eu I n wII cI
we ure I mmersed. TIere Is no mi-lieu |beLween pIuce|. L Is u muL-
6 ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
;
Ler oI one or LIe oLIer, one und LIe oLIer, one wI L I LIe oLIer, buL
by no meuns LIe one In LIe oLIer, wII cI wouI d be someLII ng oLIer
LIun one or LIe oLIer (unoLIer essence, unoLIer nuLure, u dIIIuse or
InIuse generuIILy). r om one Lo LIe oLIer Is LIe syncopuLed repeLI-
LI on oI orI gI ns-oI-LIe-worI d, wII cI ure eucI LI me one or LIe oLIer.
TIe orI gI n Is uIII rmuLI on; repeLI LI on Is LIe condI L I on oI uIIIrmu-
L I on. suy "LIuL Is, LIuL IL I s. " L Is noL u "IucL" und Ius noL II ng Lo
do wI L I uny sorL oI evuI uuLI on. L Is u sI nguI urI Ly L ukI ng reIuge In
ILs uIII rmuLI on oI BeI ng, u L oucI oI meunI ng. L Is noL un oLIer Be-
I ng; IL Is LIe sInguIur oI BeI ng by wII cI LIe beI ng is, or IL Is oI Be-
I ng, wII cI is bein In u LrunsILIve sense oI LIe verb (un unIeurd oI,
I nuudI bI e sense-L Ie very meunI ng oI BeI ng). TIe LoucI oI meun-
I ng brI ngs I nL o pI uy [encer] ILs own sI nguI urI Ly, ILs dI sL I ncL I on,
und brIngs I nL o pIuy LIe pI uruI I L y oI LIe "eucI LI me" oI every LoucI
oI meunI ng, "mI ne" us weI I us uII LIe oLIers, eucI one oI wII cI Is
" mI ne" in turn, uccordI ng Lo LIe sI nguI ur L urn oI ILs uI I I rmuLI on.
RI gIL uwuy, LIen, LIere Is LIe repeLI LI on oI LIe LoucIes oI meun-
I ng, wII cI meunI ng demunds. TII s I ncommensurubI e, ubsoIuLeIy
IeLerogeneous repeLI LI on opens up un I rreducI bI e sLrungeness oI
eucI one oI LIese LoucIes Lo LIe oLIer. TIe oLIer orI gI n Is I nc om-
purubIe or I nussI mI I ubI e, noL becuuse IL Is sI mpI y "oLIer" buL be-
cuuse I L I s un orI gI n und LoucI oI meunI ng. Or ruLIer, LIe uILerILy oI
LIe oLIer Is ILs orI gI nury conL I guI L y wI L I LIe "proper" or I gI n.
6
You
ure ubsoIuLeIy sLrunge becuuse LIe wor I d begIns its turn uith ou.
We suy "peopIe ure sLrunge."
;
TII s pIruse Is one oI our mosL con-
sLunL und rudI menL ur y onL oI ogI cuI uLLesLuLIons. n IucL, IL suys u
greuL deuI. "PeopI e" IndIcuLes everyone eIse, desIgnuLed us LIe I n-
deLermI nuLe ensembIe oI popuI uL I ons, IIneuges, or ruces [entes]
I r om wII c I LIe speuker removes II mseI I. (NeverLIeI ess, Ie re-
moves II mseI I In u very purLI cuI ur sorL oI wuy, becuuse LIe desIg-
nuL I on Is so gener uI -und LIIs Is exucLIy LIe po I nL -L Iu L IL I n-
evILubIy Lurns buck uround on LIe speuker. SInce suy LIuL "peopIe
ure sLrunge," I ncI ude myseI I In u cerLuIn wuy In LIIs sLrungeness.)
TIe wor d "peopI e" does noL suy exucLIy LIe sume L II ng us LIe
HeI deggerI un
8
"one, "
q
even I I I L I s purL I y u mode oI IL. W I L I LIe
wor d "one, " IL Is noL uIwuys cerLuIn wIeLIer or noL LIe speuker I n-
cIudes II mseI I In LIe unonymI L y oI LIe "one. " or exumpI e, cun
suy "someone suId Lo me" |"on m' u dIL"| or eIse "I L Is suId LIuL" |"on
dI L que"| or eIse "LIuL Is Iow IL Is done" |"c'esL c omme u qu' on
IuIL"| or eIse "one Is born; one dIes" |"on nuL, on meurL "| . TIese
uses ure noL equIvuIenL und, moreover, IL Is noL cerLuIn LIuL IL Is uI -
wuys LIe cuse LIuL LIe "one" speuks oI II mseI I (I rom und ubouL
II mseI I ). HeIdegger undersLood LIuL "one" wouI d onI y be suId us u
response Lo LIe quesLI on "wIo?" puL Lo LIe subjecL oI Dcsein, buL
Ie does noL pose LIe oLIer InevILubIe quesLI on LIuL musL be usked
In order Lo dIscover uho gIves LIIs response und wIo, In respond-
I ng I I ke LIIs, removes II mseI I or Ius u Lendency Lo remove IImseII.
As u resuIL, Ie rIsks negI ecLI ng LIe IucL LIuL LIere Is no pure und
sImpIe "one, " no "one" I n wII cI "properI y exIsLIng" exIsLence [l'ex-
istcnt "propremenL exIsLunL"| Is, I rom LIe sLurL, pureI y und sI mpI y
I mmersed. "PeopI e" cIeurIy desIgnuLes LIe mode oI "one" by wII cI
" " remove myseII, Lo LIe poI nL oI uppeurI ng Lo IorgeL or negIecL
LIe IucL LIuL myseI I um purL oI "peopI e. " n uny cuse, LIIs seLLIng
upurL [mise c l'eccrt] does noL occur wI L IouL LIe recognI L I on oI
IdenLILy. "PeopI e" cIeurIy sLuLes LIuL we ure uI I precIseIy people, LIuL
Is, I ndI sL I ncL I y persons, Iumuns, uII oI u c ommon " k I nd, " buL oI u
kI nd LIuL Ius ILs exIsLence onI y us numerous, dIspersed, und I nde-
LermI nuLe I n ILs generuIILy. TII s exIsLence cun onI y be grusped I n
LIe purudoxI cuI sI muI L uneI L y oI LogeLIerness (unonymous, con-
Iused, und I ndeed mussIve) und dI ssemI nuLed sI nguI urI Ly (LIese or
LIose "peopIe(s)," or "u guy," "u gI r I , " "u kI d" ) .
"PeopI e" ure sIIIoueLLes LIuL ure boL I I mprecI se und sI nguI ur-
Ized, IuInL ouLI I nes oI voIces, puLLerns oI compor L menL , skeLcIes
oI uIIecLs, noL LIe unonymous cIuLLer oI LIe "pubI I c domuI n. " BuL
wIuL Is un uIIecL, II noL eucI LI me u skeLcI? A comporL menL , II noL
eucI LI me u puLLern? A voIce, II noL eucI LI me u IuInL ouLIIne? WIu L
Is u sInguIurILy, II noL eucI L I me ILs "own" cI eurI ng, ILs "own" I m-
mI nence, LIe I mmI nence oI u "proprI eLy" or proprI eLy ILseII us I m-
mI nence, uIwuys LoucIed upon, uIwuys I I gIL I y LoucIed: reveuIIng
ILseII beside, uIwuys besIde. ("BesIde II mseI I " |"u cL de ses pom-
pes"
1 o
|, us LIe suyIng goes. TIe comedy oI LIIs expressIon Is no uc-
cIdenL, und, wIeLIer IL musks un unxI eLy or IIberuLes LIe IuugILer
8 ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
q
oI LIe I gnorunL, IL Is uIwuys u muLLer oI un escupe, un evusIon, und
un empL yI ng ouL oI wIuL Is cIosesL, un oddI L y presenLed us LIe ruIe
ILseII.)
" " Luke reIuge In un excepLI on or dI sL I ncL I on wIen suy "peo-
pI e, " buL uIso conIer LIIs dI sL I ncL I on on eucI und every person,
uI LIougI In jusL us obscure u wuy. TII s Is undoubL edI y wIy peopIe
so oILen muke LIe j udgmenL "peopIe ure sLrunge" or "peopIe ure I n-
credI bI e. " L Is noL onIy, or even prI murI I y, u quesLI on oI LIe Len-
dency (Iowever evIdenL) Lo seL up our own hcbitus us LIe nor m. L
Is necessury Lo uncover u more pr I mI L I ve IeveI oI LIIs purLI cuI ur
j udgmenL , one wIere wIuL Is uppreIended Is noL II ng oLIer LIun
sI nguI urI Ly us sucI. r om Iuces Lo voIces, gesLures, uLLILudes, dress,
und conducL , wIuLever LIe "L ypI cuI " LruILs ure, everyone dI s L I n-
guIsIes II mseI I by u sorL oI sudden und IeudI ong precI pI L uL I on
wIere LIe sLrungeness oI u sInguIurILy Is concenLruLed. WI L IouL LIIs
precI pI L uL I on LIere wouI d be, quI L e sI mpI y, no "someone. " A n d
LIere wouI d be no more InLeresL or IospILuIILy, desIre or dIsgusL, no
muLLer wIo or wIuL IL mI gIL be Ior.
"Someone" Iere Is undersL ood In LIe wuy u person mI gIL suy
"IL's I I m uII rI gIL" ubouL u pIoL o, expressIng by LIIs "uII rI gIL" LIe
coverI ng over oI u gup, mukI ng udequuLe wIuL Is InudequuLe, cupu-
bIe oI reI uLI ng onI y Lo LIe "I nsLunLuneous" gruspI ng oI un InsLunL
LIuL I s precIseIy ILs own gup. TIe p Io L o - Iuve I n mI nd un every-
duy, bunuI pIoL o-sI muI L uneousI y reveuIs sInguIurILy, bunuIILy, und
our curI osI Ly ubouL one unoLIer. TIe prI ncI pI e oI I ndI scernubI I I Ly
Iere becomes decIsIve. No L onI y ure uII peopIe dIIIerenL buL LIey
ure uIso uII dIIIerenL I rom one unoLIer. TIey do noL dIIIer I rom un
urcIeLype or u generuIILy. TIe LypI cuI LruILs (eLInIc, cuI LuruI , socIuI,
generuLIonuI, und so IorLI), wIose purLIcuIur puLLerns consLILuLe un-
oLIer IeveI oI sI nguI urI Ly, do noL uboI I sI sI nguI ur dIIIerences; I n-
sLeud, LIey brI ng L Iem I nL o reIIeI. As Ior sInguIur dIIIerences, LIey
ure noL onI y " I ndI vI duuI , " buL I nI ruI ndI vI duuI . L Is never LIe cuse
LIuL Iuve meL PIerre or Mur I e per se, buL Iuve meL I I m or Ier In
sucI und sucI u " I or m, " I n sucI und sucI u "sLuLe," I n sucI und
sucI u " mood, " und so on.
TII s very IumbI e Iuyer oI our everyduy experIence conLuIns un-
oLIer rudI menL ury onLoI ogI cuI uLLesLuLIon: wIuL we receIve (ruLIer
LIun wIuL we perceIve) wI L I sInguIurILIes Is LIe dIscreeL pussuge oI
other oriins oj the uorld. WIu L occurs LIere, wIuL bends, Ieuns,
LwIsLs, uddresses, denI es -I r om LIe newborn Lo LIe corpse-I s neI -
LIer pr I mur I I y "someone cIose," nor un "oLIer, " nor u "sLrunger,"
nor "someone sI mI I ur. " L Is un or I gI n; IL Is un uI I I rmuLI on oI LIe
worI d, und we know LIuL LIe wor I d Ius no oLIer orI gI n LIun LIIs
sInguIur muI L I pI I cI L y oI orIgIns. TIe wor I d uIwuys uppeurs [surit]
::
eucI LI me uccordI ng Lo u decI dedI y I ocuI L urn |oI evenLs|. Ls unILy,
ILs unI queness, und ILs LoLuI I Ly consIsL I n u combI nuL I on oI LIIs
reLIcuIuLed muI L I pI I cI L y, wII cI produces no resuIL.
WI L IouL LIIs uLLesLuLIon, LIere wouI d be no II rsL uLLesLuLIon oI
existence us sucI, LIuL Is, oI LIe nonessence und non-subsIsLence-by-
ILseII LIuL Is LIe busIs oI beIng-oneseII. TII s Is wIy LIe HeI degger-
Iun "one" Is InsuIIIcIenL us LIe I nI L I uI undersLundI ng oI existentielle
"everyduyness." HeI degger conIuses LIe everyduy wI L I LIe undI I -
IerenLIuLed, LIe unonymous, und LIe sLuLIsLIcuI. TIese ure no Iess
I mporL unL , buL LIey cun onI y consLI LuLe LIemseIves I n reI uLIon Lo
LIe dIIIerenLIuLed sI nguI urI Ly LIuL LIe eterdc uIreudy Is by ILseII:
eucI duy, eucI LI me, duy Lo duy. One cunnoL uIIIrm LIuL LIe meun-
I ng oI BeI ng musL express I LseI I sLurLI ng I rom everyduyness und
LIen begI n by negI ecLI ng LIe generuI dI IIerenLI uLI on oI LIe every-
duy, ILs consLunLI y renewed rupLure, ILs I nL I muL e dI scord, ILs poI y-
morpIy und ILs poI ypIony, ILs reIIeI und ILs vurIeLy. A "duy" Is noL
sI mpI y u unI L Ior counL I ng; I L I s LIe L ur nI ng oI LIe wo r I d-e u c I
LIme sInguIur. A n d duys, I ndeed every duy, couI d noL be sI mI I ur I I
LIey were noL IIrsL dIIIerenL, dIIIerence ILseII. I kewI se "peopI e, " or
ruLIer "peopIes, " gIven LIe I rreducI bI e sLrungeness LIuL consLILuLes
LIem us sucI, ure LIemseIves prI murI I y LIe exposI ng oI LIe sI ngu-
IurILy uccordI ng Lo wII c I exIsLence exIsLs, I rreducI bI y und prI mur-
I I y -u n d un exposI L I on oI sI nguI urI L y LIuL experIence cI uI ms L o
communI cuL e wI L I, I n LIe sense oI "Lo" und "uI ong wI L I, " LIe Lo-
LuIILy oI beIngs. "NuL ure" Is uIso "sLrunge," und we exIsL LIere; we
exIsL in IL In LIe mode oI u consLunLIy renewed sInguIurILy, wIeLIer
LIe sI nguI urI Ly oI LIe dI versI Ly und dI spurI Ly oI our senses or LIuL
oI LIe dI sconcerL I ng proI usI on oI nuLure's specIes or ILs vurIous
1 o ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl 11
meLumorpIoses I nL o "LecInoI ogy. " TIe n uguIn, we suy "sLrunge,"
" odd, " "curI ous, " "dI sconcerLI ng" cbout uII oI beI ng.
TIemes oI "wonder" und LIe "murveI oI BeI ng" ure suspecL I I
LIey reIer Lo un ecsLuLIc mysLIcIsm LIuL preLends Lo escupe LIe worI d.
TIe LIeme oI scIenLIIIc curI osI Ly Is no Iess suspecL II IL boIIs down
Lo u coIIecLor's preoccupuLI on wI L I rurILIes. n boL I cuses, desIre Ior
LIe excepLIon presupposes dI sduI n Ior LIe ordInury. HegeI wus un-
doubLedI y LIe IIrsL Lo Iuve LIIs properI y modern conscIousness oI
LIe vI oI enL purudox oI u L II nkI ng wIose own vuIue Is us yeL un-
Ieurd oI, und wIose domuI n Is LIe gruyness oI LIe wor I d. TII s or-
dI nury gruyness, LIe I nsI gnI II cunce oI LIe ever yduy-wII c I LIe
HeI deggerI un "one" sL I I I beurs LIe murk oI -ussumes un ubsenL,
IosL, or Iur uwuy "grundeur. " YeL, L ruL I cun be noL II ng II noL LIe
L ruL I oI beI ng I n LoLuIILy, LIuL Is, LIe LoLuI ILy oI ILs "ordI nurI ness, "
jusL us meunI ng cun onI y be rI gIL uL [c meme] exIsLence und no-
wIere eIse. TIe modern wor I d usks LIuL LIIs LruLI be LIougIL: LIuL
meunI ng Is rI gIL uL. L Is In LIe I ndeII nI Le pI uruI I L y oI orIgIns und
LIeI r coexIsLence. TIe "ordI nury" I s uIwuys excepLI onuI , Iowever
I I LLI e we undersLund ILs cIurucLer us orI gI n. WIu L we receIve mosL
c ommunuI I y us "sLrunge" Is LIuL LIe ordI nury I LseI I Is orI gI nury.
WI L I exIsLence I uI d open I n LIIs wuy und LIe meunI ng oI LIe wor I d
beI ng wIuL IL Is, LIe excepLIon Is LIe ruIe. (s LIIs noL LIe LesLI mony
oI LIe urLs und IILeruLure? s noL LIe IIrsL und onI y purpose oI LIeIr
sLrunge exIsLence LIe presenLuLIon oI LIIs sLrungeness? AILer uI I , In
LIe eLymoI ogy oI LIe word bizcrre)
:
wIeLIer LIe wor d comes I rom
Busque or ArubI c, LIere Is u sense oI vuIor, c ommundI ng presence,
und eIegunce.)
GuI nI ng Access Lo LIe Or I gI n
As u consequence, guI nI ng uccess Lo LIe or I g I n,
1
enLerI ng I nL o
meunI ng, comes down Lo exposI ng oneseI I Lo LIIs L ruL I.
WIu L LIIs meuns Is LIuL we do noL guIn uccess Lo LIe orI gI n: uc-
cess Is reIused by LIe orIgIn's conceuI Ing ILseII In ILs muI LI pI I cI Ly. We
do noL guIn uccess; LIuL Is, we do noL peneLruLe LIe orI gI n; we do
noL IdenLIIy wI L I IL. Mor e precIseIy, we do noL IdenLIIy ourseIves I n
IL or us IL, buL uith IL, In u sense LIuL musL be eIucIduLed Iere und Is
noL II ng oLIer LIun LIe meunI ng oI orI gI nury coexIsLence.
TIe uILerILy oI LIe oLIer Is ILs beI ng-orI gI n. ConverseIy, LIe orI g-
InurILy oI LIe orI gI n Is ILs beIng-oLIer, buL IL Is u beIng-oLIer thcn
every beI ng jor und in crossin throuh |u Lruvers| uII beI ng. TIus ,
LIe orIgInurILy oI LIe orI gI n Is noL u properLy LIuL wouI d dI sLI nguI sI
u beI ng I rom uI I oLIers, becuuse LIIs beI ng wouI d LIen Iuve Lo be
someL II ng oLIer LIun ILseI I I n order Lo Iuve ILs orI gI n I n ILs own
L urn. TII s I s LIe mosL cIussIc oI God' s uporIus, und LIe pr ooI oI IIs
nonexIsLence. n IucL, LIIs I s LIe mosL I mmedI uL e I mporL unce oI
KunL' s desLrucLI on oI LIe onLoI ogI cuI urgumenL, wII cI cun be de-
cI pIered In u quusI -I I LeruI munner; LIe necessILy oI exIsLence Is
gIven rI gIL uL LIe exI sLI ng oI uI I exIsLences [l'exister de tout l'exis-
tcnt], In ILs very dI versI Ly und conLI ngency. n no wuy does LIIs
consLILuLe u suppIemenLury BeI ng. TIe worI d Ius no suppIemenL. L
Is suppI emenLed In ILseII und, us sucI, Is I ndeII nI LeI y suppI emenLed
by LIe orI gI n.
TII s IoIIows us un essenLIuI consequence: LIe beIng-oLIer oI LIe
orI gI n Is noL LIe uI LerILy oI un "oL Ier-L Iun-L Ie-worI d. " L Is noL u
quesLIon oI un OL Ier (LIe InevILubI y "cupILuIIzed OL Ier " )
1 q
thcn LIe
worI d; IL Is u quesLI on oI LIe uILerILy or uILeruLIon oj LIe wor I d. n
oLIer words, IL Is noL u quesL I on oI un cliud or un clius, or un
clienus, or un oLIer In generuI us LIe essenLIuI sLrunger wIo Is op-
posed Lo wIuL Is proper, buL oI un clter, LIuL Is, "one oI LIe Lwo. "
TII s "oLIer," LIIs "Iowercuse oLIer," Is "one" umong muny InsoIur
us LIey ure muny; IL Is ecch one, und IL Is ecch time one, one cmon
LIem, one umong uI I und one cmon us uI I . n LIe sume wuy, und
recIprocuIIy, "we" Is uIwuys I nevI LubI y "us uI I , " wIere no one oI us
cun be "uI I " und eucI one oI us Is, In L urn (wIere uI I our Lurns ure
sImuILuneous us weI I us successIve, In every sense), LIe oLIer orI gI n
oI LIe sume wor I d.
TIe "ouLsIde" oI LIe orI gI n I s " I ns I de " -I n un InsIde more InLe-
rIor LIun LIe exLreme InLerIor, LIuL Is, more I nLerI or LIun LIe inti-
mcc oI LIe wor I d und LIe I nL I mucy LIuL beIongs Lo eucI "me. " I
I nLI mucy musL be deIIned us LIe exLremILy oI coI ncI dence wI L I one-
seII, LIen wIuL exceeds I nL I mucy In I nIerI orI Ly Is LIe dI sLuncI ng oI
1z ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl 1
coI ncI dence ILseII. L Is u coexIsLence oI LIe orI gI n " I n" ILseII, u co-
exIsLence oI orI gI ns; IL Is no uccI denL LIuL we use LIe wor d " I nL I -
mucy" Lo desIgnuLe u reI uLI on beLween severuI peopI e more oILen
LIun u reIuLIon Lo oneseII. Ou r beI ng-wI L I, us u beIng-muny, Is noL
uL uI I uccIdenLuI , und IL Is In no wuy LIe secondury und r undom dIs-
persIon oI u prI mordI uI essence. L Iorms LIe proper und necessury
sLuLus und consIsLency oI orI gI nury uILerILy us sucI. The plurclit oj
beins is ct the joundction |IondmenL| oj ein.
A sIngIe beI ng Is u conLrudI cLI on In Lerms. SucI u beI ng, wII cI
wouI d be ILs own I ounduL I on, orI gI n, und I nLI mucy, wouI d be I ncu-
pubI e oI ein, In every sense LIuL LIIs expressIon cun Iuve Iere.
" BeI ng" Is neI LIer u sLuLe nor u quuI ILy, buL ruLIer LIe ucLI on uc-
cordI ng Lo wII cI wIuL KunL cuIIs "LIe |mere| posI LI ng oI u L II ng "
1
Lukes pIuce ("Is"). TIe very sI mpI I cI Ly oI "posILIon" I mpI I es no more,
uI LIougI no Iess, LIun ILs beI ng dIscreLe, In LIe muLIemuLIcuI sense,
or ILs dI sL I ncL I on jrom, In LIe sense oI uith, oLIer (uL IeusL possIbIe)
posI LI ons, or ILs dI sL I ncL I on cmon, In LIe sense oI betueen, oLIer
posILIons. n oLIer words, every posI L I on Is uIso dI s-posI LI on, und,
consI derI ng LIe uppeurIng LIuL Lukes LIe pIuce oI und Lukes pIuce In
LIe posI L I on, uII uppeurunce Is co-uppeurunce [com-pcrution]. TII s
Is wIy LIe meunI ng oI BeI ng Is gIven us exIsLence, beIng-In-oneseII-
ouLsIde-oneseII, wII cI ue muke expIIcIL, we "Iumuns, " buL wII cI
we muke expIIcIL, us Iuve suId, jor LIe LoLuIILy oI beIngs.
I LIe orI gI n Is I rreducI bI y pI uruI , II IL Is LIe I ndeII nI LeI y unI oI d-
I ng und vurIousIy muI L I pI I ed I nL I mucy oI LIe wor I d, LIen noL guI n-
I ng uccess Lo LIe orI gI n Lukes on unoLIer meunI ng. Ls neguLIvILy Is
neILIer LIuL oI LIe ubyss, nor oI LIe I orbI dden, nor oI LIe veII ed or
LIe conceuI ed, nor oI LIe secreL, nor LIuL oI LIe unpresenLubIe. L
need noL operuLe, LIen, In LIe dIuI ecLIcuI mode wIere LIe subjecL
musL reLuIn In ILseII ILs own neguLIon (sInce IL Is LIe neguLIon oI ILs
own orI gI n). No r does I L Iuve Lo operuLe I n u mysLIcuI mode, wII cI
Is LIe reverse oI LIe dIuIecLIcuI mode, wIere LIe subjecL musL rejoIce
In ILs neguLI on. n boL I oI LIese, neguLI vI Ly Is gI ven us LIe cliud,
wIere uI I enuLI on Is LIe process LIuL musL be reversed In Lerms oI u
reupproprI uLI on. A I I Iorms oI LIe "cupILuIIzed OL Ier " presume LIIs
uI I enuLI on I rom LIe proper us LIeIr own; LIIs Is exucLIy wIuL con-
sLILuLes LIe "cupI LuI I zuLI on" oI LIe "OL Ier, " ILs unI I I ed und broken
Lrunscendence. BuL , In LIIs wuy, uII Iorms oI LIe cupILuIIzed "OL Ier"
represenL precIseIy LIe exuILed und overexuILed mode oI LIe proprI -
eLy oI wIuL I s proper, wII c I persIsLs und consIsLs I n LIe "some-
wIere" oI u "nowIere" und In LIe "someLI me" oI u "no L I me, " LIuL
Is, In LIe punctum ceternum ouLsIde LIe wor I d.
TIe ouLsIde Is I nsI de; IL Is LIe spucI ng oI LIe dI s-posI L I on oI LIe
worI d; IL Is our dI sposI L I on und our co-uppeurunce. Ls "neguLIvILy"
cIunges meunI ng; IL Is noL converLed I nL o posI LI vI Ly, buL I nsLeud
corresponds Lo LIe mode oI BeI ng wII c I I s LIuL oI dI sposI LI onJco-
uppeurunce und wII c I, sLrI cLI y speukI ng, I s neI LIer neguLIve nor
posILIve, buL I nsLeud LIe mode oI beI ng-LogeLIer or beI ng- uith.
TIe orI gI n I s LogeLIer wI L I oLIer orI gI ns, orI gI nuI I y dI vI ded. As u
muLLer oI IucL, we do Iuve uccess Lo IL. We Iuve uccess exucLIy In
LIe mode oI IuvI ng uccess; we geL LIere; we ure on LIe brI nk, cIos-
esL, uL LIe LIresIoI d; we touch LIe orI gI n. "( TruI y) we Iuve uccess
(Lo LIe L ruL I) . . . . "
, 6
|" Iu vrIL, nous uccdons . . . "| Is Bu-
LuIIIes pIruse,
1 ;
LIe umbI guI L y oI wII cI repeuL even L IougI use
I L I n unoLIer wuy (I n BuLuIIIe, I L precedes LIe uIII rmuLI on oI un I m-
medIuLe Ioss oI uccess). PerIups everyLII ng Iuppens beLween Ioss
und upproprI uL I on: neI LIer one nor LIe oLIer, nor one und LIe
oLIer, nor one I n LIe oLIer, buL muc I more sLrungeIy L Iun LIuL,
mucI more sI mpI y.
"To reucI
1 8
[toucher] LIe end" Is uguIn Lo rIsk mI ssI ng IL, becuuse
LIe orI gI n Is noL un end. End , IIke PrI ncI pI e, Is u I orm oI LIe OLIer.
To reucI LIe orI gI n Is noL Lo mIss IL; IL Is Lo be properI y exposed Lo
IL. SInce IL Is noL unoLIer L II ng (un cliud), LIe or I gI n Is neI LIer
"mIssubIe" nor upproprI ubI e (peneLrubIe, ubsorbubIe). L does noL
obey LIIs IogIc. L Is LIe pI uruI sInguIurILy oI LIe BeI ng oI beIng. We
reucI I L Lo LIe exLenL LIuL we ure I n L oucI wI L I ourseltes und I n
LoucI wI L I LIe resL oI beIngs. We ure I n L oucI wI L I ourseIves I nso-
Iur us we exIsL. BeI ng In LoucI wI L I ourseIves Is wIuL mukes us "us,"
und LIere Is no oLIer secreL Lo dIscover burI ed beII nd LIIs very
LoucII ng, beII nd LIe "wI L I" oI coexIsLence.
We Iuve uccess Lo LIe LruLI oI LIe orI gI n us muny LImes us we ure
In one unoLIer's presence und In LIe presence oI LIe resL oI beIngs.
I ,
' q ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ein Sinulcr Plurcl 1
Access Is " comI ng Lo presence," buL presence ILseII Is dI s-posI LI on,
LIe spucI ng oI sI nguI urI LI es. Presence I s nowIere oLIer L Iun I n
" comI ng Lo presence." We do noL Iuve uccess Lo u L II ng or u sLuLe,
buL onI y Lo u comI ng. We Iuve uccess Lo un uccess.
"SLrungeness" reIers Lo LIe IucL LIuL eucI sI nguI urI L y Is unoLIer
uccess Lo LIe wor I d. AL LIe poI nL wIere we wouI d expecL "some-
L II ng, " u subsLunce or u procedure, u prI ncI pI e or un end, u sI gnI II -
cuLI on, LIere Is noL II ng buL LIe munner, LIe L urn oI LIe oLIer uc-
cess, wII cI conceuIs ILseII In LIe very gesLure wIereI n IL oIIers ILseII
Lo u s -u n d wIose conceuI I ng is LIe L urnI ng ILseII. n LIe sInguI ur-
I Ly LIuL Ie exposes, eucI c II I d LIuL Is born Ius uIreudy conceuI ed
LIe uccess LIuL Ie I s "Ior II mseI I " und I n wII c I Ie wI I I conceuI
II mseI I " wI L II n IImseI I, " jusL us Ie wI I I one duy II de under LIe II-
nuI expressIon oI u deud Iuce. TII s Is wIy we scruLI nI ze LIese Iuces
wI L I sucI curIosILy, I n seurcI oI IdenLIIIcuLIon, I ookI ng Lo see wIom
LIe c II I d Iooks I I ke, und Lo see I I deuLI Iooks I I ke ILseII. WIu L we
ure I ookI ng Ior LIere, I I ke In LIe pIoLogrupIs, Is noL un Imuge; IL Is
un uccess.
s LIIs noL wIuL InLeresLs us or LoucIes us In "IILeruLure" und In
"LIe urLs"? WIu L eIse InLeresLs us ubouL LIe dI sj uncL I on oI LIe urLs
cmon LIemseIves, by wII cI LIey ure wIuL LIey ure us urLs: pI uruI
sInguIurs? WIu L eIse ure LIey buL LIe exposI LI on oI un uccess con-
ceuIed In ILs own openI ng, un uccess LIuL Is, LIen, "I nI mI L ubI e, " un-
LrunsporLubI e, unLrunsI uLubI e beccuse IL Iorms, eucI L I me, un ub-
soIuLe poI nL oI LrunsIuLIon, LrunsmI ssI on, or LrunsI LI on oI LIe orI gI n
into oriin. WIu L counLs In urL, wIuL mukes urL urL (und wIuL
mukes Iumuns LIe urLIsLs oI LIe wor I d, LIuL Is, LIose wIo expose
LIe wor I d Ior LIe wor I d) , Is neI LIer LIe "beuuL I I uI " nor LIe "sub-
I I me" ; IL Is neI LIer "purposIveness wI L IouL u purpose" nor LIe
"j udgmenL oI LusLe"; IL Is neILIer "sensIbIe munI IesLuLI on" nor LIe
"puL L I ng I nLo work oI L ruL I. " UndoubL edI y, I L I s uII LIuL, buL I n un-
oLIer wuy: IL Is uccess Lo LIe scuLLered orI gI n In ILs very scuLLerIng; IL
I s LIe pI uruI L oucII ng oI LIe sInguIur orI gI n. TII s I s wIuL "LIe I mI -
LuLIon oI nuLure" Ius uIwuys meunL. Ar L uIwuys Ius Lo do wI L I cos-
mogony, buL IL exposes cosmogony Ior wIuL IL Is: necessurIIy pI uruI ,
dIIIrucLed, dIscreeL, u L oucI oI coI or or Lone, un ugIIe Lurn oI pIruse
or IoIded muss, u rudIunce, u scenL, u song, or u suspended move-
menL, exucLIy becuuse IL Is LIe bI r L I oI u uorld (und noL LIe con-
sLrucLIon oI u sysLem). A wor I d Is uIwuys us muny worI ds us IL Lukes
Lo muke u wor I d.
We onI y Iuve uccess Lo our seI ves-und Lo LIe wor I d. L Is onI y
ever u quesLI on oI LIe I oI I owI ng: I uI I uccess Is LIere, uccess Lo LIe
wIoIe oI LIe orI gI n. TII s I s cuIIed "II nI Lude" I n HeIdeggerIun LermI -
noIogy. BuL IL Ius become cIeur sInce LIen LIuL "II nI Lude" sIgnIIIes
LIe InIInILe sInguIurILy oI meunI ng, LIe I nII nI Le sInguI urILy oI uccess
Lo L ruL I. I nI L ude is LIe orI gI n; LIuL Is, IL Is un I nI I nI L y oI orI gI ns.
" Or I g I n" does noL sIgnIIy LIuL I rom wII c I LIe wor I d comes, buL
ruLIer LIe comI ng oI eucI presence oI LIe worI d, eucI LI me sInguIur.
TIe CreuLIon oI LIe Wor I d und CurI osI Ly
TIe concepL oI LIe "creuLIon oI LIe wor I d"
1 q
represenLs LIe orI gI n
us orI gI nurI I y sIured, spuced beLween us und beLween uII beIngs.
TII s, In L urn, conLrIbuLes Lo renderI ng LIe concepL oI LIe "uuLIor"
oI LIe wor I d unLenubIe. n IucL, one couI d sIow Iow LIe moL I I oI
creuLIon Is one oI LIose LIuL Ieuds dIrecLIy Lo LIe deuLI oI Go d un-
dersLood us uuLIor, IIrsL cuuse, und supreme beIng. urLIermore, II
one Iooks uL meLupIysIcs cureIuIIy, LIere Is noL u Go d wIo sI mpI y
und eusIIy conIorms Lo LIe Ideu oI u producer. WIeL Ier In Augus-
LIne, AquI nus, DescurLes, MuI ebruncIe, SpI nozu, or eI bnI z, one uI -
wuys IInds LIuL LIe LIeme oI creuLIon Is burdened wI L I und mIsrep-
resenLed us u probI em oI pr oducL I on, rI gIL up unL I I LIe decIsIve
momenL oI LIe onLoIogIcuI urgumenL's downIuI I . (HegeI's resLoruLIon
oI LIe urgumenL, LIe one Lo wII cI ScIeI I I ng ussIgned sIgnIIIcunL I m-
porLunce, Is noL II ng buL un eIuboruLIon oI LIe concepL oI creuLIon.)
TIe dI sLI ncLI ve cIurucLerIsLIc oI LIe concepL oI creuLI on I s noL
LIuL IL posILs u creuLor, buL LIuL, on LIe conLrury, IL renders LIe "cre-
uLor" I ndI sLI ncL I rom ILs "creuLIon." (L Ius Lo be suId, Iere, In u gen-
eruI wuy, LIuL LIe dIsLIncLIve cIurucLerIsLIc oI WesLern monoL IeI sm
Is noL LIe posI LI ng oI u sIngIe god, buL ruLIer LIe eIIucIng oI LIe dI -
vIne us sucI In LIe Lrunscendence oI LIe wor I d. WI L I respecL Lo LIe
quesLIon oI orI gI n, LIIs Is sureIy LIe precIse poI nL uL wII cI LIe I I nk
I 6 ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl 1;
Is Iorged LIuL mukes us unIuI I I ngI y Jew-Greek In every respecL. An d ,
wI L I respecL Lo LIe quesLI on oI desLI nuLI on, LIIs Is LIe poI nL I rom
wII cI we ure senL I nL o LIe "gI obuI " spuce us sucI.
z o
) n myL IoI ogI -
cuI cosmogonI es, u god or demI urge mukes u wor I d sLurLIng I rom u
sI LuuLI on LIuL Is uIreudy LIere, wIuLever LIIs sILuuLIon muy be.
z 1
n
creuLIon, Iowever, IL Is LIe beIng-uIreudy-LIere oI LIe uIreudy-LIere
LIuL Is oI concern. n IucL, II creuLIon Is ex nihilo, LIIs does noL sIg-
nI Iy LIuL u creuLor operuLes "sLurLIng I rom noL II ng. " As u rI cI und
compI ex L rudI L I on demonsLruLes, LIIs IucL InsLeud sIgnIIIes L wo
LIIngs: on LIe one Iund, IL sIgnIIIes LIuL LIe "creuLor" ILseII Is LIe
nihil', on LIe oLIer, IL sIgnIIIes LIuL LIIs nihil Is noL, I ogIcuI Iy speuk-
I ng, someL II ng "I rom wII cI" |"d'o"| wIuL I s creuLed wouI d come
[protenir], buL LIe very orI gI n [protencnce], und desL I nuL I on, oI
some L II ng In generuI und oI everyLIIng. NoL onI y Is LIe nihil noL I-
I ng prI or buL LIere Is uIso no Ionger u "noL II ng" LIuL preexIsLs cre-
uLIon; IL Is LIe ucL oI uppeurIng [surissement], IL Is LIe very o r I g I n -
InsoIur us LIIs Is undersLood onI y us wIuL Is desIgnuLed by LIe verb
"Lo orIgInuLe." I LIe noL II ng Is noL unyLII ng prIor, LIen onI y LIe ex
r e mu I ns -I I one cun LuIk ubouL I L I I ke L II s -L o quuIIIy creuLI on-I n-
ucL I on, LIuL Is, LIe uppeurI ng or urrI vuI [tenue] in nothin (I n LIe
sense LIuL we LuIk ubouL someone uppeurIng " I n person").
TIe noL II ng, LIen, Is noL II ng oLIer LIun LIe dI s-posI LI on oI LIe
uppeurIng. TIe orI gI n Is u dI sLuncI ng. L Is u dI sLuncI ng LIuL I mme-
dIuLeIy Ius LIe mugnI Lude oI uII spuce-LIme und Is uIso noL II ng oLIer
LIun LIe InLersLIce oI LIe I nL I mucy oI LIe wor I d: LIe cmon-bein
|I'enLre-LunL| oI uII beIngs. TII s umong-beI ng ILseII Is noL II ng buL
|u| beI ng, und Ius no oLIer consIsLency, movemenL , or conII guru-
LI on LIun LIuL oI LIe beIng-u-beIng [l'etre-etcnt] oI uII beIngs. BeI ng,
or LIe umong, sIures LIe sI nguI urI LI es oI uI I uppeurIngs. Cr euL I on
Lukes pIuce everywIere und uI wuys -buL IL Is LIIs unI que evenL, or
udvenL, onI y on LIe condI LI on oI beIng eucI LIme wIuL IL Is, or beIng
wIuL IL Is onI y "uL eucI L I me, " eucI LI me uppeurIng sInguIurIy.
One cun undersLund Iow LIe creuLIon, us IL uppeurs In uny JewIsI-
CIr I sL I un- sI umI c L IeoI ogI co-mysL I c conI I guruL I on, LesLIIIes Iess
(und cerL uI nI y never excIusIveIy) Lo u producL I ve power oI G o d
L Iun Lo II s goodness und gIory. n reI uLI on Lo sucI power, L Ien,
creuLures ure onI y eIIecLs, wII I e LIe Iove und gI ory oI G o d ure de-
posILed rI gIL uL [c meme] LIe IeveI oI wIuL Is creuLed; LIuL Is, creu-
Lures ure LIe very brI I I I unce [eclct]
::
oI God' s comI ng Lo presence.
L Is necessury, LIen, Lo undersL und LIe LIeme oI LIe "I muge oI
Go d" undJor LIe "Lruce oI Go d " noL uccordI ng Lo LIe IogIc oI u sec-
ondury I mI L uL I on, buL uccordI ng Lo LIIs oLIer IogIc wIere " Go d " I s
ILseII LIe sI nguI ur uppeurunce oI LIe Imuge or Lruce, or LIe dI sposI -
LIon oI ILs exposI LI on: pIuce us dI vI ne pIuce, LIe dI vI ne us sLrIcLIy lo-
ccl. As u consequence, LIIs Is no I onger " dI vI ne, " buL Is LIe dI s-
I ocuLI on und dI s- posI L I on oI LIe wor I d (wIuL SpI nozu cuIIs "LIe
dIvIne exLensIon") us LIuL openI ng und possI bI I I Ly [ressource] wII cI
comes I rom IurLIer uwuy und goes IurLIer, I nI I nI LeI y IurLIer, LIun
uny god.
I "creuLIon" Is I ndeed LIIs sInguIur ex-posI LI on oI beI ng, LIen ILs
reuI nume Is existence. ExI sLence Is creuLI on, our creuLI on; IL Is LIe
begI nnI ng und end LIuL Lwure. TII s Is LIe LIougIL LIuL Is LIe mosL
necessury Ior us Lo L II nk. I we do noL succeed In L II nkI ng IL, LIen
we wI I I never guI n uccess Lo wIo we ure, we wIo ure no more LIun
us In u wor I d, wII cI Is ILseII no more LIun LIe wo r I d-b uL we wIo
Iuve reucIed LIIs poI nL precIseIy becuuse we Iuve LIougIL loos (LIe
seII-presenLuLIon oI presence) us creuLIon (us sInguIur comI ng) .
TII s L II nkI ng I s I n no wuy unLIropocenLrI c; I L does noL puL Iu-
munILy uL LIe cenLer oI "creuLIon"; on LIe conLrury, IL Lrunsgresses
[trcterse] IumunI L y In LIe excess oI LIe uppeurIng LIuL uppeurs on
LIe scuIe oI LIe LoLuI ILy oI beI ng, buL wII cI uIso uppeurs us LIuL ex-
cess [demesure] wII cI Is I mpossI bI e Lo LoLuIIze. L Is beIng's I nII nI Le
orIgInuI sInguI urILy. n IumunI L y, or ruLIer rI gIL uL [c meme] Iu-
munILy, exIsLence Is exposed und exposIng. TIe sImpIesL wuy Lo puL
LIIs I nLo Iunguuge wouI d be Lo suy LIuL IumunI L y speuks exIsLence,
buL wIuL speuks LIrougI ILs speecI suys LIe wIoI e oI beI ng. WIu L
HeIdegger cuIIs "LIe onLI co-onLoI ogI cuI prIvIIege" oI Dcsein Is neI -
LIer ILs preroguLIve nor ILs prIvIIege [cpcnce]: IL geLs BeI ng on ILs
wuy |JJ ence l'etre], buL LIe BeI ng oI Dcsein Is noL II ng oLIer LIun
LIe BeI ng oI beI ng.
I exIsLence Is exposed us sucI by Iumuns, wIuL Is exposed LIere
uIso IoI ds Ior LIe resL oI beIngs. TIere Is noL, on LIe one sIde, un
18 ein Sinulcr Plurcl
orI gI nury sInguIurILy und LIen, on LIe oLIer, u sI mpI e beIng-LIere oI
LIIngs, more or Iess gIven Ior our use. On LIe conLrury, In exposI ng
ILseII us sInguIurILy, exIsLence exposes LIe sInguIurILy oI BeI ng us sucI
I n uII beI ng. TIe dIIIerence beLween IumunI L y und LIe resL oI be-
I ng (wII cI Is noL u concern Lo be denIed, buL LIe nuLure oI wII cI Is,
neverLIeIess, noL u gIven), wII I e ILseII beI ng InsepurubIe I rom oLIer
dIIIerences wI L II n beI ng (sInce mun Is "uIso" unI muI , "uIso" I I vI ng,
"uIso" pIysI o-cIemI cuI ), does noL dI sLI nguI sI Lrue exIsLence I rom u
sorL oI subexIsLence. nsLeud, LIIs dIIIerence Iorms LIe concreLe con-
dI L I on oI sInguIurILy. We wouI d noL be "Iumuns" I I LIere were noL
"dogs" und "sLones." A sLone Is LIe exLerIorILy oI sInguIurILy In wIuL
wouI d Iuve Lo be cuIIed ILs mI neruI or mecIunI cuI ucLuuIILy [litter-
clite]. BuL wouI d no Ionger be u " Iumun" II dI d noL Iuve LIIs
exLerIorILy " I n me, " I n LIe I orm oI LIe quusI -mI neruI I Ly oI bone:
wouI d no Ionger be u Iumun II uere noL u body, u spucI ng oI uI I
oLIer bodIes und u spucIng oI "me" In "me. " A sInguI urILy Is uIwuys
u body, und uII bodIes ure sInguIurILIes (LIe bodIes, LIeIr sLuLes, LIeIr
movemenLs, LIeIr LrunsIormuLIons).
ExIsLence, LIereIore, Is noL u properLy oI Dcsein, IL Is LIe orI gI -
nuI sI nguI urI Ly oI BeI ng, wII cI Dcsein exposes Ior uII beI ng. TII s
Is wIy IumunI L y Is noL " I n LIe wor I d" us IL wouI d be In u mI I I eu
(wIy wouI d LIe mI I I eu be necessury?); IL Is in LIe wor I d InsoIur us
LIe wor I d Is ILs own exLerIorILy, LIe proper spuce oI ILs beI ng-ouL-
I n-L Ie-worI d. BuL IL Is necessury Lo go IurLIer LIun LIIs In order Lo
uvoI d gI vI ng LIe I mpressI on LIuL LIe wor I d, despILe everyLII ng, re-
muI ns essenLIuIIy "LIe wor I d oI Iumuns. " L I s noL so muc I LIe
wor I d oI IumunI L y us IL Is LIe worI d oI LIe nonIumun Lo wII cI Iu-
munI L y I s exposed und wII c I IumunI L y, I n L ur n, exposes. One
couI d Lry Lo IormuIuLe IL In LIe I oI I owI ng wuy: humcnit is the ex-
posin oj the uorld, it is neither the end nor the round oj the uorld,
the uorld is the exposure oj humcnit, it is neither the entironment
nor the representction oj humcnit.
TIereIore, Iowever Iur IumunI L y I s I r om beI ng LIe end oI nu-
Lure or nuLure LIe end oI IumunI L y (we Iuve uIreudy LrI ed uI I LIe
vurI uLI ons oI LIIs I ormuI u), LIe end I s uIwuys beI ng- I n- L Ie- worI d
und LIe beI ng-worI d oI uII beI ng.
ein Sinulcr Plurcl 1q
Even supposI ng one sLI I I wI sIed Lo Luke LIe wor I d us LIe repre-
senLuLIon oI IumunI Ly, LIIs wouI d noL necessurIIy I mpI y u soIIpsIsm
oI IumunI L y: becuuse, II LIuL Is LIe cuse, LIen IL Is LIe represenLu-
LIon ILseII LIuL InsLrucLs me ubouL wIuL IL necessurIIy represenLs Lo
me, un IrreIuLubIe exLerIorILy us my exLerIorILy. TIe represenLuLIon
oI u spucIng Is ILseII u spucIng. An intuitus oriincrius, wII cI wouI d
noL be u represenLuLIon buL ruLIer un I mmersI on In LIe LIIng-ILseII,
wouI d exIsL uIone und wouI d be Ior ILseII LIe orI gI n und LIe L II ng:
LIIs wus sIown ubove Lo be conLrudIcLory. DescurLes II mseI I LesLI-
IIes Lo LIe exLerIorILy oI LIe wor I d us LIe exLerIorILy oI IIs body. Be-
cuuse Ie IurdI y doubLs IIs body, Ie mukes u IIcLIon oI doubL I ng IL,
und LIIs preLensIon us sucI uLLesLs Lo LIe L ruL I oI res extensc. L Is
uIso noL surprI sI ng LIuL Ior DescurLes LIe reuIILy oI LIIs wor I d,
ubouL wII cI Go d couI d noL deceIve me, I s muI nL uI ned I n BeI ng by
LIe continuous crection on LIe purL oI LIIs very Go d . ReuI I Ly Is uI -
wuys In eucI InsLunL, I rom pIuce Lo pIuce, eucI LI me In L urn, wII cI
Is exucLIy Iow LIe reuIILy oI res coitcns uLLesLs Lo ILseII In eucI "ego
sum, " wII cI I s eucI L I me LIe " um" oI eucI one I n L urn [chcque
jois de chccun c son tour].
Onc e uguI n, LIIs I s LIe wuy I n wII c I LIere I s no OL Ier. " Cr e-
uLIon" sIgnIIIes precIseIy LIuL LIere Is no OL Ier und LIuL LIe "LIere
Is" Is noL un OL Ier. BeI ng Is noL LIe OL Ier, buL LIe or I gI n Is LIe
puncLuuI und dIscreLe spucIng betueen us, us betueen us cnd the rest
oj the uorld, us betueen cll beins.
z
We I I nd LIIs uILerILy prI murI I y und essenLIuIIy I nL rI guI ng. L I n-
LrIgues us becuuse IL exposes LIe uIwuys-oLIer orI gI n, uIwuys I nup-
pr opr I uL e und uIwuys LIere, eucI und every LI me presenL us I nI m-
ILubIe. TII s Is wIy we ure pr I mur I I y und essenLIuIIy curious ubouL
LIe wor I d und ubouL ourseIves (wIere "LIe wor I d" Is LIe generIc
nume oI LIe objecL oI LIIs onLoI ogI cuI curI osI Ly). TIe correIuLe oI
creuLIon, undersLood us exIsLence ILseII, Is u curI osI Ly LIuL musL be
undersLood In u compI eLeI y dIIIerenL sense LIun LIe one gIven by
HeIdegger. or II m, curI osI Ly I s LIe IrunLIc ucLIvILy oI pussIng I rom
beIng Lo beI ng In un InsuLIubIe sorL oI wuy, wI L IouL ever beI ng ubIe
Lo sLop und LII nk. WI L IouL u doubL, LIIs does LesLIIy Lo beI ng-wI LI-
one-unoLIer, buL IL LesLIIIes Lo IL wI LIouL beIng ubIe Lo guIn uccess Lo
z o
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
z1
LIe exIsLenL openI ng LIuL cIurucLerIzes Dcsein In LIe "I nsL unL . "
z q
L
Is necessury, LIen, Lo dI sconnecL LIe mosL prI mI L I ve Iuyer oI curI os-
ILy, LIe IeveI on wII cI we ure prI murI I y interested by wIuL Is InLer-
esLIng pur exceIIence (LIe orI gI n), I rom LIIs InconsIsLenL curI osI Ly
und uIso I rom LIe uLLenLIon LIuL Lukes cure oI oLIers (Iiirsore). AL
LIIs IeveI, we ure InLeresLed In LIe sense oI beI ng I nL rI gued by LIe
ever-renewed uILerILy oI LIe orI gI n und, II muy suy so, In LIe sense
oI IuvI ng un uIIuIr wI L I IL. (L Is no uccIdenL LIuL sexuuI curI osI Ly Is
un exempIury IIgure oI curI osI Ly und Is, In IucL, more LIun jusL u IIg-
ure oI IL.)
As EngI I sI |und rencI| uIIows us Lo suy, oLIer beIngs ure curious
(or bizcrre) Lo me becuuse LIey gIve me uccess Lo LIe orI gI n; LIey
uI I ow me Lo L oucI I L; LIey Ieuve me beIore IL, Ieuve me beIore ILs
L urnI ng, wII cI Is conceuIed eucI LI me. WIeL Ier un oLIer Is unoLIer
person, unI muI , pI unL, or sLur, IL Is ubove uII LIe gI urI ng presence oI
u pIuce und momenL oI ubsoIuLe orI gI n, IrreIuLubIe, oIIered us sucI
und vunI sII ng I n ILs pussIng. TII s occurs I n LIe Iuce oI u newborn
cII I d, u Iuce encounLered by cIunce on LIe sLreeL, un InsecL, u sIurk,
u pebbI e . . . buL II one reuIIy wunLs Lo undersL und I L, IL Is noL u
muLLer oI mukI ng uII LIese curIous presences equuI.
I we do noL Iuve uccess Lo LIe oLIer In LIe mode jusL descrIbed,
buL seek Lo upproprIuLe LIe or I g I n-wII c I Is someLII ng we uIwuys
d o -L I e n LIIs sume curIosILy LrunsIorms ILseII I nLo upproprIuLIve or
desLrucLIve ruge. We no Ionger I ook Ior u sI nguI urI Ly oI LIe orI gI n
In LIe oLIer; we Iook Ior LIe unI que und excIusIve orI gI n, In order Lo
eILIer udopL IL or rejecL IL. TIe oLIer becomes LIe OL Ier uccordI ng
Lo LIe mode oI desIre or IuLred. Mu k I ng LIe oLIer dI vI ne (LogeLIer
wI L I our voI unL ury servILude) or mukI ng I L evI I (LogeLIer wI L I ILs
excI usI on or exLermI nuLI on) I s LIuL purL oI curI osI Ly no Ionger I n-
LeresLed In dI s-posI LI on und co-uppeurunce, buL ruLIer Ius become
LIe desIre Ior LIe PosI LI on ILseII. TII s desIre Is LIe desIre Lo IIx LIe
orI gI n, or to ite the oriin to itselj, once und Ior uI I , und I n one pIuce
Ior uI I , LIuL Is, uIwuys ouLsIde LIe worI d. TII s Is wIy sucI desIre Is u
desIre Ior murder, und noL onI y murder buL uIso Ior un Increuse oI
crueILy und Iorror, wII c I Is I I ke LIe Lendency Lowurd LIe InLensIII -
cuLIon oI murder; I L I s muL I I uL I on, curvI ng up, reIenLIessness, meLI c-
uIous execuLI on, LIe j oy oI ugony. Or IL Is LIe mussucre, LIe muss
gruve, mussIve und LecInoIogIcuI execuLIon, LIe bookkeepI ng oI LIe
cumps. L Is uIwuys u muLLer oI expedI LI ng LIe LrunsIormuLIon oI LIe
oLIer I nLo LIe OL Ier or mukI ng LIe OL Ier uppeur I n LIe pIuce oI
LIe oLIer, und, LIereIore, u muLLer oI I denLI I yI ng LIe OL Ier und LIe
orIgIn ILseII.
TIe OL Ier I s noL II ng more L Iun u correIuLe oI LIIs mud desIre,
buL oLIers, In IucL, ure our oriincr interests. L Is Lrue, Iowever, LIuL
LIe possIbII ILy oI LIIs mud desIre Is conLuI ned In LIe very dI sposI -
LIon oI orI gI nury InLeresLs: LIe dI ssemI nuL I on oI LIe orI gI n upseLs
[cjjole] LIe orI gI n In "me" Lo exucLIy LIe sume exLenL LIuL IL mukes
me curIous ubouL I L, mukes "me" u "me" (or u "subjecL," someone
In uny cuse). (L IoIIows, LIen, LIuL no eLIIcs wouI d be I ndependenL
Irom un onLoI ogy. On I y onLoI ogy, In IucL, muy be eLIIcuI In u con-
sIsLenL munner. L wI I I be necessury Lo reLurn Lo LIIs eIsewIere.)
BeLween Us: IrsL PII I osopIy
WIe n uddressIng LIe IucL LIuL pII I osopIy Is conLemporuneous
wI L I LIe Greek cILy, one ends up I osI ng sIgIL oI wIuL I s I n ques-
L I o n -u n d rI gIL I y so. As I s onI y I I L L I ng, Iowever, I osI ng sIgIL oI
wIuL Is In quesLI on reLurns us Lo LIe probI em In uII ILs ucuI Ly uILer
LIese LwenLy-eIgIL cenLurIes.
L reLurns us Lo LIe quesLI on oI LIe orI gI n oI our IIsLory. TIere Is
no sense oI reconsLI LuLI ng u LeIeoIogy Iere, und IL Is noL u muLLer oI
reLrucIng u process dIrecLed Lowurd un end. To LIe conLrury, II sLory
cIeurIy uppeurs Iere us LIe movemenL spurked by u sI nguI ur cI r-
cumsLunce, u movemenL LIuL does noL reubsorb LIIs sI nguI urI Ly In
u unIversuIILy (or "unIversuI IIsLory," us Mu r x und NI eLzscIe under-
sLood I L), buL InsLeud reIIecLs LIe I mpucL oI LIIs sI nguI urI Ly I n re-
newed sInguIur evenLs. TIus , we Iuve u "IuLure" [ctenir] und u "Lo
come" [c tenir], we Iuve LIIs "IuLure" us u "pusL," wII cI Is noL pusL
In LIe sense oI beI ng LIe sLurLI ng poI nL oI u dI recLed process, buL
pusL In LIe sense oI beI ng u "curI osI Ly" |"bIzurrerIe"| (LIe "Greek
mIrucIe") LIuL Is ILseI I I nL r I guI ng und, us sucI, remuI ns sL I I I "Lo
come. " TII s dI s-posI LI on oI II sLory I ndeed mukes LIere be c II sLory
z z
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
z
und noL u processus (Iere us eIsewIere, LIe HegeI I un modeI reveuIs
ILseII us uncoverI ng LIe LruLI by wuy oI ILs exucL opposILe). One cun
undersLund, LIen, HeIdegger' s "II sLory oI BeI ng, " und undersLund
LIuL our reIuLIon Lo LIIs IIsLory Is necessurIIy LIuL oI ILs Destrultion,
or deconsLrucLI on. n oLIer words, IL Is u muLLer oI brI ngI ng Lo IIgIL
LIIs IIsLory' s sI nguI urI Ly us LIe dI sussembI I ng I uw oI ILs unI L y und
undersLundI ng LIuL LIIs I uw ILseII Is LIe I uw oI meunI ng.
TII s cIeurIy supposes LIuL sucI u Lusk Is us demundI ng und ur-
genL us IL Is I mpossI bI e Lo meusure. TIe Lusk Is Lo undersLund Iow
II s L or y-us u sInguIur, WesL ern uccI denL -" becume" wIuL one
mI gIL cuI I "gI obuI " or "pI uneLury" wI L IouL , uL LIe sume L I me, en-
genderI ng ILseI I us "unI versuI . " ConsequenLI y, IL Is LIe Lusk oI un-
dersL undI ng Iow LIe WesL dIsuppeured, noL by recI L I ng LIe Ior-
muI us oI ILs generuI I zed unI I ormI L y, buL by undersL undI ng LIe
expunsIon, by und LIrougI LIIs "unI I ormI Ly, " oI u pI uruI sInguI urILy
LIuL Is und Is noL, uL LIe sume LI me, "proper" Lo LIIs "oJuccIdenL."
A n d one musL undersL und LIuL LIIs I ormI dubI e quesL I on I s none
oLIer L Iun LIe quesL I on oI "cupI L uI " (or oI "cupI LuI I sm"). I one
wunLs Lo gIve u I uI I uccounL oI " cupI L uI " -s L ur L I ng I rom LIe very
IIrsL momenLs oI IIsLory LIuL begun In LIe mercIunL cI L I es -L Ien IL
Is necessury Lo remove I L, Iur more rudIcuIIy LIun Mu r x couI d Iuve,
I r om ILs own represenLuLI on I n I I neur und cumuI uL I ve IIsLory, cs
uell cs I rom LIe represenLuLIon oI u LeIeoIogIcuI II sLory oI ILs over-
comI ng or rejecLIon. TII s wouI d uppeur Lo be L Ie -pr o bI e mu L I c -
Iesson oI IIsLory. BuL we cunnoL undersLund LIIs Lusk unIess we IIrsL
undersL und wIuL Is mosL uL sLuke In our IIsLory, LIuL Is, wIuL Is
mosL uL sLuke In pII I osopIy.
Accor dI ng Lo dIIIerenL versIons, buL In u predomI nunL I y unI I orm
munner, LIe L rudI L I on puL I orwurd u represenLuLI on uccordI ng Lo
wII cI pII I osopIy und LIe cI Ly wouI d be (wouI d Iuve been, musL
Iuve been) reIuLed Lo one unoLIer us subjecLs. AccordI ngI y, pII I os-
opIy, us LIe urL I cuI uL I on oI loos, Is LIe subjecL oI LIe cILy, wIere
LIe cI Ly Is LIe spuce oI LIIs urL I cuI uL I on. I kewI se, LIe cILy, us LIe
guLIerIng oI LIe loiloi, Is LIe subjecL oI pII I osopIy, wIere pII I os-
opIy Is LIe pr oducL I on oI LIeI r c o mmo n loos. Loos ILseII, LIen,
conLuIns LIe essence or meunI ng oI LIIs recI procI Ly: IL Is LIe com-
mon I ounduLI on oI communI L y, wIere communI L y, I n L ur n, I s LIe
IounduLI on oI BeI ng.
L Is wI L II n LIIs unI I or m IorI zon, uccordI ng Lo dIIIerenL versIons
(wIeLIer sLrong or weuk, Iuppy or unIuppy) oI LIIs predomI nunL
mode oI I nquI ry, LIuL we sLIII undersLund LIe Iumous "poI I LI cuI un-
I muI " oI ArI sL oL I e: IL Is Lo presume LIuL loos Is LIe condI L I on oI
communI Ly, wII cI, I n L urn, I s LIe condI L I on oI IumunI L y; undJor I L
Is Lo presume LIuL eucI oI LIese LIree Lerms druws ILs unI L y und
consIsLency Irom |ILs sIurIng| u communI cuL I on oI essence wI L I LIe
oLIer Lwo (wIere LIe wor I d us sucI remuIns reIuLIveIy exLerIor Lo
LIe wIoI e uIIuIr, presumI ng LIuL nuLure or phsis uccompIIsIes ILseII
In IumunI L y undersLood us loos politilos, wIereus techne subordI -
nuLes ILseII Lo boLI).
BuL LIIs Ior I z on-L Iu L oI poI I L I cuI pII I osopIy I n LIe IuIIesL
sense (noL us LIe "pII I osopIy oI poI I LI cs, " buL pII I osopIy us poI I -
L I c s ) -mI gIL very weI I be wIuL poI nL s Lo LIe sI nguI ur sI L uuL I on
wIere our IIsLory geLs under wuy und, uL LIe sume LI me, bI ocks uc-
cess Lo LIIs sILuuLIon. Or InsLeud, LIIs IorI zon mI gIL be LIuL wII cI,
I n LIe course oI ILs IIsLory, gIves un I ndI cuL I on oI ILs own decon-
sLrucLIon und exposes LIIs sI LuuLI on unew I n unoLIer wuy.
z
" PI I -
IosopIy und poI I L I cs" Is LIe exposI LI on [enonce] oI LIIs sI L uuL I on.
BuL IL Is u dIsjuncLIve exposI LI on, becuuse LIe sI LuuLI on ILseII Is dIs-
juncLIve. TIe cI Ly I s noL prI murI I y "communI L y, " uny more LIun I L
Is prI murI I y "pubI I c spuce." TIe cILy Is uL IeusL us mucI LIe brI ngI ng
Lo IIgIL oI beI ng- I n- common cs the dis-position (dIspersuI und dIs-
purILy) oI LIe c ommunI L y represenLed us I ounded In I nLerI orI ry or
Lrunscendence. L I s " communI L y" wI L IouL c ommon orI gI n. TIuL
beIng LIe cuse, und us I ong us pII I osopIy Is un uppeuI Lo LIe orI gI n,
LIe cILy, Iur I rom beI ng pII I osopIy' s subjecL or spuce, Is ILs prob-
Iem. Or eIse, IL Is ILs subjecL or spuce In LIe mode oI beI ng ILs prob-
Iem, ILs uporI u. PII I osopIy, Ior ILs purL, cun uppeuI Lo LIe or I gI n
onIy on LIe condI L I on oI LIe dI s-posI LI on oI loos (LIuL Is, oI LIe orI -
gIn us j usLI II ed und seL I nL o dIscourse): loos Is LIe spucI ng uL LIe
very pIuce oI LIe orI gI n. ConsequenLI y, pII I osopIy Is LIe probI em
oI LIe cILy; pII I osopIy covers over LIe subjecL LIuL Is expecLed us
"communI Ly. "
z
q ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl

TII s I s wIy pII I osopII cuI poI ILIcs und poI I LI cuI pII I osopIy regu-
IurIy r un uground on LIe essence oI c ommunI L y or c ommunI L y us
or I gI n. Rousseuu und Mu r x ure exempI ury I n LIeIr sLruggIe wI L I
LIese obsLucIes. Rousseuu reveuIed LIe uporIu oI u communI L y LIuL
wouI d Iuve Lo precede ILseII In order Lo consLILuLe ILseII: In ILs very
concepL, LIe "socIuI conLrucL" Is LIe denIuI or IorecIosure oI LIe orI g-
I nury dI vI sI on [delicison] beLween LIose sI nguI urI LI es LIuL wouI d
Iuve Lo ugree Lo LIe conLrucL und, LIereby, "druw IL Lo u cIose." A I -
LIougI ussuredIy more rudIcuI I n IIs demund Ior LIe dI ssoI uLI on oI
poI ILIcs I n uII spIeres oI exIsLence (wII cI I s LIe "reuIIzuLIon oI pII -
I osopIy"), Mu r x Ignores LIuL LIe sepuruLIon beLween sInguIurILIes
overcome und suppressed In LIIs wuy Is noL, In IucL, un uccIdenLuI
sepuruLIon I mposed by "poI I L I cuI " uuLIorILy, buL ruLIer LIe consLI -
LuLIve sepuruLIon oI dI s-posI LI on. However powerIuI IL Is Ior L II nk-
I ng LIe "reuI reIuLIon" und wIuL we cuII LIe " I ndI vI duuI , " " commu-
nI sm" wus sLIII noL ubIe Lo L II nk beI ng- I n- common us dI sLI ncL I rom
communI L y.
n LIIs sense, pII I osopII cuI poI ILIcs reguIurIy proceeds uccordI ng
Lo LIe surrepLI LI ous uppeuI Lo u meLupIysIcs oI LIe one- orI gI n,
wIere, uL LIe sume LI me, IL neverLIeIess exposes, tolens nolens, LIe
sI LuuLI on oI LIe dI s-posI LI on oI orIgIns. OI L en LIe resuIL Is LIuL LIe
dI s-posI L I on Is L urned I nL o u muLLer oI excI usI on, I ncI uded us ex-
cI uded, und LIuL uI I pII I osopII cuI poI I LI cs Is u poI I LI cs oI excIusIv-
ILy und LIe correIuLIve exc I us I on-oI u cIuss, oI un order, oI u "com-
munI L y " -L Ie poI nL oI wII cI I s Lo end up wI L I u "peopI e, " I n LIe
"buse" sense oI LIe Lerm. TIe demund Ior equuIILy, LIen, Is LIe nec-
essury, uI LI muLe, und ubsoIuLe gesLure; In IucL, IL Is uImosL I ndI cu-
LIve oI dI s-posI LI on us sucI. However, us I ong us LIIs conLI nues Lo
be u muLLer oI un "eguIILurIun demund I ounded upon some generIc
I denL I L y, "
z 6
equuIILy wI I I never do jusLIce [ne jcit encore pcs droit] Lo
sI nguI urI Ly or even recognIze LIe consIderubIe dIIIIcuILIes oI wunL-
I ng Lo do so. L Is Iere LIuL LIe crI LI que oI ubsLrucL rIgILs comes Lo
LIe Iore. However, LIe "concreLe" LIuL musL oppose sucI ubsLruc-
LI on I s noL mude up prI murI I y oI empI rI cuI deLermI nuLI ons, wII cI,
I n LIe cupILuI IsL regIme, exIuusL even LIe mosL eguI I LurI un wI I I :
ruLIer, concrete hete. prI murI I y sIgnIIIes LIe reuI objecL oI u L II nkI ng
o I beI ng- I n- common, und LIIs reuI objecL Is, I n L ur n, LIe sI nguI ur
pI uruI oI LIe orI gI n, LIe sI nguI ur pI uruI oI LIe orI gI n oI " c ommu-
nILy" ILseII (II one sLIII wunLs Lo cuII LIIs "communI L y") . AI I oI LIIs Is
undoubLedI y wIuL Is I ndI cuLed by LIe wor d LIuL IoIIows "equuI ILy"
In LIe rencI repubI I cun sIogun: "IruLernILy" Is supposed Lo be LIe
soI uLI on Lo equuI I Ly (or Lo "equI I I berLy" |"guIIberL"|)
z ;
by evok-
Ing or I nvokI ng u "generIc IdenLILy. " WIuL Is I uckI ng LIere Is exucLIy
LIe c ommon orI gI n oI LIe c o mmo n.
z 8
L Is "I uckI ng" InsoIur us one uLLempLs Lo Luke uccounL oI IL wI L II n
LIe IorI zon oI pII I osopII cuI poI I LI cs. Onc e LIIs IorI zon I s decon-
sLrucLed, Iowever, LIe necessILy oI LIe pI uruI sInguIur oI LIe orI gI n
comes I nL o pI u y -u nd LIIs Is uIreudy under wuy. BuL do noL pI un
Lo propose un "oLIer poI I LI cs" under LIIs IeudI ng. um no Ionger
sure LIuL LIIs L erm (or LIe L erm "poI I L I cuI pII I osopIy") cun con-
LInue Lo Iuve uny consIsLency beyond LIIs openI ng up oI LIe Ior I -
zon wII cI comes Lo us boL I uL LIe end oI LIe I ong II sLory oI our
WesLern sI L uuL I on cnd us LIe reopenI ng oI LIIs sI L uuL I on. onI y
wunL Lo IeIp Lo brI ng ouL LIuL LIe combI nuL I on pII I osopIy-poI I LI cs,
I n uII LIe Iorce oI ILs beI ng j oI ned LogeLIer, simultcneousl exposes
cnd hides the dis-position oj the oriin und co-uppeurunce, wII cI Is
ILs correIuLe.
TIe pII I osopII co-poI I LI cuI IorI zon I s wIuL I I nks LIe dI s-posI LI on
Lo u conL I nuI L y und Lo u c ommunI L y oI essence. n order Lo be eI-
IecLIve, sucI u reIuLIon requIres un essenLIuIIzIng procedure: sucrI-
IIce. I one Iooks cureIuIIy, one cun IInd LIe pIuce oI sucrIIIce In uII
poI I LI cuI pII I osopIy (or ruLIer, one wI I I II nd LIe cIuIIenge oI LIe
cbstrcct, wII cI mukes u sucrIIIce oI concreLe sInguIurILy). BuL us sI n-
guIur orI gI n, exIsLence Is unsucrI II cubI e.
z q
n LIIs respecL, LIen, LIe urgenL demund numed ubove Is noL un-
oLIer poIILIcuI ubsLrucLIon. nsLeud, IL Is u reconsIderuLIon oI LIe very
meunIng oI " poI I L I cs" -und, LIereIore, oI " pII I os opIy" -I n IIgIL oI
LIe orI gI nury sILuuLIon: LIe bure exposILIon oI sInguIur orIgIns. TII s
Is LIe necessury "IIrsL pII I osopIy" (In LIe cunonIcuI sense oI LIe ex-
pressIon). L Is un onLoI ogy. PII I osopIy needs Lo recommence, Lo
resLurL ILseII I rom ILseII uguInsL ILseII, uguInsL poI I L I cuI pII I osopIy
und pII I osopII cuI poI ILIcs. n order Lo do LIIs, pII I osopIy needs Lo
z 6 ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl z ;
L II nk In prI ncI pI e ubouL Iow we ure "us" umong us, LIuL Is, Iow LIe
consIsLency oI our BeI ng I s I n beI ng-I n-common, und Iow LIIs con-
sIsLs precIseIy I n LIe " I n" or I n LIe "beLween" oI ILs spucIng.
TIe IusL "IIrsL pII I osopIy, " II one dure suy unyL II ng ubouL IL, Is
gIven Lo us In HeIdegger' s I undumenLuI onLoI ogy. L Is LIuL wII cI
Ius puL us on LIe wuy [chemin] Lo wIere we ure, LogeLIer, wIeLIer
we know IL or noL. BuL IL Is uIso wIy ILs uuLIor wus ubIe Lo, In u sorL
oI reLurn oI Destrultion ILseII, compromI se IImseI I, I n un unpur- I
donubI e wuy, wI L I IIs I nvoI vemenL In u pII I osopII cuI poI ILIcs LIuL
becume cr I mI nuI . TII s very poI nL , LIen, IndIcuLes Lo us LIuL pIuce
I rom wII cI IIrsL pII I osopIy musL recommence: IL Is necessury Lo
reIIgure I undumenLuI onL oI ogy (us weI I us LIe exIsLenLIuI unuIyLIc,
LIe II sLory oI BeI ng, und LIe L II nkI ng oI Ereinis LIuL goes uI ong
wI L I IL) wI L I u LIorougI resoIve LIuL stcrts jrom the plurcl sinulcr
oj oriins, I rom bein-uith.
wunL Lo reLurn Lo LIe Issue oI "IIrsL pII I osopIy" In order Lo pusI
IL even IurLIer, buL wI LIouL cI uI mI ng Lo be LIe one wIo cun IuIIy uc-
compI I sI sucI un underL ukI ng. By deI I nI L I on und I n essence, LIe
ubove "IIrsL pII I osopIy" needs "Lo be mude by uI I , noL by one, " I I ke
LIe poeLry oI MuI doror. or LIe momenL , onI y wunL Lo IndIcuLe LIe
prI ncI pI e oI ILs necessILy. HeI degger cIeurIy sLuLes LIuL beI ng-wI L I
#1 (Mitsein, Miteincndersein, und Mitdcsein) Is essenLIuI Lo LIe consLI -
L uL I on oI Dcsein ILseII. GI v e n LIIs, IL needs Lo be mude ubsoIuLeIy
cIeur LIuL Dcsein, Iur I rom beI ng eILIer "mun" or "subjecL," Is noL
even un IsoIuLed und unI que "one, " buL Is InsLeud uIwuys LIe one,
eucI one, wI L I one unoLIer [l'un-ctec-l cutre]. I LIIs deLermI nuLI on
Is essenLIuI, LIen IL needs Lo uLLuIn Lo LIe co-orIgInury dI mensI on und
expose IL wI L IouL reservuLIon. BuL us IL Ius oILen been suId, despILe
LIIs uIIIrmuLIve usserLIon oI co-orIgInurIry, Ie gIves up on LIe sLep Lo
LIe consIderuLIon oI Dcsein ILseII. L Is upproprIuLe, LIen, Lo exumIne
LIe possIbII ILy oI un expIIcIL und endIess exposILIon oI co-orIgInurILy
und LIe possI bI I I Ly oI LukI ng uccounL oI wIuL Is uL sLuke In LIe Lo-
geLIerness oI LIe onLoI ogI cuI enLerprIse (und, In LIIs wuy, LukI ng uc-
counL oI wIuL Is uL sLuke In ILs poI I LI cuI consequences. )
o
L Is necessury Lo udd Iere LIuL LIere Is u reuson Ior LIIs exumI -
nuLI on wII cI Is Iur more proI ound LIun wIuL IIrsL uppeurs Lo be u
sImpIe "reudjusLmenL" oI LIe HeI deggerI un dIscourse. TIe reuson
obvIousIy goes mucI IurLIer LIun LIuL, sInce uL ILs IuIIesL, IL Is ubouL
noLII ng Iess LIun LIe possIbII ILy oI speukIng "oI Dcsein'' In generuI,
or oI suyIng "LIe exI sLI ng" or "exIsLence." WIu L wouI d Iuppen Lo
pIIIosopIy II speukIng ubouL BeI ng In oLIer wuys LIun suyIng "we,"
"you, " und " " becume excIuded? WIere I s BeI ng spoken, und wIo
speuks BeIng?
TIe reuson LIuL Is IoresIudowed Ius Lo do precIseIy wI L I speuk-
Ing (oI) BeI ng. TIe LIemes oI beI ng-wI LI und co-orI gI nurI Ly need
Lo be renewed und need Lo "reInILIuI Ize" LIe exIsLenLIuI unuIyLIc, ex-
ucLIy becuuse LIese ure meunL Lo respond Lo LIe quesL I on oI LIe
meunIng oI BeI ng, or Lo BeI ng us meunI ng. BuL I I LIe meunI ng oI
BeI ng IndIcuLes ILseII prI ncI puI I y by LIe puL L I ng I nLo pIuy oI BeI ng
In Dcsein und us Dcsein, L Ien, precIseIy us mecnin, LIIs puL L I ng
InLo pIuy (LIe "LIere wI I I be" oI BeI ng) cun onI y uLLesL Lo ILseII or
expose ILseII In LIe mode oI beI ng-wI LI: becuuse us reIuLes Lo meun-
Ing, IL Is never Ior jusL one, buL uIwuys Ior one unoLIer, uIwuys be-
Lween one unoLIer. TIe meunI ng oI BeI ng Is never In wIuL Is s u I d -
never suId In sI gnI II cuLI ons. BuL IL Is ussuredIy In L Iem LIuL "I L Is
spoken," In LIe ubsoIuLe sense oI LIe expressIon. " One speuks," "I L
speuks," meuns "BeI ng Is spoken"; IL Is meunI ng (buL does noL con-
sLrucL meunI ng). BuL "one" or " I L " Is never oLIer LIun ue.
n oLIer words, In reveuIIng ILseII us wIuL Is uL sLuke In LIe meun-
I ng oI BeI ng, Dcsein Ius uIreudy reveuIed ILseII us beI ng- wI L I und
reveuIs ILseII us sucI beIore uny oLIer expI I cuLI on. TIe meunI ng oI
BeI ng Is noL In pIuy In Dcsein In order Lo be " communI cuL ed" Lo
oLIers; ILs puL L I ng I nL o pIuy is identiccll bein-uith. Or uguIn: e-
in is put into plc cs the "uith" LIuL Is ubsoI uLeI y I ndI spuL ubI e.
rom now on, LIIs Is LIe mI nI muI onLoI ogI cuI premIse. BeI ng Is puL
InLo pIuy umong us; IL does noL Iuve uny oLIer meunI ng excepL LIe
dIs-posILIon oI LIIs "beLween. "
HeI degger wrI Les, "Dcsein's. . . undersL undI ng oI BeI ng uIreudy
ImpIIes LIe undersLundI ng oI oLIers. "
1
BuL LIIs sureIy does noL suy
enougI. TIe undersLundI ng oI BeI ng I s noL II ng oLIer LIun un un-
dersLundIng oI oLIers, wII cI meuns, I n every sense, undersLundI ng
oLIers L IrougI "me" und undersLundI ng "me" LIrougI oLIers, LIe
z 8
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
z q
undersL undI ng oI one unoLIer [des uns des cutres]. On e couI d suy-
even more sI mpI y LIuL BeI ng I s communI cuL I on. BuL I L remuIns Lo
be known wIuL "communI cuL I on" is.
or LIe momenL , IL Is Iess I mporL unL Lo respond Lo LIe quesLI on
oI LIe meunI ng oI BeI ng (I I I L I s u quesL I on, und I I we do noL uI -
reudy busIcuIIy respond every duy und eucI LI me . . . ) LIun IL Is Lo
puy uLLenLIon Lo LIe IucL oI ILs exII bI LI on. I "communI cuL I on" Is Ior
us, Loduy, sucI un u I I u I r -I n every sense oI LIe wor d . . . - I I ILs
LIeorIes ure II ourI sII ng, II ILs LecInoIogIes ure beI ng proI IIeruLed, II
LIe "medI uL I zuL I on" oI LIe "medI u" brI ngs uI ong wI L I I L un uuLo-
communI cuL I onuI verLI go, I I one pIuys uround wI L I LIe LIeme oI
LIe IndIsLIncLness beLween LIe "messuge" und LIe " medI um" ouL oI
eI LIer u dI sencIunL ed or j ubI I unL IuscI nuLI on, L Ien IL Is becuuse
someL II ng Is exposed or I uI d bure. n IucL, |wIuL Is exposed| Is LIe
bure und "conLenL"-Iess web oI "communI cuL I on. " One couI d suy I L
Is LIe bure web oI LIe com- (oI LIe telecom-, suId wI L I un ucknowI -
edgmenL oI ILs Independence); LIuL Is, IL Is our web or "us" us web
or neLwork, un us LIuL Is reLIcuIuLed und spreud ouL, wI L I ILs exLen-
sI on Ior un essence und ILs spucI ng Ior u sLrucLure. We ure "our-
seIves" Loo I ncI I ned Lo see I n LIIs LIe over wIeI mI ng desL I ny oI
modernI Ly. ConL r ur y Lo sucI meuger evIdence, IL mI gIL be LIuL we
Iuve undersLood noL II ng ubouL LIe sI LuuLI on, und rI gILI y so, und
LIuL we Iuve Lo sLurL uguIn Lo undersLund ourseI ves-our exIsLence
und LIuL oI LIe wor I d, our beI ng dI sposed I n LIIs wuy.
BeI ng SInguIur PI uruI
BeI ng sInguIur pI uruI : LIese LIree upposILe words, wII cI do noL
Iuve uny deLermI ned synLux ("beI ng" Is u verb or noun; "sInguIur"
und "pI uruI " ure nouns or udjecLIves; uI I cun be reurrunged In dII-
IerenL combI nuLI ons), murk un ubsoIuLe equIvuIence, boL I I n un I n-
dI sLI ncL LIWdIsLIncL wuy. BeI ng Is sInguIurIy pI uruI und pI uruI I y sI n-
guIur. YeL, LIIs In ILseII does noL consLILuLe u purLIcuI ur predI cuLI on
oI BeI ng, us II BeI ng Is or Ius u cerLuIn number oI uLLrIbuLes, one
oI wII cI I s LIuL oI beI ng sI nguI ur-pI uruI -Iowever doubI e, conLru-
dIcLory, or cII usmuLI c LIIs muy be. On LIe conLrury, LIe sI nguI ur-
pI uruI consLILuLes LIe essence oI BeI ng, u consLI LuLI on LIuL undoes
or dIsIocuLes every sIngIe, subsLunLIuI essence oI BeI ng ILseII. TII s
Is noL jusL u wuy oI speukI ng, becuuse LIere Is no prI or subsLunce
LIuL wouI d be dIssoIved. BeI ng does noL preexIsL ILs sInguIur pI uruI .
To be more precIse, BeI ng ubsoI uLeI y does noL preexist, noL II ng
preexIsLs; onI y wIuL exIsLs exIsLs. Ever sInce PurmenIdes, one oI pII -
IosopIy' s pecuI I urI LI es Ius been LIuL IL Ius been unI oI dI ng LIIs
unI que proposI L I on, I n uI I oI ILs senses. TII s proposI L I on proposes
noL II ng buL LIe pI ucemenL [lc position] und dI s- posI L I on oI exIs-
Lence. L Is ILs pI uruI sInguIurILy. UnI oI dI ng LIIs proposI LI on, LIen, Is
LIe onI y L II ng pII I osopIy Ius Lo do. '
z
TIuL wII cI exIsLs, wIuLever LIIs mI gIL be, coexIsLs becuuse IL ex-
IsLs. TIe co- I mpI I cuL I on oI exI sLI ng [l'exister] I s LIe sIurI ng oI LIe
worI d. A wor I d Is noL someL II ng exLernuI Lo exIsLence; IL Is noL un
exLrInsIc uddI L I on Lo oLIer exIsLences; LIe wor I d Is LIe coexIsLence
LIuL puLs LIese exIsLences LogeLIer. BuL one couI d objecL LIuL LIere
exIsLs someL II ng |wII cI does noL II rsL coexIsL|. KunL esLubIIsIed
LIuL LIere exIsLs someLII ng, exucLIy becuuse cun L II nk oI u possI-
bIe exIsLence: buL LIe possIbIe comes second In reIuLIon Lo LIe reuI,
becuuse LIere uIreudy exIsLs someL II ng reuI .

L wouI d uIso be worL I uddI ng LIuL LIe ubove InIerence ucLuuIIy
Ieuds Lo u concI usI on ubouL un eIemenL oI exIsLence's pI uruI I L y [un
pluriel d'existence]: LIere exIsLs someLII ng ("me") cnd unoLIer L II ng
(LIIs oLIer "me" LIuL represenLs LIe possIbIe) Lo wII cI reIuLe my-
seII I n order Ior me Lo usk myseI I I I LIere exIsLs someL II ng oI LIe
sorL LIuL L II nk oI us possIbIe. TII s someLII ng coexIsLs uL IeusL us
mucI us "me. " BuL LIIs needs Lo be druwn ouL In LIe I oI I owI ng wuy:
LIere does noL exIsL jusL LIese "me's," undersL ood us subjecLs-oI-
represenLuLIon, becuuse uI ong wI L I LIe reuI dIIIerence beLween Lwo
"me's" Is gIven LIe dIIIerence beLween LIIngs In generuI, LIe dIIIer-
ence beLween my body und muny bodIes. TII s vurIuLIon on un oIder
sLyIe oI pII I osopII zI ng Is onI y meunL Lo poI nL ouL LIuL LIere Ius
never been, nor wI I I LIere ever be, uny |reuI| pIII osopIIcuI soIIpsIsm.
n u cerLuIn wuy, LIere never Ius been, und never wI I I be, u pII I os-
opIy "oI LIe subjecL" In LIe sense oI LIe IInuI [injinie] cIosure In IL-
seII oI u Ior-ILseII.
o ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl I
However, LIere Is Ior LIe wIoI e oI pII I osopIy wIuL Is exempI I -
IIed In HegeI' s sLuLemenL "LIe Is In essence und ucL LIe unIversuI:
und sucI purLnersII p (Gemeinschcjilichleit) Is u I orm, L IougI un
exLernuI I orm, oI unI versuI I L y. "
q
L I s weI I known LIuL dI uI ecLI cuI
IogIc requIres LIe pussuge L IrougI exLerIorILy us essenLIuI Lo I nI erI -
orI Ly ILseII. NeverLIeIess, wI L II n LIIs I ogIc, IL Is LIe "I nL erI or" und
subjecLIve I or m oI LIe " Me " LIuL I s needed I n order Lo I I nI sI LIe
projecL oI IIndIng ILseII und posI ng ILseII us LIe truth oI LIe unI ver-
suI und ILs communI L y. As u consequence, wIuL Is IeIL Ior us Lo IoI d
onL o I s LIe momenL oI "exLerI orI Ly" us beI ng oI uI mosL essenLIuI
vuIue, so essenLIuI LIuL IL wouI d no Ionger be u muLLer oI reIuLIng
LIIs exLerIorILy Lo uny I ndI vI duuI or coIIecLIve "me" wI L IouL uIso un-
I uI I I ngI y uL L uI nI ng [mcintenir] Lo exteriorit itselj cnd cs such.
ein sinulcr plurcl meuns LIe essence oI BeI ng Is onI y us co-
essence. n L urn, coessence, or bein-uith (beI ng-wI LI-muny), des-
IgnuLes LIe essence oI LIe co-, or even more so, LIe co- (LIe cum) IL-
seI I I n LIe posI L I on or guIse oI un essence. n IucL, coessenLIuIILy
cunnoL consIsL I n un ussembIuge oI essences, wIere LIe essence oI
LIIs ussembIuge us sucI remuI ns Lo be deL ermI ned. n reI uLI on Lo
sucI un ussembIuge, LIe ussembIed essences wouI d become |mere|
uccIdenLs. CoessenLI uI I Ly sIgnIIIes LIe essenLIuI sIurI ng oI essenLIuI-
ILy, sIurI ng In LIe guIse oI ussembI Ing, us IL were. TII s couI d uIso
be puL In LIe I oI I owI ng wuy: II BeI ng Is beI ng-wI LI, LIen IL Is, In ILs
beI ng-wI L I, LIe "wI L I" LIuL consLILuLes BeI ng; LIe wI L I Is noL sI m-
pI y un uddI L I on. TII s operuLes I n LIe sume wuy us u coIIecLIve [col-
leicl] power: power Is neILIer exLerIor Lo LIe members oI LIe coI -
IecLIve [collee] nor InLerIor Lo eucI one oI LIem, buL ruLIer consIsLs
In LIe coI I ecLI vI Ly [colleiclite] us sucI.
TIereIore, IL Is noL LIe cuse LIuL LIe "wI L I" Is un uddI LI on Lo some
prI or BeI ng; InsLeud, LIe "wI L I" Is uL LIe IeurL oI BeI ng. n LIIs re-
specL, IL Is ubsoIuLeIy necessury Lo reverse LIe order oI pII I osopII -
cuI exposI L I on, Ior wII c I IL Ius been u muLLer oI course LIuL LIe
" wI L I" -u nd LIe oLIer LIuL goes uI ong wI L I I L -uI wuys comes sec-
ond, even LIougI LIIs successIon Is conLrudI cLed by LIe underI yI ng
[projonde] IogIc In quesLIon Iere. Even HeIdegger preserves LIIs or-
der oI successIon In u remurkubIe wuy, In LIuL Ie does noL InLroduce
LIe co-orI gI nurI Ly oI Mitsein unL I I uILer IuvI ng esLubIIsIed LIe orI g-
Inury cIurucLer oI Dcsein. TIe sume remurk couI d be mude ubouL
LIe HusserI I un consLI LuLI on oI LIe clter eo, even LIougI LIIs Loo Is
In ILs own wuy conLemporuneous (once uguIn, LIe cum) wI L I LIe
eo In LIe "sIngIe unIversuI communI L y. "

To LIe conLrury, IL cun uIso be sIown LIuL wIen HegeI begIns LIe
Phenomenolo oj Spirit Wi\ LIe momenL oI "sense cerLuInLy," wIere
IL uppeurs LIuL conscIousness Ius noL yeL enLered I nLo reIuLIon wI L I
unoLIer conscIousness, LIIs momenL Is noneLIeIess cIurucLerIzed by
LIe Iunguuge wI L I wII cI conscIousness upproprIuLes Ior ILseII LIe
LruLI oI wIuL Is I mmedI uLeI y sensIbIe (LIe Iumous "now IL Is nI gIL").
n doI ng so, LIe reIuLIon Lo unoLIer conscIousness remuIns surrepLI-
LIousIy presupposed. L wouI d be eusy Lo produce muny observuLIons
oI LIIs kI nd. or exumpIe, LIe evIdence Ior LIe eo sum comes down
Lo, consLI LuLI veI y und co-orI gI nurI I y, ILs possI bI I I Ly I n eucI one oI
DescurLes's reuders. TIe evIdence us evIdence owes ILs Iorce, und ILs
cI uI m Lo L ruL I, precIseIy Lo LIIs possIbII ILy I n eucI one oI us -o ne
couI d suy, LIe copossIbIIILy. Eo sum = eo cum.'
n LIIs wuy, IL cun be sIown LIuL, Ior LIe wIoI e oI pII I osopIy,
LIe necessury successIvILy [lc successitite] oI uny exposILIon does noL
prevenL LIe deepIy seL [projond] order oI reusons I rom beI ng regu-
IuLed by u co-orI gI nurI L y [soit rele sur une co-oriincrite]. n IucL,
I n proposI ng Lo reverse LIe order oI onL oI ogI cuI exposI L I on, um
onI y proposI ng Lo br I ng Lo I I gIL u resource LIuL Is more or Iess ob-
scureIy presenLed L IrougIouL LIe enLIre II sLory oI pII I o s o pIy -
und presenLed us un unswer Lo LIe sI LuuLI on descrI bed ubove: pII -
I osopIy begIns wI L I und In " cI vI I " |"concILoyenne"| coexIsLence us
sucI (wII cI, In ILs very dIIIerence Irom LIe "I mperI uI " I orm, Iorces
power Lo emerge us u probI em) . Or ruLIer, LIe "cILy" Is noL prI mur-
IIy u I orm oI poI I LI cuI I nsLI LuLI on; IL Is prI murI I y beI ng-wI LI cs such.
PII I osopIy Is, I n sum, LIe L II nkI ng oI beI ng-wI L I; becuuse oI LIIs,
IL Is uIso L II nkI ng- wI L I us sucI.
TII s Is noL s I mpI y u muLLer oI cI urI I yI ng u sL I I I IuuI Ly exposI -
L I on. . . . L Is jusL us mucI u quesLIon oI doI ng jusLIce Lo LIe essen-
LIuI reusons Ior wIy, ucross LIe wIoI e IIsLory oI pII I osopIy, beI ng-
wI L I Is subordI nuLed Lo BeI ng cnd, uL LIe sume LI me und uccordI ng

z
Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
Lo LIIs very subordI nuL I on, Is uIwuys usserLIng [de jcire tcloir] ILs
probI em us LIe very probI em oI BeI ng. n sum, bein-uith is ein's
oun most problem. TIe Lusk Is Lo know wIy und Iow LIIs Is so.
;
eL us Luke up LIe muLLer uguIn, L Ien, noL begI nnI ng I rom LIe
BeI ng oI beI ng und proceedI ng L o beI ng I LseI I beI ng wI L I- one-
unoLIer [etcnt l'un-ctec-lcutre], buL sLurLIng I rom be I ng -u nd uII
oI be I ng -de L e r mI ne d I n ILs BeI ng us beI ng wI LI-one-unoLIer.
| TII s Is LIe| sI nguI ur pI uruI In sucI u wuy LIuL LIe sI nguI urI Ly oI
eucI Is IndIssocIubIe Irom ILs beI ng-wI LI-muny und beccuse, In gen-
eruI, u sI nguI urI Ly Is IndIssocIubI e I rom u pIuruIILy. Here uguIn, IL Is
noL u quesLI on oI uny suppI emenLury properLy oI BeI ng. TIe con-
cepL oI LIe sI nguI ur I mpI I es ILs sI nguI urI zuL I on und, LIereIore, ILs
dI sL I ncL I on I rom oLIer sI nguI urI LI es ( wII cI I s dIIIerenL I rom uny
concepL oI LIe I ndI vI duuI , sInce un I mmunenL LoLuIILy, wI L IouL un
oLIer, wouI d be u perIecL I ndI vI duuI , und Is uIso dIIIerenL I rom uny
concepL oI LIe purLI cuI ur, sInce LIIs ussumes LIe LogeLIerness oI
wII cI LIe purLIcuIur Is u purL, so LIuL sucI u purLIcuIur cun onI y pre-
senL ILs dIIIerence I rom oLIer purLIcuIurs us numerI cuI dIIIerence).
n uL I n, LIe Lerm sinuli uIreudy suys LIe pI uruI , becuuse IL desIg-
nuLes LIe "one" us beI ongI ng Lo "one by one. " TIe sInguIur Is pr I -
murI I y ecch one und, LIereIore, uIso uith und cmon uII LIe oLIers.
TIe sInguIur Is u pI uruI . L uIso undoubL edI y oIIers LIe properLy oI
I ndI vI sI bI I I Ly, buL IL Is noL I ndI vI sI bI e LIe wuy subsLunce Is I ndI vI sI -
bIe. L Is, I nsLeud, I ndI vI sI bI e I n eucI I nsLunL [cu coup pcr coup],
wI L II n LIe evenL oI ILs sI nguI urI zuLI on. L Is I ndI vI sI bI e I I ke uny I n-
sLunL Is I ndI vI sI bI e, wII cI Is Lo suy LIuL IL Is I nII nI LeI y dI vI sI bI e, or
punctucll I ndI vI sI bI e. Moreover, IL Is noL I ndI vI sI bI e I I ke uny pur-
LI cuI ur Is I ndI vI sI bI e, buL on LIe condI L I on oI pcrs pro toto: LIe sI n-
guI ur Is eucI LI me jor LIe wIoI e, In ILs pIuce und In I I gIL oI IL. (I
IumunI L y Is jor beI ng In LoLuIILy In LIe wuy Iuve LrIed Lo presenL
IL, LIen IL Is LIe exposI ng oI LIe sInguIur us sucI und In generuI.) A
sI nguI urI Ly does noL sLund ouL uguInsL LIe buckground oI BeI ng; IL
Is, wIen IL Is, BeI ng ILseII or ILs orI gI n.
Onc e uguIn, IL Is IuIrIy eusy Lo see Lo wIuL exLenL LIese IeuLures
unswer Lo LIose oI LIe CurLesIun eo sum. TIe sInguIur Is un eo LIuL
Is noL u "subjecL" In LIe sense oI LIe reIuLIon oI u seII Lo ILseII. L Is
un "IpseILy" LIuL Is noL LIe reIuLIon oI u "me" Lo "I LseI I . "
8
L Is neI -
LIer "me" nor "you"; IL Is wIuL Is dI sLI nguI sIed In LIe dI sL I ncL I on,
wIuL Is dIscreeL In LIe dI screLI on. L Is beIng-u-purL oI BeI ng ILseII
und In BeI ng ILseII, BeI ng In eucI InsLunL [cu coup pcr coup], wII cI
uLLesLs Lo LIe IucL LIuL BeI ng onI y Lukes pIuce In eucI InsLunL.
TIe essence oI BeI ng Is LIe sIock oI LIe InsLunL [le coup]. EucI
LIme, "BeI ng" Is uIwuys un InsLunce [un coup] oI BeI ng (u IusI, bIow,
beuLIng, sIock, knock, un encounLer, un uccess). As u resuIL, IL Is
uIso uIwuys un InsLunce oI " wI L I" : sInguIurs sI nguI urI y LogeLIer,
wIere LIe LogeLIerness Is neI LIer LIe s um, nor LIe I ncorporuL I on
[enlobcnt], nor LIe "socIeLy," nor LIe " communI L y" (wIere LIese
words onI y gIve rIse Lo probI ems). TIe LogeLIerness oI sInguIurs Is
sI nguI urI Ly "ILseII." L "ussembIes" LIem InsoIur us IL spuces L Iem;
LIey ure " I I nked" InsoIur us LIey ure noL unI I I ed.
Ac c or dI ng Lo LIese condI L I ons, BeI ng us beI ng- wI L I mI gIL no
Ionger be ubIe Lo suy ILseII In LIe L II rd person, us In "I L Is" or "LIere
Is." Becuuse LIere wouI d no Ionger be u poI nL oI vI ew LIuL Is exLe-
rIor Lo beI ng-LogeLIer I r om wII c I I L couI d be unnounced LIuL
"LIere Is" beI ng und u beI ng- wI L I oI beIngs, one wI L I LIe oLIer.
TIere wouI d be no "I L Is" und, LIereIore, no Ionger LIe " um" LIuL
Is subjucenL Lo LIe unnouncemenL oI LIe "I L I s. " RuLIer, IL wouI d
be necessury Lo L II nk LIe LII rd-person sInguIur In LIe IIrsL person.
As sucI, LIen, I L becomes LIe I I rsL-person pI uruI . BeI ng couI d noL
speuk oI ILseII excepL I n LIIs unI que munner: "we ure." TIe L ruL I
oI LIe eo sum Is LIe nos sumus, LIIs "we" unnounces ILseII LIrougI
IumunI L y Ior uII LIe beIngs "we" ure wI L I, Ior exIsLence In LIe sense
oI beIng-essenLIuI I y-wILI, us u BeI ng wIose essence Is LIe wI L I.
( "One wI I I speuk . . . ": WI I c I one? We wI I I speuk: WI o Is LIIs
"we"? H o w cun suy "us" Ior LIose oI you wIo ure reudI ng LIIs?
Ho w cun suy "us" Ior me? AI L IougI LIIs Is wIuL we ure In LIe
process oI doI ng, Iow do we L II nk LogeLIer, wIeLIer we ure " I n
uccord" or noL? H o w ure we wI L I one unoLIer? AI I oI LIIs I s Lo usk:
WIu L I s uL pI uy I n our c ommunI c uL I on, I n LIIs book, I n ILs sen-
Lences, und I n LIe wIoI e sI L uuL I on LIuL more or Iess gIves L Iem
some meunI ng? | TII s I s LIe| quesL I on oI pII I osopIy us "I I L eru-
Lure," wII cI Is ubouL uskI ng Iow Iur IL Is possIbIe Lo Luke LIe L II rd-
q ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
person dIscourse oI pII I osopIy. AL wIuL poI nL musL onL oI ogy be-
come . . . wIuL? Become conversuLIon? Become I yrI cI sm? . . . TIe
sLrIcL concepLuuI rI gor oI beI ng- wI L I exusperuLes LIe dIscourse oI
ILs concepL. . . . )
WIu L I s known us "socIeLy," LIereIore, I n LIe broudesL und mosL
dIIIuse sense oI LIe wor d, Is LIe IIgure [chijjre] oI un onL oI ogy yeL
Lo be puL I nL o pIuy. Rousseuu presenLed |u gI I mpse oI | IL by muk-
I ng LIe poorI y numed "conLrucL" LIe very evenL LIuL "mude u creu-
Lure oI InLeIIIgence und u mun . . . I rom u sLupI d, I I mI L ed unI muI , "
q
und noL sI mpI y un urrungemenL beLween I ndI vI duuI s. (NI eLzscIe
conII rms LIIs presenLuLIon In u purudoxIcuI wuy wIen ZuruLIusLru
suys, " Iumun socIeLy: LIuL Is un experI menL . . . u I ong seurcI . . .
und notc, ' conLrucL' ".
q o
) Mu r x suw I L wIen Ie quuI I II ed IumunI L y
us socIuI In ILs very orI gI n, producL I on, und desLI nuLI on, und wIen
LIe enLIre movemenL und posLure oI IIs L II nkI ng ussIgned BeI ng
I LseI I Lo LIIs socIuI beI ng. HeI degger desIgnuLed I L I n posI L I ng be-
I ng- wI L I us consLI LuLI ve oI beIng-LIere. No one, Iowever, Ius rud-
IcuIIy LIemuLIzed LIe "wI L I" us LIe essenLIuI LruIL oI BeI ng und us ILs
proper pI ur uI sI nguI ur coessence. BuL LIey Iuve brougIL us, Lo-
geLIer und I ndI vI duuI I y, Lo LIe poI nL wIere we cun no Ionger uvoI d
L II nkI ng ubouL LIIs I n Iuvor oI LIuL Lo wII cI uII oI conL emporury
experIence LesLIIIes. n oLIer words, wIuL Is uL sLuke Is no I onger
L II nkI ng:
-begI nnI ng Irom LIe one, or Irom LIe oLIer,
-begI nnI ng Irom LIeIr LogeLIerness, undersLood now us LIe One,
now us LIe OLIer,
-buL LIInkIng, ubsoIuLeIy und wILIouL reserve, begInnIng Irom LIe
"wI LI, " cs the proper essence oj one uhose ein is nothin other thcn
uith-one-cnother |I'un-uvec-I'uuLre|.
TIe oneJLIe oLIer I s neILIer "by," nor "Ior," nor " I n , " nor "de-
spILe," buL ruLIer " wI L I. " TII s "wI L I" Is uL once boLI more und Iess
LIun "reI uLIon" or " bond, " especIuIIy I I sucI reIuLIon or bond pre-
supposes LIe prexIsLence oI LIe Lerms upon wII c I I L reIIes; LIe
"wI L I" Is LIe exucL conL emporury oI ILs Lerms; IL Is, In IucL, LIeI r
conLemporuneILy. " WI L I " Is LIe sIurI ng oI LIme-spuce; IL Is LIe uL-
LIe-sume-LIme-In-LIe-sume-pIuce us ILseII, In ILseII, sIuLLered. L Is
LIe InsLunL scuIIng buck oI LIe prI ncI pI e oI I denLI Ly: BeI ng Is uL LIe
sume LI me I n LIe sume pIuce onI y on LIe condI L I on oI LIe spucIng oI
un IndeIInILe pI uruI I Ly oI sInguIurILIes. BeI ng Is wI L I BeI ng; IL does
noL ever recover ILseII, buL IL Is neur Lo ILseII, besIde ILseII, In L oucI
wI LI ILseII, ILs very seII, In LIe purudox oI LIuL proxI mI L y wIere dIs-
LuncI ng [eloinement] und sLrungeness ure reveuIed. We ure eucI
LIme un oLIer, eucI LI me wI L I oLIers. " WI L I " does noL IndIcuLe LIe
sIurIng oI u c ommon sI LuuLI on uny more LIun LIe j uxLuposI LI on oI
pure exLerIorILIes does (Ior exumpIe, u bencI wI L I u Lree wI L I u dog
wI L I u pusser-by).
TIe quesLIon oI BeI ng und LIe meunI ng oI BeI ng Ius become LIe
quesLIon oI beI ng-wI L I und oI beIng-LogeLIer (I n LIe sense oI LIe
worId). TII s Is wIuL Is sIgnIIIed by |our| modern sense oI unxIeLy,
wII cI does noL so mucI reveuI u "crIsIs oI socIeLy" buL, InsLeud, re-
veuIs LIuL LIe "socIuIILy" or "ussocIuLIon" oI Iumuns Is un I nj uncL I on
LIuL IumunI L y pIuces on ILseII, or LIuL IL receIves Irom LIe worI d: Lo
Iuve Lo be onI y wIuL IL Is und Lo Iuve Lo, ILseII, be BeI ng us sucI.
TII s sorL oI I ormuI u Is pr I mur I I y u desperuLe LuuLoI ogIcuI ubsLruc-
L I o n-u nd LIIs Is wIy we ure uII worrI ed. Ou r Lusk Is Lo breuk LIe
Iurd sIeII oI LIIs LuuLoIogy. WIu L I s LIe beI ng-wI LI oI BeIng?
n one sense, LIIs Is LIe orI gI nuI sILuuLIon oI LIe WesL LIuL Is uI -
wuys repeuLIng ILseII; IL Is uIwuys LIe probI em oI LIe cILy, LIe repeLI-
LIon oI wII cI, Ior beLLer or worse, Ius uIreudy puncLuuLed our IIs-
Lory. Toduy, LIIs repeLILIon produces ILseII us u sILuuLIon In wII cI LIe
Lwo mujor eIemenLs [donnees] compose u sorL oI unL I nomy: on LIe
one Iund, LIere Is LIe exposure oI LIe wor I d und, on LIe oLIer, LIe
end oI represenLuLIons oI LIe wor I d. TII s meuns noL II ng sIorL oI u
LrunsIormuLIon In LIe reIuLIon |LIuL we nume| "poIILIco-pIIIosopIy":
IL cun no Ionger be u muLLer oI u sIngIe communI L y, oI ILs essence,
cIosure, und sovereIgnLy; by conLrusL, IL cun no Ionger be u muLLer
oI orgunI zI ng c ommunI L y uccordI ng Lo LIe decrees oI u sovereIgn
OLIer, or uccordI ng Lo LIe telos [ IIns| oI u IIsLory. L cun no Ionger
be u muLLer oI LreuLIng socIubII ILy us u regreLLubIe und InevILubIe uc-
6 ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
;
cIdenL, us u consLruInL LIuL Ius Lo be munuged In some wuy or un-
oLIer. Co mmunI L y Is bure, buL IL Is ImperuLIve.
On LIe one sIde, LIe concepL oI c ommunI L y or LIe cI Ly Is, I n
every sense, dIIIrucLed. L Is LIuL wII cI sIgnIIIes LIe cIuoLIc und muI -
LI Iorm uppeurunce oI LIe InIrunuLIonuI , suprunuLIonuI, puru-nuLIonuI
und, moreover, LIe dIs-I ocuLIon oI LIe "nuLI onuI " I n generuI. On LIe
oLIer sIde, LIe concepL oI communI L y uppeurs Lo Iuve ILs own preIIx
us ILs onI y conLenL: LIe cum, LIe uith deprI ved oI subsLunce und
connecLI on, sLrIpped oI InIerIorILy, subjecLIvILy, und personuIILy. E I -
LIer wuy, sovereIgnLy Is noL II ng.
q 1
SovereIgnLy Is noL II ng buL LIe
com-, us sucI, IL Is uIwuys und I ndeII nI LeI y "Lo be compI eLed, " us In
com- munI s m or com-pussIon.
TII s Is noL u muLLer oI L II nkI ng LIe unnI II I uLI on oI sovereIgnLy. L
I s u muLLer oI L II nkI ng L IrougI LIe I oI I owI ng quesL I on: I sover-
eI gnLy Is LIe grund, poI I L I cuI L erm Ior deI I nI ng c ommunI L y (ILs
Ieuder or ILs essence) LIuL Ius noL II ng beyond ILseII, wI L I no I oun-
duLI on or end buL ILseII, wIuL becomes oI sovereIgnLy wIen IL Is re-
veuIed LIuL IL Is noL II ng buL u sInguIurI y pI uruI spucIng? Ho w Is one
Lo L II nk sovereIgnLy us LIe "noL II ng" oI LIe "wI L I" LIuL Is I uI d bure?
AL LIe sume LI me, II poI I LI cuI sovereIgnLy Ius uIwuys sIgnIIIed LIe re-
IusuI oI domI nuL I on (oI u sLuLe by unoLIer or by u cIurcI, oI u peo-
pIe by someL II ng oLIer LIun I LseI I), Iow Is one Lo L II nk LIe bure
sovereIgnLy oI LIe " wI L I" und uguInsL domI nuL I on, wIeLIer LIIs Is
LIe domI nuL I on oI beIng-LogeLIer by some oLIer meuns or LIe dom-
I nuLI on oI LogeLIerness by ILseII (by LIe reguIuLIon oI ILs "uuLomuLIc"
conLroI)? n IucL, one couI d begIn Lo descrIbe LIe presenL LrunsIor-
muL I on oI "poI I LI cuI spuce"
q z
us u LrunsILIon Lowurd "empI re, " wIere
empI re sIgnIIIes Lwo LII ngs: (I) domI nuL I on wI L IouL sovereIgnLy
(wI LIouL LIe eIuboruLIon oI sucI u concepL); und (z) LIe dI sLuncI ng,
spucI ng, und pI uruI I L y opposed Lo LIe concenLruLI on oI I nLerI orI Ly
requIred by poI I LI cuI sovereIgnLy. TIe quesLI on LIen becomes: Ho w
Is one Lo L II nk LIe spucIng oI empI re uguInsL ILs domI nuLI on?
n one wuy or unoLIer, bure sovereIgnLy (wII cI Is, In u wuy, Lo
LrunscrIbe BuLuIIIes noLI on oI sovereIgnLy) presupposes LIuL one Luke
u cerLuI n dIsLunce I rom LIe poI I L I co-pII I osopII cuI order und I rom
LIe reuIm oI "poI I LI cuI pII I osopIy. " TII s dIsLunce Is noL Luken In or-
der Lo enguge In u depoIILIcIzed L II nkI ng, buL In order Lo enguge In u
L II nkI ng, LIe sILe oI wII cI Is LIe very consLI LuLI on, I mugI nuLI on, und
sIgnIIIcuLIon oI LIe poI I LI cuI , wII cI uIIows LIIs L II nkI ng Lo reLruce ILs
puLI In ILs reLreuL und begI nnI ng Irom LIIs reLreuL. TIe reLreuL oI LIe
poI I LI cuI does noL sIgnIIy LIe dIsuppeurunce oI LIe poI I LI cuI . L onI y
sIgnIIIes LIe dIsuppeurunce oI LIe pIIIosopIIcuI presupposILIon oI LIe
wIoI e poI I L I co-pII I osopII cuI order, wII cI Is uIwuys un onLoI ogI cuI
presupposILIon. TII s presupposI LI on Ius vurIous Iorms; IL cun con-
sIsL In L II nkI ng BeI ng us communI L y und communI L y us desLInuLIon,
or, on LIe conLrury, L II nkI ng BeI ng us unLerIor und ouLsIde LIe order
oI socIeLy und, us sucI, L II nkI ng BeI ng us LIe uccIdenLuI exLerIorILy
oI commerce und power. BuL , In LIIs wuy, beIng-LogeLIer Is never
properI y |brougIL Lo LIe Iore us un expIIcIL| LIeme und us LIe onLo-
IogIcuI probI em. TIe reLreuL oI LIe poI I L I cuI
q
Is LIe uncoverI ng, LIe
onLoI ogI cuI I uyI ng bure oI beI ng-wI LI.
BeI ng sI nguI ur pI uruI : I n u sIngIe sLroke, wI L IouL puncL uuL I on,
wI L IouL u murk oI equIvuIence, I mpI I cuL I on, or sequence. A sIngIe,
conL I nuous- dI sconL I nuous murk L rucI ng ouL LIe enLI reLy oI LIe
onLoI ogI cuI domuI n, beI ng-wI LI-I LseI I desIgnuLed us LIe " wI L I" oI
BeI ng, oI LIe sInguIur und pI uruI , und deuI Ing u bI ow Lo onL oI ogy -
noL onI y unoLIer sIgnIIIcuLIon buL uIso unoLIer synLux. TIe "meun-
I ng oI BeI ng" : noL onI y us LIe "meunI ng oI wI L I, " buL uIso, und
ubove uI I , us LIe " wI L I" oI meunI ng. Becuuse none oI LIese LIree
Lerms precedes or grounds LIe oLIer, eucI desIgnuLes LIe coessence
oI LIe oLIers. TII s coessence puLs essence I LseI I I n LIe IypIen-
uL I on-"beI ng- sI nguI ur- pI uruI "-wII cI Is u murk oI unI on und uIso
u murk oI dI vI sI on, u murk oI sIurIng LIuL eIIuces ILseII, IeuvIng eucI
Lerm Lo ILs I soI uLI on cndhs beIng-wILI-LIe-oLIers.
r om LIIs poI nL Iorwurd, LIen, LIe unI L y oI un onL oI ogy musL be
sougIL I n LIIs LrucLI on, I n LIIs druwI ng ouL, I n LIIs dI sLuncI ng und
spucI ng wII c I I s LIuL oI BeI ng und, uL LIe sume L I me, LIuL oI LIe
sInguIur und LIe pI uruI , boLI In LIe sense LIuL LIey ure dIsLIncL I rom
one unoLIer und I ndI sL I ncL . n sucI un onLoI ogy, wII cI I s noL un
"onLoI ogy oI socIeLy" In LIe sense oI u "regIonuI onLoI ogy, " buL on-
8 ein Sinulcr Plurcl
LoI ogy ILseII us u "socIuIILy" or un "ussocIuLIon" more orI gI nury LIun
uII "socIeLy," more orI gI nury LIun "I ndI vI duuI I L y" und every "essence
oI BeI ng. " BeI ng Is uith, IL Is cs the uith oI BeI ng ILseII (LIe cobeI ng
oI BeI ng), so LIuL BeI ng does noL I denLI Iy ILseII cs such
((
(cs ein
oj the bein), buL shous itselj |se pose|, ites itselj occurs, dis-poses
itselj '(mude evenL, IIsLory, und worI d) us ILs own sI nguI ur pI uruI
uith. n oLIer words, ein is not uithout ein, wII c I Is noL un-
oLIer mIserubIe LuuLoI ogy us I ong us one undersLunds IL In LIe co-
orI gI nury mode oI beIng-wILI-beIng-ILseII.
Accor dI ng Lo LIIs mode, BeI ng Is sI muI Luneous. JusL us, In order
Lo suy BeI ng, one musL repeuL IL und suy LIuL "BeI ng I s, " so BeI ng Is
onI y sI muI Luneous wI L I ILseII. TIe L I me oI BeI ng (LIe LI me LIuL I L
Is) Is LIIs sI muI LuneI Ly, LIIs coI ncI dence LIuL presupposes " I nc I -
dence" I n generuI. L ussumes movemenL , dI spI ucemenL , und de-
pI oymenL ; I L ussumes LIe orI gI nury LemporuI derIvuLIve oI BeI ng,
ILs spucIng.
n one sense, LIIs Is uII u muLLer oI repeuLIng LIe ArI sLoLeI I un ux-
I om pollcls leomenon, BeI ng Is suId In muny wuys. BuL Lo suy IL
once more, uccordI ng Lo LIe " wI L I, " LIe "uIso," LIe "uguIn" oI u IIs-
Lory LIuL repeuLs LIIs excuvuLIon und druwI ng ouL [trcction] oI Be-
I ng, LIe sI nguI urI L y oI BeI ng I s ILs pI uruI . BuL LIIs pI uruI I L y I s no
Ionger suId In muI L I pI e wuys LIuL uII begIn I rom u presumed, sIngIe
core oI meunI ng. TIe muI L I pI I cI Ly oI LIe suId (LIuL Is, oI LIe suyIngs)
beIongs Lo BeI ng us ILs consL I L uL I on. TII s occurs wI L I eucI suId,
wII cI Is uIwuys sInguIur; IL occurs In eucI suId, beyond eucI suId,
und us LIe muI L I pI I cI L y oI LIe LoLuIILy oI beI ng [l'etcnt en totclite].
BeI ng, LIen, does noL coI ncI de uith ILseII unIess LIIs coI ncI dence
I mmedI uLeI y und essenLIuIIy murks ILseII ouL [se remcrque] uccordIng
Lo LIe ^sL rucL ure oI ILs occurrence [l'etenement] (ILs I ncI dence, en-
counLer, ungIe oI decI I nuL I on, sIock, or dIscordunL uccord). BeI ng
coI ncI des wI L I BeI ng: IL is LIe spucIng und LIe unexpecLed urrIvuI
[surtenue], LIe unexpecLed spucIng, oI LIe sInguIur pI uruI co-.
L mI gIL be usked wIy IL Is sLI I I necessury Lo cuI I LIIs " BeI ng, "
sInce LIe essence oI IL Is reduced Lo u preIIx oI BeI ng, reduced Lo u
co- ouLsIde oI wII cI LIere wouI d be noL II ng, noL II ng buL beIngs
or exIsLences [les existcnts], und wIere LIIs co- Ius none oI LIe sub-
ein Sinulcr Plurcl q
sLunce or consI sLency proper Lo " BeI ng" us sucI. TII s Is, I n IucL,
LIe muLLer I n quesL I on. BeI ng consIsLs I n noL II ng oLIer L Iun LIe
exIsLence oI uII exIsLences [tous les existcnts]. However, LIIs consIs-
Lency ILseII does noL vunI sI I n u cI oud oI juxLuposed beIngs. WIu L
um L r yI ng Lo I ndI cuLe by speukI ng oI "dI s-posI L I on" Is neI LIer u
sI mpI e posI L I on nor u j uxL uposI L I on. nsLeud, LIe co- deIInes LIe
unI L y und unIqueness oI wIuL Is, I n generuI. WIu L I s Lo be under-
sLood Is precIseIy LIe consL I L uL I on oI LIIs unI que unI L y us co-: LIe
sinulcr plurcl.
(ncIdenLuIIy, one couI d sIow wI L IouL muc I LroubIe LIuL LIIs I s
u quesLI on LIuL Ius been Luken up und repeuLed LIrougIouL u I ong
LrudI LI on: In eIbnIz' s monudoI ogy, In uII LIe vurIous consIderuLIons
oI LIe "orIgInury dI vI sI on, " und, mosL oI uI I , I n uII LIe vurIous Iorms
oI LIe dIIIerence beLween LIe I n-I LseI I und LIe Ior-ILseII. BuL exucLIy
wIuL Is I mporL unL Is LIIs repeLI LI on, LIe concenLruLI on on und re-
peuLed excuvuLIon oI LIe ques L I on-wII c I does noL necessurIIy sIg-
nIIy some sorL oI progress or degeneruLIon, buL ruLIer u dIspIuce-
menL, u IIL oI, or drI IL L owurd someL II ng eIse, L owurd unoLIer
pII I osopII cuI posLure.)
AL LIe very IeusL, und provIsIonuIIy, one couI d Lry Lo suy IL In LIe
I oI I owI ng wuy: IL Is no more u muLLer oI un orI gI nury muI L I pI I cI L y
und ILs correI uLI on (I n LIe sense oI LIe One dI vI dI ng ILseII I n un
urcI-dIuIecLIcuI munner, or In LIe sense oI LIe uLoms' reIuLIonsIIp Lo
LIe cI I numen) LIun IL Is u muLLer oI un orI gI nury unI L y und ILs dI vI -
sI on. n eILIer cuse, one musL L II nk un unLerIorILy oI LIe orI gI n uc-
cordI ng Lo some evenL LIuL Iuppens Lo IL unexpecLedIy (even II LIuL
evenL orIgInuLes wI L II n IL). L Is necessury, LIen, Lo L II nk pIuruI unI Ly
orIgInurIIy. TII s Is I ndeed LIe pIuce Lo L II nk LIe pI uruI us sucI.
n uL I n, plus Is compurubI e Lo multus. L Is noL "numerous"; IL Is
"more. " L Is un Increuse or excess oI orI gI n In LIe orI gI n. To puL IL
In Lerms oI LIe modeI s jusL uI I uded Lo ubove: LIe One Is more LIun
one; IL Is noL LIuL "I L dIvIdes ILseII," ruLIer IL Is LIuL one equuIs more
LIun one, becuuse "one" cunnoL be counLed wI L IouL counL I ng more
LIun one. Or , I n LIe uLomI sL modeI , LIere ure uLoms plus LIe cI I nu-
men. BuL LIe cI I numen Is noL someL II ng eIse, unoLIer eIemenL ouL-
sIde oI LIe uLoms; IL Is noL In uddI L I on Lo LIem; IL Is LIe "more" oI
q o ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
qI
LIeIr exposI LI on. BeI ng muny, LIey cunnoL buL I ncI I ne or decI I ne;
LIey ure ones In reIuLIon Lo oLIers. mmobI I I L y or LIe puruIIeI IuII
[lc chute pcrcllel] wouI d do uwuy wI L I LIIs exposI LI on, wouI d re-
L urn Lo LIe pure posI L I on und noL dI sLI nguI sI ILseII I rom LIe One -
pureIy-one (or, In oLIer words, I rom LIe OL Ier). TIe One us pureIy
one Is Iess LIun one; IL cunnoL be, be puL In pIuce, or counLed. One
us properI y one Is uIwuys more LIun one. L Is un excess oI unI L y; IL
Is one-wI LI-one, wIere ILs BeI ng In ILseII Is copresenL.
TIe co- ILseI I und us sucI, LIe copresence oI BeI ng, Is noL pre-
senLubIe us LIuL BeI ng wII cI "I s, " sInce IL Is onI y In LIe dI sLuncI ng.
L Is unpresenLubI e, noL becuuse IL occupI es LIe mosL wI L Idr uwn
und mysLerI ous regI on oI BeI ng, LIe regI on oI noLII ngness, buL
quI Le sI mpI y becuuse IL Is noL subjecL Lo u I ogI c oI presenLuLI on.
NeI L Ier presenL nor Lo be presenLed (nor, us u resuIL, "unpresenL-
ubIe" In LIe sLrIcL sense), LIe "wI L I" Is LIe (sInguIur pIuruI) condI -
L I on oI presence I n generuI |undersLood| us copresence. TII s co-
presence Is neILIer u presence wI LIdruwn InLo ubsence nor u presence
in ILseII or jor ILseII.
L Is uIso noL pure presence to, Lo itselj Lo others, or Lo LIe uorld. n
IucL, none oI LIese modes oI presence cun Luke pIuce, InsoIur us
presence Lukes pIuce, unIess copresence IIrsL Lukes pIuce. As sucI,
no sIngIe subjecL couI d even desIgnuLe itselj cnc relcte itselj Lo ILseII
us subjecL. n LIe mosL cIussIcuI sense oI LIe Lerm, u subjecL noL onI y
ussumes ILs own dI sL I ncL I on I rom LIe objecL oI ILs represenLuLIon or
musLery, IL uIso ussumes ILs own dI sLI ncLI on I rom oLIer subjecLs. L Is
possIbIe, L Ien, Lo dI sL I nguI sI LIe IpseILy oI LIese oLIer subjecLs
(wII cI Is Lo suy, LIe uesILy) jrom |d'uvec| ILs own source oI repre-
senLuLIon or musLery. TIereIore, LIe wI L I Is LIe supposI LI on oI LIe
"seII" In generuI. BuL LIIs supposI LI on Is no Ionger subjucenL Lo LIe
seII, In LIe sense oI un InIInILe seII-presupposILIon oI sub-jecLIve sub-
sLunce. As ILs synLucLIc I uncLI on IndIcuLes, "wI L I" Is LIe pre-posILIon
oI LIe posI LI on In generuI; LIus, IL consLILuLes ILs dI s-posI LI on.
TIe "seII," oI LIe "seII" In generuI, Lukes pIuce wI L I beIore Luk-
I ng pIuce us ILseII undJor us LIe oLIer. TII s "useILy" oI LIe seII Is un-
LerIor Lo LIe sume und Lo LIe oLIer und, LIereIore, unLerIor Lo LIe
dI sLI ncLI on beLween u conscIousness und ILs worI d. BeIore pIenom-
enoIogIcuI I nLenLI onuI I Ly und LIe consL I L uL I on oI LIe ego, buL uIso
beIore L II ngI I ke consIsLency us sucI, LIere Is co-orI gI nurI Ly uccord-
I ng Lo LIe wI L I. ProperI y speukIng, LIen, LIere Is no unLerIorILy: co-
orI gI nurI Ly Is LIe mosL generuI sLrucLure oI uI I con-sIsLency, uI I con-
sLI LuLI on, und uI I con-scIousness.
| TII s Is| presence-wI LI: uith us LIe excIusIve mode oI beI ng-
presenL, sucI LIuL beI ng presenL und LIe presenL oI BeI ng does noL
coI ncI de In ILseII, or wI L I ILseII, I nusmucI us IL coI ncI des or "IuIIs
wI L I" |"Lombe uvec"| LIe oLIer presence, wII c I ILseII obeys LIe
sume Iuw. BeI ng-muny-LogeLIer Is LIe orI gI nury sILuuLIon; IL Is even
wIuL deIInes u "sI L uuL I on" I n generuI. TIereI ore, un orI gI nury or
LrunscendenLuI "wI L I" demunds, wI L I u puIpubIe urgency, Lo be dIs-
enLungI ed und urLI cuI uLed Ior ILseII. BuL one oI LIe greuLesL dI I I I -
cuILIes oI LIe concepL oI LIe wI L I Is LIuL LIere Is no "geLLIng buck
Lo" or "up Lo" [remonter] LIIs "orI gI nury" or "LrunscendenLuI " posI -
L I on; LIe wI L I Is sLrIcLIy conLemporuneous wI L I uI I exIsLence, us IL
Is wI L I uII L II nkI ng.
CoexIsLence
L Is no uccIdenL LIuL c ommunI s m und socI uI I sm oI uII sorLs ure
responsIbIe Ior un essenLIuI purL oI LIe seL oI expecLuLIons LIuL be-
I ong Lo LIe moder n wor I d. TIey ure responsIbIe Ior LIe Iope oI u
rupLure und I nnovuL I on I rom wII cI LIere Is no L ur nI ng buck; IL Is
LIe Iope Ior u revoI uL I on, u re-creuLIon oI LIe wor I d. L becomes
cIeurer Lo us every duy LIuL IL Is noL enougI Lo sLIgmuLIze LIe errors,
IIes, und crI mes oI "exIsLIng versIons oI socI uI I sm" us "nuLI onuI so-
cI uI I sms. " RepresenLed pr I mur I I y I n LIe ussured und demundI ng
conscIousness oI " Iumun rI gILs, " moruI und poI I L I cuI condemnu-
L I on uIwuys runs LIe rI sk oI usI ng ILs I nconLesLubI e I egI L I mucy Lo
musk unoLIer I egI LI mucy, wII c I wus und sL I I I I s LIuL oI un I rre-
ducI bI e demund LIuL we be cupubIe oI suyIng "we," LIuL we be cu-
pubIe oI suyIng we Lo ourseIves (suyIng IL ubouL ourseIves Lo one un-
oLIer), begI nnI ng I rom LIe poI nL wIere no Ieuder or G o d cun suy
I L Ior us. TII s demund I s I n no wuy secondury, und LIIs I s wIuL
gIves IL ILs LerrIbIe power Lo unIeusI, subverL, resIsL, or sweep uwuy.
)* ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
)+
Becuuse noL beI ng ubIe Lo suy "we" Is wIuL pI unges every " , "
wIeLIer I ndI vI duuI or coIIecLIve, I nL o LIe I nsunI Ly wIere Ie cunnoL
suy " " eILIer. To wunL Lo suy "we" Is noL uL uI I senLI menLuI , noL uL
uI I I umI I I uI or " communI L ur I un. " L Is exIsLence recI uI mI ng ILs due
or ILs condI L I on: coexI sLence.
q
I LIe "socIuIIsL" Iope us sucI Iud Lo be undersLood us un I I I usI on
or u LrIck, LIen LIe meunI ng LIuL currIed IL uIong, LIe meunI ng wII cI
vI oI enLI y munIIesLed ILseII LIrougI IL, wus uII LIe beLLer I I I umI nuLed.
L wus noL u quesLIon oI subsLI LuLI ng LIe ruIe oI LIese peopIe Ior LIe
ruIe oI LIose peopIe, subsLILuLIng LIe domI nuL I on oI LIe "musses" Ior
LIuL oI LIeIr musLers. L wus u quesLIon oI subsLILuLIng u sIured sov-
ereIgnLy Ior domI nuL I on In generuI, u sovereIgnLy oI everyone und oI
eucI one, buL u sovereIgnLy undersLood noL us LIe exercIse oI power
und domI nuL I on buL us u prcxis oI meunI ng. TIe LrudI LI onuI sover-
eIgnLIes (LIe LIeoI ogI co-poI I LI cuI order) dI d noL Iose power (wII cI
onI y ever sIIILs I rom pIuce Lo pIuce), buL IosL LIe possIbIIILy oI muk-
I ng sense. As u resuIL, meunI ng I LseI I -LIuL Is, LIe "we"-demunded
ILs due, II one cun LuIk In LIese wuys. WIu L we musL remember Is
LIuL wIuL Mur x undersLood by uIIenuLIon wus boLI LIe uIIenuLIon oI
LIe proIeLurIuL cnd LIe uI I enuLI on oI LIe bourgeoIsIe (Indeed, un
uIIenuLIon oI LIe "we," buL one LIuL wus usymmeLrIcuI, unequuI), und
LIuL LIIs Is prI murI I y un uIIenuLIon oI meunI ng. BuL Mur x sLIII IeIL LIe
quesLIon oI LIe upproprI uLI on or reupproprIuLIon oI meunI ng I n sus-
pense-I or exumpIe, by IeuvIng open LIe quesLIon oI wIuL musL be
undersLood by "Iree Iubor." n LI me, LIIs suspense opened onLo LIe
demund Ior unoLIer onLoI ogy oI LIe "generIc beI ng" oI IumunI L y us
"essenLIuIIy socIuI": u co-onLoIogy.
TIus , LIe dI sencIunLmenL or dIsurruy oI our IIn de sIcIe cunnoL
conLenL ILseI I wI L I mour nI ng LIe pussIng oI socIuIIsL vI sI ons, uny
more LIun IL cun comI orL ILseII by repI ucIng L Iem wI L I u nuIve coI -
I ecL I on oI new " communI L ur I un" LIemes. TII s dI sencIunL menL
does someL II ng eIse; IL desIgnuLes our mujor unxIeLy, LIe one LIuL
mukes "us" wIuL "we" ure Loduy; we exIsL us LIe unxIeLy oI "socIuI
BeI ng" us sucI, wIere "socIuIILy" und "socIeLy" ure concepLs pI uI nI y
InudequuLe Lo ILs essence. TII s Is wIy "socIuI BeI ng" becomes, In u
wuy LIuL I s uL II rsL I nI I nI L eI y poor und probI emuL I c, "beI ng- I n-
c ommon, " "beI ng-muny, " "beI ng-wI LI-one-unoLIer, " exposI ng LIe
"wI LI" us LIe cuLegory LIuL sLIII Ius no sLuLus or use, buL I rom wII cI
we receIve everyLIIng LIuL mukes us L II nk und everyLIIng LIuL gIves
"us" Lo L II nkI ng.
AL LIe very momenL wIen LIere Is no Ionger u " c ommund posL"
I rom wII cI u "socIuIIsL vI sI on" couI d puL Iorwurd u subjecL oI IIs-
Lory or poI I L I cs, or, In un even brouder sense, wIen LIere Is no
Ionger u "cI Ly" or "socIeLy" ouL oI wII cI u reguIuLIve IIgure couI d
be modeI ed, uL LIIs momenL beI ng-muny, sII eI ded I rom uI I I nL u-
I L I on, I r om uI I represenLuLIon or I mugI nuL I on, presenLs ILseII wI L I
uII LIe ucuILy oI ILs quesLI on, wI L I uII LIe sovereIgnLy oI ILs demund.
TII s quesLI on und demund beI ong Lo LIe consL I L uL I on oI beI ng-
muny us sucI und, LIereIore, beI ong Lo LIe consLI LuLI on oI pI uruI I Ly
in BeI ng. L Is Iere LIuL LIe concepL oI coexIsLence Is sIurpened und
mude more compI ex. L Is remurkubIe LIuL LIIs Lerm sLI I I serves Lo
desIgnuLe u regIme or sLuLe more or Iess I mposed by exLrI nsI c cI r-
cumsLunces. L Is u noL I on wIose Lone oILen oscIIIuLes beLween I n-
dIIIerence und resIgnuLIon, or even beLween coIubI LuLI on und con-
L umI nuL I on. AI wuys subjecL Lo weuk und unpIeusunL connoLuLI ons,
coexIsLence desIgnuLes u consLruI nL, or uL besL un uccepLubIe con-
comI Lunce, buL noL wIuL Is uL sLuke In beI ng or essence, unIess In
LIe I orm oI un I nsurmounLubI e uporIu wI L I wII cI one cun onI y ne-
goLIuLe. L Is un "unsocI ubI e socI ubI I I Ly" LIuL probubI y wouI d noL
even suLIsIy KunL IImseII, now LIuL ILs purudox no I onger serves us
u guI de Lo uny L II nkI ng L IrougI oI LIe perIecLubI I I Ly oI peopI es,
buL ruLIer serves us u pudendum Lo LIe cynI cI sm known us "I I ber-
uI I sm. " BuL I I beruI I sm I s sIowI ng uI I LIe sIgns oI exIuus L I on-uL
LIe very IeusL, exIuusLIon In Lerms oI meunI ng-s I nc e, uL LIe coI -
Iupse oI "socI uI I sm, " IL cun onI y respond by desIgnuLIng LIe "socIuI"
und LIe "socI oI ogI cuI " us reIuLIveIy uuL onomous spIeres oI ucLI on
und knowI edge. RepuI r I ng IrucLures or descrI bI ng sLrucLures wI I I
never be ubIe Lo Luke LIe pIuce oI u L II nkI ng oI BeI ng ILseII us beIng-
LogeLIer. TIe IIberuI response Lo LIe coIIupse oI c ommunI s m, LIen,
InvoIves noL II ng more LIun un euger repressIon oI LIe very ques-
L I on oI beI ng- I n- c ommon ( wII cI so-cuI I ed reuI c ommunI s m re-
pressed under u c ommon BeI ng) . No w LIuL LIIs purLI cuI ur ques-
qq ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl q
LI on Is LIe onI y one Lo Iuve come Lo IIgIL, IL wI I I noL Ieuve us uIone;
I L wI I I noL sLop croppI ng up uguIn, sInce "we" ure I n quesLI on I n I L.
WIu L comes Lo I I gIL, LIen, Is noL u "socI uI " or "communI L urI un
dI mensI on" udded onLo u prI mI L I ve I ndI vI duuI gIven, even II IL were
Lo occur us un essenLIuI und deL ermI nI ng uddI L I on. (JusL L II nk oI
LIe numerous cIrcumsLunces oI ordI nury dIscourse In wII cI LIIs or-
der Is I mposed on us: IIrsL LIe I ndI vI duuI , LIen LIe group; IIrsL LIe
one, LIen LIe oLIers; IIrsL LIe rIgILs-beurIng subjecL; LIen reuI reIu-
LI onsII ps; I I rsL " I ndI vI duuI psycIoI ogy, " LIen "coIIecLIve psycIoI -
ogy"; und ubove uI I , IIrsL u "subjecL," LIen "I nL ersubj ecL I vI L y"-us
LIey usLonI sII ngI y persIsL In suyIng.) L Is noL even u quesLI on oI u
socIuIILy or uILerILy LIuL wouI d come Lo cuL ucross, compI I cuLe, puL
I nL o pIuy, or clter LIe prI ncI pI e oI LIe subjecL undersLood us solus
ipse. L Is someL II ng eIse und sLI I I more. L does noL so muc I deLer-
mI ne LIe prI ncI pI e oI LIe ipse, wIuLever LIIs muy be ( "I ndI vI duuI "
or "coIIecLIve, " InsoIur us one cun speuk In LIese wuys), us IL code-
LermI nes IL uith LIe pI uruI I L y oI ipses, eucI one oI wII c I Is co-
orI gI nury und coessenLIuI Lo LIe wor I d, Lo u wor I d wII cI I rom LIIs
poI nL on deIInes u coexIsLence LIuL musL be undersLood In u sL I I I -
unIeurd- oI sense, exucLI y becuuse IL does noL Luke pIuce " I n " LIe
worI d, buL InsLeud Iorms LIe essence und LIe sLrucLure oI LIe worI d.
L Is noL u neurness [toisince] or c ommunI L y oI ipses, buL u co-
IpseILy: LIIs Is wIuL comes Lo I I gIL, buL us un enI gmu wI L I wII cI
our L II nkI ng Is conI ronLed.
n LwenLI eLI-cenLury pII I osopIy, LIe HeI deggerI un onL oI ogy oI
Mitsein Is sLI I I no more LIun u skeLcI ( wI I I come buck Lo LII s).
HusserI I un coexIsLence or c ommunI L y reLuIns ILs sLuLus us correIu-
LIve Lo eo, wIere "soI I psI sLI c" egoI ogy remuI ns IIrsL pII I osopIy.
OuL sI de pII I osopIy, IL Is remurkubIe LIuL IL Is noL socIuI und poI I L -
IcuI LIeory wII cI Ius mosL cIoseIy upproucIed LIe enI gmu oI u co-
IpseILy (und us u resuIL, LIe enI gmu oI u IeLero-IpseILy). RuLIer wIuL
Ius come cIosesL Lo co-I pseI Ly Is, on LIe one Iund, un eL InoI ogy
LIuL ends up beI ng more enguged wI L I LIe pIenomenu oI comem-
bersII p
q 6
und, on LIe oLIer, LIe reud oI LIe second modeI , LIe LrIpIe
deL ermI nuL I on oI wII c I Is consLI LuLed uccordI ng Lo u mecIunI cuI
coexIsLence (wIuL ure LIe " I d " und "superego" I I noL beI ng-wI L I, I I
noL LIe coconsL I L uL I on oI LIe "ego"?). TIe sume couI d be suId Ior
LIe ucunI un LIeory oI "sIgnIIIcunce," InsoIur us IL does noL br I ng
ubouL u reLurn Lo sI gnI II cuLI on, buL u muL uuI I y I nsL I L uL I ng correIu-
LIon oI "subjecLs" (Lo LIe exLenL LIuL LIe ucunI un " OL Ier " Is uny-
L II ng buL un " OL Ier " : sucI u nume Is u L IeoI ogI zI ng resIdue LIuL
serves Lo desIgnuLe "socIuLIon").
However, IL Is jusL us remurkubIe LIuL psycIounuIysIs sLI I I repre-
senLs LIe mosL I ndI vI duuI prucLIce LIere Is, und, moreover, repre-
senLs u sorL oI purudoxIcuI prI vuLI zuLI on oI someL II ng LIe very Iuw
oI wII cI I s "reIuLIon" I n every sense oI LIe wor d. CurI ousI y, wIuL
Iuppens Iere muy be LIe sume us wIuL Iuppens In LIe economy:
"subjecLs" oI excIunge ure LIe mosL rI gorousI y co-orI gI nury; cnd
LIIs muLuuI orIgInurILy vunIsIes In LIe unequuI upproprI uLI on oI ex-
cIunge, sucI LIuL LIIs coexIsLence vunIsIes In u sLrong sense. L Is
no uccIdenL, LIen, I I Mu r x und reud represenL Lwo dIIIerenL, yeL
symmeLrI cuI , projecLs; eucI puLs IorLI un I ndI ssocI ubIy LIeoreLIcuI
und prucLI cuI uLLempL Lo geL uL " beI ng- I n- c ommon" us u crI L I cuI
poI nL (oI dIsorder I n one, oI sIckness I n LIe oLIer) oI IIsLory or cIv-
I I I zuLI on. I u brI eI summur y Is uI I owed Iere, wouI d suy LIuL, be-
cuuse LIere Ius been no "socIuIIsL economy" (buL onI y sLuLe cupI -
LuIIsm), jusL us LIere Ius been no "coIIecLIve psycIounuIysIs" (unIess
by meuns oI u proj ecLI on oI un I ndI vI duuI modeI ) , LIere IIes be-
Lween economI cs und psycIounuIysIs LIe bure spuce oI u "beI ng-
LogeLIer" wIose L IeoI ogI co-poI I L I cuI presupposI LI on Ius been ex-
IuusLed, und wII c I reuppeurs onI y I n reucLIve spurLs. TII s spuce
Ius become gI obuI , wII c I does noL sI mpI y meun IL Ius spreud ouL
over LIe enLIre surIuce oI LIe pI uneL und beyond, buL LIuL IL Ius
emerged us LIe surIuce oI wIuL Is uL pIuy In LIe depLIs: LIe essence
oI beI ng-wI L I.
TII s process oI gI obuI I zuLI on resuILs In u couIescence, u concen-
LruLIon LIuL seems Lo be boL I unI I or m und unonymous und, uL LIe
sume L I me, un uL omI zuL I on, u codI spersI on LIuL seems Lo be gIven
over Lo IdIocy. TII s Is I dI ocy In LIe sense oI LIe Greek idiotes, meun-
I ng prIvuLe or IgnorunL person, us weI I us I dI ocy In LIe modern sense
oI sLupI d I mpeneLrubI I I L y ("prIvuLe properLy" us deprI ved oI meun-
I ng). L seems, LIen, LIuL LIe dIuIecLIc Mu r x LIougIL Ie Ioresuw un-
q 6 ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
q;
I oI dI ng uppeurs Lo be deIInILIveI y bI ocked, LIe dIuIecLIc oI un " I ndI -
vI duuI " upproprIuLIon LIuL wouI d medIuLe wI L II n ILseII LIe momenLs
oI prIvuLe properLy und coIIecLIve properLy. AL LIe sume LI me, LIIs
seems Lo conI I rm deIInILIveIy LIe reudI un conLrusL beLween u pos-
sIbIe cure oI LIe nervous I ndI vI duuI und LIe I ncurubI e muIuIse oI
cI vI I I zuL I on. TII s dIuIecLIc, LIIs conLrusL, und LIeIr uncommunI cu-
LIve und puruI yzI ng conI ronL uL I on I ndI cuLe LIe knoL oI quesLIons,
expecLuLIons, und unxIeLIes oI un epocI. Ho w cun beIng-LogeLIer
upproprIuLe ILseII us sucI, wIen IL Is IeIL up Lo ILseII Lo be wIuL IL Is,
wIen IL Is presenLed In u I ormuI uLI on LIuL Is sLrIpped down und Ius
no subsLunLI uI presupposI L I on or, I n oLIer Lerms, Iucks symboI I c
I denLI II cuLI on? WIu L becomes oI beI ng- wI L I wIen LIe uith no
Ionger uppeurs us u corn-posI LI on, buL onI y us u dIs-posILIon?
Ho w ure we Lo undersLund LIe co- us dis-? WI I c I one oI LIese Is
LIe "us sucI" oI BeI ng LIuL exposes IL us ILs own sIurI ng und wII cI
expresses LIuL, us BeI ng, IL Is beLween BeI ng und BeI ng ILseII? A n d
moreover, wIuL Is IL LIuL brI ngs LogeLIer In BeI ng LIuL "us" = "us
sucI" und "us" = "sImIIurIy"? EucI LI me, BeI ng us sucI Is BeI ng us
LIe BeI ng oI c beI ng, und IL Is LIIs eucI LI me, sI mI I urI y. WIu L Is IL
LIuL mukes BeI ng us sucI u beI ng-sI mI I ur wII cI cIrcuIuLes I rom be-
I ng Lo beI ng und wII cI, LIereby, I mpI I es LIe dIspurILy, dI sconL I nu-
ILy, und sI muI LuneI Ly requIred Ior guugI ng u "resembIunce"? WIu L
I s LIIs com-pI I cuLI on (co-I mpI I cuLI on und compI exILy) by wII cI Iu-
muns e x II bI L -wI L II n LIe dIscourse oI LIe sI mI I ur und LIe dI ssI m-
IIur, u dIscourse wII cI Is very dIIIIcuIL und puLs "IumunI L y" us sucI
I nL o p I u y -u cerLuIn (dI s)sI mI I urI Ly oI BeI ng LIuL crosses L IrougI
uI I beIng? Ho w cun BeI ng us sucI be unyL II ng oLIer L Iun LIe
(dI s)sI mI I urI Ly oI beI ng I n ILs sImuILuneILy?
To suy LIuL LIIs quesL I on I s un onL oI ogI cuI que s L I o n-o r even
LIuL IL Is the onLoI ogI cuI quesLI on, ubsoI uL eI y-does noL meun we
Iuve Lo Ieuve LIe reuIm oI economIcs und sIckness, uny more LIun
we Iuve Lo ubundon LIe order oI prcxis. On LIe conLrury, us Iuve
uIreudy suId, LIIs quesLI on Is sI mpI y LIuL oI wIuL Is cuIIed "cupI LuI , "
und even LIe quesLIon oI "II sLory" und "poI I LI cs. " " OnL oI ogy" does
noL occur uL u IeveI reserved Ior prI ncI pI es, u IeveI LIuL Is wI L I-
dr uwn, specuIuLIve, und uILogeLIer ubsLrucL. Ls nume meuns LIe
L II nkI ng oI exIsLence. A n d Loduy, LIe sI LuuLI on oI onL oI ogy sI gnI -
IIes LIe I oI I owI ng: Lo L II nk exIsLence uL LIe IeIgIL oI LIIs cIuIIenge
Lo L II nkI ng LIuL Is gIobuIness [mondiclite] us sucI (wII cI Is desIg-
nuLed us "cupI LuI , " "(de-)WesLernI zuLI on, " "LecInoI ogy, " "rupLure
oI IIsLory, " und so IorLI).
CondI LI ons oI CrI L I que
TIe reLreuL oI LIe poI I LI cuI und LIe reIIgIous, or oI LIe LIeoIogIco-
poI I L I cuI , meuns LIe reLreuL oI every spuce, I orm, or screen I nL o
wII cI or onL o wII cI u I I gure oI communI L y couI d be projecLed. AL
LIe rI gIL L I me, LIen, LIe quesLI on Ius Lo be posed us Lo wIeLIer
beIng-LogeLIer cun do wI L IouL u IIgure und, us u resuIL, wI L IouL un
I denLI I I cuLI on, I I LIe wIoI e oI ILs "subsLunce" consIsLs onI y I n ILs
spucIng. BuL LIIs quesLIon cunnoL be urLIcuIuLed In u compI eLeI y up-
proprI uLe wuy unL I I LIe I uI I exLenL oI LIe wI L IdruwuI oI ILs I I gure
und I denL I L y Ius been grusped. Toduy, wIen L II nkI ng moves Loo
quIckIy, wIen IL Is IeurIuI und reucLIonury, IL decIures LIuL LIe mosL
commonI y recognIzed Iorms oI IdenLIIIcuLIon ure IndIspensubIe und
cI uI m LIuL LIe desLInIes proper Lo L Iem ure used up or perverLed,
wIeLIer I L be: "peopI e, " "nuL I on, " " cIur cI, " or "cuI Lure, " noL Lo
menLI on LIe conIused "eLInIcILy" or LIe LorLuous "rooLs." TIere Is u
wIoIe punorumu oI membersII p und properLy, Iere, wIose poI I LI cuI
und pII I osopII cuI II sLory Ius yeL Lo be wr I L L en
q ;
: IL Is LIe II sLory oI
LIe represenLuLIon-oI-seII us LIe deL ermI nI ng eIemenL oI un orI gI -
nury concepL oI socIeLy.
TIe reLreuL presenLs ILseII In Lwo wuys uL once: on LIe one Iund,
LIe LIeoI ogI co-poI I LI cuI wI LIdruws I nL o LIe reuI m oI I uw
q 8
; on LIe
oLIer, IL wI LIdruws I nL o u seII-represenLuLIon LIuL no Ionger reIers
Lo un orI gI n, buL onI y Lo LIe voI d oI ILs own specuIurILy.
PussIng I nL o LIe reuI m oI I uw eIIecLIveIy dI vI des LIe "poI I L I cuI "
In Lwo: LIere Is LIe I ormuI ubsLrucLIon oI LIe Iuw, wII cI undoubL -
edIy "does rI gIL " by every purL I cuI urI L y und every reI uLI on, buL
wI L IouL gI vI ng LIIs rIgIL uny meunI ng oLIer L Iun ILseII; und LIen
LIe reuIILy oI LIe reIuLIon oI I orces-wIeL Ier economI c, LecInI cuI ,
or LIe Iorces oI pussI on-sL unds ouL I n u pr onounced und uu-
q 8 ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
qq
L onomous IusIIon, LIuL Is, unIess I uw ILseII underLukes Lo seL ILseII
up us un orI gI n or I ounduL I on, In LIe I orm oI un ubsoIuLe uw [lc
Loi]. (L Is Iere LIuL psycIounuIysIs seeks, In u remurkubIe wuy, Lo
IucIIILuLe u subsLunLIuI und uuLIorI LurI un vI sI on oI socIeLy.) uw us
sucI Is necessurIIy LIe uw oI un OLIer, or LIe uw us OLIer. TIe
OL Ier I mpI I es ILs nonrepresenLubIIILy. n u LIeoI ogI cuI reuI m, LIIs
cun gIve rIse Lo un "I nL erdI cL I on oI represenLuLIon" LIuL supposes
LIe sucred nuLure oI LIe OL Ier und, uI ong wI L I IL, un enLIre econ-
omy oI LIe sucred, sucrIIIcIuI, II erurcII cuI , und IeI ropIunLI c, even
wIere LIe L IeopIuny und L IeoI ogy ure neguLIve. Access Lo Pres-
ence, und even Lo u "super-presence, " Is uIwuys preserved. BuL
wI L II n un uLIeoIogIcuI reuI m, LIIs I nLerdI cLI on becomes u denI uI oI
represenLuLIon; LIe uILerILy oI LIe Iuw eILIer reLrIeves, represses, or
denIes ILs orI gI n, und ends In LIe sInguIur presence oI eucI one Lo
LIe oLIers. n LIIs sense, someL II ng "unrepresenLubIe" or "unI I g-
urubIe" runs LIe rIsk oI reveuIIng ILseII us compI eLeI y oppressIve und
LerrIIyIng, II noL LerrorIsL, open Lo LIe unguIsI oI un orI gI nury uck.
n conLrusL, LIe "IIgure" proves ILseII Lo be cupubIe oI openI ng onL o
LIe "wI L I" us ILs border, LIe very I I mI L oI ILs ouLI I ne.
( OI course, LIese Lwo "reuIms" do noL jusL I oI I ow one unoLIer I n
u IIsLory. TIe y ure eucI und boL I I mpI I cuL ed I n LIe I nL erdI cL I on
uguInsL represenLuLIon undJor LIe unxI eLy ubouL I L, LIuL Is, In LIe
quesLI on ubouL guI nI ng uccess Lo LIe orIgIn(s), u quesLI on ubouL ILs
possI bI I I LyJI mpossI bI I I Ly. )
So IL Is noL so muc I u quesLI on oI denyI ng I uw ILseII, IL Is more u
quesLI on oI "doI ng rI gIL" by LIe sInguIur pI uruI oI LIe orI gI n. As u
resuIL, IL Is u muLLer oI quesLI onI ng I uw ubouL wIuL we mI gIL cuI I
ILs "orI gI nury unurcIy" or LIe very orI gI n oI LIe I uw In wIuL Is "by
uII rIgILs wI L IouL uny rI gIL": exIsLence unjusLIIIubIe us sucI. To be
sure, LIe derI vuLI on or deducL I on oI I uw I rom LIe unj usLI II ubI I I Ly oI
exIsLence Is noL I mmedI uL e or obvIous. n essence, IL muy even es-
cupe LIe process oI u "deducLI on" uILogeLIer. BuL LIIs remuIns Lo be
LIougIL; I n LIe meunL I me, I uw wI L IouL onL oI ogy reubsorbs BeI ng
und ILs meunI ng I nLo LIe empL y L ruL I oI uw. To ussume LIuL poI -
ILIcs Is enLIreI y u quesLI on oI " Iumun rIgILs" Is uIso Lo ussume sur-
repLILIousI y LIuL "mun" Is enLIreIy u quesLI on oI LIe OLIer. TII s Is
wIuL Is mosL oILen uL work In uny cuII Lo "eLIIcs": u LrunscendenLuI
unpresenLubI I I Ly oI LIuL mosL concreLe presence.
On LIe oLIer sIde oI LIIs reLreuL, Iowever, IL Is represenLuLIon LIuL
LrI umpIs, ubsorbI ng enLIreIy boL I LIe LrunscendenLuI und LIe con-
creLe. WIu L does LIe I mpoverI sIed wor d "socIeLy" now suy wIen IL
Is empL I ed oI uII "socIuLIon" or "ussocIuLIon, " noL Lo menL I on emp-
LIed oI LIe "communI L I es" und "IruLernILIes" LIuL consLILuLe our I m-
uges oI pr I mI L I ve IIIe (LIe consL rucL I on oI wII c I Ius, I n generuI,
sIown ILseII Lo be IunLusLIcuI)? WIu L Is IeIL seems Lo be noL II ng
more LIun LIIs "socIeLy" Iuce Lo Iuce wI L I ILseII, beIng-socIuI ILseII
deIIned by LIIs gume oI mI rrors, und I osI ng ILseII I n LIe scI nLI I I uL-
I ng pIuy oI I I gIL und Imuges. L Is noL u muLLer oI LIe OL Ier or oL I-
ers, buL oI u sInguIur pI uruI LIuL Is subsumed by meuns oI ILs own
curIosILy ubouL ILseII, subsumed wI L II n u generuIIzed equIvuIence oI
uII LIe represenLuLIons oI ILseII LIuL IL gIves ILseII Lo consume.
TII s Is cuIIed "LIe specLucuIur-murkeL socIeLy" or "LIe socIeLy oI
LIe specLucIe." TII s Is LIe posL -MurxI sL or meL u-MurxI sL I nL uI L I on
oI SI L uuL I onI sm. L L II nks oI " commodI L y IeLI sII sm, " or LIe domI -
nuLI on oI cupI LuI , us beI ng uccompI I sIed by LIe generuI c ommodI -
I I cuLI on oI IeLIsIes, I n LIe producL I on und consumpL I on oI muLerIuI
und symboI I c "goods" LIuL uII Iuve LIe cIurucLer oI beI ng un I m-
uge, I I I usI on, or uppeurunce (und wIere, In IucL, democruLI c rIgILs
Lops LIe IIsL oI sucI "goods"). TIe "good, " oI wII cI LIe "specLucIe"
Is LIe generuI I I I usI on, Is onI y LIe reuI seI I-upproprI uLI on oI socIuI
BeI ng. An order sLrucLured uccordI ng Lo u vIsIbIe dI vI sI on oI socIeLy,
LIe jusLIIIcuLIon Ior wII cI Is I ound onI y In un I nvI sI bI e beyond (re-
I I gI on, IdeuI), Is succeeded by un I mmunenL order LIuL, I I ke vI sI bI I -
ILy ILseII, ImILuLes ILs seI I-upproprI uLI on uL every poI nL . TIe socIeLy
oI LIe specLucIe Is LIuL socIeLy wII c I ucIIeves uI I enuL I on by un
I mugI nury upproprI uLI on oI reuI upproprI uLI on. TIe secreL oI LIe I I -
I usI on consIsLs In LIe IucL LIuL reuI upproprI uLI on musL consIsL onI y
In u Iree, seII-creuLIng I mugI nuL I on LIuL Is I ndI ssocI ubI y I ndI vI duuI
und coIIecLIve: LIe specLucuIur c ommodI L y In uII ILs Iorms consIsLs
essenLIuIIy In LIe Imugery [imcincire] LIuL IL seIIs us u repIucemenL
Ior uuLIenLI c I mugI nuL I on. As sucI, L Ien, unI versuI commerce I s
consL I L uL ed by u represenLuLI on wIereI n exIsLence I s boL I un I n-
o ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
'
venLI on und u seII-upproprIuLIng evenL. A subjecL oI represenLuLIon,
LIuL Is, u subjecL reduced Lo LIe s um or IIux oI represenLuLIons
wII cI IL purcIuses, Is LIe pIuceIoIder LIuL IuncLIons us u subjecL oI
BeI ng und IIsLory. ( TII s Is wIy LIe repI y Lo LIe specLucIe Is Ior-
muI uL ed us LIe Iree creuLI on oI LIe "sI LuuLI on": LIe upproprI uL I ng
evenL ubrupLI y removed I rom LIe IogIc oI LIe specLucIe. TII s Is uIso
wIy SI L uuL I onI sm, LIe oI I sprI ng oI severuI urLIsLIc movemenL s,
reIers Lo u purudI gm oI urLI sLI c creuLI on LIuL Is nonuesLIeLI c or
muybe even unLIuesLIeLIc.)
n LIIs wuy, SI LuuLI onI sm (wII cI do noL reuIIy wunL Lo go I nLo
Iere, buL wunL Lo LreuL us u s ympL om
q q
) , und some oI ILs oIIsIooLs
I nLo vurIous sorLs oI unuIyses concernI ng LIe seII-sImuIuLIon und seII-
conL roI oI our socIeLy, undersLunds LIuL Mu r x I s m mIssed LIe mo-
menL oI symboI I c upproprI uL I on by conI usI ng I L wI L I LIuL oI pro-
ducLI ve upproprI uL I on, or even by L II nkI ng LIuL sucI producLI ve
upproprI uLI on musL be seII-producIng und, LIereby, move beyond IL-
seII I nLo symboI Ic upproprIuLIon: LIe seII-suppressIon oI cupILuI us LIe
InLegruI reupproprI uLI on oI BeI ng us c ommunuI exIsLence. Mor e
specIIIcuIIy, LIey undersLund LIuL IL Is LIIs sorL oI seII-surpussIng LIuL
does I ndeed Luke pIuce. BuL IL does noL Luke pIuce by brI ngI ng ubouL
un upproprIuLIon oI beI ng-I n-common undersLood us symboIIc BeI ng
(LukIng smbol In LIe sLrong sense oI beI ng u bond oI recognILIon, un
onLoI ogI cuI InsLunce oI LIe " I n- c ommon, " IIke Murx' s bond oI "Iree
Iubor" wIere everyone produces II mseI I or IerseII us u subjecL uith
oLIers und us u subjecL oJ^beIng-wILI-one-unoLIer). nsLeud, LIIs seII-
surpussIng Lukes pIuce us LIe symboI I zuL I on oI producL I on ILseII,
wII cI uIIows Ior coexIsLence onI y In LIe Iorm oI LIe LecInIcuI or eco-
nomI c co-ordI nuLI on oI LIe vurIous commodI L y neLworks.
SI L uuL I onI sm LIus undersLunds LIuL LIe " Iumun scIences" Iuve
come Lo consLILuLe LIIs seI I-symboI I zuLI on oI socIeLy, wII cI Is noL,
In IucL, u symboI I zuL I on buL onI y u represenLuLIon und, more pre-
cIseIy, LIe represenLuLIon oI u subjecL LIuL Ius no subjecLIvILy oLIer
LIun LIIs represenLuLIon ILseII. n IucL, IL Lurns ouL Lo be quI Le cIeur
LIuL LIe " Iumun scIences" (even In LIeIr vurIous crI LI cuI cupucILIes,
wIere LIese cupucILIes do noL L urn I nL o un I nsI dI ous I orm oI "su-
per-represenLuLIon") ure LIe reuI sLrengLI beII nd wIuL Is known
us LIe generuI Ized "specLucIe." Here, LIe gruvI Ly oI LIe quesL I on
concernI ng LIe "medI u" comes Lo LIe Iore. " MedI uL I zuL I on" does
noL depend on overbI own Iype, wII cI Is noL II ng new In ILseII; nor
does IL depend on LecInoI ogI cuI or economI c power us sucI. L
depends pr I mur I I y on LIe IucL LIuL u socIeLy gIves ILseII ILs repre-
senLuLIon In LIe guIse oI symboI I sm. TII s Is uIso wIy IL Ius sucI u
cupucILy Ior ubsorbI ng ILs own crI L I que und ILs own rebeI I I ous,
I ronI c, or dI sLunced presenLuLIons. A sorL oI generuI psycIosocI oI -
ogy Lukes LIe pIuce oI LIe presupposI LI on oI u IIgure or I denL I L y oI
beIng-socIuI.
n LIIs respecL, SI LuuLI onI sm Is noL wrong Lo dIscern mIsery uL LIe
very IeurL oI ubundunce, u symboI I c mI sery LIuL does noL excIude
susLuIned muLerIuI mIsery und cerLuIn peopIe's deprI vuLI on, In pur-
LIcuIur LIe mI sery oI muc I oI LIe souLIern IemI spIere. . . . TIe
mIsery oI LIe "specLucIe" numes LIuL coexIsLence wIere LIe co- ends
up reIerrIng Lo noL II ng by wII cI exIsLence couI d symboI I ze ILseII
uccordIng Lo ILseII. TIuL Is, uL LIe very momenL wIen IL exposes I L-
seII und proves Lo be LIe enLIre properLy oI BeI ng, IL Is noL II ng by
wII cI exIsLence suys ILseII us sucI, noL II ng by wII cI IL mukes sense
oI BeI ng. AL LIuL very momenL wIen LIe onI y oLIer L II ng LIuL I s
gIven uI ong wI L I exIsLence Is exI sLence-wI LI us LIe spuce Ior de-
pI oymenL und upproprI uLI on, LIe co- Is noL II ng LIuL cun muke sense.
BeIng-LogeLIer Is deII ned by beIng-LogeLIer-uL-LIe-specLucIe, und
LIIs beIng-LogeLIer undersLunds ILseII us un I nversI on oI LIe repre-
senLuLIon oI ILseII, wII cI IL beIIeves Lo be cupubIe oI gI vI ng ILseII us
orIgInury (und IosL): LIe Greek cI Ly ussembIed In communI L y uL LIe
LIeuLer oI ILs own myLIs. An exumpIe oI Loduy's response mI gIL be
LIe I oI I owI ng udverLIsemenL, wII cI ILseII consLILuLes u specLucuIur
und dI sL urbI ng recuperuLIon oI LIe SI LuuLI onI sL crI LI que: "ooL buI I
mukes uII oLIer urL Iorms I nsI gnI I I cunL . "
o
n uny cuse, IL Is precIseIy LIIs IndeIInILe cupucILy Ior recuperuLIng
LIe SILuuLIonIsL crI LI que LIuL demunds uLLenLI on. TIe denuncI uL I on
oI mere uppeurunce eIIorLIessIy moves wI L II n mere uppeurunce, be-
cuuse IL Ius no oLIer wuy oI desI gnuLI ng wIuL Is pr oper -L IuL Is,
nonuppeurunce-excepL us LIe obscure opposILe oI LIe specLucIe.
SInce LIe specLucIe occupIes uII oI spuce, ILs opposILe cun onI y muke
z ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ein Sinulcr Plurcl

ILseII known us LIe I nupproprI ubI e secreL oI un orI gI nury properLy
II dden beneuLI uppeurunces. TII s I s wIy LIe opposILe oI deceILIuI
"I mugery" Is creuLIve " I mugI nuL I on, " LIe modeI Ior wII c I Is sL I I I
someL II ng I I ke LIe RomunL I c genIus. Accor dI ng Lo sucI u modeI ,
LIe urLIsL pIuys LIe purL oI LIe producLIve-subjecL, buL sLIII uccord-
I ng Lo LIe sLrucLure oI un onLoI ogI cuI presupposI LI on LIuL InvoIves
no specIIIc I nLerroguLI on oI LIe " c ommon" or " I n- c ommon" oI Be-
I ng, nor oI LIe meunI ng oI BeI ng LIuL I s I n quesLI on.
We musL, LIereIore, undersLund Iow LIIs versIon oI MurxI sL crI -
LIque, und uII LIe versIons oI crILIcuI L II nkI ng InuuguruLed by Mu r x
(wIeLIer LIey be LIe more "IeILIsL" versIons or LIe more "socIoIogI-
cuI " ones, LIose oI BuLuIIIe or LIe runkIurL ScIooI , und so on), In
some wuy obscured, in stctu ncscendi, LIe correcLness oI ILs own I n-
L uI L I on. TII s wus LIe I nL uI L I on oI socIeLy exposed Lo ILseII, esLubIIsI-
I ng ILs beIng-socIuI under no oLIer IorI zon LIun I LseI I-LIuL Is, wI L I-
ouL u IorI zon oI MeunI ng In wII cI Lo reIuLe beIng-LogeLIer us sucI,
wI L IouL un InsLunce oI corn-posILIon us socIeLy's dIs-posILIon spIuyed
open und I uI d bure. BuL LIIs very I nL uI L I on Is InLerpreLed onI y us LIe
reIgn oI uppeurunce, us LIe subsLI LuLI on oI LIe specLucIe Ior uuLIen-
LIc presence; uppeurunce Is undersLood, Iere, In LIe mosL cIussIcuI
wuy, numeIy, us "mere uppeurunce" (surIuce, secondury exLerIorILy,
InessenLIuI sIudow), und even us "IuIse uppeurunce" (sembIunce, de-
cepLIve I mI LuLI on). n LIIs respecL, crI LI que remuIns obedIenL Lo LIe
mosL LrencIunL und "meLupIysIcuI" LrudI LI on oI pIII osopIy, "meLu-
pIysI cuI " In LIe NI eLzscIeun sense: LIe reIusuI Lo consIder un order
oI "uppeurunces," preIerrIng, InsLeud, uuLIenLIc reuIILy (deep, I I vI ng,
or I gI nur y-und uIwuys on LIe order oI LIe OL Ier).
WI L I I n LIIs LrudI LI on, I L I s over und uguInsL LIe demund oI I nLeI -
IIgIbIe reuIILy LIuL sensIbIe uppeurunce Ius been consLILuLed und dIs-
regurded uII In LIe sume gesLure, jusL us pI uruI I L y Ius been consLI -
LuLed und dIsregurded Ior LIe suke oI LIe requI remenL oI unI Ly.
I kewI se, pubI I c uppeurunce Ius been consLI LuLed und dIsregurded
In Iuvor oI un InLerIor und LIeoreLIcuI reuIILy (LII nk oI PIuLo's TIues,
wIo wus InepL In LIe uIIuIrs oI LIe cILy), und wIen uuLIenLIc reuIILy
wus demunded In LIe poI I LI cuI or communI L urI un order, IL Iuppened
uL LIe cosL oI reIeguLIng LIe poI I LI cuI or LIe communI L urI un Lo InLe-
rIorILy, und uL LIe cosL oI sI mpI y dI sregurdI ng "socI uI " exLerI orI Ly
(LIe spIere oI LIe exLerIorILy oI needs und excIunges, LIe spIere oI
worI dI y uppeurunce, und so IorLI). TIe SI LuuLI onI sL crI L I que con-
LI nued Lo reIer essenLIuIIy Lo someL II ng I I ke un I nLernuI L ruL I (des-
IgnuLed, Ior exumpI e, by LIe nume "desIre" or "I mugI nuL I on"), LIe
wIoIe concepL oI wII cI Is LIuL oI u subjecLIve upproprIuLIon oI "Lrue
IIIe," ILseII LIougIL oI us orI gI n proper, us seII-depIoymenL und seII-
suLIsIucLIon. n LIIs, SI L uuL I onI sm demonsLruLes LIe neurIy consLunL
cIurucLerIsLIc oI LIe modern crI LI que oI exLerIorILy, uppeurunce, und
socIuI uI I enuL I on-uL IeusL, sInce Rousseuu.
cerLuI nI y do noL wunL Lo suggesL by LIIs LIuL LIe crI L I que oI
uI I enuLI on, I I I usI on, or I deoI ogy I s IneIIecLuuI. BuL we do Iuve Lo
wonder Lo wIuL exLenL LIe crI LI que oI uI I enuLI on Is ILseII In dunger
oI remuI nI ng subjecL Lo unoLIer, symmeLrI cuI uI I enuLI on oI LIe sorL
LIuL um L ryI ng Lo poI nL ouL by reIerrIng Lo dIIIerenL specIes oI LIe
OLIer, wII c I Is sLI I I Lo suy LIe Sume or LIe OneseI I oI u unI que,
excIusIve, und egoIsLIc upproprI uL I on, Iowever eo Is Lo be under-
sLood (wIeLIer generIc, c ommunI L ur I un, or I ndI vI duuI ) . On un-
oLIer IeveI, one couI d suy LIuL LIIs Is u more or Iess expI I cI L reIer-
ence Lo "nuLure": unIversuI nuLure, Iumun nuLure, nuLuruI Lo eucI
person or nuLuruI Lo u peopI e. TIe Ideu oI nuLure reLuIns wI L II n I L-
seII LIe domI nunL LIeme oI seII-suIIIcIency, oI seI I-orgunI zuLI on,
und oI u process orIenLed Lowurd un end sLuLe. TII s sorL oI nuLure Is
uL u remove I rom exLerI orI Ly und conLI ngency, wII c I, I n oLIer
pIuces, ure murks oI u "nuLure" LIuL Is "ouLsIde" us, Lo wII cI we ure
exposed und wI L IouL wII c I our exposI LI on wouI d noL Luke plcce.
SI mI I urI y, LIe eo Is I rom LIe very sLurL removed I rom LIuL exLerI-
orILy und conLI ngency wI L IouL wII cI IL Is I mpossI bI e Lo expose IL
cs eo.
BoL I LIe LIeory und pruxIs oI crI L I que demonsLruLe LIuL, I rom
now on, crI LI que ubsoIuLeIy needs Lo resL on some prI ncI pI e oLIer
LIun LIuL oI LIe onL oI ogy oI LIe OL Ier und LIe Sume: IL needs un
onL oI ogy oI beIng-wILI-one-unoLIer, und LIIs onL oI ogy musL sup-
porL boL I LIe spIere oI "nuLure" und spIere oI "II sLory, " us weI I us
boLI LIe " Iumun" und LIe " nonIumun" ; I L musL be un onL oI ogy
Ior LIe wor I d, Ior ever yone-und II cun be so boI d, IL Ius Lo be
q
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl

un onL oI ogy Ior eucI und every one und Ior LIe wor I d "us u LoLuI -
ILy," und noL II ng sIorL oI LIe wIoI e wor I d, sInce LIIs Is uI I LIere Is
(buL, In LIIs wuy, LIere Is cll).
As LIe IusL greuL I orm oI rudI cuI crI L I que, SI L uuL I onI sm wus no
sLrunger Lo LIIs necessILy. DespI L e everyLII ng, ILs crI L I que wor ked
ILseII ouL wII I e gI vI ng IILLIe pIuy Lo |LIe prucLIce oI | reIerrIng socI -
eLy Lo u modeI oI some sorL. TII s Is undoubL edI y wIere ILs rupLure
wI L I vurIous Mur xI s ms wus mosL decIsIve und wIere, wI L I some
oLIers und purL I y I n Murx' s nume, I L oIIered one oI LIe I I rsL und
mosL vI ruI enL crILIques oI wIuL wus unL I I jusL recenLIy cuIIed "reuI"
socI uI I sm und uIso socIuI-democrucIes. As u resuIL, SI LuuLI onI sm Ius
brougIL Lo I I gIL ruLIer weI I , uI LIougI noL Lo ILs IuIIesL exLenL, LIe
LIeme oI reIerrIng socIeLy buck Lo ILseII. TIe "socIeLy oI LIe spec-
LucIe" Is boL I u denuncI uL I on (oI LIe generuIIzed specLucIe-murkeL)
und un uIII rmuLI on oI socIeLy IucI ng ILseI I und, muybe even more
so, LIe uIIIrmuLIon oI socIeLy cs exposed Lo ILseII und onI y Lo ILseII.
We musL, LIereIore, pose LIe I oI I owI ng Lwo quesLIons uL LIe sume
LI me:
1. H o w cun one know I n wIuL wuy und jusL Iow Iur c r I L I q u e -
boL I revoI uLI onury crI LI que, I nc I udI ng ILs mosL recenL munI IesLu-
LIons, und uIso so-cuIIed reIormIsL cr I L I que-r emuI ns purudoxI cuI Iy
und unconscI ousI y subjecL Lo u cIussIcuI modeI In wII c I reuIILy Is
opposed Lo uppeurunce und unI L y I s opposed Lo pI uruI I Ly? ( TII s
modeI ussumes LIuL u cerLuIn NI eLzscIeun Iesson Is consLunLIy mI s-
undersLood or uvoIded wI L II n LIe crILIcuI LrudI LI on und, uL LIe sume
LI me, LIuL LIe wIoI e quesLI on oI wIuL cun be cuIIed "urL" I rom LIe
poI nL oI vI ew oI socIuI crI LI que remuIns more or Iess unLoucIed. )
n oLIer words, Lo wIuL exLenL do "crI L I cuI " L II nkI ng und LIe "crI L-
I cuI " uLLILude us sucI enLuII LIIs subjecLIon (II "crI LI que" uIwuys pre-
supposes LIe possI bI I I Ly oI unveI I I ng LIe I nL eI I I gI bI I I L y oI LIe reuI),
und wIuL oLIer uLLILude Is necessury, wIere un uLLILude oI resIgnu-
L I on Is ouL oI LIe quesLIon?
z. Ho w cun one know II LIe "specLucIe" Is, In one wuy or unoLIer,
u consLI LuLI ve dI mensI on oI socIeLy? TIuL Is, Iow cun one know I I
wIuL I s cuI I ed "socI uI reI uLI on" cun be L IougIL oI uccordI ng Lo
someL II ng oLIer L Iun LIe symboI I c order, und I I LIe symboI I c or-
der cun, I n L urn, be LIougIL oI I n some wuy oLIer LIun uccordI ng
Lo LIe order oI "I mugI nuL I on" or "II guruLI on, " uI I oI wII cI IndIcuLes
LIe necessILy oI L II nkI ng uII LIese Lerms In u new wuy? Onc e uguIn,
"urL" wouI d come I nLo pIuy, buL onI y uccordI ng Lo u L II nkI ng LIuL Is
quILe dIIIerenL I rom uskI ng LIe LrI vI uI quesLI on ubouL "urL und so-
cIeLy" und, uL LIe sume LI me, uccordI ng Lo u wIoI I y dIIIerenL L II nk-
I ng oI "urL" ILseII, und oI wIuL we mI gIL I ncI ude under LIe Ieud-
I ng "crI LI cuI urL."
TIese quesLI ons serve us LIe progrummuL I c IeudI ng oI some
IuIIer I nquI ry. wI I I noL Luke L Iem boL I on uL once, becuuse eucI
one Is Loo enormous In ILseII. wI I I onI y uLLempL Lo open some dII-
IerenL wuys oI upproucII ng L Iem.
AL LIe very IeurL oI LIe L rudI L I on, IL musL be suId LIuL "I nL eI I I gI -
bIe reuIILy" cun onI y be LIe reuIILy oI the sensible us s uc I-u nd LIuL
LIe "I nLeI I I gI bI e reuIILy" oI LIe c ommunI L y cun onI y be LIe reuIILy
oj bein-in-common us sucI. TII s Is wIy reducLI on Lo or subsump-
LI on I n I nL eI I I gI bI I I L y (deu, ConcepL , SubjecL) reguIurIy comes I nL o
LensIon wI L I its oun requI remenL LIuL IL provI de un I nL eI I I gI bI I I L y
oI LIe sensIbIe LIuL occurs wI L II n sensIbIIILy, Ior IL und rI gIL uL [c
meme] IL; LIIs Is oILen so IorceIuI un opposI L I on LIuL IL Ieuds Lo u
rupLure, wIere sensIbIe I nLeI I I gI bI I I Ly eILIer breuks upurL or dIssoIves
ILseII uILogeLIer.
WIu L comes Lo us Loduy Is LIe demund Lo gIve LIe meunI ng oI
beI ng-I n-common uccordI ng Lo wIuL IL I s-i n- c ommon or uith-
und noL uccordI ng Lo u BeI ng or un essence oI LIe c o mmo n. As
sucI, IL Is LIe demund Lo gIve LIe meunI ng oI beI ng-wI LI rI gIL uL
LIe wI L I, und In u "mukI ng sense wI L I" |"IuIre-suns-uvec"| (u pruxIs
oI meunI ng- wI L I [sens-ctec]) wIere LIe opposI L I on oI u Me u nI ng
(IorI zon, IIsLory, communI L y) und u sI mpI e "wI L I" (spucIng, exLe-
rIorILy, dIspurILy) wouI d dIssoIve or breuk upurL. n sIorL, IL Is be-
comI ng u muLLer oI urgency Lo know wIeLIer socIuI crI LI que Is Lo
be mude by vI rLue oI u presupposI LI on LIuL Is noL uL uI I socIuI (un
onL oI ogy oI BeI ng- tout-court, us IL were) or by vI rLue oI un onL oI -
ogy oI beI ng- I n- common, LIuL Is, oI LIe pI uruI sInguIur essence oI
BeI ng. TII s I s wIy LIe subjecL oI "onLoI ogy" II rsL oI uI I enLuIIs LIe
crILIcuI exumI nuLI on oI LIe condI LI ons oI crI LI que I n generuI.
6 ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
;
Co-uppeurIng
L mI gIL be, LIen, LIuL LIe currenL sILuuLIon oI "socIuI BeI ng" Ius
Lo be undersL ood I n some oLIer wuy LIun by sLurLI ng I rom LIe
scIemu oI un I mmense, specLucuIur seI I - consumpL I on, u scIemu
wIere LIe L ruL I oI communI L y Is dIssoIved und enguI I ed-wIeLIer
communI L y |Is undersLood| us subjecL or us occurrI ng beLween sub-
jecLs. I onI y we mude LIe eIIorL Lo decI pIer IL In u new wuy, IL
mI gIL be LIuL LIe pIenomenon oI LIe generuIIzed "specLucIe,"
uI ong wI L I wIuL we cuI I LIe "LeIe-gIobuI dI mens I on, " wII c I uc-
compunI es IL und Is cosubsLunLIuI wI L I IL, wouI d reveuI someL II ng
eIse uILogeLIer. WIu L Is oI prI mur y I mporLunce In LIIs Is Lo uvoI d
presupposIng LIuL LIe subjecL oI "socIuI BeI ng" or LIe subjecL oI Be-
I ng tout court Is uIreudy esLubIIsIed.
BuL LIIs cunnoL sI mpI y be u muLLer oI LIe cIussIc gesLure oI
wunL I ng Lo begI n wI L IouL presupposILIons (wII cI uIwuys ussumes
LIuL LIIs desIre [tolonte] ILseII Is noL uIreudy LIe wIoI e presupposI -
L I on) . L I s u muLLer oI rI gorousI y L II nkI ng wIuL BeI ng- wI L IouL -
presupposILIons-ubouL-ILseII meuns, wII cI Is, once uguIn, LIe "cre-
uL I on oI LIe wor I d. " n u generuI wuy, I ndeed I n un ubsoI uLeI y
generuI wuy, LIe pr I mor dI uI requI remenL oI onL oI ogy or IIrsL pII -
I osopIy musL now be LIuL BeI ng noL be presupposed In uny wuy or
In uny respecL, und, more precIseIy, LIuL eter presupposition oj e-
in must consist in its nonpresupposition.
BeI ng cunnoL be pre-sup-posed [pre-sup-pose] II IL Is onI y LIe Be-
I ng oI wIuL exIsLs, und Is noL ILseII some oLIer exIsLence LIuL Is pre-
vIous or subjucenL Lo exIsLence by wII cI exIsLence exIsLs. or exIs-
Lence exIsLs In LIe pI ur uI , sI nguI urI y pI uruI . As u resuIL, LIe mosL
IormuI und IundumenLuI requIremenL |oI onLoI ogy| Is LIuL " BeI ng"
cunnoL even be ussumed Lo be LIe sI mpI e sI nguI ur LIuL LIe nume
seems Lo I ndI cuLe. Ls beI ng sI nguI ur Is pI uruI In ILs very BeI ng. L
IoI I ows, LIen, LIuL not onl must bein-uith-one-cnother not be un-
derstood stcrtin jrom the presupposition oj bein-one, but on the con-
trcr, bein-one (BeI ng us sucI, compI eLe BeI ng or ens reclissimum)
ccn onl be understood b stcrtin jrom bein-uith-one-cnother. TIuL
quesLI on wII c I we sLI I I cuI I u "quesLI on oI socIuI BeI ng" musL, I n
IucL, consLILuLe the onLoI ogI cuI quesLI on.
I one reuIIy undersLunds LIe necessILy oI LIIs groundI ess pre-
supposI LI on, one wouI d uIso Iuve Lo Lry Lo suy LIe I oI I owI ng: II LIe
sILuuLIon oI beIng-socIuI Is noL LIuL oI u specLucuIur seII-uIIenuLIon
LIuL presupposes u IosL or dI ssI muI uLed "reuI presence," neILIer Is IL
LIuL oI u generuI communI cuL I onuI urrungemenL, wII c I presup-
poses u "ruLIonuI subjecL" oI communI cuL I on. TII s does noL meun
LIuL LIere Is noL II ng Lo LIe I I I usI ons oI specLucuIur seII-uIIenuLIon
or Lo LIe ruLI onuI I Ly oI u generuI communI cuL I onuI urrungemenL,
buL IL does meun LIuL "reuI presence" und "ruLI onuI I Ly" cun onI y be
LIougIL or evuIuuLed by begI nnI ng I rom someL II ng eIse; und LIey
cunnoL LIemseIves consLILuLe LIe groundIess presupposI LI on. I IeIL
Lo ILseII, us u sorL oI grund, IermeneuLIcuI unL I nomy oI LIe moder n
wor I d (und one LIuL Is cIeurIy uL work everywIere), LIIs conLrury
doubI e I orm oI LIe "|IIIusory| specLucIe" und "|ruLIonuI| c ommunI -
cuLI on" couI d even swI L cI LIeI r predIcuLes ur ound, sucI LIuL LIe
"specLucIe" wouI d be noL II ng oLIer LIun "communI cuL I on" und vIce
versu. TII s cII usmu or cIrcIe worrIes us I n our conIused und unxI -
eLy-rI dden uwureness LIuL socIeLy jusL "Lurns r ound und ur ound, "
wI L IouL subsLunce, wI L IouL I ounduL I on, wI L IouL end.
n IucL, IL mI gIL be LIuL wIuL Is IuppenI ng Lo us Is jusL unoLIer
sorL oI " Coper nI cun revoI uL I on, " noL oI LIe cosmoI ogI cuI sysLem,
or oI LIe reIuLIon oI subjecL und objecL, buL ruLIer oI "socIuI BeI ng"
revoI vI ng [tourncnt] ur ound ILseII or L ur nI ng on ILseII, und no
Ionger revoI vI ng uround someL II ng eIse (SubjecL, OL Ier, or Sume).
WIu L Iuppens Lo us, LIen, Is LIe sLrI ppI ng bure [mis c nu] oI so-
cIuI reuIILy, LIe very reclit oI beIng-socIuI I n, by, und us LIe sym-
boI I cI L y LIuL consLILuLes I L, wIere "specLucIe," " communI cuL I on, "
"commodI L y, " und "LecInoI ogy" wouI d be dIIIerenL IIgures oI LIIs
symboI I cI Ly. TIese ure, Iowever, perverse IIgures LIuL sLII I Iuve Lo
be LIougIL.
L Is sL I I I necessury Lo undersL und wIuL LIIs wor d "symboI I c"
meuns. TIe proper vuIue oI symboI I sm Is In mukI ng u smbol, LIuL
Is, In mukI ng u connecLI on or u j oI nI ng,
1
und In gI vI ng u Iuce | ji-
8 ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ure] Lo LIIs I I uI son by mukI ng un imce. nsoIur us LIe reI uLI on Is
I mugI ned [se represente], und becuuse LIe reIuLIon us sucI Is noL I-
I ng oLIer L Iun ILs own represenLuLIon, LIe symboI I c Is wIuL Is reuI
In sucI u reIuLIon. By no meuns, Iowever, Is sucI u reIuLIon LIe rep-
resenLuLI on oI someL II ng LIuL I s reuI (I n LIe secondury, mI meL I c
sense oI represenLuLIon), buL LIe reI uLIon Is, und Is noL II ng oLIer
L Iun, wIuL Is reuI In LIe represenL uL I on-I L s eIIecLIveness und ILs
eIIIcucy. ( TIe purudI gm Ior LIIs Is " Iove you" or, perIups more
orIgInuI I y, " um uddressIng myseI I Lo you. ")
n LIIs respecL, IL Is I mpor L unL Lo empIusIze LIuL LIe symboI I c
und LIe I mugI nury ure Iur I r om opposILes. BuL LIe wuy I n wII c I
LIey ure noL opposILes Is even conLrury Lo Iow LIe c ommon wuy oI
speukI ng [tulcte] conIIuLes LIe Imuge (undersLood us munI IesLu-
L I on und recognILIon) wI L I LIe sI muI ucrum (undersLood us u cupLI -
vuL I ng und mysL I I yI ng IyposLusIs). TIe sI mpI e, or sI mpI I sL I c, cr I -
LIque oI "LIe Imuge" (und oI LIe "cI vI I I zuLI on oI Imuges"), wII cI Ius
become u sorL oI IdeoIogIcuI Lrope In LIeorIes oI LIe "specLucIe" und
I n LIeorIes oI " c ommunI c uL I on, " I s noL II ng buL LIe myL II c und
mysL I I yI ng eIIecL oI LIe IrunLI c desIre Ior u "pure" symboI I zuL I on
(und u sympL omuL I c munI IesLuLI on oI LIe weukness oI "crI LI que" I n
generuI). TIe soIe crI LerI on oI symboI I zuL I on Is noL LIe excIusIon or
debusemenL oI LIe Imuge, buL InsLeud LIe cupucILy Ior uI I owI ng u
cerLuIn pIuy, I n und by LIe I muge-symboI , wI L I LIe j oI nI ng, LIe dIs-
LuncI ng, LIe opened InLervuI LIuL urLIcuIuLes IL us sm-bol: LIIs wor d
sI mpI y meuns "puL wI L I" (LIe Greek sun equuIs LIe uL I n cum), so
LIuL LIe dI mensI on, spuce, und nuLure oI LIe "wI L I" ure In pIuy Iere.
TIereIore, LIe "symboI I c" Is noL sI mpI y un uspecL oI beIng-socIuI:
on LIe one Iund, IL Is LIIs BeI ng ILseII; on LIe oLIer Iund, LIe sym-
boI I c does noL Luke pIuce wI L IouL (re)presenLuLIon, LIe (represen-
LuLI on oI one unoLIer [des uns cux cutres] uccordI ng Lo wII cI LIey
ure wI L I one unoLIer [les-uns-ctec-les-cutres].
I speuk oI "socIuI " reuIILy's beI ng sLrI pped bure us ILs symboI I c-
ILy, LIen um L uI kI ng ubouL "socIeLy" uncovered, socIeLy no Ionger
beI ng LIe uppeurunce oI onI y ILseII, socIeLy no Ionger reduced Lo u
sorL oI buckground "symboI I zI ng" (I n LIe ordI nury sense) noL II ng
(no communI L y, no mysL I cuI body). um L uI kI ng ubouL socIeLy
ein Sinulcr Plurcl q
mukI ng u symboI oI ILseII, socIeLy mukI ng ILs uppeurunce by IucIng
[ jcce c] ILseII I n order Lo be uI I LIuL I L Is und uI I LIuL I L Ius Lo be. n
LIIs wuy, beIng-socIuI Is noL reduced Lo uny ussumpLI on oI un I nLe-
rIor or superIor unILy. Ls unI L y Is wIoI I y symboI I c; IL Is wIoI I y oI
LIe wI L I. BeI ng-socI uI Is BeI ng LIuL Is by uppeurI ng In LIe Iuce oI
ILseII, Iuced wI L I ILseII: IL Is co-cppecrin |com-puruLI on|.
Co- uppeurI ng does noL s I mpI y sI gnI Iy LIuL subjecLs uppeur Lo-
geLIer. n LIuL cuse (wII cI Is LIe "socIuI conLrucL"), IL wouI d sLI I I
need Lo be usked I rom wIere IL Is LIuL LIey "uppeur," I rom wII cI
remoLe depL I do LIey come I nL o beI ng-socI uI us sucI, I r om wIuL
orI gI n. We musL uIso wonder wIy LIey uppeur "LogeLIer" |"ensem-
bIe"| und Ior wIuL oLIer depLI LIey ure desLI ned, desLI ned "uI I Lo-
geLIer" or "IurLIer-on |ouLre| LogeLIer." EI L Ier LIe predIcuLe "Lo-
geLIer" Is onI y u quuI I I I cuL I on LIuL Is exLrI nsI c Lo subjecLs, wII c I
does noL beI ong Lo LIe uppeurunce oI eucI one us sucI, buL desIg-
nuLes u pure, IndIIIerenL j uxLuposI LI on, or IL udds u purLI cuI ur quuI -
ILy, one grunLed u meunI ng oI ILs own LIuL musL be wor ked ouL Ior
uII subjecLs "LogeLIer" und us "LogeLIer." TIese Lwo quesLIons Ieud
sLruIgIL Lo LIe deud ends oI u meL upIys I c s -und ILs p o I I L I c s -I n
wII cI (1) socIuI co-uppeurunce Is onI y ever LIougIL oI us u LrunsI -
Lory epI pIenomenon, und (z) socIeLy ILseII Is LIougIL oI us u sLep
In u process LIuL uIwuys Ieuds eILIer Lo LIe IyposLusIs oI LogeLIer-
ness or LIe c o mmo n ( communI L y, c ommunI on) , or Lo LIe Iy-
posLusIs oI LIe I ndI vI duuI .
n eILIer cuse, one comes Lo u deud end becuuse beIng-socIuI us
s uc I-o r uguIn, wIuL mI gIL be cuIIed LIe cssociction |socIuLIon| oj
ein-Is I nsLrumenLuI I zed, reIuLed Lo someL II ng oLIer LIun ILseII.
On LIIs uccounL, LIe essence oI LIe "socIuI" I s noL ILseII "socIuI . " As
u resuIL, IL Is never presenLubIe under LIe IeudI ng oI LIe "socI uI , "
buL onI y under LIe IeudI ng oI eILIer u sI mpI e, exLrInsIc, und Lrun-
sILory "ussocIuLIon," or oI u LrunssocIuI presupposI LI on, LIe unI L ury
enLeIecIy oI c ommon Be I ng -wII c I ure boL I wuys Lo repress und
IorecIose LIe probI em oI "ussocIuLIon. "
TIe very meunI ng oI LIe wor d "LogeLIer," jusL I I ke LIe meunI ng
6o ein Sinulcr Plurcl
oI LIe wor d " wI L I, " seems Lo oscIIIuLe I ndeI I nI LeI y beLween Lwo
meunI ngs, wI L IouL ever comI ng Lo u poI nL oI equI I I br I um: IL Is eI -
LIer LIe "LogeLIer" oI j uxLuposI LI on pcrtes extrc pcrtes, IsoIuLed und
unreIuLed purLs, or LIe "LogeLIer" oI guLIerIng totum intrc totum, u
unI I I ed LoLuI I Ly [unitotclite] wIere LIe reI uLI on surpusses ILseII In
beI ng pure. BuL IL Is cIeur I rom LIIs LIuL LIe resources I ound In LIe
Lerm ure sILuuLed precIseIy on LIe poI nL oI equI I I brI um beLween LIe
Lwo meunIngs: "LogeLIer" Is neILIer extrc nor intrc. n IucL, LIe pure
ouLsIde, I I ke LIe pure I nsI de, renders uII sorLs oI LogeLIerness I m-
possIbIe. TIey boLI suppose u unI que und IsoIuLed pure subsLunce,
buL pure In sucI u wuy LIuL one cunnoL even suy "I soI uLed, " exucLIy
becuuse one wouI d be deprIved oI uII reIuLIon wI L I IL. As sucI, LIen,
G o d I s noL LogeLIer wI L I unyL II ng or unyone, buL I s -u L IeusL I n
SpI nozu und eI bnI z, uI LIougI I n dIIIerenL, buL equuIIy exempIury,
wuys -L Ie LogeLIerness or beIng-LogeLIer oI uII LIuL Is: Go d Is noL
" Go d . "
z
TogeLIerness und beIng-LogeLIer ure noL equIvuIenL. ( On LIe con-
Lrury, LIe equI vocuL I on beLween LIe Lwo mukes LIe sLuLus oI LIe
gods oI onLo-LIeoI ogy uncerLuI n. |WIeLIer IL Is u muLLer oI | pun-
LIeI sm, punenL IeI sm, poI yL IeI sm, monoL IeI sm, uLIeI sm, deI sm,
und so on, |ure sucI gods| represenLubIe or unrepresenLubIe? | Do
LIey| ground represenLuLIon or remove IL? Or |mIgIL LIey| even be
represenLuLIon ILseII?) TogeLIerness, In LIe sense oI beI ng u sub-
sLunLIve enLILy, Is u coIIecLIon (us In LIe LIeory oI LogeLIernesses [en-
sembles]). CoI I ecL I on ussumes u regroupI ng LIuL Is exLerIor und I n-
dIIIerenL Lo LIe beIng-LogeLIer ("In common") oI LIe objecLs oI LIe
coI I ecLI on. n u generuI wuy, LIe LIemes und prucLIces oI LIe "coI -
IecLIve" or oI "coI I ecLI vI sm" move In LIIs regIsLer. L couI d be suId,
LIen, LIuL LIe onLoIogIcuI toetherness wII cI we musL L II nk LIrougI
Is never subsLunLIve; IL Is uIwuys LIe udverb oI u bein-toether. BuL
LIIs udverb Is noL u predIcuLe oI "BeI ng"; IL brIngs Lo IL no purLI cu-
Iur und suppIemenLury quuI I II cuLI on. I ke uII udverbs, IL modIIIes or
moduIIzes LIe verb, buL Iere moduI I zuL I on Is oI LIe essence und oI
LIe orI gI n. BeI ng Is LogeLIer, und IL Is noL u LogeLIerness.
"TogeLIer" meuns sI muI LuneI Ly (in, simul), "uL LIe sume L I me. "
BeI ng LogeLIer Is beI ng uL LIe sume L I me (und In LIe sume pIuce,
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
61
wII c I I s ILseII LIe deL ermI nuL I on oI "L I me" us "conL emporury
L I me") . "Sume L I meJsume pIuce" ussumes LIuL "subjecLs," Lo cuI I
L Iem LIuL, sIure LIIs spuce-LIme, buL noL In LIe exLrInsIc sense oI
"sIurI ng"; LIey musL sIure IL beLween themseltes, LIey musL L Iem-
seIves "symboI I ze" IL us LIe "sume spuce-LIme" wI L IouL wII cI LIere
wouI d noL be LI me or spuce. TIe spuce-LIme ILseII Is IIrsL oI uI I LIe
possIbIIILy oI LIe "wI L I. " Very I ong unuIyses ure cuIIed Ior Iere. CuL -
L I ng L Iem Iur Loo sIorL, IeL me suy LIuL L I me cunnoL be LIe pure
momenL [instcnt], or pure successIon, wI L IouL beI ng sI muI LuneI Ly
"uL LIe sume L I me. " TI me ILseII I mpI I es "uL LIe sume L I me. " SI muI -
LuneILy I mmedI uLeI y opens spuce us LIe spucIng oI LI me ILseII. SLurL-
I ng I rom LIe sI muI LuneI Ly oI "subjecLs," L I me Is possIbIe, buL ubove
uI I , IL Is necessury. or In order Lo be LogeLIer und Lo communI cuL e,
u correIuLIon oI pIuces cnd c. LrunsI LI on oI pussuges I rom one pIuce
Lo unoLIer Is necessury. SIurI ng [pcrtce] und pussuge conL roI eucI
oLIer recIprocuIIy. HusserI wrILes, "L Is essenLIuIIy necessury LIuL
LIe toetherness oI monuds, LIeIr mere co-exIsLence, be u temporcl
n IucL, sI muI LuneI Ly Is noL u muLLer oI I ndI s-
co-exIsLence.
"
L I ncL I on; on LIe conLrury, IL Is LIe dIsLIncLness oI pIuces Luken Lo-
geLIer. TIe pussuge I rom one pIuce Lo unoLIer needs time [D'un lieu
c l'cutre, II IuuL Ie Lemps|. A n d movI ng In pIuce [du lieu c lui-
meme] us sucI uIso needs LI me: LIe LI me Ior LIe pIuce Lo open ILseII
us pIuce, LIe LI me Lo spuce ILseII. RecI procuI I y, orI gI nury LI me, up-
peurIng us sucI, needs spcce |II I uI IuuL I'espuce|, LIe spuce oI ILs own
dIs-LensIon, LIe spuce oI LIe pussuge LIuL dIvIdes [pcrtce] IL. NoL I-
I ng und nobody cun be born wI L IouL beI ng born Lo und wI L I oL I-
ers wIo come I nLo LIIs encounLer, wIo ure born I n LIeIr own L urn.
TIe "LogeLIer," LIereIore, Is un ubsoIuLeIy orIgInury sLrucLure. WIuL
Is noL LogeLIer Is In LIe no-LI me-no-pI uce oI non- BeI ng.
Co-uppeurunce, LIen, musL sI gnI I y-becuuse LIIs Is wIuL Is now
uL sL uke-L IuL "uppeurI ng" ( comI ng I nL o LIe wor I d und beI ng I n
LIe worI d, or exIsLence us sucI) Is sLrIcLIy InsepurubIe, IndIscernubIe
I rom LIe cum or LIe uith, wII cI Is noL onI y ILs pIuce und ILs LukI ng
pIuce, buL u I s o-u nd LIIs I s LIe sume L II ng -I L s I undumenLuI on-
LoIogIcuI sLrucLure.
TIuL BeI ng Is beIng-wILI, ubsoIuLeIy, LIIs Is wIuL we musL L II nk.
q
: ein Sinulcr Plurcl
TIe uith Is LIe mosL busIc IeuLure oI BeI ng, LIe murk [trcit] oI LIe
sInguIur pI uruI I Ly oI LIe orI gI n or orIgIns I n IL.
UndoubL edI y, LIe uith us sucI Is noL presenLubIe. Iuve uIreudy
suId so, buL Iuve Lo InsIsL upon IL. TIe uith Is noL "unpresenLubIe"
I I ke some remoLe or wI L Idr uwn presence, or I I ke un OLIer. I LIere
Is u subjecL onI y wI L I oLIer subjecLs, LIe "wI L I" ILseII Is noL u sub-
jecL. TIe "wI L I" I s or consLILuLes LIe murk oI unI LyJdI sunI Ly, wII cI
In ILseII does noL desIgnuLe unI L y or dI sunI Ly us LIuL IIxed subsLunce
wII cI wouI d undergI rd IL; LIe "wI L I" Is noL LIe sIgn oI u reuIILy, or
even oI un "I nLersubj ecLI ve dI mens I on. " L reuIIy Is, " I n L r uL I, " u
murk druwn ouL over LIe voI d, wII cI crosses over IL und underIInes
IL uL LIe sume L I me, LIereby consL I L uL I ng LIe druwI ng upurL [trcc-
tion] und dr uwI ng LogeLIer [tension] oI LIe voI d. As sucI, IL uIso
consLI LuLes LIe LrucLI on und LensI on, repuI sI onJuLLrucLI on, oI LIe
"beLween"-us. TIe " wI L I" sLuys beLween us, und we sLuy beLween
us: jusL us, buL onI y |us| LIe InLervuI beLween us.
n IucL, one sIouI d noL suy LIe " wI L I"; one sIouI d onI y suy
" wI L I, " wII c I wouI d be u preposI L I on LIuL Ius no posI L I on oI ILs
own und Is uvuIIubIe Ior every posI L I on. BuL II LIe unpresenLubI I I Ly
oI "wI L I" Is noL LIuL oI u II dden presence, LIen IL Is becuuse "wI L I"
Is LIe unpresenL ubI I I L y oI LIIs pre-posI L I on, LIuL Is, LIe unpre-
senLubI I I Ly oI presenLuLIon ILseII. " WI L I " does noL udd ILseII Lo Be-
I ng, buL ruLIer creuLes LIe I mmunenL und InLrInsI c condI L I on oI pre-
senLuLIon I n generuI.
Presence Is I mpossI bI e excepL us copresence. I suy LIuL LIe
UnI que Is presenL, Iuve uIreudy gIven IL presence us u compunI on
(even II sucI presence consLILuLes LIe UnI que, und Iuve spIIL IL In
Lwo). TIe co- oI copresence Is LIe unpresenLubIe pur exceIIence, buL
IL Is noL II ng oLIer L I u n-u nd noL LIe OL Ier oI -presenL uL I on, LIe
exIsLence wII cI co-uppeurs.
I we now Iuve Lo L II nk ubouL socIuI BeI ng I n some oLIer wuy
LIun uccordI ng Lo ILs specLucuIur-murkeL seI I-mockery or ILs com-
munI cuLI onuI seII-ussurunce, boL I oI wII cI Luke pIuce on LIe busIs
oI un unI I keI y und nosLuIgIc InuuLIenLIcILy, IL Is quILe IIkeIy LIuL LIere
wouI d be noL II ng eIse Ior us Lo medILuLe on, noL II ng Lo rumI nuLe
ubouL or muI I over beLween us. WIuL Is proper Lo communI L y Is neI-
ein Sinulcr Plurcl 6
LIer u creuLIvILy nor u ruLIonuIILy I uI d down IIke some IundumenLuI
InLernuI resource, reudIIy uvuIIubIe Lo be puL I nLo prucLIce LIrougI
crILIque. n LIIs respecL, we ure deIInILeIy no Ionger In LIe uge oI En -
I I gIL enmenL or RomunL I cI s m. We ure eIsewIere, wII cI does noL
meun we ure opposed Lo LIem or beyond LIem, us II we Iud dIuIec-
LIcuIIy surpussed LIem. We ure In u sorL oI sImuILuneous druwI ng Lo-
geLIer [tension] oI LIese Lwo epocIs; LIey ure conLemporurIes oI ours
und we see LIem weurI ng L II n. One Is wor n L II n Lo LIe poI nL oI be-
I ng un exLremeIy duI I pIuLILude; LIe oLIer Is sLreLcIed ouL Lowurd LIe
nIgIL oI exLermInuLIon. We ure LIus In u suspensIon oI IIsLory wIere
un enI gmu Is guLIerIng unew; we ure conLemporurI es oI ourseIves,
conLemporurIes oI LIe sLrI ppI ng bure oI beI ng- I n- common.
WIuL Is proper Lo communI L y, LIen, Is gIven Lo us In LIe IoI I ow-
I ng wuy: IL Ius no oLIer resource Lo upproprIuLe excepL LIe " wI L I"
LIuL consLILuLes IL, LIe cum oI "communI L y, " ILs I nIerI orI Ly wI L IouL
un InLerIor, und muybe even ILs interior intimo sui. As u resuIL, LIIs
cum Is LIe cum oI u co-uppeurunce, wIereI n we do noL II ng buL up-
peur LogeLIer wI L I one unoLIer, co-uppeurI ng beIore no oLIer uu-
LIorI Ly [l'instcnce] LIun LIIs "wI L I" ILseII, LIe meunI ng oI wII cI
seems Lo us Lo InsLunLIy dIssoIve I nLo InsIgnIIIcunce, I nLo exLerIorILy,
I nLo LIe InorgunIc, empI rI cuI , und rundomI y conLI ngenL [clectoire]
InconsIsLency oI LIe pure und sI mpI e " wI L I. "
So IL uppeurs Lo us LIuL wIuL Is proper Lo c ommunI L y Is noL II ng
more LIun LIe generuIIzed I mproprI eL y oI bunuIILy, oI unonymI Ly,
oI LIe I oneI y crowd und gregurIous I soI uLI on. TIe sI mpI esL soIIdur-
ILIes, LIe mosL eI emenLury proxI mI L I es seem Lo be dI sI ocuLed. As
sucI, LIen, "communI cuL I on" Is onI y LIe IuborIous negoLI uLI on oI u
reusonubIe und dI sI nLeresLed Imuge oI c ommunI L y devoLed Lo ILs
own muI nL enunce, wII c I consLunLI y reveuIs ILseII us noL II ng buL
LIe muI nLenunce oI LIe specLucuIur-murkeL mucII ne.
L musL be suId, Iowever, LIuL co-uppeurunce mI gIL onI y be un-
oLIer nume Ior cupI LuI . AL LIe sume L I me, IL mI gIL be u nume LIuL
runs LIe rIsk oI once uguIn muskI ng wIuL Is uL-Issue, pr ovI dI ng u
consoI I ng wuy oI L II nkI ng LIuL I s secreLIy resIgned. BuL LIIs dun-
ger Is noL u suIIIcIenL reuson Lo be suLIsIIed wI L I u crI LI que oI cupI -
LuI LIuL Is sLIII IeI d prIsoner Lo LIe presupposI LI on oI un "oLIer sub-
6 q
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl

jecL" oI IIsLory, economI cs, und LIe upproprI uLI on oI LIe proper I n
generuI. n poI nL I ng Lo "cupI L uI , " Mu r x desI gnuLed u generuI de-
proprI uL I on [depropriction] LIuL does noL uI I ow Ior LIe presupposI -
LI on or preservuLIon oI LIe oLIer, or LIe OLIer, wII cI wouI d be LIe
subjecL oI LIe generuI reupproprI uLI on.
Or more precIseIy, LIe presupposI LI on cunnoL Luke LIe I orm oI
presupposI ng u "subjecL"; ruLIer, IL musL Luke LIe I orm oI beI ng-
wI LI-one-unoLIer, und musL do so I n u wuy LIuL I s muc I more
probI emuLI c, buL Iur more rudIcuI, LIun Mur x couI d Iuve suspecLed.
L musL uIso be suId, LIen, LIuL LIe cIussIc crILIque oI cupILuI, even In
ILs IuLesL posL - MurxI sL Iorms, Is noL suIIIcIenL Ior L ukI ng IoI d oI
wIuL cupILuI exposes. AL LIe very IeusL, u L II nkI ng oI co-uppeurunce
musL uwuken LIIs unxIeLy.
TIe I nL uI L I on burI ed I n Murx' s work I s undoubL edI y IocuLed I n
LIe I oI I owI ng umbI vuI ence: uL one und LIe sume LI me, cupI LuI ex-
poses LIe generuI uI I enuLI on oI LIe pr ope r -wII c I Is LIe generuI-
Ized dI supproprI uLI on, or LIe upproprI uLI on oI mIsery In every sense
oI LIe word-cnd it exposes LIe sLrI ppI ng bure oI LIe uith us u murk
oI BeI ng, or us u murk oI meunI ng. Ou r L II nkI ng Is noL yeL udequuLe
Lo LIIs umbIvuIence. TII s I s wIy, sInce Mu r x und up L IrougI He I -
degger, sucI umbIvuIence consLunLIy revIves u greuL, undeII ned Ies-
I LuLI on on LIe subjecL oI "LecInoIogy, " LIe I I mI L - obj ec L -und per-
Iups LIe screen [l'objet-ecrcn]-oI u L II nkI ng wII cI projecLs onLo
IL eILIer LIe promIse oI u seII-overcomIng oI cupILuI or LIe ussurunce
oI LIe I mpI ucubI e cIurucLer oI ILs mucII nery curryI ng on uncon-
L r oI I ed-und, LIereby, conLroI I I ng everyLIIng LIunks Lo LIIs ubsence
oI conL roI .
TII s I s uIso wIy LIe L ruL I oI our L I me cun onI y be expressed I n
Mur xI s L or posL - Mur xI sL Lerms. TII s wIy I L I s u quesL I on oI LIe
murkeL, oI mIsery, oI socI uI -democruLI c IdeoI ogy, or LIe subsLun-
L I uI reupproprI uL I ons LIuL gIve u repI y Lo IL ( nuL I onuI I sm, I undu-
menL uI I sm, und IuscIsm I n uII LIeIr vurIous Iorms). BuL LIIs L ruL I
I LseI I demunds LIuL I L be L IougIL sL urL I ng I r om LIe uith oI co-
uppeurunce, so I ong us br I ngI ng IL Lo IIIe und sL rI ppI ng IL bure sIg-
nIIIes uL IeusL L II s -L o puL IL In u IormuI uI c wuy: wIuL Is uL sLuke Is
noL u reupproprI uLI on oI LIe uith (oI LIe essence oI u c ommon Be-
I ng), buL ruLIer u uith oI reupproprI uLI on (wIere LIe proper does
noL reLurn, or reLurns onI y uith).
( TII s I s wIy we do noL muke un economy ouL oI un onLoI ogy,
buL IL Is uIso wIy LIIs onL oI ogy musL be boL I un ethos und u prcxis,
IdenLIcuIIy. TII s wI I I Iuve Lo be deveI oped I uLer.
6
eL us IoI d LIe
I oI I owI ng In reserve: un onL oI ogy oI beI ng-wI LI cun onI y be IocuLed
wI L II n LIe dI sLI ncLI on oI LIese Lerms: Lo be, Lo ucL, evenL, meunI ng,
end, conducL , jusL us muc I us, und becuuse, IL musL be I ocuLed
wI L II n LIe dI sL I ncL I on oI LIe "sI nguI ur" und LIe " pI ur uI , " LIe " I n
oneseII" |"u soI"| und LIe " I n severuI" |"u pIusIeurs"|.)
TIe SpecLucIe oI SocIeLy
I beI ng-wI L I Is LIe sIurI ng oI u sI muI Luneous spuce-LIme, LIen
IL InvoIves u presenLuLIon oI LIIs spuce-LIme us sucI. n order Lo suy
"we," one musL presenL LIe "Iere und now" oI LIIs "we." Or ruLIer,
suyI ng "we" brI ngs ubouL LIe presenLuLI on oI u "Iere und now, "
Iowever IL Is deLermI ned: us u r oom, u regIon, u group oI IrIends,
un ussocIuLIon, u "peopI e. " We ccn never sI mpI y be "LIe we, " un-
dersLood us u unI que subjecL, or undersLood us un I ndI sL I ncL "we"
LIuL Is I I ke u dIIIuse generuIILy. " We " uIwuys expresses u pI uruI I Ly,
expresses "our" beI ng dI vI ded und enLungIed: "one" Is noL "wI L I" In
some generuI sorL oI wuy, buL eucI L I me uccordI ng Lo deL ermI ned
modes LIuL ure LIemseIves muI L I pI e und sImuILuneous (peopIe, cuI -
Lure, Iunguuge, IIneuge, neLwork, group, coupI e, bund, und so on).
WIuL Is presenLed In LIIs wuy, eucI LI me, Is u sLuge [scene] on wII cI
severuI |peopIe| cun suy " , " eucI on IIs own uccounL, eucI In L urn.
BuL u "we" Is noL LIe uddI ng LogeLIer or j uxLuposILIon oI LIese "s. "
A "we, " even one LIuL Is noL urLI cuI uLed, Is LIe condI L I on Ior LIe
possIbIIILy oI eucI " . " No " " cun desIgnuLe ILseII wI L IouL LIere be-
I ng u spuce-LIme oI "seII-reIerenLIuIILy" In generuI. TII s "generuIILy,"
Iowever, does noL Iuve u "generuI" consIsLency; IL onI y Ius LIe con-
sIsLency oI LIe sInguIur uL "eucI LI me" oI eucI " . " "EucI LI me" I m-
pIIes ct one cnd the scme time LIe dIscreLeness oI "one by one" cnd
LIe sImuILuneILy oI "eucI one. " AILer uI I , un "eucI one" LIuL wus noL
In uny wuy sImuILuneous, LIuL wus noL uL-LIe-sume-LIme-und-uIong-
6 6
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
?
sIde-oLIer "eucI ones," wouI d be IsoIuLed In u wuy LIuL wouI d no
I onger even counL us I soI uL I on. RuLIer, IL wouI d be LIe pure und
sI mpI e I mpossI bI I I Ly oI desIgnuLIng oneseII und, LIereIore, oI beI ng
u "seII." TIe pure c ondI L I on o I beI ng dI sL L I buL ed [distributite]
wouI d be LrunsIormed I mmedI uLeI y I nLo ubsoIuLe uuLI sm. ( BuL LIIs
Is noL Lo suy LIuL LIe "group, " wIuLever IL Is, Is oI u IIgIer order; IL
Is u sLuge |LIuL serves us| u pIuce oI I denLI II cuLI on. Mor e generuIIy,
LIe quesLI on oI LIe "wI L I" cun never be expressed In Lerms oI I den-
LILy, buL ruLIer uIwuys I n Lerms oI IdenLIIIcuLIons. )
As Iuve uIreudy poI nL ed ouL, noL even DescurLes cun cI uI m Lo
be uIone und worIdIess, precIseIy becuuse Ie Is noL uIone und worI d-
Iess. RuLIer, IIs preLense mukes IL cIeur LIuL unyone wIo IeIgns soI I-
Lude LIereby uLLesLs Lo LIe "seII-reIerenLIuIILy" oj cnone |de quI -
conque| . TIe eo sum counLs us "evI denL, " us u IIrsL L r uL I, onI y
becuuse ILs cerLuInLy cun be recognIzed b cnone. So, Lo urLIcuIuLe
IL compI eLeI y wouI d be Lo suy: J sc thct ue, cll oj us cnd ecch one oj
us, sc "eo sum, eo existo." One Is noL obI I ged Lo reud DescurLes us
HeI degger does, wII cI Is us someone wIo, In sLuyIng uL LIe poI nL
oI subsLunce or res coitcns, does noL go buck us Iur us LIe ubsoIuLeIy
prI mordI uI condI L I on. n IucL, one musL reud DescurLes IILeruIIy, us
Ie II mseI I InvILes us Lo: engugIng uith II m und I I ke II m In LIe ex-
perIence oI LIe preLense |Lo soI I L ude|. On I y LIIs L II nkI ng uith
ucIIeves LIe sLuLus oI evIdence, wII cI Is noL u pr ooI [une demon-
strction]. r om ILs very IIrsL momenL , LIe meLIodoI ogI cuI preLense
Is neILIer subsLunLIuIIsL nor soIIpsIsLIc: IL uncovers LIe sLuge oI LIe
"uL eucI L I me" us our sLuge, LIe sLuge oI LIe "we."
TII s sL uge-L II s "LIeuLer oI LIe wor I d, " us DescurLes uIso I I ked
Lo cuII IL, usI ng LIe persIsLenL Imuge oI IIs L I me -I s noL u sLuge In
LIe sense oI un urLI II cI uI spuce oI mI meL I c represenLuLI on. L Is u
sLuge In LIe sense oI LIe openI ng oI u spuce-LIme Ior LIe dI sL rI bu-
LI on oI sInguIurILIes, eucI oI wIo m sI nguI urI y pIuys LIe unI que und
pI uruI roIe oI LIe "seII" or LIe "beIng-seII." "SeI I " does noL meun
In ILseII, or by ILseII, or Ior ILseII, buL ruLIer "one oI us": one LIuL Is
eucI LI me uL u remove I rom I mmunence or I rom LIe coIIecLIve, buL
Is uIso eucI LI me coessenduI Lo LIe coexIsLence oI eucI one, oI "eucI
und every one. " TIe sLuge Is LIe spuce oI u co-uppeurI ng wI L IouL
wII cI LIere wouI d be noL II ng buL BeI ng pure und sI mpI e, wII cI
Is Lo suy, uII und noL II ng, uI I us noL II ng.
BeI ng gIves ILseII us sInguIur pI uruI und, In LIIs wuy, orgunIzes I L -
seII us ILs own sLuge. We presenL LIe " " Lo ourseIves, Lo one un-
oLIer, jusL us " , " eucI LI me, presenL LIe "we" Lo us, Lo one unoLIer.
n LIIs sense, LIere Is no socIeLy wI L IouL specLucIe; or more pre-
cIseIy, LIere Is no socIeLy wI L IouL LIe specLucIe oI socIeLy. AI L IougI
uIreudy u popuI ur eLInoI ogI cuI cI uI m or, In LIe WesLern L rudI L I on,
u cI uI m ubouL LIe LIeuLer, LIIs proposI L I on musL be undersLood us
onLoI ogI cuI I y rudIcuI. TIere Is no socIeLy wI L IouL LIe specLucIe be-
cuuse socIeLy Is LIe specLucIe oI ILseII.
BuL In u cerLuIn sense, LIIs ILseII musL be undersLood us u pIuy oI
mIrrors (uL IeusL InsoIur us "pIuy" und "mI rror" sI mpI y desIgnuLe ur-
LIIIce und unreuI I Ly). As u concepL oI beIng-LogeLIer [etre-ensem-
ble], co-uppeurunce consIsLs In ILs uppeurIng, LIuL Is, In ILs uppeur-
I ng Lo ILseII und Lo one unoLIer, uI I uL once. TIere Is no uppeurI ng
Lo oneseI I excepL us uppeurI ng Lo one unoLIer. I LIIs were puL In
cIussIcuI Lerms, Lerms LIuL presuppose u spIere oI proper und Iso-
IuLed I ndI vI duuI I L y us LIe sLurLIng poI nL , LIen IL wouI d be rendered
In LIe I oI I owI ng wuy: one uppeurs Lo oneseI I I nsoIur us one Is uI -
reudy un oLIer Ior oneseI I.
;
BuL IL Is I mmedI uL eI y cIeur LIuL one
couI d noL even begI n Lo be un oLIer Ior oneseI I I I one Iud noL uI -
reudy sLurLed I rom LIe uI LerI Ly wI L I -o r oI LIe wI L I-oL Ie r s I n
generuI. OL Iers " I n generuI" ure neILIer oLIer "mes" (sInce LIere Is
no "me" und "you" excepL on LIe busIs oI uILerILy I n generuI), nor
LIe non- me (Ior LIe sume reuson). OL Iers " I n generuI" ure neILIer
LIe Sume nor LIe OL Ier. TIe y ure one-unoLIer, or oI-one-unoLIer,
u prI mordI uI pI uruI I Ly LIuL co-uppeurs. TIereIore, "uppeurIng, " und
uppeurIng Lo oneseI I us weI I us Lo one unoLIer, Is noL on LIe order
oI uppeurunce, munIIesLuLIon, pIenomenu, reveuIIng, or some oLIer
concepL oI becomI ng-vI sI bI e. TII s I s becuuse oI wIuL LIuL order I n-
evILubIy enLuIIs regurdI ng LIe I nvI sI bI e or I gI n oI sucI uppeurunce,
und wIuL IL enLuIIs regurdIng LIe reIuLIon oI uppeurunce Lo LIIs orI -
gI n us eILIer un expressIon or un I I I usI on, us resembIunce or sem-
bI unce.
8
So co-uppeurIng Is noL "uppeurIng"; IL Is noL u quesLI on oI
comI ng ouL I rom u beI ng-I n-I LseI I In order Lo upproucI oLIers, nor
6 8
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
6 q
Is IL u quesLI on oI c omI ng I nL o LIe wor I d. L Is Lo be In LIe sI muI -
LuneILy oI beI ng- wI L I, wIere LIere I s no " I n I LseI I" LIuL I s noL uI -
reudy I mmedI uL eI y " wI L I. "
BuL "I mmedI uL eI y wI L I" does noL reIer Lo un I mmedI ucy I n LIe
sense oI un ubsence oI exLerIorILy. On LIe conLrury, I L I s LIe I nsLun-
Luneous exLerI orI Ly oI spuce-LIme (LIe InsLunL ILseII us exLerIorILy:
LIe sI muI L uneous). A n d LIIs Is Iow co-uppeurunce Iorms u sLuge
LIuL I s noL u pI uy oI mI r r o r s -o r ruLIer, Iow LIe L ruL I oI LIe pI uy
oI mI rrors musL be undersL ood us LIe L ruL I oI LIe " wI L I. " n LIIs
sense, "socIeLy" is "specLucuIur."
ookI ng uL I L cIoseIy, one wI I I II nd LIuL LIe vurIous crILIques oI
"specLucuIur" uI I enuLI on ure, I n LIe end, grounded on LIe dI sLI nc-
LI on beLween u good specLucIe und u bud specLucI e-|LII s Is Lrue|
wIeLIer LIey I I ke IL or noL. WI L I I n LIe good specLucIe, LIe socIuI or
communI L urI un beI ng presenLs ILs proper InIerIorILy Lo ILseII, ILs orI -
gI n (wII cI Is ILseII I nvI sI bI e), LIe I ounduL I on oI ILs rIgILs, LIe IIIe
oI ILs body, und LIe spI endor oI ILs IuI II I I menL. (or LIe SI L uuL I on-
IsLs, LIen, u cerLuIn Ideu oI "urL" uImosL uIwuys pIuys LIe roIe oI LIe
good specLucIe, und IL Is no uccIdenL LIuL LIe |bud| "specLucIe" Ior
L Iem Is IIrsL und IoremosL LIe IuIsIIIcuLIon oI urL.) n LIe bud spec-
LucIe, LIe socIuI beI ng ImugInes [se represente] LIe exLerIorILy oI I n-
LeresLs und uppeLILes, oI egoLIsLIc pussIons und LIe IuIse gIory oI os-
LenLuLIon. AL LIe mosL busIc IeveI, LIIs MunI cIeun dI vI sI on noL onI y
supposes u dI sL I ncL I on beLween LIe represenLed objecLs, buL IL uIso
supposes un opposI L I on wI L II n LIe sLuLus oI LIe represenLuLIon: IL
Is wIuL Is now In I nL erI orI L y (us munI I esLuLI on, expressIon oI LIe
proper), now I n exLerIorILy (us Imuge, reproducLI on). As sucI, LIe
IucL LIuL LIese ure I nLerLwI ned Is Ignored: LIere Is no "expressIon"
LIuL Is noL |uIreudy| gIven In un "I muge, " no "presenLuLIon" noL uI -
reudy |gIven| In "represenLuLIon"; LIere Is no "presence" LIuL Is noL
presence Lo one unoLIer.
L Is, oI course, weI I known LIuL LIe dI sL I ncL I on beLween LIese
specLucIes Is druwn ouL expI I cI LI y by Rousseuu, wIo sLIpuIuLes LIuL
LIe besL specLucIe, und LIe onI y one LIuL Is necessury, Is LIe specLu-
cIe oI LIe peopIe ILseII, ussembIed In order Lo dunce uround LIe Lree
LIey Iuve pIunLed us LIeIr own proper symboI . WIuL Rousseuu LIus
mukes cIeur, even despILe II mseI I ,
q
Is LIe necessILy oI LIe specLu-
cIe. n modernI Ly, socIeLy knows ILseII us LIuL wII cI Lukes pIuce In
LIe I mmunenL nonpresence Lo oneseII. TIuL Is, IL Lukes pIuce us u
subject, noL so muc I LIe "subjecL oI represenLuLIon" us representc-
tion cs subject IL Is presenLuLIon-Lo [lc presentction-c], or wIuL one
couI d cuI I u-presenLuLIon [lcppresentction], LIe reuI m oI c omI ng
I nLo presence us comI ng conj oI ned, coI ncI denL uI und concurrenL ,
sImuILuneous und muLuuI . TII s u-presenLuLIon Is LIuL oI u "we" LIuL
possesses neither LIe nuLure oI u c o mmo n " " nor LIuL oI u geo-
meLrI c pIuce, I n LIe sense oI un ensembI e I n wII c I uI I LIe "' s"
wouI d be equI dI sLunL I rom one unoLIer. RuLIer, IL Is wIuL opens
LIe spucI ng oI co-uppeurunce on LIIs sIde oI every -subjecL. "Asso-
cI uLI on" |"SocIuLIon"| does noL dIscIose ILseII us u beI ng, buL ruLIer
us un ucL LIuL, by deI I nI L I on, exposes ILseII: IL Is In exposI ng ILseII
LIuL IL Is wIuL IL Is, or LIuL IL does wIuL IL does. BeI ng-socI uI musL
LesLIIy beIore ILseII Lo LIe ucL oI ussocIuLIon, LIe ucL LIuL brIngs IL Lo
be -no L In LIe sense LIuL IL produces IL (us u resuIL), buL ruLIer In
LIe sense LIuL " BeI ng" remuIns wIoI I y wI L II n LIe ucL und In LIe ex-
posI LI on oI LIe ucL. n LIIs sense, one couI d suy LIuL Rousseuu's "so-
cI uI conLrucL" Is noL In essence LIe concI usI on oI un ugreemenL; IL
Is LIe sLuge, LIe LIeuLer Ior LIe ugreemenL.
Even II beIng-socIuI Is noL I mmedI uLeI y "specLucuIur" In uny oI LIe
uccepLed senses oI LIe wor d, IL Is essenLIuIIy u muLLer oI beI ng-
exposed. L Is us beIng-exposed; LIuL Is, IL does noL IoI I ow I rom LIe
I mmunenL consIsLency oI u beIng-In-ILseII. TIe beIng-In-ILseII oI "so-
cIeLy" Is LIe neLwork und cross-reIerencIng [le rentoi mutuel] oI co-
exIsLence, LIuL Is, oJcoexIsLences. TII s Is wIy every socIeLy gIves ILseII
ILs specLucIe und gIves ILseII us specLucIe, In one I orm or unoLIer.
6 o
To LIIs exLenL, every socIeLy knows ILseII Lo be consLI LuLed In LIe
nonI mmunence oI co-uppeurunce, uI LIougI socIeLy does noL expose
LIIs us u "knowIedge. " L exposes wIuL IL knows us ILs own sLuge und
LIrougI ILs own prcxis oisLugIng |pruxIs scenorcphique], und wIuL
jo ein Sinulcr Plurcl
IL knows Is LIuL, II dden beII nd beIng-LogeLIer, LIere Is noL some
oLIer BeI ng wII c I wouI d no Ionger or noL yeL be beIng-LogeLIer;
LIuL Is, wIuL IL knows Is LIuL LIere Is noL LogeLIerness ILseII II dden
beII nd beI ng- L ogeL Ier -I n presence, I n person, I n body, or I n
essence. TIereIore, IL knows LIuL "LogeLIerness" Is noL u predIcuLe
oI BeI ng und LIuL "LogeLIerness" Is LIe Lruce oI BeI ng ILseII. n oLIer
words, LIe LogeLIerness oI BeI ng [l'ensemble de l'etre] Is noL u be-
I ng; IL sIures BeI ng.
TIus , LIe sponLuneous knowIedge oI socI eLy-I L s "preonLoIogIcuI
compreIensI on" oI I L seI I -I s knowI edge ubouL BeI ng ILseII, ubso-
IuLeIy, und noL ubouL LIe purLI cuI ur und subordInuLe regIon oI be-
Ings, wII cI wouI d be LIe "socI uI " regIon oI BeI ng. BeI ng- wI L I I s
consLILuLIve oI BeI ng, und IL Is |consLILuLIve| Ior LIe LoLuIILy oI be-
Ings ( wI I I reLurn Lo LIIs beI ow); "socIuI " co-uppeurunce Is ILseII LIe
exposIng oI LIe generuI co-uppeurunce oI beIngs. TII s InsIgIL mukes
ILs wuy I rom Rousseuu Lo BuLuIIIe, or I rom Mu r x Lo HeIdegger, und
IL requIres LIuL we IInd u Iunguuge LIuL Is ours.
UndoubL edI y, we ure sL I I I sLuLLerI ng: pII I osopIy uIwuys comes
Loo IuLe, und us u resuIL, uIso Loo soon. BuL LIe sLuLLerIng ILseII be-
Lruys LIe I orm oI LIe probI em: we, "we," Iow ure we Lo suy "we"?
Or ruLIer, wIo Is IL LIuL suys "we," und wIuL ure we L oI d ubouL our-
seIves In LIe LecInoI ogI cuI proI I IeruLI on oI LIe socIuI specLucIe und
LIe socIuI us specLucuIur, us weI I us In LIe proI I IeruLI on oI seII-me-
dI uLI zed gI obuI I zuLI on und gI obuI I zed medI uLI zuLI on? We ure I ncu-
pubIe oI upproprI uL I ng LIIs proI I I eruLI on becuuse we do noL know
Iow Lo L II nk LIIs "specLucuIur" nuLure, wII cI uL besL geLs reduced
Lo u dIscourse ubouL LIe uncerLuI n sIgns oI LIe "screen" und oI "cuI -
Lure." TIe sume uppIIes Lo "LecInoI ogI cuI " nuLure, wII cI we regurd
us un uuLonomous I nsLrumenL . We do so wI L IouL ever uskI ng our-
seIves I I I L mI gIL noL be "our" compreIensI on oI "our-seIves" LIuL
comes up wI L I LIese LecInI ques und I nvenLs I LseI I I n L Iem, und
wI L IouL wonderI ng I I LecInoI ogy I s I n IucL essenLIuIIy I n compI eLe
ugreemenL wI L I LIe " wI L I. "
6 1
We ure noL up Lo LIe IeveI oI LIe "we":
we consLunLIy reIer ourseIves buck Lo u "socIoIogy" LIuL Is ILseII onI y
LIe Ieurned I orm oI LIe "specLucuIur-murkeL. " We Iuve noL even be-
gun Lo L II nk "ourseIves" us "we."
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ;1
TII s Is noL Lo suy LIuL sucI L II nkI ng cun onI y occur Lo us L o-
mor r ow or uL some IuLer poI nL , us I I I L depended on progress or
some reveIuLIon. L muy noL be u muLLer oI u new objecL oI L II nkI ng
LIuL couI d be IdenLIIIed, deIIned, und exII bI Led us sucI. We do noL
Iuve Lo IdenLIIy ourseIves us "we," us u "we." RuLIer, we Iuve Lo dIs-
IdenLIIy ourseIves jrom every sorL oI "we" LIuL wouI d be LIe subjecL
oI ILs own represenLuLIon, und we Iuve Lo do LIIs insojcr cs "we" co-
uppeur. AnL erI or Lo uII L IougIL -und, I n IucL, LIe very condI L I on oI
L II nk I ng -L Ie "LIougIL" oI "us" Is noL u represenLuLIonuI LIougIL
(noL un Ideu, or noL I on, or concepL). L Is, InsLeud, u prcxis und un
ethos: LIe sLugIng oI co-uppeurunce, LIe sLugIng wII cI Is co-uppeur-
I ng. We ure uIwuys uIreudy LIere uL eucI InsLunL. TII s Is noL un I n-
nov u L I on-buL LIe sLuge musL be reInvenLed; ue musL reInvenL IL
eucI LI me, eucI L I me mukI ng our enLrunce unew.
A mujor sIgn oI LIe dI III cuI Ly we Iuve regurdIng LIe specLucIe Is
I ndI cuLed by LIe purudI gmuLI c cIurucLer LIuL LIe AL IenI un LIeuLer
Ius Ior us. TIere Is cerLuInI y noL II ng uccIdenLuI In LIe IucL LIuL our
modern wuy oI groundI ng LIe so-cuIIed WesLern LrudI LI on InvoIves
u LrI pI e reIerence: Lo pII I osopIy us LIe sIured exercIse oI loos, Lo
poI ILIcs us LIe openI ng oI LIe cILy, und Lo LIe LIeuLer us LIe pIuce oI
LIe symboI I c-I mugI nury upproprI uLI on oI coIIecLIve exIsLence. TIe
AL IenI un LIeuLer, boLI LIe I nsLI LuLI on ILseII und ILs conLenL, uppeurs
Lo us us LIe poI I L I cuI (cIvII) presenLuLI on oI LIe pII I osopII cuI (LIe
seII-knowIedge oI LIe IogIcuI unImuI) und, recIprocuIIy, us LIe pII I o-
sopIIcuI presenLuLIon oI LIe poI I LI cuI . TIuL Is, IL uppeurs Lo us us LIe
"one" presenLuLIon oI beIng-LogeLIer, yeL us u presenLuLI on wIere
LIe condI L I on Ior ILs possIbII ILy Is LIe IrreducIbIe und InsLILuLIve dIs-
Lunce [l'eccrt] oI represenLuLIon. Moreover, LIIs dIsLunce deIInes LIe
LIeuLer, InsoIur us IL Is neither poI I LI cuI nor pII I osopII cuI uL LIe sume
L I me -u n d neILIer oI LIese I n u ruLIer specIIIc wuy. TIe AL IenI un
LIeuLer uppeurs Lo us us LIe conj uncL I on oI loos und mimesis, buL
wIen we see IL In LIIs wuy, we sysLemuLIcuIIy eIIuce LIe momenL oI
mimesis In Iuvor oI LIe momenL oI loos.
We eIIuce IL In our I mugI nI ng [representcnt] LIuL LIere couI d be
;^
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
;
- u n d especIuIIy LIuL LIere wus, once upon u L I me -u "good" mi-
mesis (LIe sorL PIuLo wunLed), u mimesis oI loos, und u "bud" mime-
sis (LIuL oI LIe "sopIIsL, " LIe proLoLype oI LIe specLucuIur mercIunL
wIo seIIs LIe sI muI ucru oI loos). BuL we never pursue LIIs I ogI c Lo
ILs end, Ior doI ng so wouI d requIre LIuL we recognIze LIe I oI I owI ng:
II LIere Is u necessILy Lo mimesis, LIen IL Is becuuse loos does noL
presenL I LseI I oI ILs own u c c or d-u nd muybe becuuse I L does noL
presenL ILseII uL uI I , becuuse ILs IogIc Is noL LIe IogIc oI presence.
6 z
TII s umounLs Lo recognI zI ng LIuL "socIuI loos," LIe IogIc oI "us-
socI uL I on, " und "ussocIuLIon" ILseII us LIe loos uII requIre mimesis.
Hus LIere ever been u loos LIuL wus noL "socIuI"? WIuL ever loos
meuns-wIeL Ier u wor d or number, u guLIerIng or weI comI ng In
wII cI BeI ng Is munIIesL, reuson LIuL Is rendered or consL rucL ed-I L
uIwuys I mpI I es sIurI ng, und IL uIwuys I mpI I es ILseII us sIurI ng.
By eIIucIng LIe InLrInsI c momenL or dI mensI on oI mimesis, we eI-
Iuce LIIs sIurIng. We gIve ourseIves LIe represenLuLIon oI u presence
LIuL Is I mmunenL und encIosed, seII-consLILuLIve und seII-suIIIcIenL,
LIe InLegruIIy seII-reIerenLIuI order oI wIuL we cuII u "I ogI c" In LIe
mosL generuI und busIc sense. n LIIs sense, "I ogI c" represenLs seII-
reIerenLIuIILy IeI d Lo ILs onLoI ogI cuI condI L I on, wII cI I s LIe orI gI -
nu r y -u nd, us sucI, exI sL enL I uI -pI uruI I Ly or sIurI ng oI loos ILseII.
AguI nsL LIIs good conj uncLI on oI LIe IogIcuI und LIe mI meL I c, we
now oppose LIe "bud" one: LIuL wIere IogIc remuIns wI L II n ILs I m-
munenL order, coI d und IuceIess (wII cI Loduy, Ior us, Is LIe "IogIc oI
cupI LuI "), uII LIe wII I e ouLwurdI y producI ng u mimesis LIuL dI ssI m-
uIuLes IL uccordI ng Lo ILs I nverLed sI muI ucrum, LIe seI I-consumI ng
"specLucIe." TIe seII-reIerenLIuIILy oI LIe "I muge" sLunds I n opposI -
LI on Lo LIe seII-reIerenLIuIILy oI LIe process or LIe Iorce, us ILs pr od-
ucL und L ruL I. As over und uguInsL LIe "Greek" purudI gm, LIIs I s
LIe wuy I n wII cI our LrudI LI on Ius Ior u I ong L I me seL up LIe " Ro-
mun" purudI gm: LIe sILe oI cIrcus gumes, burIesque LIeuLer, und LIe
LIeuLer oI crueI Ly; wI L IouL " c I vI I " I denL I I I cuL I on; LIe EmpI r e und
LIe reuson Ior EmpI r e [rcison d'Empire], LIe I orum empL I ed oI ILs
meunI ng. . . .
6
AescIyI us or Ner o . . . our reIerrIng Lo LIIngs In LIIs wuy, wII cI
seLs LIe Greek sLuge In sucI vI oI enL conLrusL Lo LIe Romu n cIrcus
(und wII c I uIso dI v I de s -L II s I s u remurkubI e e xumpI e -L Ie
CIr I sL I un LrudILIons oI ProLesLunLI sm und CuL IoI I cI sm, or dI vI des
LIe severuI dIIIerenL Iorms oI LIe proIune LIeuLrIcuI LrudI LI on), re-
veuIs u conscIousness LIuL Is ILseII conII I cLed, us Is demonsLruLed by
ILs uneuse wI L I regurd Lo LIe specLucIe: "good" (re)presenLuLIon Is
represenLed us IosL; " bud" (re)presenLuLIon Is represenLed us boL I
popuI ur und generuIIzed. BuL , I n IucL, boL I oI L Iem ure our repre-
senLuLIons; LIey compose LIe doubI e specLucIe LIuL we gIve Lo our-
seIves, LIe doubI e specLucIe oI LIe doubI e unpresenLubI I I Ly oI socIuI
BeI ng und ILs L ruL I. TIere Is one unpresenLubI I I Ly becuuse oI u cer-
LuI n reLreuL, und unoLIer unpresenLubI I I Ly on uccounL oI u cerLuI n
vuIgurILy. Muybe we Iuve Lo begI n by L ukI ng some dIsLunce I rom
LIIs doubI e specLucIe, by no I onger wI s II ng Lo be Greeks, by no
Ionger IeurIng LIuL we ure Romuns, und by sI mpI y undersLundI ng
ourseIves us moderns, wIere beI ng moder n meuns LIe I oI I owI ng:
L ukI ng noLe oI un exposed "unpresenLubI I I Ly" us sucI, buL wII cI I s
noL II ng oLIer LIun LIe very presenLuLIon oI our co-uppeurI ng, oI
"us" co-uppeurIng, und wIose "secreL" exposes ILseII und exposes us
Lo ourseIves wI L IouL our even begI nnI ng Lo peneLruLe I L - I I IL Is u
muLLer oI "peneLruLIng" IL uL uI I .
TIe Meusure oI LIe " WI L I"
TIe bure exposI LI on oI co-uppeurunce I s LIe exposI L I on
6 q
oI cup-
ILuI. CupI L uI Is someLII ng IIke LIe reverse sIde oI co-uppeurunce cnd
LIuL wII cI reveuIs co-uppeurunce. CupILuI' s vIoI enL I nIumunI L y dIs-
pIuys [etcle] noL II ng oLIer L Iun LIe sI muI L uneI L y oI LIe sI nguI ur
(buL LIe sInguIur posI ng us LIe IndIIIerenL und InLercIungeubIe pur-
LI cuI urI Ly oI LIe unI L oI producL I on) und LIe pI uruI (ILseII posI ng us
LIe sysLem oI c ommodI L y cI rcuI uLI on). TIe "exLorLI on oI surpI us-
vuIue" presupposes LIIs concomI L unce beLween LIe "uL omI zuL I on"
oI producers (oI "subjecLs" reduced Lo beI ng-producLI ve) und u
"reLIcuIuLIon" oI proIIL (noL us un equuI redI sLrI buLI on, buL us u con-
cenLruLI on LIuL I s ILseII more und more compI ex und deIocuIIzed).
One couI d suy LIuL cupI LuI I s LIe uI I enuLI on oI beI ng sI nguI ur
pI uruI us sucI. TII s wouI d be quILe uccuruLe so I ong us one dI d noL
;q ein Sinulcr Plurcl
undersLund beI ng sInguIur pI uruI us u prI mI LI ve, uuLIenLIc subjecL, u
subjecL Lo wII cI cupILuI Iuppened us ILs oLIer und pureI y by uccI-
denL. ( NoL II ng couI d be more IoreI gn Lo Murx' s LII nkI ng. ) CupI L uI
Is LIe "uI I enuLI on" oI BeI ng In ILs beIng-socIuI Lo LIe exLenL LIuL IL
puLs LIIs beI ng In pIuy us sucI. L Is noL LIe neguLIve dI uI ecLIc oI
some prI or c ommunI L y LIuL occurs wI L II n u conL I nuous IIsLorIcuI
process; InsLeud, IL exposes u sI nguI ur-pI uruI consLI LuLI on or conII g-
uruLI on LIuL Is neILIer LIe " communI L y" nor LIe " I ndI vI duuI . " n-
cuIcuIubIe "surpI us-vuI ue"-"vuI ue" us I ndeI I nI Le, cIrcuI uLory, und
uuLoLeIIc growLI-exposes LIe InuccessIbIIILy oI u prI mordI uI or IInuI
"vuIue." n u purudoxIcuI und vI oI enL wuy, IL I mmedI uLeI y poses LIe
quesLI on oI un "ouLsIde-vuIue" or "ubsoIuLe vuI ue" -wII c I wouI d
be I mmeusurubI e, prIceIess (wIuL KunL cuIIed u "dI gnI Ly"). TIere Is,
LIen, u cerLuIn concomI Lunce beLween LIe gI obuI I zuLI on oI LIe mur-
keL und LIuL oI " Iumun rIgILs": LIese rIgILs represenL LIe supposed
ubsoIuLe vuIue LIuL cupILuI cIuIms Lo excIunge Ior . . . ILseII.
However, LIIs Is uIso wIy LIere Is LIe sLrI ppI ng bure [mise c nu] oI
beIng-socIuI und, uL LIe sume LI me, ILs beI ng brougIL Lo IIIe [mise c
tij], exucLIy becuuse LIe "rIgILs-beurIng" " Iumun" Is "vuIuubIe" In
ILseII. n IucL, Ie Is noL II ng oLIer LIun LIe Ideu oI u "vuIue In ILseII"
or u "dI gnI Ly. " I "IumunI L y" musL be worL I someLII ng, or II BeI ng
I n generuI musL "be worL I someLII ng" under LIe IeudI ng " Iumun-
ILy," LIIs cun onI y be by "beI ng vuIuubIe" sinulcrl und, sI muI Lune-
ousIy, In "beI ng vuIuubIe" by und Ior und wI L I LIe plurcl thci sucI
sI nguI urI Ly I mpI I es, jusL us IL I mpI I es LIe IucL oI LIe "vuIue" ILseII.
ndeed, wIo couI d be |more| vuI uubI e Ior oneseI I L Iun oneseI I?
"BeI ng vuIuubIe" I s worL I someLII ng onI y wI L II n LIe conLexL oI be-
I ng-wI LI, LIuL Is, onI y InsoIur us IL concerns commerce In every sense
oI LIe wor d. BuL I L I s precIseIy LIe sIurI ng oI LIese senses-L Ie
commerce oI goodsJLIe commerce oI beI ng-LogeLIer-LIuL cupILuI
exposes: LIe sIurI ng oI LIe senses oI exchcne, LIe sIurI ng oI LIe
sIurIng ILseII. CupI L uI exposes IL us u cerLuIn vIoIence, wIere beI ng-
LogeLIer becomes beIng-oI-murkeL-vuIue [letre-mcrchcnd] und Iug-
gIed over [mcrchcnde]. TIe beI ng- wI L I LIuL Is LIus exposed vun-
IsIes uL LIe sume LI me LIuL IL Is exposed, sLrIpped bure.
To suy LIuL LIIs vIoI ence exposes beI ng sInguIur pI uruI us un ub-
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ;
soIuLe oI exIsLence Is noL Lo jusLIIy IL. or LIIs vIoIence vIoIuLes wIuL
IL exposes. TII s, Iowever, does noL umounL Lo decIurIng LIuL LIe "se-
creL" oI cupILuI Ius been reveuIed, uIong wI L I LIe meuns oI converLIng
IL InLo ILs opposILe. nsLeud, LIe vIoIence oI cupILuI gIves LIe meusure
oI wIuL Is exposed, oI wIuL comes Lo "us" Lo expose ILseII: sInguIur
pI uruI beI ng-wI LI Is LIe onI y ubsoIuLe meusure oI BeI ng ILseII, or oI
exIsLence. BuL LIIs Is un I ncommensurubI e meusure II IL Is equuI Lo
LIe "uL eucI LI me" oI eucI "one" und, ct the scme time, Lo LIe I ndeII-
nILe pI uruI I Ly oI coexIsLences ccinst wII cI eucI one is mecsured m
L ur n-u c c or dI ng L o LIe I ndeII nI Le commensuruL I on oI LIe coI ncI -
dences oI commerce, combuL, compeLI LI on, compurI son, c ommunI -
cuLI on, concurrence, concupIscence, compussI on, co-jouisscnce. . . .
TIere Is u c o mmo n meusure, wII c I Is noL some one unI que
sLundurd uppI I ed Lo everyone und everyLII ng. L Is LIe commensu-
rubI I I L y oI I ncommensurubI e sI nguI urI LI es, LIe equuI I Ly oI uI I LIe
oriins-ojthe-uorld, wII cI, us orI gI ns, ure sLrIcLIy unexcIungeubIe
[insubstitucble]. n LIIs sense, LIey ure perIecLIy unequuI , buL LIey
ure unexcIungeubIe onI y I nsoIur us LIey ure equuI I y wI L I one un-
oLIer. SucI Is LIe sorL oI meusuremenL LIuL IL Is IeIL up Lo us Lo Luke.
"SocIeLy" I s neILIer Greek nor Ro mu n -n o r Judeo- CIrI sL I un, Lo
wII c I we wI I I reLurn IuLer. SocI eLy knows I LseI I und sees ILseII us
bured, exposed Lo LIIs c ommon excess [demesure]. AL one und LIe
sume L I me, IL sees I LseI I us someL II ng quI Le evIdenL und Lrunspur-
enL, wIose necessILy ecIIpses LIuL oI every eo sum, und us un opuc-
I Ly LIuL denIes I LseI I every subjecLIve upproprI uL I on. AL LIuL mo-
menL wIen we cIeurIy come |Lo sLund| beIore ourseIves, us LIe Ione
uddresser(s) IucIng LIe I one uddressee(s), we cunnoL LruI y suy "we."
BuL IL Is LIrougI LIIs LIuL we now Iuve Lo uLLuIn Lo u knowI edge
oI LIe " we" -uL L uI n Lo u knowI edge undJor u pruxIs oI LIe "we. "
TIe "we" Is noL u subjecL In LIe sense oI egoIsLIc seII-IdenLIIIcuLIon
und seI I -groundI ng (even I I LIIs ILseII never Lukes pIuce ouLsIde oI
u "we"); neILIer Is LIe "we" "composed" oI subjecLs (LIe Iuw oI sucI
composI L I on Is LIe uporI u oI uII "I nLersubj ecLI vI Ly"). However, LIe
"we" Is noL noL II ng; IL Is "someone" eucI LI me, jusL us "eucI one" Is
j ein Sinulcr Plurcl
someone. Moreover, LIIs Is wIy LIere Is no unIversuI "we": on LIe
one Iund, "we" Is suId eucI LI me oI some conII guruLI on, group, or
neLwork, Iowever smuI I or Iurge; on LIe oLIer Iund, "we" suy "we"
Ior "everyone," Ior LIe coexIsLence oI LIe enLIre unIverse oI LIIngs,
unI muI s, und peopIe LIuL I s muL e und wI L IouL "us." " We" neILIer
suys LIe " One " nor does IL suy LIe uddI ng LogeLIer oI "ones" und
"oLIers"; ruLIer, "we" suys "one" In u wuy LIuL Is sInguIur pI uruI , one
by one und one wI L I one.
No L II ng cun reuIIy be L IougIL ubouL LIIs sI L uuL I on unIess LIe
one, In generuI, Is IIrsL LIougIL In Lerms oI wILI-one-unoLIer. YeL, IL
Is Iere LIuL our onL oI ogy IuIIs, sInce we ure "umongsL us" ["entre
nous"] und sInce " BeI ng" comes down Lo jusL L I u L -I I cun suy IL
I I ke LIIs.
(L Is us II BeI ng Ius come buck Lo LIIs "beLween, " wII c I Is ILs
Lrue pIuce, us L IougI IL Iud been u muLLer oI u "IorgeLLIng LIe be-
Lween" ruLIer LIun "IorgeLLIng BeI ng. " Or ruLIer, IL Is us II LIe I n-
venL I on oI BeI ng, L IrougIouL LIe wIoI e L rudI L I on, were noL II ng
buL LIe I nvenL I on oI our exIsLence us sucI-us LIe exIsLence oj us
und cs us, us In LIe wor I d, we-LIe-worI d. " We" wouI d be, LIen, LIe
mosL remoLe, ubsoIuLe prI orI L y oI every onL oI ogy; us u resuIL, "we"
wouI d uIso be LIe mosL beIuLed, mosL dI III cuI L, und IeusL upproprI -
ubIe eIIecL oI LIe onLoI ogI cuI demund. )
TIe uith consLILuLes u sorL oI permunenL end poI nL oI LIe LrudI -
L I on. L Is u mI nor cuLegory; In IucL, even up unL I I Loduy, I ncI udI ng
HeI degger In cerLuIn regurds, IL Is bureIy u cuLegory uL uII InsoIur us
"BeI ng" Ius been represenLed us beI ng uIone wI L I ILseII, und us Iuv-
I ng no coexIsLence or coI ncI dence. So, wIen HusserI decIures "LIe
I nL rI nsI cuI I y IIrsL beI ng, LIe beI ng LIuL precedes und beurs every
worI dI y ObjecLIvILy, Is LrunscendenLuI InLersubjecLIvILy: LIe unIverse
oI monuds, wII cI eIIecLs ILs c ommunI on I n vurIous I orms, "
6
LIIs
BeI ng consLILuLes Ior I I m noL II ng Iess L Iun un uI LI muLe IorI zon,
Ireed I rom conLI ngency und LIe exLerIorILy oI coexIsLenLs. L corre-
sponds Lo u LrunscendenLuI soI I durI Ly ruLIer L Iun un empI r I co-
LrunscendenLuI sI muI LuneI Ly. As u resuIL, IL uguIn becomes some-
L II ng I I ke u subsLruLum ruLIer L Iun someL II ng open or dI s-posed
I n ILseII L IrougI ILs coconsL I L uL I on. GeneruI I y speukI ng, LIen, LIe
ein Sinulcr Plurcl j
BeI ng oI pII I osopII cuI onL oI ogy cunnoL Iuve coessence, sInce I L
onI y Ius non- BeI ng us ILs correIuLe. BuL wIuL II BeI ng ILseI I is LIe
coessenLIuIILy oI exIsLence?
SInce beIng-socIuI uppeurs Lo us Lo IIe beyond our reucI, wIeLIer
us c ommunI L y (subsumpLI on under LIe SubjecL, pure BeI ng wI L I-
ouL reIuLIons) or us ussocIuLIon ( uccommoduL I on oI subjecLs, reIu-
L I on wI L IouL essenLIuIILy), I L I s LIe cuLegory oI LIe "oLIer" LIuL
crosses L IrougI muc I conL emporury L II nkI ng. L wouI d be neces-
sury Lo sIow Iow LIIs cuLegory, und LIe obsessIon [lc hcntise] LIuL
I L ends up consL I L uL I ng Ior u good por L I on oI our L II nkI ng, boL I
represenLs LIe I ncommensurubI I I L y oI BeI ng us beI ng-wI LI-one-un-
oLIer cnd runs LIe rIsk oI coverI ng over or deI errI ng LIIs BeIng' s
reuI m, InsoIur us IL Is LIe reuI m oI LIe uith, LIuL Is, InsoIur us IL Is
LIe meusure oI LIIs I ncommensurubI I I L y.
TIe oLIer Is presenLed us LIe clter eo or us LIe oLIer oI LIe ego,
us LIe oLIer ouLsI de oI LIe seI I or us LIe oLIer wI L II n LIe seII, us
"oLIers" or LIe "OL Ier"; uI I LIese wuys oI I ookI ng uL I L, uII LIese us-
pecLs, uI I LIese Iuces, und uI I oI "LIose wIo m we cunnoL I ook In LIe
Iuce" |"ces I ndvI sugeubI es"|-wIose necessILy Is, In every cuse, I n-
conLesLubI e-uI wuys brI ng us buck Lo LIe very IeurL oI LIe muLLer,
Lo un uILerILy or uILeruLIon wIere LIe "seII" Is uL sLuke. TIe oLIer Is
L II nkubI e, und musL be L IougIL , begI nnI ng I r om LIuL momenL
wIen LIe seII uppeurs und uppeurs Lo ILseII us u "seII."
YeL, LIIs I denLI II cuLI on oI LIe seII us s ucI-I L s subjecLIvIzuLIon In
LIe deepesL und rIcIesL pII I osopII cuI sense oI LIe L erm, LIe one
LIuL reucIes ILs exLreme I I mI L I n He g e I -c u n onI y Luke pIuce once
LIe subjecL IInds ILseII or poses ILseII orI gI nurI I y us oLIer LIun ILseII,
doI ng so In LIe I nII nI Le presupposI LI on oI LIe seII LIuL consLILuLes
IL us u subjecL und uccordI ng Lo LIe necessury I uw oI sucI presup-
posI LI on. TII s wouI d be u seII LIuL Is oIder und more orI gI nury LIun
ILseII, u seII In ILseII LIuL Is oLIer LIun LIe seII Ior ILseII. TII s Is reuIIy
noL muc I more LIun u LrunscrI pLI on oI HegeI .
TIereIore, LIe seII knows I LseI I pr I ncI puI I y us oLIer L Iun ILseII:
sucI I s LIe consLI LuLI on oI "seII-conscIousness." A n d yeL, LIe IogIc
oI LIIs consLI LuLI on Is purudoxI cuI , sInce IL InvoIves sI muI LuneousI y
LIe openI ng oI LIe seII Lo LIe oLIer cnd ILs cIosure. n IucL, LIe uI -
; 8 ein Sinulcr Plurcl
LerILy oI LIe oLIer Is sucI LIuL Lo recognIze IL Is Lo be denI ed uccess
Lo I L ; LIere cun be uccess onI y on LIe condI L I on oI u rudI cuI uILer-
uLI on or, more precIseIy, u rudIcuI uI IenuLIon. A dIuIecLIc oI LIe sume
und LIe oLIer, oI LIe sume In LIe oLIer, oI LIe sume us oLIer, un-
does LIIs uporIu, buL LIIs undoI ng comes uL u prIce, LIe prIce oI LIe
dIuIecLIc In generuI. L reveuIs LIuL LIe power oI LIe neguLIve wII cI
IoI ds LIe seII Lo LIe oLIer, LIe dI s-uI I enuLI ng und reupproprI uLI ve
power oI uI I enuLI on ILseII us LIe uI I enuLI on oI LIe sume, wI I I uIwuys
be presupposed us LIe power oI LIe seII, or LIe SeI I us LIIs very
power. TIe SeI I remuIns uIone In ILseII even us IL emerges ouL oI IL-
seII. WIuL Is properI y I uckI ng or pussed over In LIIs IuIse emergence
Is LIe momenL oI LIe uith.
Ope n Lo LIe oLIer und occurrI ng us oLIer, LIe seII Ius ILs orI gI -
nurI Ly I n LIe Ioss oI seII. BI r L I und deuLI become LIe murks oI u
poI nL oI orI gI n [protencnce] und desLI nuLI on wI L II n LIe oLIer: un
orI gI nJdesLI nuLI on us u Ioss, us LIe memorI uI mour nI ng oI LIe I m-
memorI uI , und us LIe reconquerI ng or reupproprI uLI on oI un I nup-
p r o p r I u L e useILy I n uI I ILs I rreducI bI e uILerILy. TII s oLIer I s noL
"wI L I"; IL Is no Ionger und noL yeL "wI L I"; IL Is neurer und IurLIer
uwuy LIun every beIng-LogeLIer. L does noL uccompuny I denLI Ly; IL
crosses L IrougI I L, und Lrunsgresses IL; I L LrunsIIxes I L. WI L I I n LIe
dIscourse ubouL uILerILy, u generuI mode oI trcns- (LrunsporL, Lruns-
ucLI on, LrunscrI pLI on, LrunsIer, LrunsmI ssI on, LrunsIormuLI on, Lruns-
purency, LrunsubsLunLIuLIon, Lrunscendence) conLI nuuI I y runs uI ong-
sIde LIe mode oI cum-, buL IL wI I I never be ubIe Lo ecIIpse IL or
repIuce IL.
n und oI ILseII LrunscendenL, LIe subjecL Is born I nLo ILs intimcc
("InLerIor I nL I mo neo"), und ILs I nL I mucy wunders uwuy I rom IL in
stctu ncscendi ("InLerIeces eL ur I num nuscI mur"). " To exIsL" Is no
Ionger "Lo be" (Ior ILseII, In I LseI I), Lo-uIreudy-no-Ionger-be und Lo-
noL-yeL-be, or even Lo-be-I uckI ng, LIuL Is, Lo-be-I n-debL-Lo-beI ng.
To exIsL Is u muLLer oI goI ng I nL o exIIe. TIe IucL LIuL LIe I nLI muLe,
LIe ubsoIuLeIy proper, consIsLs In LIe ubsoIuLeIy oLIer Is wIuL uILers
LIe orI gI n In ILseII, In u reIuLIon Lo ILseII LIuL Is "orI gI nurI I y pI unged
I nL o mo ur nI ng . "
6 6
TIe oLIer I s I n un orI gI nury reI uLI on L o deuLI
und In u reIuLIon Lo orI gI nury deuLI.
ein Sinulc r Plu rcl ;q
n LIIs wuy, LIen, "soIILude" uppeurs. TII s Is LIe CIr I sL I un evenL,
wII cI does noL meun LIuL IL wus noL prepured Ior weI I In udvunce,
or LIuL IL wus noL, In ILs own wuy, conLemporury Lo our wIoI e Lru-
dI L I on. SoI I Lude pur exceIIence Is soIILude oI LIe seII InsoIur us IL re-
IuLes Lo ILseII, ouLsIde oI ILseII in extremis und in principis, ouLsIde oI
LIe wor I d, ex-IsLIng exIsLence. ConscIousness oI seII Is soIILude. TIe
oLIer Is LIIs very soI I Lude exposed us sucI: us u seII-conscIousness
LIuL I s I nI I nI L eI y wI L Idr uwn I n ILseII, I nL o I L s e I I -I n I LseI I us I nL o
ILseII.
As sucI, LIe coexI sL enL -L Ie oLIer person, buL uIso LIe oLIer
creuLure In generuI-uppeurs us LIuL wII cI Is In ILseII InIInILeIy wI L I-
druwn. L uppeurs InuccessIbIe Lo "me" becuuse IL Is wI L Idruwn I rom
LIe "seII" In generuI, und becuuse IL Is us LIe seII-ouLsIde-ILseII: IL Is
LIe oLIer In generuI, LIe oLIer LIuL Ius ILs momenL oI IdenLILy In LIe
dI vI ne OL Ier, wII c I I s uIso LIe momenL oI LIe I denL I L y oI every-
L II ng, oI LIe unIversuI corpus msticum. TIe OL Ier Is LIe pIuce oI
communit us communion, LIuL Is, LIe pIuce oI u beIng-seII-In-oLIer
[etre-soi-en-:'cutre] LIuL wouI d no Ionger be uILered or wIere sucI uI -
LeruLIon wouI d be I denLI II cuLI on. n LIIs wor I d, LIe mysLery oI c om-
munI on unnounces ILseII In LIe I orm oI LIe necrb |procIuIne|.
Proximit Is LIe correIuLe oI intimcc: IL Is LIe "neuresL," LIe "cIos-
esL," wII cI Is uIso Lo suy "LIe mosL upproxI muLe" or "I nI I nI L eI y up-
proxI muL e" Lo me, buL I L I s noL me becuuse I L I s wI L Idr uwn I n I L-
seII, I nL o LIe seII In generuI. TIe pr oxI mI L y oI LIe neuresL Is u
mI nuLe, I nLI muLe dIsLunce und, LIereIore, un InIInILe dIsLunce wIose
resoI uLI on Is In LIe OL Ier. TIe neuresL Is LIuL wII cI Is uLLerI y re-
moved, und LIIs Is wIy LIe reIuLIon Lo IL presenLs ILseII (1) us un I m-
peruLIve, (z) us LIe I mperuLI ve oI u Iove, und () us u Iove LIuL Is
"I I ke LIe Iove oI myseI I . "
6 ;
TIe Iove oI seII, Iere, I s noL egoI sm I n
LIe sense oI preIerrIng oneseI I over oLIers (wII cI wouI d conLrudI cL
LIe commundmenL ) ; IL Is un egoIsm In LIe sense oI prI vI I egI ng one-
seII, one's own-seI I [le soi-propre], us u modeI , LIe I mI L uL I on oI wII cI
wouI d provI de LIe Iove oI oLIers. L Is necessury Lo Iove one's own-
seII In LIe oLIer, buL recIprocuIIy, one's own-seI I In me Is LIe oLIer
oI LIe ego. L Is ILs II dden I nLI mucy.
TII s Is wIy IL Is u muLLer oI "Iove": LIIs Iove Is noL some possIbIe
8o
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
mode oI reI uLI on; I L desIgnuLes reI uLI on I LseI I uL LIe IeurL oI Be-
I n g - I n I I eu oI und I n LIe pIuce oI Be I n g
6 8
-u n d desIgnuLes LIIs
reI uLI on, oI one Lo unoLIer, us LIe I nI I nI Le reI uLI on oI LIe sume Lo
LIe sume us orI gI nurI I y oLIer LIun ILseII. "ove" Is LIe ubyss oI LIe
seII In ILseII; IL Is LIe "deIecLuLIon" |"dIIecLIon"| or "L ukI ng cure" oI
wIuL orI gI nurI I y escupes or Is I uckI ng; IL consIsLs In L ukI ng cure oI
LIIs reLreuL und In LIIs reLreuL. As u resuIL, LIIs Iove Is "cIurILy": IL Is
LIe consIderuLIon oI LIe ccritcs, oI LIe cosL or LIe exLreme, ubsoIuLe,
und, LIereIore, I nesLI mubI e vuIue oI LIe oLIer us oLIer, LIuL Is, LIe
oLIer us LIe seI I-wI LIdruwn-I n-I LseI I . TII s Iove speuks oI LIe I nI I -
nILe cosL oI wIuL Is I nII nI LeI y wI L Idruwn: LIe I ncommensurubI I I L y
oI LIe oLIer. As u resuIL, LIe c ommundmenL oI LIIs Iove Iuys ouL
LIIs I ncommensurubI I I L y Ior wIuL IL Is: uccess Lo LIe InuccessIbIe.
YeL, IL Is noL suIIIcIenL Lo dIscredIL sucI Iove us beI ongI ng Lo some
I nLemperuLe I deuI I sm or reIIgIous IypocrIsy. RuLIer, IL Is u muLLer
oI deconsLrucLI ng LIe CIrI sL I unI L y und senLI menLuI I Ly oI un I mper-
uLIve LIe openI y excessIve und cIeurIy exorbILunL cIurucLer oI wII cI
musL be reud us u wur nI ng Lo us; wouI d even go so Iur us Lo suy
LIuL IL jusL Is u wurnI ng Lo us. L Is u muLLer oI wonderI ng ubouL LIe
"meunI ng" (or "desIre") oI u L II nkI ng or cuI Lure LIuL gIves ILseII u
I ounduLI on LIe very expressIon oI wII cI denoLes I mpossI bI I I Ly, und
oI wonder I ng Iow und Lo wIuL exLenL LIe "mudness" oI LIIs Iove
couI d expose LIe I ncommensurubI I I L y oI LIe very consL I L uL I on oI
LIe "seII" und LIe "oLIer," oI LIe "seII" In LIe "oLIer."
WI L I regurd Lo LIIs consLI LuLI on, LIen, und uL LIe IeurL oI Judeo-
CIrI sL I unI L y und ILs exucL opposILe, IL wouI d be u muLLer oI under-
sLundI ng Iow LIe dI mensI on oI LIe uith boL I uppeurs und dIsup-
peurs uII uL once. On LIe one Iund, LIe proxI mI L y oI wIuL Is neurby
[prochcin] poI nL s Lo LIe "neurby" | Tuuprs"| oI LIe " wI L I" (LIe
cpud hoc oI ILs eL ymoI ogy). One couI d even udd LIuL I L encIrcIes
LII s "neurby" und mukes I L sLund ouL on ILs own, us u conL I guI L y
und sI muI LuneI Ly oI beIng-neur-Lo us sucI, wI L IouL uny IurLIer de-
L ermI nuL I on. TIuL Is, wIuL Is "neurby" Is no Ionger LIe "neurness"
oI LIe IumI I y or LIe LrIbe, wII cI muy be wIuL LIe prI mury meunI ng
oI LIe BI bI I cuI precepL reIers Lo; IL Is noL LIe neurness oI LIe people
or LIe philic, or LIe broLIerIood; IL Is wIuL underIIes every IogIc oI
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
8|
LIe group or ensembIe, every IogIc oI c ommunI L y LIuL I s bused on
nuLure, bI ood, source, prI ncI pI e, und or I gI n.
6 q
TIe meusure oI sucI
"neurness" Is no I onger gI ven, und LIe "neurby," LIe "very neur" Is
exII bI L ed us sLrI pped bure, wI L IouL meusure. As sucI, everyduy
mI I I I ng uround [le ctoiement], LIe crowd, LIe muss uII become pos-
s I bI e -r I gIL up unL I I LIe pI I I ng- up oI bodI es I n LIe unonymous
muss gruve or LIe puI verI zuLI on oI coIIecLIve usIes. TIe pr oxI mI L y
oI wIuL Is neurby, us pure dIs-Lunce, us pure dI s-posI LI on, cun con-
LrucL und expund LIIs dI s-posI LI on Lo ILs exLreme I I mI L , boL I uL LIe
sume LI me. n unIversuI beI ng-wI LI-one-unoLIer, LIe in oI LIe I n-
c ommon I s mude pureI y exLensIve und dI sLrI buLI ve.
On LIe oLIer Iund, LIIs I s wIy LIe "neurby" oI LIe uith, LIe sI -
muI LuneI Ly oI dIsLunce und cIose conLucL, LIe mosL proper consLI -
L uL I on oI LIe cum-, exposes I LseI I us I ndeL ermI nunL ness und us u
probI em. Accor dI ng Lo LIIs IogIc, LIere Is no meusure LIuL Is proper
Lo LIe uith, und LIe other IoI ds IL LIere, wI L II n LIe dI uI ecLIc oI LIe
I ncommensurubI e und c ommon I nLI mucy, or wI L II n un uILernuLIve
Lo IL. n un exLreme purudox, LIe oLIer Lurns ouL Lo be the other oj
the uith.
As u resuIL, LIere ure Lwo dIIIerenL meusures oI LIe I nc ommen-
surubIe Lo be I ound wI L II n LIe very depLIs oI our L rudI L I on, Lwo
meusures LIuL ure superI mposed, I nLerLwI ned, und conLrusLed. One
Is cuI IbruLed uccordI ng Lo LIe OL Ier; LIe oLIer Is cuIIbruLed uccord-
I ng Lo LIe wI L I. Becuuse LIe I nL I muL e und LIe proxI muLe, LIe sume
und LIe oLIer, reIer Lo one unoLIer, LIey desIgnuLe u "noL beI ng
wI L I" und, I n LIIs wuy, u "noL beI ng I n socIeLy." TIey desIgnuLe un
OL Ier oI LIe socIuI wIere LIe socIuI ILseII-the c ommon us ein
or us u c ommon subject-wouId be In ILseII, by ILseII, und Ior ILseII:
IL wouI d be LIe very sumeness oI LIe oLIer und sumeness us OL Ier.
n conLrusL, beI ng-wI L I desIgnuLes LIe oLIer LIuL never comes buck
Lo LIe sume, LIe pI uruI I Ly oI orIgIns. TIe jusL meusure oI LIe wI L I
or, more exucLIy, LIe wI L I or beI ng-wI LI us jusL meusure, us jusLness
und jusLIce, Is LIe meusure oI dI s-posI LI on us sucI: LIe meusure oI
LIe dIsLunce I rom one orI gI n Lo unoLIer.
ein Sinulcr Plurcl 8
8 z ein Sinulcr Plurcl
n IIs unuIyLIc oI Mitsein, HeI degger does noL do LIIs meusure
jusLIce. On LIe one Iund, Ie deuIs wI L I LIe IndIIIerence oI un " un-
cI rcumspecLIve LurryI ng uIongsIde" und, on LIe oLIer, un "uuLIenLIc
undersLundI ng oI oL Ier s "
; o
-L Ie sLuLus oI wII cI remuIns IndeLer-
mI nuL e us I ong us wIuL Is In quesL I on Is unyL II ng oLIer L Iun LIe
neguLIve undersLundI ng oI LIe I nupproprI ubI I I Ly oI LIe deuLI oI oL I-
ers or LIe codesLI nuLI on oI u peopIe. BeLween LIIs IndIIIerence und
LIIs undersLundI ng, LIe LIeme oI exIsLenLIuI "dI sLunLI uI I Ly"
; 1
I mme-
dI uLeI y reverLs buck Lo compeL I L I on und domI nuL I on, I n order Lo
open onL o LIe I ndI sL I ncL domI nuL I on oI LIe "one" ["Dcs Mcn"].
TIe "one" Is produced us noL II ng oLIer LIun LIuL conversIon wII cI
IeveIs ouL LIe generuI uLLempL by everyone Lo ouLdIsLunce everyone
eIse, wII cI ends I n LIe domI nuL I on oI medIocrILy, oI LIe c ommon
und uveruge meusure, c ommon us uveruge. L ends wI L I LIe "com-
mon-medI ocre" conceuI I ng LIe essenLIuI " common- wI L I. " BuL , us
sucI, IL remuIns Lo be suId jusL Iow beI ng-wI LI Is essenLIuI, seeIng
us IL codeLermInes LIe essence oI exIsLence.
HeI degger II mseI I wrILes LIuL: . . . us BeI ng-wI L I, DuseI n "Is" es-
senLIuI I y Ior LIe suke oI [umuillen] OL Iers. . . . n beI ng- wI L I, us
LIe exIsLenLIuI "Ior-LIe-suke-oI " oI OLIers, LIese Iuve uIreudy been
dIscIosed [erschlossen] In LIeIr Dcsein."
;z
TIe uith, LIereIore, des-
IgnuLes beI ng-wI LI-regurd-Lo-one-unoLIer, sucI LIuL eucI one Is
"dI scI osed" |"ouverL"|
;
LIen und LIere, LIuL Is, consLI LuLed us ex-
I sLI ng: beI ng LIe there, LIuL Is, LIe dIscIosure oI BeI ng, beI ng un
"eucI L I me" oI LIIs dI scI osure, I n sucI u wuy LIuL no dI scI osure
wouI d Luke pIuce (no BeI ng) I I LIe one "dIscIosed" dI d noL dIscIose
ILseII wI L I regurd Lo un oLIer "dIscI osed. " DI scI osure ILseII consIsLs
onI y In LIe coIncIdence oI dIscIosures. To-be-LIe-LIere Is noL Lo dIs-
cIose u pIuce Lo BeI ng us OL Ier : IL Is Lo dIscIoseJbe dI scI osed LoJ
LIrougI LIe pI uruI I L y oI sInguIur dIscIosures.
Since it is neither "lote," nor eten "relction" in enercl, nor the
juxtc-position oj in-dijjerences, the "uith" is the proper reclm oj the
plurclit oj oriins insojcr cs the oriincte, noL I rom one unoLIer or
Ior one unoLIer, but in tieu oj one cnother or uith recrd to one cn-
other. A n orI gI n Is noL un orI gI n Ior ILseII; nor Is IL un orI gI n I n order
Lo reLuIn ILseII I n ILseI I (LIuL wouI d be LIe orI gI n oI noL II ng) ; nor
Is IL un orI gI n In order Lo Iover over some derIvuLIve successIon In
wII c I ILs beI ng us or I gI n wouI d be IosL. An orI gI n I s someL II ng
oLIer LIun u sLurLIng poI nL ; IL Is boLI u prI ncI pI e und un uppeurIng;
us sucI, IL repeuLs ILseII uL eucI momenL oI wIuL IL orIgInuLes. L Is
"conL I nuuI creuLI on. "
I LIe wor I d does noL "Iuve" un orI gI n "ouLsIde oI ILseII," I I LIe
wor I d I s ILs own orI gI n or LIe orI gI n "ILseII," LIen LIe orI gI n oI LIe
wor I d occurs uL eucI momenL oI LIe wor I d. L Is LIe ecch time oI
BeI ng, und ILs reuI m I s LIe bein-uith oI eucI L I me wI L I every
|oLIer| LI me. TIe orI gI n I s Ior und by wuy oI LIe sInguIur pI uruI oI
every possIbIe orI gI n. TIe "wI L I" Is LIe meusure oI un orIgIn-oI-LIe-
wor I d cs such, or even oI un orI gI n-oI -meunI ng us sucI. To-be-wI L I
Is Lo muke sense muLuuI I y, und onI y muLuuI I y. Me u nI ng Is LIe
IuIIesL meusure oI LIe I ncommensurubI e " wI L I. " TIe " wI L I" I s LIe
IuIIesL meusure oI (LIe) I ncommensurubI e meunI ng (oI BeI ng).
Body, unguuge
TIe pI uruI I Ly oI orIgIns essenLIuIIy dIssemInuLes LIe Or I gI n oI LIe
wor I d. TIe wor I d sprIngs I or L I
; q
everywIere und I n eucI InsLunL,
sImuILuneousIy. TII s Is Iow IL comes Lo uppeur out oj nothin und
"Is creuLed." r om now on, Iowever, LIIs beI ng creuLed musL be un-
dersLood dIIIerenLIy: IL Is noL un eIIecL oI some purLIcuI ur operuLI on
oI pr oducL I on; I nsLeud, IL Is, InsoIur us IL Is, us creuLed, us IuvI ng
urIsen, come, or grown (cresco, creo), IL Ius uIwuys uIreudy sprung
I rom uI I sIdes, or more exucLIy, IL Is ILseII LIe sprI ngI ng I orLI und
LIe comI ng oI LIe "uIwuys uIreudy" und LIe "everywIere." As sucI,
eucI beI ng beIongs Lo LIe (uuLIenLIc) orI gI n, eucI Is orI gI nury (LIe
sprI ngI ng I orLI oI LIe sprI ngI ng IorLI I LseI I), und eucI I s orI gI nuI
(I ncompurubI e, underIvubIe). NeverLIeIess, uI I oI L Iem sIure orI gI -
nurI ry und orI gI nuI I Ly; LIIs sIurI ng is itselj LIe orI gI n.
WIu L Is sIured Is noL II ng I I ke u unI que subsLunce In wII cI eucI
beI ng wouI d purLIcIpuLe; wIuL Is sIured Is uIso wIuL sIures, wIuL Is
sLrucLuruIIy consLI LuLed by sIurIng, und wIuL we cuII "muLLer." TIe
onL oI ogy oI beI ng-wI LI cun onI y be "muLerIuIIsL, " In LIe sense LIuL
"muLLer" does noL desIgnuLe u subsLunce or u subjecL (or un unLIsub-
8 q
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
jecL), buL IILeruIIy desIgnuLes wIuL Is dI vI ded oI ILseII, wIuL Is onI y us
dIsLIncL I rom ILseII, pcrtes extrc pcrtes, orIgInurIIy ImpeneLrubIe Lo LIe
c ombI nI ng und subI I muL I ng peneLruLI on oI u "spI rI L" |or " mI nd" | ,
undersLood us u dImensIonIess, I ndI vI sI bI e poI nL beyond LIe wor I d.
TIe onL oI ogy oI beI ng-wI LI I s un onLoI ogy oI bodIes, oI every body,
wIeLIer LIey be I nunI muLe, unImuLe, senLIenL, speukIng, L II nkI ng,
IuvI ng weIgIL, und so on. Above uII eIse, "body" reuIIy meuns wIuL
Is ouLsIde, InsoIur us IL Is ouLsIde, nexL Lo, uguInsL, neurby, wI L I u(n)
(oLIer) body, I rom body Lo body, I n LIe dI s-posI LI on. No L onI y does
u body go I rom one "seII" Lo un "oLIer," IL Is cs itselj'Irom LIe very
IIrsL; IL goes I rom ILseII Lo ILseII; wIeLIer mude oI sLone, wood, pIus-
LIc, or IIesI, u body Is LIe sIurIng oI und LIe depurLure I rom seII, LIe
depurLure Lowurd seII, LIe neurby-Lo-seII wI L IouL wII cI LIe "seII"
wouI d noL even be "on ILs own" |"u purL soI"| P
unguuge Is LIe I ncorporeuI (us LIe SLoIcs suId). EI L Ier us un uu-
dI bI e voIce or u vIsIbIe murk, suyI ng Is corporeuI , buL wIuL Is suId
Is I ncorporeuI ; IL Is everyLII ng LIuL Is I ncorporeuI ubouL LIe wor I d.
unguuge Is noL In LIe wor I d or I nsI de LIe wor I d, us L IougI LIe
wor I d were ILs body: IL Is LIe ouLsIde oI LIe wor I d In LIe wor I d. L Is
LIe wIoI e oI LIe ouLsIde oI LIe wor I d; I L I s noL LIe erupL I on oI un
OL Ier, wII c I wouI d cIeur uwuy or subI I muL e LIe wor I d, wII c I
wouI d LrunscrIbe IL I nL o someLII ng eIse; InsLeud, IL Is LIe exposI LI on
oI LIe worI d-oI-bodIes us sucI, LIuL Is, us orI gI nurI I y sInguIur pI uruI .
TIe I ncorporeuI exposes bodIes uccordI ng Lo LIeIr beI ng-wI LI-one-
unoLIer; LIey ure neI LIer IsoIuLed nor mI xed LogeLIer. TIe y ure
cmonst themseltes |enLre eux|, us orI gI ns. TIe reIuLIon oI sInguIur
orIgIns umong LIemseIves, LIen, Is LIe reIuLIon oI mecnin. ( TIuL
reIuLIon I n wII cI one unI que Or I gI n wouI d be reIuLed Lo everyLIIng
eIse us IuvI ng been orI gI nuL ed wouI d be u reI uLI on oI suLuruLed
meunI ng: noL reuIIy u reIuLIon, LIen, buL u pure consIsLency; noL re-
uI I y u meunI ng, buL ILs seuIIng oII, LIe cnnulment oI meunI ng und
LIe end oI LIe orIgIn. )
unguuge Is LIe exposIng oI pI uruI sInguIurILy. n IL, LIe uII oI be-
I ng Is exposed us ILs meunI ng, wII cI Is Lo suy, us LIe orI gI nury sIur-
I ng uccordI ng Lo wII cI u beI ng reIuLes Lo u beIng, LIe cI rcuI uLI on oI
u meunI ng oI LIe wor I d LIuL Ius no begI nnI ng or end. TII s Is LIe
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
8
meunI ng oI LIe wor I d us beI ng-wI L I, LIe sI muI LuneI L y oI uI I pres-
ences LIuL cre wI L I regurd Lo one unoLIer, wIere no one Is Ior one-
seII wI L IouL beI ng Ior oLIers. TII s Is uIso wIy LIe essenLIuI dIuIogue
or poI yI ogue oI Iunguuge Is boL I LIe one In wII cI we speuk Lo one
unoLIer und, identiccll, LIe one In wII cI speuk Lo "myseII," beI ng
un enLIre "socIeLy" onLo myseI I -beI ng, In IucL, In und us Iunguuge,
clucs simultcneousl "us" cnd "me" cnd "me" cs "us," cs uell cs "us"
cs "me" or wouI d suy noL II ng ubouL myseI I II were noL wI L I
myseI I cs um wI L I numerous oLIers, II LIIs uith were noL " I n" me,
rI gIL uL me, uL LIe sume L I me us "me, " und, more precIseIy, cs the
uL-LIe-sume-LIme uccordI ng Lo wII cI, soIeIy, um.
AL LIIs exucL poI nL , LIen, one becomes mosL uwure oI LIe essence
oI sI nguI urI Ly: IL Is noL I ndI vI duuI I L y; IL Is, eucI LI me, LIe puncL u-
uI I Ly oI u " wI L I" LIuL esLubIIsIes u cerLuI n or I gI n oI meunI ng und
connecLs IL Lo un I nI I nI L y oI oLIer possIbIe orIgIns. TIereIore, IL Is,
uL one und LIe sume LI me, I nI ru-JI nL ruI ndI vI duuI und L runsI ndI vI d-
uuI , und uIwuys LIe Lwo LogeLIer. TIe I ndI vI duuI Is un InLersecLIon
oI sInguIurILIes, LIe dIscreLe exposI LI on oI LIeIr sImuILuneILy, un ex-
posI L I on LIuL Is boL I dIscreLe und LrunsILory.
TII s Is wIy LIere Is no uI LI muLe Iunguuge, buL InsLeud Iunguuges,
words, voIces, un orI gI nurI I y sI nguI ur sIurI ng oI voIces wI L IouL
wII cI LIere wouI d be no voIce. n LIe IncorporeuI exposILIon oI I un-
guuges, uI I beIngs puss L IrougI IumunI L y.
; 6
BuL LIIs exposI LI on ex-
poses IumunI L y ILseII Lo wIuL Is ouLsIde LIe Iumun, Lo LIe meun-
I ng oI LIe wor I d, Lo LIe meunI ng oI BeI ng us LIe beI ng-meunI ng oI
LIe wor I d. WI L I I n Iunguuge, "IumunI L y" I s noL LIe subjecL oI LIe
worI d; IL does noL represenL LIe wor I d; IL Is noL ILs orI gI n or end. L
Is noL ILs meunI ng; IL does noL gIve IL meunI ng. L Is LIe exponenL,
buL wIuL IL LIus exposes Is noL ILseII, Is noL "IumunI L y"; ruLIer, IL
exposes LIe wor I d und ILs proper beIng-wILI-uII-beIngs In LIe worI d,
exposes IL us LIe wor I d. Moreover, LIIs Is wIy IL Is uIso wIuL Is ex-
posed by meunI ng; exposed us "gIILed" wI L I Iunguuge, IumunI L y Is,
ubove uI I , essenLIuIIy ex-posed In ILs BeI ng. L Is ex-posed Lo und us
LIIs I ncorporeuI ouLsIde oI LIe wor I d LIuL Is uL LIe IeurL oI LIe
worI d, LIuL wII cI mukes LIe wor I d " IoI d" or "consIsL" I n ILs proper
sInguIur pIuruIILy.
86
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
8;
L Is noL enougI Lo suy LIuL LIe "rose grows wI L IouL reuson." or
I I LIe rose were uIone, ILs growL I wI L IouL reuson wouI d encIose
wI L II n ILseII, by ILseII, uI I LIe reuson oI LIe wor I d. BuL LIe rose
grows wI L IouL reuson becuuse IL grows uI ong wI L I LIe resedu, LIe
egIunLIne, und LIe L II sL I e-us weI I us wI L I crysLuIs, seuIorses, Iu-
muns, und LIeIr I nvenLI ons. A n d LIe wIoI e oI beI ng, nuLure, und
II sLory do noL consLILuLe un ensembIe LIe LoLuI ILy oI wII cI wouI d
or wouI d noL be wI L IouL reuson. TIe wIoI e oI beI ng Is ILs own reu-
son; IL Ius no oLIer reuson, wII cI does noL meun LIuL IL ILseII Is ILs
own prI ncI pI e und end, exucLIy becuuse IL Is noL "ILseII." L wILs own
dI s- posI L I on I n LIe pI uruI I L y oI sI nguI urI LI es. TII s ein ex-poses
ILseII, LIen, us LIe betueen und LIe uith oI sInguIurs. ein betueen,
und uith suy LIe sume L II ng; LIey suy exucLIy uhct ccn onl be scid
( wII cI Is cuI I ed LIe "IneIIubI e" eIsewIere), wIuL cunnoL be pre-
senLed us u beI ng umong [pcrmi] oLIers, sInce IL Is LIe "umong" oI
uI I beIngs (cmon: I nsI de, In LIe mI ddI e oI, wI L I) , wII c I ure eucI
und every LI me umong one unoLIer. ein suys noL II ng eIse; us u re-
suIL, I I suyIng uIwuys suys BeI ng I n one wuy or unoLIer, LIen BeI ng
Is exposed onI y In LIe I ncorporeuI I Ly oI LIe suyIng.
TII s does noL sIgnIIy LIuL BeI ng "Is onI y u wor d, " buL ruLIer LIuL
BeI ng Is uII LIuL Is und uI I LIuL goes I nLo mukI ng u word: beI ng-wI LI
In every regurd. or u wor d Is wIuL IL Is onI y umong uII words, und
u spoken wor d Is wIuL IL Is onI y In LIe "wI L I" oI uI I speukIng. un-
guuge I s essenLIuIIy I n LIe wI L I. Every spoken wor d I s LIe s I muI -
LuneILy oI uL IeusL Lwo dIIIerenL modes oI LIuL spoken wor d; even
wIen um by myseII, LIere Is LIe one LIuL Is suId und" LIe one LIuL
Is Ieurd, LIuL Is, LIe one LIuL Is resuId. As soon us u wor d Is spoken,
IL Is resuId. As sucI, meunI ng does noL consIsL In LIe LrunsmIssIon
I rom u speuker Lo u receIver, buL In LIe sImuI LuneILy oI (uL IeusL) Lwo
orIgIns oI meunI ng: LIuL oI LIe suyI ng und LIuL oI ILs resuyIng.
As Iur us meunI ng Is concerned, wIuL suy Is noL sI mpI y "suI d, "
Ior meunI ng musL reLurn Lo me resuId I n order Lo be suId. BuL I n
reL urnI ng Lo me I n LIIs wuy, LIuL Is, I r om LIe oLIer, wIuL comes
buck uIso becomes unoLIer orI gI n oI meunI ng. MeunI ng Is LIe puss-
I ng buck und IorLI [pcssce] und sIurIng oI LIe orI gI n uL LIe orI gI n,
sInguIur pI uruI . MeunI ng I s LIe exII bI L I on oI LIe I ounduLI on wI L I-
ouL IounduLI on, wII cI Is noL un ubyss buL sI mpI y LIe uith oI LIIngs
LIuL ure, InsoIur us LIey ure. Loos Is dicloue, buL LIe end |or pur-
pose| oI dIuI ogue Is noL Lo overcome ILseII In "consensus"; ILs reu-
son Is Lo oIIer, und onI y Lo oIIer (gI vI ng IL Lone und I nLensI Ly), LIe
cum-, LIe uith oI meunI ng, LIe pI uruI I L y oI ILs sprI ngI ng IorLI.
L Is noL enougI, LIen, Lo seL IdIe cIuLLer In opposI LI on Lo LIe uu-
L IenL I cI L y oI LIe spoken wor d, undersL ood us beI ng repIeLe wI L I
meunI ng. On LIe conLrury, IL Is necessury Lo dIscern LIe conversu-
L I on (und susLuInIng) oI beI ng-wI L I us sucI wI L II n cIuLLer: IL Is In
"conversI ng, " In LIe sense oI dIscussIon, LIuL beI ng-wI LI "susLuIns
ILseII," In LIe sense oI LIe perseverunce In BeI ng. SpeukI ng-wI LI ex-
poses LIe conctus oI beI ng-wI L I, or beLLer, IL exposes beI ng-wI L I us
conctus, exposes IL us LIe eIIorL und desIre Lo muI nL uI n oneseI I us
"wI L I" und, us u consequence, Lo muI nL uI n someL II ng wII cI, In IL-
seII, Is noL u sLubIe und permunenL subsLunce, buL ruLIer u sIurI ng
und u crossIng LIrougI. n LIIs conversuLIon (und susLuInIng) oI be-
I ng- wI L I, one musL dI scern Iow Iunguuge, uL eucI momenL , wI L I
eucI sI gnI II cuLI on, I rom LIe IIgIesL Lo LIe I owesL -r I gIL down Lo
LIose "pIunLI c, " I nsI gnI II cunL remurks ("IeIIo, " " I I , " "good" . . . )
wII c I onI y susLuIn LIe conversuLIon I LseI I -exposes LIe wI L I, ex-
poses ILseII us LIe wI L I, InscrIbes und ex-scribes ILseII In LIe wI L I un-
L I I I L I s exIuusLed, empL I ed oI sI gnI II cuLI on.
" EmpL I e d oI sI gnI II cuLI on": LIuL Is, reL urnI ng uII sI gnI II cuLI on Lo
LIe cI rcuI uLI on oI meunI ng, I nL o LIe curryI ng over [trcnsport] LIuL Is
noL u "LrunsIuLIon" In LIe sense oI LIe conservuLIon oI one sI gnI II -
cuLI on (Iowever modI I I ed) , buL "Lruns-I uLI on" I n LIe sense oI u
sLreLcII ng or spreudI ng ouL [tension] I r om one orI gI n-oI -meunI ng
Lo unoLIer. TII s I s wIy LIIs uIwuys I mmI nenL exIuusLIon oI sI gnI II -
cuL I on-uI wuys I mmI nenL und uIwuys I mmunenL Lo meunI ng ILseII,
ILs L ruL I-goes I n Lwo dIrecLIons: LIuL oI c ommon cIuLLer und LIuL
oI ubsoIuLe poeLI c dI sL I ncL I on. L I s exIuusLed L IrougI LIe I nex-
IuusLIbIe excIungeubIIILy oI "pIunLI c" InsIgnIIIcunce, or exIuusLed
by LIe pure "upopIunLI c" sIgnIIIcunce, decI uruLI on, or munI IesLu-
LI on ("upopIunsIs") oI LIIs very L II ng us un unexcIungeubIe spoken
wor d, unuILerubIe us LIIs very L II ng, buL LIere us LIe L II ng cs such.
r om one Lo LIe oLIer, IL Is LIe sume conctus: LIe "wI L I" uccordI ng
8 8 ein Sinulcr Plurcl
Lo wII cI we expose ourseIves Lo one unoLIer, cs "ones" und cs "oLI-
ers," exposI ng LIe wor I d cs wor I d.
unguuge consLILuLes ILseII und urLIcuIuLes ILseII I rom ouL oI LIe
"us." No muLLer wIuL Is suId, Lo suy Is Lo presenL LIe "us" oI wIuL-
ever Is suId. r om LIe poI nL oI vI ew oI sI gnI II cuLI on, IL Is Lo presenL
one L II ng us unoLIer L II ng (Ior exumpI e, ILs essence, prI ncI pI e, or I -
gI n, or ILs end, ILs vuI ue, ILs sI gnI I I cuLI on), buL I rom LIe poI nL oI
vI ew oI meunI ng und L ruL I; IL Is Lo presenL LIe "us" cs such. TIuL Is,
IL Is Lo presenL LIe exLerIorILy oI LIe L II ng, ILs beIng-beIore, ILs be-
I ng-wI LI-uI I -LII ngs (und noL ILs beI ng- wI L II n or beIng-eIsewIere).
MuIIurm' s pIruse " suy u IIower' . . . " expresses |LIe IucL| LIuL
LIe wor d suys "LIe IIower" us "II ower" und us noL II ng eIse, u
"IIower" LIuL Is "ubsenL I rom uI I bouqueLs" onI y becuuse ILs "us" Is
uIso LIe presence cs such oI every IIower In every bouqueL. GI or gI o
Agumben wrILes, " TIe L II nkI ng LIuL LrIes Lo grusp beI ng cs beIngs
reLreuLs L owurd LIe enLI Ly wI L IouL uddI ng Lo IL uny IurLIer deLer-
mI nuL I on . . . compreIendI ng IL In ILs beI ng-sucI, In LIe mI dsL oI
ILs cs, IL grusps ILs pure non-IuLency, ILs pure exLerIorILy. L no Ionger
suys some thin cs some thin buL brIngs Lo speecI LIIs cs ILseII."
;
Every spoken word brIngs Lo speecI LIIs "us ILseII," LIuL Is, LIe mu-
LuuI exposI LI on und dI sposI LI on oI LIe sInguIurILIes oI LIe wor I d (oI
u wor I d oI sInguIurILIes, oI sInguIur worI ds, oI worI d-sI nguI urI LI es).
unguuge Is LIe eIemenL oI LIe wI L I cs such: IL Is LIe spuce oI ILs de-
cI uruLIon. n L urn, LIIs decIuruLIon us sucI reIers Lo everyone und Lo
no one, reIers Lo LIe wor I d und Lo ILs coexIsLence.
AI L IougI Ie wus cerLuInIy noL LIe IIrsL Lo do so, u Bruyre puL
I L I n LIe I oI I owI ng wuy: "Ever yL II ng I s suI d, und one comes Lo I L
Loo IuLe. . . . " CerLuI nI y, everyLII ng I s suI d, Ior everyLII ng Ius uI -
wuys uIreudy been suId; yeL, everyLII ng remuIns Lo be suId, Ior LIe
wIoI e us sucI Is uIwuys Lo be suId unew. DeuL I presenLs LIe InLer-
rupL I on oI u suyIng oI LIe wIoI e und oI u LoLuI ILy oI suyIng: I L pre-
senLs LIe IucL LIuL LIe suyI ng-oI -everyLII ng Is uL eucI L I me un
"everyLII ng Is suI d, " u dIscreLe und LrunsILory compIeLeness. TII s Is
wIy deuLI does noL Luke pIuce "Ior LIe subjecL, " buL onI y Ior ILs
ein Sinulcr Plurcl
8q
represenLuLIon. BuL LIIs Is uIso wIy "my deuLI" Is noL swuIIowed up
wI L I "me" In pure dIsuppeurunce. As HeI degger suys, InsoIur us IL
Is LIe uLmosL possI bI I I L y oI exIsLence, IL exposes exIsLence cs such.
DeuL I Lukes pIuce essenLIuIIy us Iunguuge; recIprocuIIy, Iunguuge uI -
wuys suys deuLI: IL uIwuys suys LIe I nL errupL I on oI meunI ng us ILs
LruLI. DeuL I us sucI, |IIke| bI rL I us sucI, Lukes pIuce us Iunguuge: IL
Lukes pIuce I n und L IrougI beI ng-wI LI-one-unoLIer. DeuL I I s LIe
very sIgnuLure oI LIe "wI L I": LIe deud ure LIose wIo ure no Ionger
" wI L I" und ure, uL LIe sume L I me, LIose wIo Luke LIeI r pIuces uc-
cordI ng Lo un exucL meusure, LIe upproprI uLe meusure, oI LIe I n-
commensurubI e " wI L I. " DeuL I Is LIe "us" wI L IouL quuIILy, wI L IouL
compI emenL : IL Is LIe I ncorporeuI us sucI und, LIereIore, LIe expo-
sI LI on oI LIe body. One Is born; one dI e s -noL us LIIs one or LIuL
one, buL us un ubsoIuLe "us sucI, " LIuL Is, us un orI gI n oI meunI ng
LIuL Is boL I ubsoIuLe und, us Is necessury, ubsoI uLeI y cuL oI I (und
consequenLIy, I mmorL uI ) .
L IoIIows LIuL one Is never born uIone, und one never dIes uIone;
or ruLIer, IL IoIIows LIuL LIe soI I Lude oI bI rL IJdeuL I, LIIs soI I Lude
wII cI Is no Ionger even soI I Lude, Is LIe exucL reverse oI ILs sIurI ng.
I IL Is Lrue, us HeI degger suys, LIuL cunnoL dI e In pIuce oI LIe
oLIer, LIen IL Is uIso Lrue, und Lrue In LIe sume wuy, LIuL LIe oLIer
dIes InsoIur us LIe oLIer Is wI L I me und LIuL we ure born und dIe
Lo one unoLIer, exposI ng ourseIves Lo one unoLIer und, eucI LI me,
exposIng LIe InexposubIe sInguIurILy oI LIe orI gI n. We suy In rencI
"mourI r u" |"deud L o" | -L o LIe wor I d, Lo I I I e-us weI I us "nuLre u"
|"born Lo"|. DeuL I Is to IIIe, wII cI Is someL II ng oLIer LIun beI ng
LIe neguLIvILy LIrougI wII cI IIIe wouI d puss In order Lo be resus-
cILuLed. To puL IL very precIseIy: deuLI us IerLIIe neguLIvILy Is LIuL oI
u sIngIe subjecL (eILIer I ndI vI duuI or generIc). DeuL I to IIIe, ex-
posI L I on cs such (LIe ex-posed us ex-posed = LIuL wII cI Lurns Lo-
wurd LIe worI d, In LIe wor I d, LIe very nihil oI ILs creuLIon) cun onI y
be beI ng-wI L I, sInguIur pI uruI .
n LIIs sense, Iunguuge Is exucLIy wIuL BuLuIIIe cuIIs "LIe prucLIce
oI joy beIore deuLI. " unguuge Is noL u dI versI on, noL un urrunge-
menL wI L I LIe I nLoI erubI I I Ly oI deuLI. n one sense, IL Is LIe LrugIc
ILseII. BuL IL Is joy us LIe desLILuLIon oI meunI ng, wII cI Iuys bure LIe
qo
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
q I
orI gI n: LIe sInguIur pI uruI us sucI. L Is LIe uith us sucI, wII c I Is
uIso Lo suy LIe beIng-sucI us sucI: perIecLIy und s I mpI y -u nd I m-
mor L uI I y-equuI Lo ILseII und Lo every oLIer, equuI Lo ILseII beccuse
und cs IL Is equuI Lo every oLIer; IL Is, LIereIore, essenLIuIIy uith
every oLIer equuIIy. As Is oILen suI d, LIIs Is u " c ommon IuLe": we
Iuve noL II ng In c ommon excepL our LeIIIng ourseIves so (und Iuve
noL II ng I n c ommon wI L I myseI I excepL I n LeI I I ng myseII so); we ex-
cIunge, und we do noL excIunge; we un-excIunge [in-echcnons]
LIIs exLreme I I mI L oI LIe suyIng In every spoken wor d, us speukIng
ILseII. unguuge exposes deuLI: IL neILIer denIes IL nor uIIIrms IL; IL
brIngs IL Lo Iunguuge, und deuLI Is noL II ng buL LIuL, LIuL wII cI Is
essenLIuIIy brougIL Lo I unguuge-und LIuL wII c I brI ngs I L LIere.
" DeuL I speuks In me. My speecI Is u wur nI ng LIuL uL LIIs very
momenL deuLI Is Ioose In LIe wor I d, LIuL IL Ius suddenI y uppeured
beLween me, us speuk, und LIe beI ng uddress: IL Is LIere beLween
us uL LIe dIsLunce LIuL sepuruLes us, buL LIIs dIsLunce Is uIso wIuL
prevenLs us I rom beI ng sepuruLed, becuuse IL conLuIns LIe condI L I on
Ior uI I under s L undI ng. "
; 8
As sucI, L Ien, "I I LeruLure" I s Iunguuge
sLreLcIed ouL [en tension] Lowurd bI rL I und deuLI, exucLIy becuuse IL
Is, und InsoIur cs IL Is, sLrI vI ng Lowurd uddress, undersLundI ng [en-
tente], und conversuLIon. A n d IL Is sLreLcIed I I ke LIIs sInce IL occurs
us recI LuLI on, dIscourse, or sI ngI ng. ( EucI oI LIese, In L urn, Iorms
LIe dI s-posI LI on oI Iunguuge ILseII, Iunguuge's exLerIorILy LoJI n ILseII;
eucI Iorms Iunguuge's sIurI ng, noL onI y LIe sIurI ng oI Iunguuges,
buL LIuL oI voIces, genres, or Lones; IL Is u muI L I pI e sIurIng wI L IouL
wII cI LIere wouI d be no "us" In generuI.) "I LeruLure" meuns LIe
beI ng- I n- common oI wIuL Ius no c ommon orI gI n, buL I s orI gI nur-
I I y I n- c ommon or wI L I.
I, us HeI degger suys, LIIs Is wIy LIe reI uLIon Lo one's own deuLI
consIsLs In "LukI ng over I rom |one|seII |one's| ownmosL BeI ng, " LIIs
L ukI ng over does noL I mpI y, conLrury Lo wIuL HeI degger II mseI I
suys, LIuL "uI I BeI ng- wI L I OL Iers, wI I I IuII us wIen our ownmosL
poL enL I uI I L y- I or- BeI ng Is LIe I ssue. "
; q
I beI ng- wI L I Is I ndeed co-
essenLIuI Lo BeI ng tout court, or ruLIer Is Lo BeI ng ILseII, LIIs own-
mosL possI bI I I Ly Is coessenLIuIIy u possI bI I I Ly oI LIe wI L I und us LIe
wI L I. My deuLI I s one "ownmosL " co-possI bI I I Ly oI LIe oLIer exIs-
Iences' own possIbIIILy. L Is, or IL " wI I I be," my deuLI LIuL suys "Ie
Is deud" In LIeIr speukIng; In LIIs wuy, my deuLI Is noL, IL wI I I noL
be, unywIere eIse. L Is "my" possI bI I I Ly InsoIur us IL wI LIdruws LIe
possI bI I I L y oI LIe " mI ne" I nL o ILseII: thct is to sc, I nsoIur us LIIs
"mIneness" Is reLurned Lo LIe sI nguI ur pI uruI oI LIe uIwuys-oLIer-
mIneness. n "Ie is deud, " IL Is I ndeed BeI ng LIuL Is In que s L I o n-
und us beI ng-wI L I.
" De uL I, " LIereIore, Is noL neguLIvILy, und Iunguuge does noL
know or prucLIce neguLIvILy (or I ogIc). NeguL I vI L y Is LIe operuLI on
LIuL wunLs Lo depose BeI ng In order Lo muke IL be: LIe sucrIIIce, LIe
ubsenL objecL oI desIre, LIe ecIIpse oI conscIousness, u I I e nu L I on-
und, us u resuIL, IL Is never deuLI or bI rL I, buL onI y LIe ussumpLI on
oI un I nI I nI Le supposI L I on. As sucI, L Ien, BeI ng I s I nI I nI L eI y pre-
supposed by ILseII, und ILs process Is LIe reupproprIuLIon oI LIIs pre-
supposI LI on, uIwuys on LIIs sIde oI ILseII und uIwuys beyond ILseII; IL
Is neguLIvILy uL work. BuL LIIngs work ouL compI eLeI y dIIIerenLIy II
BeI ng I s sInguIur pI uruI dI s-posI LI on. TIe dI sLuncI ng oI dI sposI LI on
Is nothin, LIIs "noL II ng, " Iowever, Is noL LIe neguLIve oI unyLII ng.
L Is LIe I ncorporeuI by wII cI, uccordI ng Lo wII cI, bodIes ure wI L I
one unoLIer, cIose Lo one unoLIer, sIde by sIde, I n conLucL und
(LIereIore) dIsLunced I rom one unoLIer. TII s nothin Is LIe res ipsc,
LIe L II ng ILseII: LIe L II ng us beIng-ILseII, LIuL Is, LIe beI ng-sucI oI
every beI ng, LIe muL uuI exposI LI on oI beIngs LIuL exIsL onI y I n und
L IrougI LIIs exposI LI on. Such Is u demonsLruLIve; beI ng-sucI Is LIe
demonsLruLIve essence oI BeI ng, LIe beI ng wIo sIows ILseII Lo un-
oLIer beI ng und I n LIe mI dsL oI beIngs.
Moreover, wIeLIer LIey ure uwure oI IL or noL, uI I LIe dIIIerenL
wuys oI L II nkI ng neguLI vI Ly I eud Lo LIe sume poI nL (LIey uL IeusL
puss L IrougI IL, even II LIey reIuse Lo sLop LIere). L Is LIuL poI nL
wIere LIe neguLIve ILseII, In order Lo be LIe neguLIve (I n order Lo
be LIe nihil nectitum und noL jusL LIe nihil pritctum) musL uvoI d
ILs own operuLI on und be uIII rmed I n ILseII, wI L I no remuI nder; or
eIse, on LIe conLrury, IL musL be uIIIrmed us LIe ubsoIuLe remuI n-
der LIuL cunnoL be cupLured In u concuLenuLIon oI procedure or op-
eruLIon. (L Is LIe crI LI cuI , suspended, InoperuLIve poI nL uL LIe IeurL
oI LIe dIuIecLIc). SeII-presupposILIon InLerrupLs ILseII; LIere Is u syn-
q z ein Sinulcr Plurcl
copuL I on I n LIe process und I n ILs L II nkI ng, u syncopuLI on und I n-
sLunL conversI on oI supposI L I on I nL o dI s-posI L I on. DI s- posI L I on I s
LIe sume L II ng us supposI L I on: In one sense, IL Is ubsoIuLe un-
Lecedence, wIere LIe " wI L I" Is uIwuys uIreudy gI ven; In unoLIer
sense, IL does noL "underI I e" or preexIsL LIe dIIIerenL posILIons; IL Is
LIeIr sImuILuneILy.
TIe non- BeI ng oI BeI ng, ILs meunI ng, Is ILs dI s-posI LI on. TIe ni-
hil nectitum Is LIe quidposititum us sI nguI ur pI ur uI , wIere no
quid, no beI ng, Is posed uithout uith. L Is uithout (uL u dIsLunce)
precIseIy Lo LIe exLenL LIuL IL Is uith, IL Is sIown und demonsLruLed
In beI ng-wI L I, |wII cI Is| LIe evIdence oI exIsLence.
n uddI L I on, evI I Is onI y ever |Iound| In un operuLI on LIuL IuIIIIIs
LIe uith. One cun IuI II I I LIe uith eILIer by IIIIIng IL up or by emp-
L yI ng IL ouL; IL cun be gIven u I ounduL I on oI pI enI Lude und conL I -
nuI L y or un ubyss oI InLrunsILIvILy. n LIe IIrsL cuse, LIe sInguIur be-
comes u purLI cuI ur wI L II n u LoLuIILy, wIere IL Is no I onger eILIer
sInguIur or pI uruI ; In LIe second cuse, LIe sInguIur exIsLs onI y on ILs
own und, LIereIore, us u L oL uI I L y-und LIere Loo IL Is neILIer sI ngu-
Iur nor pI uruI . n eILIer cuse, murder Is on LIe Ior I zon, LIuL Is,
deuLI us LIe operuLIve neguLIvILy oI LIe One, deuLI us LIe uorl oI
LIe One - AI I or LIe One - Me . TII s Is exucLIy wIy deuLI Is |ucLuuIIy|
LIe opposILe oI murder: IL Is LIe I noperuLI ve, buL exI sLI ng, " wI L I"
(sucI LIuL murder I nevI LubI y Iucks deuLI).
TIe "wI L I" Is neILIer u I ounduL I on nor Is IL wI L IouL I ounduL I on.
L Is noL II ng excepL Ior beI ng-wI L I, LIe I ncorporeuI uith oI LIe be-
I ng- body cs such. BeIore beI ng spoken, beIore beI ng u purLI cuI ur
Iunguuge or sIgnIIIcuLIon, beIore beI ng verbuI, "Iunguuge" Is LIe I oI -
I owI ng: LIe exLensIon und sI muI LuneI Ly oI LIe "wI L I" InsoIur us IL Is
LIe ounmostpouer oI u body, LIe proprI eLy oI ILs touchin unoLIer
body (or oI L oucII ng itselj), wII c I Is noL II ng oLIer L Iun ILs de-
IInILIon us body. L IInIsIes ILseII LIere, wIere IL I s-wI LI; LIuL Is, IL
comes Lo u sLop und uccompIIsIes ILseII In u sIngIe gesLure.
n LIIs sense, "Lo speuk wI L I" Is noL so muc I speukI ng Lo oneseII
or Lo one unoLIer, nor Is IL "suyIng" (decIurIng, numI ng) , nor Is IL
proIIerI ng (brI ngI ng IorLI meunI ng or brI ngI ng meunI ng Lo I I gIL).
RuLIer, "Lo speuk wI L I" Is LIe conversuLI on (und susLuI nI ng) und
ein Sinulcr Plurcl q
conctus oj c beIng-exposed, wII cI exposes onI y LIe secreL oI ILs own
exposI LI on. SuyI ng "Lo speuk wI L I" Is IIke suyIng "Lo sIeep wI L I, " "Lo
go ouL wI L I" (co-ire), or "Lo IIve wI L I": IL Is u (eu)pIemI sm Ior (noL)
suyIng noL II ng Iess LIun wIuL "wunLI ng Lo suy" meuns [le "vouI oI r-
dI re" teut dire] I n muny dIIIerenL wuys; thct is to sc, IL suys BeI ng
I LseI I cs communI cuL I on und L II nkI ng: LIe co-citctio oI BeI ng.
"unguuge" I s noL un I nsLrumenL oI communI cuL I on, und c ommu-
nI cuL I on I s noL un I nsL rumenL oI BeI ng; communI cuL I on i s BeI ng,
und BeI ng is, us u consequence, noL II ng buL LIe I ncorporeuI by
wII cI bodIes express LIemseIves Lo one unoLIer cs such.
CoexIsLenLIuI AnuI yLI c
TIe exI sLenLI uI unuI yLI c oI ein cnd Time Is LIe projecL I r om
wII cI uII subsequenL L II nkI ng IoIIows, wIeLIer LIIs Is HeIdegger' s
own IuLLer L II nkI ng or our vurIous wuys oI L II nkI ng uguInsL or be-
yond HeI degger IImseII. TII s uI I I rmuL I on
8 o
I s I n no wuy un udmI s-
sIon oI "HeI deggerI unI sm"; IL compI eLeI y escupes LIe I mpoverI sIed
procI umuLI ons oI "scIooIs. " L does noL sIgnIIy LIuL LIIs unuIyLIc Is
deI I nI LI ve, onI y LIuL IL Is responsIbI e Ior regIsLerIng LIe seIsmIc
Lremor oI u more decIsIve rupLure In LIe consLI LuLI on or consIderu-
LI on oI meunI ng (unuIogous, Ior exumpIe, Lo LIose oI LIe "cogILo" or
" Cr I L I que" ) . TII s I s wIy LIe exIsLenLIuI unuI yLI c I s noL compI eL e,
und wIy we conLI nue Lo IeeI ILs sIock wuves.
TIe unuIyLIc oI Mitsein LIuL uppeurs wI L II n LIe exIsLenLIuI unu-
IyLIc remuIns noL II ng more LIun u skeLcI; LIuL Is, even LIougI Mit-
sein Is coessenLIuI wI L I Dcsein, IL remuIns I n u subordInuLe posI LI on.
As sucI, LIe wIoI e exIsLenLIuI unuIyLIc sLI I I Iurbors some prI ncI pI e
by wII c I wIuL IL opens up Is I mmedI uL eI y cIosed oII. L Is neces-
sury, LIen, Lo IorcIbI y reopen u pussuge somewIere beyond LIuL ob-
sLrucLI on wII cI decI ded LIe Lerms oI beIng-wILI' s I uI I I I I menL, und
ILs wI L Idr uwuI , by repI ucI ng I L wI L I LIe "peopI e" und LIeI r "des-
L I ny. " TII s Is noL u muLLer oI suyI ng LIuL IL Is necessury "Lo c om-
pIeLe" LIe mereIy skeLcIed-ouL unuIysIs oI Mitsein, nor Is IL u muLLer
oI seLLIng up Mitsein us u "prI ncI pI e" IIke IL deserves. " n prI ncI pI e, "
beI ng- wI L I escupes compI eL I on und uIwuys evudes occupyI ng LIe
T
qq
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
q
pIuce oI u prI ncI pI e. WIu L Is necessury Is LIuL we reLruce LIe ouL-
I I ne oI ILs unuIysIs und pusI IL Lo LIe poI nL wIere IL becomes up-
purenL LIuL LIe coessenLIuIILy oI beI ng-wI L I Is noL II ng Iess LIun u
muLLer oI LIe co-orI gI nurI Ly oI me u nI ng -u nd LIuL LIe "meunI ng
oI BeI ng" Is onI y wIuL IL Is (eILIer "meunI ng" or, prI murI I y, ILs own
"precompreIensI on" us LIe consL I L uL I on oI exIsLence) wIen IL Is
iten cs uith.
TIere Is no "meunI ng" excepL by vI rLue oI u "seII," oI some I orm
or unoLIer. ( TIe subjecLIve I ormuI u oI LIe IdeuIILy oI meunI ng suys
LIuL "meunI ng" Lukes pIuce Ior und L IrougI u "seI I") BuL LIere Is
no "seII" excepL by vI rLue oI u " wI L I, " wII cI, In IucL, sLrucLures IL.
TII s wouI d Iuve Lo be LIe uxI om oI uny unuIyLIc LIuL Is Lo be cuIIed
coexIsLenLIuI.
"SeI I " Is noL LIe reI uLIon oI u "me" Lo "I LseI I . "
8 1
"SeI I " Is more
orI gI nury LIun "me" und "you. " "SeI I " I s pr I mur I I y noL II ng oLIer
LIun LIe "us sucI" oI BeI ng In generuI. BeI ng Is onI y ILs own "us Be-
I ng. " TIe "us" does noL Iuppen Lo BeI ng; IL does noL udd ILseII Lo
BeI ng; IL does noL InLensIIy BeI ng: IL Is BeI ng, consLILuLIveIy. TIere-
Iore, BeI ng Is dI recLI y und I mmedI uL eI y medI uLed b itselj, IL Is I L-
seII medI uL I on; I L I s medI uL I on wI L IouL uny I nsL rumenL , und I L I s
nondI uI ecLI c: dI u-I ecLI c wI L IouL dI uI ecLI c. L Is neguLI vI Ly wI L IouL
use, LIe nothin oI LIe wI L I und LIe nothin us LIe wI L I. TIe wI L I
us wI L I Is noL II ng buL LIe exposI LI on oI BeIng-us-sucI, eucI L I me
sI nguI urI y sucI und, LIereIore, uIwuys pI uruI I y sucI.
PrI or Lo "me" und "you, " LIe "seII" Is IIke u "we" LIuL Is neILIer u
coIIecLIve subjecL nor "InLersubjecLIvILy, " buL ruLIer LIe I mmedI uLe
medI uL I on oI BeI ng I n "(IL)seII," LIe pI uruI I oI d oI LIe orI gI n.
(s medI uL I on ILseII LIe "wILI"? CerLuI nI y, IL Is. TIe "wI L I" Is LIe
permuLuLI on oI wIuL remuIns I n ILs pIuce, eucI one und eucI LI me.
TIe " wI L I" I s LIe permuL uL I on wI L IouL un OL Ier. An OL Ier I s uI -
wuys LIe MedI uL or; ILs proLoLype Is CIrI sL . Here, on LIe conLrury, IL
Is u muLLer oI medI uL I on wI L IouL u medI uLor, LIuL Is, wI L IouL LIe
"power oI LIe neguLIve" und ILs remurkubIe power Lo reLuIn wI L II n
I LseI I ILs own conL rudI cL I on, wII c I uIwuys deIInes und I I I I s I n
[plombe] LIe subjecL. MedI uL I on wI L IouL u medIuLor medIuLes noL I-
I ng: IL Is LIe mI d- poI nL [mi-lieu], LIe pIuce oI sIurI ng und crossIng
LIrougI | pussuge| ; thct is, it is plcce LouL courL cnd cbsolutel. No L
CIr I sL , buL onI y sucI u mI d- poI nL ; und LIIs ILseII wouI d no Ionger
even be LIe cross, buL onI y LIe comI ng ucross [I'croisement] und LIe
pussIng L IougI, LIe InLersecLIon und LIe dIspersuI [leccrtement],
8z
rudI uLI ng ouL [etoilment] I r om wI L II n LIe very dI - mensI on oI LIe
wor I d. TII s wouI d be boL I LIe summI L und LIe ubyss oI u decon-
sLrucLI on oI CIrI sL I unI L y: LIe dI s-I ocuLI on oI LIe WesL. )
"SeI I" deIInes LIe eIemenL I n wII cI "me" und "you, " und "we,"
und "LIey," cun Luke pIuce. "SeI I" deLermInes LIe "us" oI BeI ng: II IL
Is, IL Is cs |en LunL que| IL Is. L Is " I n ILseII" prI or Lo uny "ego," prI or
Lo uny presenLubIe "properLy." L Is LIe "us" oI uII LIuL Is. TII s Is noL
u presenLubIe properLy, sInce IL Is presenLuLIon ILseII. PresenLuLIon Is
neILIer u proprI eLy nor u sLuLe, buL ruLIer un evenL, LIe comI ng oI
someLII ng: oI ILs comI ng into the uorld wIere LIe " wor I d" ILseII Is
LIe pIune [lc eometrcl] or LIe exposIng oI every comI ng.
n ILs comI ng, LIuL wII cI exIsLs upproprIuLes ILseII; LIuL Is, IL Is
noL upproprI uLed, neI LIer by nor I nL o u "seII" (wII cI couI d onI y
preexIsL wIuL exIsLs by removI ng und neuLruI I zI ng LIe comI ng In I L-
seII). WIu L Is born Ius ILs "seII" bejore seII: IL Ius IL there (wII cI Is
LIe meunI ng oI HeIdegger' s "DuseI n"). There meuns oter-there, LIe
dIsLunce oI spuce-LIme (IL Is LIe body, LIe worI d oI bodIes, LIe body-
worI d). Ls upproprI uLI on Is ILs movI ng [trcnsport] und beI ng-moved
LIrougI [trcnspropriction] LIIs dIspersuI oI LIe there, sucI Is LIe up-
proprI uLI ng-evenL ("EreI gnI s"). BuL ILs beI ng deL ermI ned us sucI
does noL sIgnIIy LIuL LIere Is some evenL In wII cI LIe "proper seII"
wouI d sprI ng IorLI, I I ke u j uck-I n-LIe-box, buL LIuL LIe comI ng Is
In ILseII und by ILseII upproprIuLIve us sucI. (As u resuIL, dIIIerencIng
[dijjercnt] Is In ILseII LIe proprI eLy LIuL IL opens.) TII s Is wIy "seII"
does noL preexIsL (ILseII). "SeI I " equuIs wIuL ex-IsLs us sucI.
TIus , InsoIur us "seII," or "IpseILy," meuns "by ILseII," reIuLIon Lo
ILseII, reL urnI ng I nL o ILseII, presence Lo ILseI I us presence Lo LIe
"sume" (Lo LIe sumeness oI LIe "us sucI"), IpseILy occurs or Iuppens
Lo ILseII us comI ng; und sucI comI ng Is unLI cI puLI on, wII cI Is neI -
LIer prexIsLence nor provIdence, buL InsLeud LIe unexpecLed urrIvuI
[sur-tencnce], LIe surprIse und LIe beIng-pIuced buck [remise] I nLo
LIe "Lo come" us sucI, bccl into uhct is to come. "SeI I" Is neILIer u
q 6
ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
q ;
pusL gIven nor u IuLure gI ven; IL Is LIe presenL oI LIe comI ng, LIe
presenLIng presenL, LIe comI ng-Lo-be und, In LIIs wuy, comI ng I nLo
BeI ng. BuL there uhere IL comes Is noL "I nL o ILseII," us LIougI I nLo
LIe I nLerI or oI un deLermI ned domuI n; IL Is "besIde ILseII. "
8
eside
itselj 'meuns I nLo LIe dIspersuI oI LIe dI s-posI LI on, I nLo LIe generuI
eIemenL oI proxI mI L y und dIsLunce, wIere sucI proxI mI L y und dIs-
Lunce cre mecsured ccinst nothin, sInce LIere Is noL II ng LIuL Is
gIven us u IIxed poI nL oI IpseILy (beIore, uILer, ouLsIde LIe worI d).
TIereIore, LIey ure meusured uccordI ng Lo LIe dI s-posI L I on ILseII.
r om LIe very sLurL, LIe sLrucLure oI LIe "SeII," even consIdered us
u kI nd oI unI que und soIILury "seII," Is LIe sLrucLure oI LIe " wI L I. "
SoI I psI sm, II one wunLs Lo use LIIs cuLegory, Is sInguIur pI uruI . EucI
one Is besI de-II mseI I InsoIur us und becuuse Ie Is besIde-oLIers.
r om LIe very begI nnI ng, LIen, "we" ure wI L I one unoLIer, noL us
poInLs guLIered LogeLIer, or us u LogeLIerness LIuL Is dI vI ded up, buL
us u beIng-wILI-one-unoLIer. BeI ng-wI L I Is exucLIy LIIs: LIuL BeI ng,
or ruLIer LIuL to be neILIer guLIers ILseII us u resuILunL commune oI
beIngs nor sIures ILseII ouL us LIeIr c o mmo n subsLunce. To be Is
noL II ng LIuL Is I n- common, buL nothin cs LIe dIspersuI wIere wIuL
Is I n- c ommon Is dI s-posed und meusured, LIe I n- c ommon us LIe
wI L I, LIe besIde-ILseII oI to be us sucI, to be LrunsIIxed by ILs own
LrunsI LI vI Ly: to be beI ng uII beIngs, noL us LIeI r I ndI vI duuI undJor
c ommon "seII," buL us the proximit thct disperses |curLe| them.
BeIngs LoucI; LIey ure In con-LucL wI L I one unoLIer; LIey urrunge
LIemseIves und dI sLI nguI sI LIemseIves In LIIs wuy. An y beI ng LIuL
one mI gIL I I ke Lo I mugI ne us noL dI sL I nguI sIed, noL dI s-posed,
wouI d reuIIy be IndeLermInuLe und unuvuIIubIe: un ubsoIuLe vucuncy
oI BeI ng. TII s I s wIy LIe onLoI ogI cuI momenL or LIe very order oI
onL oI ogy Is necessury. "To be" is not the noun oj consistenc, it is the
terb oj dis-position. NoL II ng consIsLs, neILIer "muLLer" nor "subjecL."
n IucL, "muLLer" und "subjecL" ure noL II ng buL Lwo numes LIuL ure
correIuLes oI one unoLIer; I n LIeIr mode oI consIsLency, LIey I ndI -
cuLe LIe orI gI nury spucI ng oI LIe generuI onLoI ogI cuI dI s-posI L I on.
As sucI, L Ien, "beIng-LIere" (Dcsein) Is to ^u c c o r d I ng Lo LIIs
LrunsILIve verbuI vuIue oI LIe dI s-posI LI on. BeIng-LIere Is |LIe| dIs-
posI ng |oI| BeI ng ILseII us dI sLunceJproxI mI Ly; IL Is "Lo muke" or "Lo
IeL" be LIe comI ng oI uII wI L I uII cs such. Dcsein (LIuL Is, IumunI L y
us LIe Index oI BeI ng) LIus exposes ein-cs-to-be.
Someone enLers u r oom; beIore beI ng LIe evenLuuI subjecL oI u
represenLuLIon oI LIIs r oom, Ie dIsposes II mseI I In IL und Lo IL. n
crossIng LIrougI IL, I I vI ng In IL, vI sI LI ng IL, und so IorLI, Ie LIereby
exposes LIe dI s pos I L I on-L Ie correI uLI on, combI nuL I on, conLucL,
dIsLunce, r e I u L I o n-o I uI I LIuL I s (In) LIe r oom und, LIereIore, oI
LIe r oom ILseII. He exposes LIe sI muI LuneI Ly I n wII c I Ie II mseI I
purLIcIpuLes uL LIuL InsLunL, LIe sI muI LuneI Ly In wII c I Ie exposes
II mseI I jusL us mucI us Ie exposes IL und us mucI us Ie Is exposed
In IL. He exposes IImseII. L Is In LIIs wuy LIuL Ie Is |u| "seII," LIuL
Ie Is IL, or LIuL Ie becomes IL us muny LImes us Ie enLers I nLo LIe
dI sposI LI on und eucI LI me LIuL Ie does. TII s "uL eucI L I me" Is noL
LIe renewuI oI LIe experIences or occurrences oI one seII-sume sub-
jecL: so I ong us " " um "LIe sume," LIere wI I I sLIII uIwuys need Lo be
un otherume wIere dIs-pose myseI I uccordI ng Lo LIIs "sumeness."
TII s , I n L urn, I mpI I es LIuL unoLIer LI me I n generuI -L IuL Is, oLIer
LImes, I ndeI I nI L eI y-ure noL onI y possIbIe, LIey ure reuI: LIe "eucI"
oI LIe "eucI L I me, " LIe L ukI ng pIuce oI LIe there und us there, does
noL InvoIve prI murI I y LIe successIon oI LIe IdenLIcuI; IL InvoIves LIe
sI muI LuneI Ly oI LIe dIIIerenL. Even wIen um uIone, LIe r oom Is uL
LIe sume LI me LIe room wIere um cIose Lo, nexL Lo, uIongsIde oI
uI I ILs oLIer dI sposI LI ons (LIe wuy IL Is occupI ed, Iow IL Is pussed-
L IrougI, und so on). One I s noL I n LIe dI sposI LI on wI L IouL beI ng
wI L I LIe oL Ier-dI sposI L I on, wII cI Is LIe very essence oI dI s-posI -
L I on. TIese "LI mes" ure dI sconL I nuous, buL LIey ure LIeI r beI ng-
wILI-one-unoLIer In LIIs dI sconLI nuI Ly. "EucI LI me" Is LIe sInguIur-
pI uruI sLrucLure oI LIe dI sposI L I on. TIereIore, "eucI L I me mI ne"
sIgnIIIes prI murI I y "eucI LI me IIs or Iers," LIuL Is, "eucI LI me uith":
"mineness" is itselj onl c possibilit thct occurs in the concurrent re-
clit oj bein-ecch-time-uith.
TIe wor I d, Iowever, Is noL u r oom I nL o wII cI one enLers. L Is
uIso I mpossI bI e Lo sLurL I rom LIe IIcLIon oI someone wIo Is uIone
und II nds II m- or IerseII I n LIe worI d: I n boL I cuses, LIe very con-
cepL oI LIe wor I d Is desLroyed. TII s concepL Is LIuL oI beI ng-wI L I
us orI gI nury. TIuL Is, II LIe meunI ng (oI BeI ng) Is dI s-posI L I on us
q 8 ein Sinulcr Plurcl ein Sinulcr Plurcl
pp
sucI, LIen LIIs Is beI ng-wI L I us meunI ng: LIe sLrucLure oI uith Is
LIe sLrucLure oI LIe there. BeI ng- wI L I Is noL udded on Lo beI ng-
LIere; I nsLeud, Lo be LIere Is Lo be wI L I, und Lo be wI L I mukes
s ens e-by ILseII, wI L I noL II ng more, wI L I no subsumpL I on oI LIIs
meunI ng under uny oLIer L ruL I LIun LIuL oI LIe wI L I.
n beI ng-wI L I und us beI ng-wI L I, ue Iuve uIwuys uIreudy begun
Lo undersLund meunI ng, Lo undersLund ourseIves und LIe wor I d us
meunI ng. A n d LIIs undersLundI ng Is uIwuys uIreudy compI eLed, I uI I ,
wIoI e, und I nII nI Le. We undersLund ourseIves I nI I nI L eI y-ourseI ves
und LIe wo r I d -u n d noL II ng eIse.
" WI L I " I s neILIer medIuLe nor I mmedI uLe. TIe meunI ng LIuL we
undersL und, InsoIur us we undersL und I L, Is noL LIe producL oI u
neguLIon oI BeI ng, u neguLIon desLI ned Lo represenL ILseII Lo us us
meunI ng, nor Is IL LIe pure und sI mpI e ecsLuLIc uI I I rmuLI on oI ILs
presence. " WI L I " neILIer goes I rom LIe sume Lo LIe oLIer, nor I rom
LIe sume Lo LIe sume, nor I rom LIe oLIer Lo LIe oLIer. n u cerLuIn
sense, LIe "wI L I" does noL "go" unywIere; IL does noL consLILuLe u
process. BuL IL Is LIe cIoseness, LIe brusII ng up uguInsL or LIe com-
I ng ucross, LIe uImosL-LIere [l'c-peu-pres] oI dI sLunced proxI mI L y.
WI e n we Lry Lo evuIuuLe LIIs cIoseness (us II In u murkeLpIuce or
ruIIwuy sLuLIon, or In u cemeLery, we were Lo usk wIuL ure LIe meun-
Ings und vuIues oI LIese Iundreds oI peopI e, oI LIeIr resLIessness
und pussIvILy), IL comes ouL us IrunLIc or dIsLruugIL. BuL LIe meun-
I ng oI LIe " wI L I, " or LIe "wI L I" oI meunI ng, cun be evuIuuLed onI y
I n und by LIe "wI L I" ILseII, un experIence I rom wI I c I -I n ILs pI uruI
sI nguI ur I L y-noL II ng cun be Luken uwuy.
n undersLundI ng ourseIves, we undersLund LIuL LIere Is noL II ng
Lo undersLund; more precIseIy, LIIs meuns LIuL LIere Is no uppro-
prI uL I on oI meunI ng, becuuse "meunI ng" I s LIe sIurI ng oI BeI ng.
TIere Is no upproprI uLI on; LIereIore, LIere Is no meunI ng. TII s Is
ILseII our undersL undI ng. TII s Is noL u dI uI ecLI cuI operuL I on (uc-
cordI ng Lo wII cI "Lo undersLund noL II ng" wouI d be "Lo undersLund
everyLIIng"), nor Is IL u muLLer oI L ur nI ng IL I nL o LIe ubyss (Lo un-
dersLund LIe noL II ng oI LIIs sume undersL undI ng), nor Is IL u re-
IIexIvILy (Lo undersLund, Ior uII undersLundI ng, LIuL we undersLund
ourseIves); InsLeud, IL Is uII LIese repIuyed LogeLIer In unoLIer wuy:
us ethos und prcxis.
To puL I L I n KunL I un Lerms, I I pure reuson I s prucLI cuI b itselj
(und noL by reIerence Lo und uccordI ng Lo uny reverence Ior some
LrunscendenLuI norm), LIIs Is becuuse IL Is essenLIuIIy " common reu-
son, " wII cI meuns LIe "wI L I" cs reuson, us I ounduLI on. TIere Is no
dIIIerence beLween LIe eLIIcuI und LIe onLoI ogI cuI : LIe "eLIIcuI " ex-
poses wIuL LIe "onLoI ogI cuI " dIsposes.
Ou r undersLundI ng (oI LIe meunI ng oI BeI ng) I s un undersLund-
I ng thct ue sIure undersLundI ng beLween us und, uL LIe sume LI me,
beccuse t,t sIure undersLundI ng beLween us: beLween us uI I , sI muI -
L uneousI y-uI I LIe deud und LIe I I vI ng, und uII beIngs.
Wur, RIgIL, SovereIgnLy-TecIne
WIu L IoIIows Is u response Lo u requesL LIuL cume I r om LIe
UnI L e d SLuLes Ior some reIIecLIons on "wur und L ecInoI ogy. "
1
n
LIe mI dsL oI wur (IL Is wor L I noL I ng LIuL um begI nnI ng Lo wrI Le
on z6 ebruury 1qq1; LIe ground uLLuck Ius begun; ILs IuLure Is sLIII
uncerLuI n) underL ukI ng LIIs sorL oI reIIecLIon mI gIL be I ncongr u-
ous, even IndecenL. On LIe one Iund, wIuL counLs Loduy Is wIuL Is
now uL sLuke, LIe deuLIs, LIe suIIerI ng oI uI I sorLs, und LIe greuL
sympuL Iy LIuL uccompunI es uI I wurs. ( Iope some oI IL udIeres
Iere, sLuck Lo LIese IInes.) On LIe oLIer Iund, wIuL uIso counLs
ure LIe poI I LI cuI deLermI nuLI ons, LIe upprobuLI on und crI L I cI sm, LIe
moLIves und reusons LIuL cun sLI I I , II possIbIe, enguge everyone's re-
sponsI bI I I Ly. YeL, we ure uIreudy responsI bI e I n sL I I I unoLIer wuy:
we Iuve LIe responsI bI I I Ly Lo L II nk. As Iur us moruI , poI I L I cuI , und
uIIecLIve consIderuLIons ure concerned, "wur," us IL reuppeurs Loduy,
I s u wIoI e new reuI I Ly I n vI rL ue oI ILs very urcIuI sm. n oLIer
words, LIe reLurn oI "wur," noL us LIe reuIILy oI mI I I L ury operuLIons
buL us u IIgure (Wur) In our symboI I c spuce, Is undenI ubI y u new
und sI nguI ur pIenomenon, becuuse I L produces I LseI I I n u wor I d
wIere LIIs symboI seems Lo Iuve been uI I buL eIIuced. TII s Is cer-
LuI nI y wor L I L II nkI ng. A n d I L mI gIL be LIuL L II nkI ng ubouL LIIs I s
urgenL. L Is perIups no I onger u quesLI on oI LIe degree Lo wII c I
wur Is u more or Iess necessury evI I , or u more or Iess LroubI esome
good. L Is u ques L I on-und IL Is u quesLIon Ior LIe wo r I d -o I know-
:o:
oz Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1o
I ng Lo wII cI symboI I c spuce we cun enLrusL wIuL Is known us I I b-
erLy, IumunI L y.
Wur, I n SpILe oI L AI I
OI course, wIuL uppeured L o be LIe eIIucIng oI symboI I c Wur
concerned onI y LIe group oI nuLIons LIuL muke up LIe pIuneL's core
oI "order," "I uw, "
z
und "deveI opmenL. " TIe "L II rd" wor I d Ius never
sLopped beI ng ruvuged by urmed conIIIcLs: LIey uII dI d Iuppen, even
I I LIey dI d noL II L I nL o LIe sLrIcL cuLegory oI wur, or even I I LIeIr I o-
cuI cIurucLer prevenLed L Iem I rom reucII ng IuI I symboI I c dI gnI Ly.
SI nce 1q1q, IL Ius seemed LIuL, In one wuy or unoLIer, " Wur " de-
munded u "gI obuI " dI mensI on. wI I I come buck Lo wIuL LIIs udjec-
LIve I mpI I es. IrsL, IeL us Luke up LIe poI nL LIuL LIIs "gI obuI I zuLI on"
Is deL ermI ned Iess by LIe spreudI ng-ouL oI LIe ureus oI conII I cL
(uguIn, LIere ure conIIIcLs LIrougIouL LIe worI d) LIun by LIe gIobuI
r oI e-economI c, LecInIcuI , und s y mb o I I c -o I cerLuIn sLuLes wIose
sovereIgnLy Is I nvoI ved In LIe wur. or wur Is necessurIIy LIe wur oI
sovereIgns; LIuL Is, LIere Is no wur wI L IouL WurI ords: LIIs Is wIuL
wunL Lo deuI wI L I Iere.
L mI gIL seem LIuL LIIs Is IurdIy LIe wuy Lo open LIe quesLIon oI
"wur und LecInoIogy." L wI I I soon become cIeur, Iowever, LIuL ruLIer
LIun concernI ng mI I I L ury LecInoI ogy (ubouL wII cI LIere Is noL II ng
specIuI Lo be LIougIL), uLLenLIon devoLed Lo LIe soterein oI und In
wur reveuIs wur us techne, us crt, LIe execuLIon or puL L I ng Lo work oI
sovereIgnLy ILseII. YeL, wur Is uIso un ImperIous, decIsIve I nLerrupLI on
(ponctuction], exempIury oI uII our WesLern symboI I sm.
TIe wur oI SLuLes und couI I LI ons oI SLuLes, LIe "greuL wur" (LIe
wur wII cI Is, by uI I rIgILs, onI y u pu r L -buL un I mporL unL , exem-
pI ury p u r L -o I LIe exercIse oI LIe sLuLeJnuLIonuI sovereIgnLIes IL pre-
supposes, wur properI y speukIng us IL Ius been deIIned sInce LIe be-
gI nnI ngs oI our II s L or y- wI I I come buck Lo LIIs), LIuL wur, InsoIur
us IL Is eusIIy dI sLI nguI sIubI e I r om oLIers, Is LIe |sorL oI | wur we
LIougIL Iud been cI rcumscrI bed, I I noL suspended, I n LIe I I gure oI
LIe " coI d" wur und nucIeur deLerrence.
TII s wur mukes ILs reLurn, or uL IeusL uI I oI ILs sIgns ure reL urn-
I ng. Or ruLIer, wIuL I s IuppenI ng, wIuLever ILs exucL nume sIouI d
be, wI I I Iuve Lo be uccompunI ed, susLuIned, I I I usLruLed, und deco-
ruLed wI L I LIe sIgns, sI gnI II cuLI ons, und I nsI gnI u oI wur. TII s wI I I
Iuve been IrresIsLIbIe, und IL wI I I noL Iuve been LIe resuIL oI u sI m-
pIe negIIgence I n LIe use oI words.
As Iur us LIe IusL IorLy-IIve yeurs ure concerned, und In order Lo
IoI d up LIe mosL IdenLIIIubIe II gures oI wur (Irom u IormuI poI nL oI
vIew), LIose In LIe MuI vI nus und Grenudu Iuve mosL cIeurIy preIIg-
ured sucI u reLurn. ( um I ndebL ed Lo RoberL ruIsse Ior poI nL I ng
ouL LIe decIsIve I ndI cuL I on oI LIIs "reLurn" und, us Ie puL IL, oI LIe
"wI I d conLenLmenL" LIuL cume uI ong wI L I LIe MuI vI nus Wur.) OL Ier
urmed operuLIons oIIIcIuIIy concerned our "worI d" onI y us poIIce I n-
LervenLIons In conIIIcLs LIuL operuLed on LIe order oI revoIL, subver-
sI on, or "cI vI I wur" (u nume LIuL, I I ke LIe Greek stcsis or LIe Romu n
seditio, IndIcuLes LIuL IL Is noL u wur beLween sovereIgns, u "wurrIors'
wur"), or even un I nL ervenL I on I n LIe conI ronL uL I on oI sovereIgns
wIo ure Iur uwuy I r om us, und oILen more or Iess quesLI onubI e.
(Every deLuI I oI LIe uses, cI uI ms, munI puI uL I ons, uporIus oI sover-
eIgnLy In LIe posLcoI onIuI wor I d ougIL Lo be exposed, us LIey ure be-
I ng exposed Loduy I n LIe posL-SovIeL wor I d. A n d LIe deLuIIs oI our
reIuLIons Lo uII LIIs sovereIgnLy, LIe concepL oI wII cI Is ours, sIouI d
uIso be udded.)
BuL now LIere I s ucr, "gI obuI " wur I n LIIs new sense, I n wII c I
muny oI LIe SovereI gns-wIose LILIes we InLerpreL I n compI ex und
conL rudI cL ory wuys -ur e I mpI I cuL ed. Even I I LIe conII I cL I s noL u
quesL I on oI No r L I versus SouL I, LIeI r presence gIobuIIzes gI obuI
wur uguIn (I I we cun suy sucI u L II ng). TIereIore, LIere Is wur; Ior
LIree monL Is, LIe wor I d Ius Iud noL II ng buL LIIs wor d on ILs I I ps.
BuL uhct is Wur, reuIIy? WIu L Is IL todc'. TII s Is u quesLI on wor L I
posI ng. WIu L Is mosL surprI sI ng Is noL LIuL LIere Is (ij indeed there
is) LIIs wur. L Is noL LIuL LIere Is LIIs combuL, or LIuL buLLIe, wIuL-
ever LIeIr orI gI n und LIeIr moduI I LI es. WIu L Is surprI sI ng Is LIuL In
our eyes LIe very Ideu oI wur Ius uguIn Luken IoI d oI us us LIe rIgIL
oI LIe cI Ly (LIere I s no beLLer wuy oI puL L I ng IL). n oLIer words, I L
Is II gII y remurkubIe LIuL LIe Ideu oI IegILImuLe sLuLeJnuLIonuI vI o-
Ience, Ior so I ong regurded us suspecL und suIIerIng u LendenLIous
Oq
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
deI egI LI muLI on, couI d Iuve reguIned (or uImosL reguIned) ILs I uI I Ie-
gILImucy, wII cI meuns LIe I egI LI mucy oI LIe sovereIgn, ubsoIuLeIy.
Ac c or dI ng Lo good poI I L I co- j urI dI cuI semunLIcs, I L I s suI d und
wr I L L en LIuL IL Is neI LIer correcL nor I egI LI muLe Lo use LIe wor d
"wur" Ior LIe presenL sI LuuLI on. wI I I come buck Lo LIIs. BuL LIIs
remurk Is sLI I I quI Le rure, conI I ned us IL Is Lo j urI dI cuI pur I sm und
LIe good, moruI souI; generuI dIscourse, quI Le Lo LIe conLrury, Ius
L Irown ILseII I nLo LIe semunLIcs, I ogIc, und symboI I sm oI wur.
TIese, oI course, Iuve never reuIIy been unnuI I ed. BuL sLI I I , wur
uppeured Lo be IeI d wI L II n LIe sIudows I nL o wII cI IL Iud been
pI unged by LIe Lwo prevIous "worI d" wurs. n conLrusL Lo eurIIer cen-
LurIes, LIe spIrIL oI LIe LI me Ius noL cI uI med LIe rIgIL Lo wuge wur
ubove uII LIe oLIer preroguLIves oI LIe SLuLe; Ior exumpIe, onI y up un-
LII LIe IrsL Wor I d Wur wus IL common Lo reIer Lo SLuLes us "Powers."
On LIe oLIer Iund, LIe Iuvor enjoyed by LIe Ideu oI u "SLuLe oI
I uw" drew uLLenLI on Lo LIuL eIemenL In sovereIgnLy regurded us ex-
empL I rom vI oI ence und ILs Iorce. L drew uLLenLI on Lo LIe poI nL
wIere sucI vIoIence, wII cI wouI d Iuve presIded I n LIe I nsL I L uL I on
oI power, Iud Lo be eIIuced, subI I muLed, or curbed. Wur seemed Lo
be uL resL In LIe peuce oI now-deIuncL or obsoIeLe IeuduIIsms und
nuLI onuI I sms. A n d LIe uuru oI sovereIgnLy grew dI m LIere us weI I .
Moreover, LIere wus no more LuIk oI "IdeoI ogIes" und LIe "wILIer-
I ng oI LIe SLuLe." n decIIne wI L I regurd Lo LIe gI obuI compI ex oI
LecIno-economI cs, LIe SLuLe seems Lo Iuve enLered I nLo LIe uge oI
selj-control by oIIerIng ILseII us u counL erpoI nL In LIe bureIy sover-
eIgn roIe oI reguIuLIve, j urI dI cuI , und socIuI udmI nI sL ruL I on.
BuL now one IInds LIuL LIere Is nuLI onuI I sm sprI ngI ng up on uII
sIdes (und someLI mes IeuduI I sm us weI I ). TIese IIgures ure IeroIc
or rI dI cuI ous, puLIeLIc or urrogunL, dI gnI I I ed or quesLIonubI e, buL
LIey ure uIwuys sIudowy eILIer by vocuL I on or uccordI ng Lo LIeI r
I nLended purpose. CerLuI nI y, u gI obuI I zed recognI LI on oI "vuIue" or
oI LIe democruL I c nor m Lends Lo reguIuLe LIese uIII rmuLI ons oI
I denLI Ly (und) oI sovereIgnLy. As sucI, LIese sLuLeJnuLIonuI IIgures
ure noL murked [trccee] by u vIoIenL gesLure, |wIIcI Is| boLI somber
und gIorIous; LIey ure sponLuneousIy modeI ed I rom wI L II n u wIoI I y
uvuIIubIe, generuI IegILImucy.
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1o
L Is weI I known, Iowever, LIuL LIere Is (sLIII?) no sucI L II ng us
suprunuLI onuI or prenuLI onuI I u w-b uL , oI course, IL Is exucLIy LIIs
wur LIuL revIves LIe debuLe on LIe subjecL. TIere Is no reudy-mude
"democrucy," no I ounduLI on Ior u I uw LIuL Is ubove nuLIons or peo-
pIes. TIere Is reuIIy onI y u supposed Iuw LIuL borders nuLIon-sLuLes,
u Iuw LIuL Is onI y vugueIy sure oI beI ng Iounded on unIversuIILy, und
IuIrIy cerLuIn oI beI ng devoI d oI sovereIgnLy. So-cuIIed I nLernuLI onuI
Iuw, wIere LIIs "I nLer, " LIIs "beLween, " cuuses uI I LIe probI ems, Is
onI y gruspubIe us LIuL c ommon spuce devoI d oI Iuw, devoI d oI every
sorL oI "seLLIng I n c ommon" |"mIse en commun"| (wI LIouL wII cI
LIere Is no Iuw), und Is sLrucLured b LIe LecIno-economI c neLwork
und LIe supervIsIon oI SovereIgns.
WI L I I n LIIs conLexL, wur mukes ILs I oomI ng [rcnde] II gure
known. n u cerLuI n sense, wIeLIer IL Is "wur" or "poI I ce ucL I on, "
wIeLIer IL Lukes pIuce us "wur" or noL, Is unI mporL unL . L Ius been
grunLed und even "requI red" (us Is suId oI IL) LIuL LIIs noL be wur.
GI ven LIIs, we wouI d Iuve, wII I e we even Iud u cI uI m Lo LIe uIIe-
gorIes oI Mur s or BeI I one, uIIegorIes oI need Lempered by u beuuLI -
I uI -L IuL Is, ur r ogunL -demund Ior "jusLIce" und "moruI I Ly. "
OI course ( udd LIIs on reL urnI ng Lo LIIs LexL uILer LIe ceuse-
IIre), we ure L oI d ubouL vIcLory purudes, uILer wII cI LIe enLIre worI d
wI I I enLIusIusLIcuII y udopL LIe pr oud I ormuI u " TIe MoL Ie r oI uII
BuLLIes," wII cI wI I I even be LIe sovereIgn moL L o oI LIose wIo were
vunquI sIed. BuL I n order Lo unI oI d wIuL unoLIer sovereIgn wuy oI
speukI ng [une cutre pcrole soutercin] Ius numed "LIe IogIc oI wur,"
LIe possIbIe reLurn oI LIIs IIgure Iud Lo be percepLIbIe, II onI y In u
IurLIve (I ndeed II eeLI ng) wuy. TIe SLuLes concerned knew Iow Lo
Lup I nL o LIe vI rLuuI I LI es LIuL I I ourI sIed I n "pubI I c opI nI on" : wur
couI d uguIn be requI red or desIred. PucI I I cI sm wus now onI y rou-
LIne or uccIdenLuI , dIsregurded by LIe resL Ior IuvI ng IuIIed Lo rec-
ognIze LIe IuscIsL LIreuL noL so I ong ugo, und Ior represenLIng, sInce
LIe begI nnI ng oI LIIs cenLury, noL II ng buL LIe exucL und I mpoL enL
[impuisscnt] reverse oI LIe very "gI obuI I zuLI on" oI wur.
BuL , In LIIs wuy, jusL us pucI II cI sm Loduy I I mI L s ILseII Lo u hcbitus
wI L IouL subsLunce, LIe moruI oI wII c I I s urLI cuI uLed neI LIer I n
Lerms oI I uw nor I n Lerms oI poI I LI cs (LIe onI y respecLubIe dI men-
I o 6 Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
sIon Is pI Ly; und uI LIougI LIe Lrugedy oI LIe wurrI or Is noL LIe onI y
one In LIIs worI d, IL uIone seems Lo Iuve grundeur . . . ) so, on quILe
u dIIIerenL IeveI, LIe reuIIIrmuLIon oI wur sprIngs IorLI I rom u re-
dIscovered hcbitus, redepIoyed In u new conLexL. A hcbitus Is u wuy
oI beI ng, u dI sposI LI on oI mores, un ethos.
WI I c I wuy oI beI ng I s IL? WIu L I s I L mude up oI? My I I rsL repIy
wI I I be sI mpI e: IL Is LIe ethos oI wur ILseII; IL Is LIIs dI sposI L I on oI
mores, cI vI I I zuL I on, und L II nkI ng LIuL uIIIrms wur noL onI y us LIe
meuns oI u poI I LI cs buL uIso us un end cosubsLunLIuI wI L I LIe exer-
cIse oI sovereIgnLy, wII cI uIone IoI ds LIe excepLI onuI rI gIL Lo IL.
TII s response presupposes LIe convenL I on oI cuI I I ng LIe use oI
SLuLe Iorce, wI L I respecL Lo ILs own rIgIL, "u poIIce ucLI on" und cuI I -
I ng LIe exercIse oI u sovereIgn rIgIL Lo decIde Lo uLLuck unoLIer sov-
ereIgn SLuLe u "wur. " L Is precIseIy LIIs convenL I on LIuL Ius jusL
been reucLIvuLed, wIeLIer we wunL Lo recognIze IL or noL. (or ex-
umpI e, In Lerms oI ILs consL I L uL I on, runce Is noL uL wu r -u n d re-
uIIy, wIo Is, und uccordI ng Lo wII cI consLILuLIon?)
NoL II ng Is superIor Lo u sovereIgn rI gIL (supercneus meuns LIuL
ubove wII cI LIere Is noL II ng) . TIe rI gIL Lo wuge wur Is LIe mosL
sovereIgn oI uII rIgILs becuuse IL uIIows u sovereIgn Lo decIde LIuL
unoLIer sovereIgn Is ILs enemy und Lo Lry Lo subjuguLe IL, I ndeed Lo
desLroy I L, LIuL Is, Lo reIIeve IL oI ILs sovereIgnLy (Iere, IIIe comes
I nL o LIe burguIn [lc tie tient pcr-dessus le mcrche]). L Is LIe sover-
eIgn's rI gIL Lo conIronL IIs clter eo cd mortem, LIIs Is noL onI y un
eIIecL oI sovereIgnLy buL uIso ILs supreme munI I esL uL I on-j usL us
our wIoI e LrudI LI on Ius wunLed IL.
WI L I I n LIe sovereIgn conLexL oI wur, noL II ng I s vuI I d I I noL some
supposed convenLI ons upIeI d In order Lo keep IL wI L II n u cerLuIn
moruI (I n Iormer LImes, sucred) order. BuL LIIs order Is noL exucLIy
superIor Lo wur; IL Is LIe very order oI wII c I wur Is u sovereIgn ex-
LremILy, LIe sIurpesL edge [le jer de lcnce] und LIe poI nL oI excep-
L I on. ( TII s I s wIy Rousseuu, uguInsL LIe wIoI e L rudI L I on, dI d noL
wunL Lo see u specIuI ucL oI sovereIgnLy In LIe rIgIL Lo wur, buL "onI y
un uppI IcuLIon oI LIe Iuw"; Rousseuu's sovereIgnLy Is un I nLI muLe de-
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1o;
buLe wI L I LIe excepLIon, und wI L I LIe Iorce wII cI cunnoL noL IuunL
IL. . . . )
Wur, LIen, Is ILseII suscepLIbIe Lo creuLIng u new Iuw, u new dIs-
L rI buL I on oI sovereIgnLIes. A n d sucI I s LIe orI gI n oI LIe muj orI Ly oI
our nuLI onuI und sLuLe sovereIgnLIes, or IegILImucIes. TII s Is uIso LIe
poI nL L IrougI wII cI revoI uLI onury wur wus ubIe Lo I nIerI L wIuL Is
essenLIuI Lo LIe concepL oI SLuLe wur, uI LIougI uL LIe cosL oI cerLuIn
dI spI ucemenLs. ( TII s begun wI L I LIe wurs oI LIe rencI RevoI u-
L I on, u mI xLure oI SLuLe wurs und wurs wuged In LIe nume oI u unI -
versuI prI ncI pI e, uguInsL enemIes oI u Iumun sorL. r om LIuL mo-
menL on, LIe quesLI on oI knowI ng I I one couI d presenL u unIversuI
sovereIgnLy wus puL Iorwurd. . . . )
TIe rIgIL Lo wuge wur excepLs ILseII I rom I uw uL LIe very poI nL
wIere IL beIongs Lo IL boL I us un orI gI n und us un end; LIIs poI nL Is
u poI nL oI I ounduL I on, InsoIur us we ure I ncupubI e oI L II nkI ng oI
I ounduL I on wI L IouL sovereIgnLy, or oI sovereIgnLy ILseI I wI L IouL
L II nkI ng I n Lerms oI excepLIon und excess. TIe rIgIL Lo wuge wur
excepLs ILseII I rom I uw uL u poI nL repIeLe wI L I sovereIgn brI I I I unce
[un eclct soutercin]. u w does noL possess LIIs brI I I I unce, buL IL
needs ILs I I gIL, und ILs I oundI ng evenL. ( TII s Is wIy Wur Is uIso LIe
EvenL pur exceIIence; IL Is noL un evenL In some "II sLory oI evenLs"
LIuL consIsLs I n recI LI ng, one by one, LIe duLes oI wurs, vI cLorI es,
und LreuLIes, buL LIe EvenL LIuL suspends und reopens LIe course oI
IIsLory, LIe sovereIgn-evenL. Ou r kIngs, generuIs, und pIII osopIers
Iuve onI y ever LIougIL oI IL In LIIs wuy.)
TII s mode oI I nsLI LuLI ng Iuw becomes unuccepLubIe, Iowever, I n
u wor I d LIuL represenLs I uw ILseII us ILs own "orI gI n" or ILs own
"I ounduL I on, " wIeLIer LIIs IuIIs under LIe IeudI ng oI u "nuLuruI
rI gIL " oI IumunI L y or under LIe IeudI ng oI un IrreversIbIe sedI-
menLuLI on oI LIe experIences [les ccquis] oI u posILIve Iuw wII cI, I I L-
LIe by IILLIe, Ius become LIe I uw oI uII (wIereus LIe soIdIers oI LIe
yeur [l'An II] couI d sLI I I represenL LIIs I ounduLI on us u conquesL
yeL Lo be mude or remude). TII s Is wIere LIe unxIeLy und conIusI on
LIuL seIze us wIen Iuced wI L I LIe Ideu oI wur comes I rom, purLI cu-
IurIy us regurds "jusL wur, " un expressIon wII cI mI gIL , uL one und
LIe sume LI me, subjecL wur Lo I uw und I uw Lo wur. (or uII LIuL, und
I o8 Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
Ior LIe enLIre L r udI L I on- wI I I come buck Lo L II s -L II s expressIon
Is redundunL, us redundunL us LIe expressIon "dI rLy wur". . . . )
Ou r unxI eLy LesLIIIes Lo LIe IucL LIuL our wor I d, LIe wor I d oI
"gI obuI I zuL I on, " dIspIuces LIe concepL oI wur, uI ong wI L I uI I LIe
poI I L I co- j urI dI cuI concepLs oI sovereIgnLy. n IucL, LIe "reLurn" oI
wur onI y uppeurs uL LIe IeurL oI LIese dIspIucemenLs. TII s Is wIy
some Iuve dured Lo suy LIuL IL does noL uppeur uL uI I . BuL our unx-
IeLy uIso LesLIIIes (und occusI onuI I y In LIe sume peopI e us ubove),
noL Lo u regreL, or Lo u nosLuIgIu (uILIougI . . . ), buL ruLIer Lo u dII-
IIcuILy In doI ng wI L IouL sovereIgn uuLIorI Ly [l'instcnce soutercine],
even down Lo ILs mosL LerrI bI e brI I I I unce (seeIng us IL Is uIso LIe
mosL brI I I I unL ) . TII s persIsLence oI sovereIgnLy I n us I s wIuL
wouI d I I ke Lo exumI ne beIore L ryI ng Lo undersLund wIere we couI d
go or L owurd wII c I "oLIer" oI sovereIgnLy. We wI I I see Iow LIuL
Iuppens LIrougI "LecInoIogy. "
um noL unuwure oI LIe precuuLIons one musL Luke Lo uvoI d Iuv-
I ng LIIs very sI mpI e projecL IuII I nLo LIe Lrup oI sI mpI I I I cuLI on, LIuL
Is, LIe courseness [lc rossierete] oI L II nkI ng. Luke LIese precuuLIons
Lo be LIe I oI I owI ng:
IrsL, my I nL enL I on I s noL Lo reduce LIe II sLory oI LIe Gu I I Wur
Lo u pure und sI mpI e sovereIgn decIsIon Ior wur, LIe ucLIon oI one or
more ucLors. n u generuI conLexL I nvoI vI ng [mele] endemI c wur, LIe
proI IIeruLIon oI sedILIons, conLesLed sovereIgnLIes, und muI LI pI e und
conI I I cL I ng poI I ce Iorces (economI c, reI I gI ous, und I nL ernuL I onuI
rIgILs und InLeresLs, us weI I us LIose oI LIe sLuLe, oI mI norI L I es, und
so IorLI), u process Is produced LIuL Is u mI xL ure oI wur und poI I ce
ucLI on, In wII cI LIe one consLunLI y comes down Lo LIe oLIer. do
noL cI uI m, Iere, Lo compI eLeI y dIsenLungIe LIe roIe LIuL eucI pIuys;
In IucL, LIuL wouI d be ImpossIbIe. YeL uguIn, everyLIIng Is dIspIuced
und LIe puI r -L IuL Is, wurJpoIIce uc L I on-no Ionger uIIows ILseII Lo
be eusIIy munI puI uL ed, us II LIuL Iud ever been possIbIe. BuL In LIIs
puIr, do wunL Lo InLerroguLe wIuL seems, uL LIe I I mI L oI I uw ILseII,
Lo obsLInuLeIy, or even IIerceIy, muI nL uI n LIe demund Ior wur LIuL
currIes LIe sovereIgn excepLIon wI L II n ILseII und uIso exposes IL.
Becuuse oI LIIs IogIc oI LIe excepLIon, LIe IogIc oI LIe "sovereIgn"
us beI ng "wI L IouL Iuw, " IL Is noL I mmedI uL eI y obvI ous LIuL uny oI
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne 1oq
LIe IInes oI L II nkI ng uvuIIubIe Lo us wI I I suIL our purposes. TIe sLyIe
oI neo-KunL I un IumunI s m domI nunL Loduy does no more LIun re-
new LIe promIse oI moruI I zI ng poIILIcs, uII LIe wII I e oIIerIng Iuw LIe
weupons oI u poIILIcs LIuL Ius yeL Lo be moruIIzed. TIe revoIuLIonury
sLyIe Iuded ouL uIong wI L I uII LIe preLensIons oI desIgnuLIng LIe sub-
jecL by meuns oI unoLIer Iuw, und uppeurunce [le surissement] by
meuns oI unoLIer IIsLory. As Ior LIe "decIsIonIsL" sLyIe, IL Ius been
reIeguLed Lo LIe IeurL oI LIe "LoLuIILurIun" sLyIe. None oI L Iem yI eI d
u possIbII ILy eILIer Ior L II nkI ng sovereIgnLy hic et nunc or Ior L II nk-
I ng beyond IL. Ever sInce LIe IIrsL gI obuI conIIIcL guve umpI e LesLI-
mony Lo LIIs generuI dIIIIcuILy, ours Ius been u II sLory oI LIe doc-
LrInes und probI ems oI I nLernuLI onuI Iuw, sovereIgnLy, und wur.
or LIe momenL , we cun onI y druw ouL LIe sLrIcL consequences
oI LIIs IIsL |oI LIe uvuIIubIe IInes oI L II nkI ng| . um noL InLerpreL-
I ng LIe Gu I I Wur uccordI ng Lo uny oI LIese scIemes. um onI y sug-
gesLIng LIuL un empLy spuce sLreLcIes beLween LIe uIwuys weuk und
L roubI ed scIemu oI LIe "wur oI I uw (poIIce ucL I on)" und u reucLI-
vuLed (wurmed over?) scIemu oI "sovereIgn wur. " Moreover, LIIs
spuce Is noL LIe spuce oI u "peopIes' wur" |"guerre des peupIes"| : Ior
LIe momenL , LIe peopI e ure In LIe museums oI LIe RevoI uL I on, or
In LIe IoI kI ore museums. ndeed, LIIs spuce Is u deserL. L Is noL
onI y pI LLed wI L I oI I weIIs und bomb cruLers; I L I s uIso LIe deserL oI
our L II nkI ng, us weI I us LIuL oI " Eur ope, " und LIuL oI LIe desoIu-
LI on LIuL crosses LIrougI rIgILs und wur I n LIe Gu I I und eIsewIere;
I L I s LIuL I ncreusI ngI y worse desoI uLI on deII ned by economI c und
cuI LuruI InjusLIce. n LIe end, LIen, IL Is Lrue LIuL LIe deserL Is grow-
I ng. Iuve I ong deLesLed LIe morose reIIsI wI L I wII cI some Iuve
reIusIed LIIs senLence. BuL do udmI L LIuL LIe deserL Is growI ng.
An d , uI LIougI no Ionger mI I I L unL , LIe sLerIIILy oI LIe domI nunL Iu-
munI sm, urrogunL wI L I LIe urrogunce oI LIe weuk, reveuIs ILs gIurIng
I rresponsI bI I I Ly I n LIe end.
um noL cI uI mI ng Lo Iuve I nvenLed unoLIer |wuy oI | L II nkI ng;
onI y wunL Lo sILuuLe ILs demund, ILs exLreme urgency. or we ure
uIreudy uL unoLIer |wuy oI | L II nkI ng; IL precedes us, und LIe wur
sIows us LIuL we musL cuLcI up wI L I IL.
Second, II IL Is cIeur LIuL my preIerence (wII cI, uL LIIs poI nL ,
n o Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne I n
IoI d In reserve) wus noL, In LIIs wur, Ior wur, um noneLIeIess
keenI y uwure LIuL LIe greuL muj orI Ly oI LIose wIo supporLed LIe
wur wunLed Lo be purLIsuns oI u Iuw superIor or exLerIor Lo sLuLe sov-
ereIgnLIes. WIu L Is more, muny Iuve LesLIIIed Lo u reIIned sense oI
LIe responsIbIIILIes oI uII LIe purLIes I nvoI ved In LIe conIIIcL; um
seLLIng usIde uII noLIons oI I nL enL I on Iere; um noL cI uI mI ng LIuL
LIe wur wus onI y pussed oII under LIe guIse [mcntecu] oI Iuw. Some
dI d us muc I, buL LIuL Is so cIeur us Lo be no I onger I nLeresLI ng.
WIuL Is InLeresLIng Is LIuL IL wus possIbIe Lo uIIIrm LIe wur, und LIe
munner In wII cI LIIs wus possIbIe wus more or Iess sI mpI e or wur-
I I ke, resLruIned or compI I cuLed.
BuL uL LIe sume L I me, IL Is noL u quesLI on oI emburkI ng on un-
oLIer r ound oI LIe sorL oI sI mpI I I I cuL I on so IusIIonubIe Loduy,
LIereby suspendI ng LIe consIderuLIon oI LIe InLeresLs und cuIcuIu-
LIons LIuL seL LIe economI c sLukes oI LIe wur on un EusL-WesL uxIs,
us weI I us u Nor L I- SouL I one. BesIdes, LIe denI uI oI LIIs wus Lruns-
purenL; everyone knows wIuL wus goI ng on, und IL Is no Ionger nec-
essury Lo be u member oI LIe PurLy In order Lo sIure, despILe one-
seII, cerLuI n LruLIs LIuL come I rom Mu r x . L Is noL u quesLI on oI
sI mpI e "economI c deL ermI nuL I on. " nsLeud, IL Is u quesLI on oI LIe
I oI I owI ng: uI LIougI LIere muy be cusuuILIes, LIe economy Is In LIe
process oI exIuusLI ng perspecLIves, Iopes, und ends. WIuL ever Is
noL governed by economIcs beIongs Lo u L I mI d, j urI dI cuI projecLIon
(wIere IL Is no Ionger u quesLIon oI creuLIng or I oundI ng u new Iuw)
or Lo LIe reuIm oI IunLusLIcuI compensuLIons (LIuL Is, reIIgIons, some-
LImes urL, und uIso, I rom now on, poI ILIcs). TIe reLurn oI LIe II gure
oI Wur corresponds Lo un exusperuLed desIre Ior I egI LI muLI on undJor
IInuIILy, uL exucLIy u LI me wIen no one cun beIIeve LIuL economIcs
Ius ILs own, unIversuIIy IegILImuLed IInuIILy unymore. (n LIIs regurd,
wIuL remuIns oI LIe dI sLI ncLI on beLween IIberuI und pI unned econ-
omI es Is IurdI y I mporLunL. ) n IucL, uL LIe very momenL wIen LIe
supposed "deuLI" oI Mur x wus beI ng ceIebruLed, IIs politiccl econ-
om (IL couI d uIso be cuIIed economic ucr) cordoned oII [terrouille]
our wIoI e IorI zon. L Is noL sovereIgn, buL IL Is domI nunL , und LIIs
Is u dIIIerenL L II ng. AI I uL once, poIILIcs commI L s suIcIde In LIuL j u-
rI dI cuI -moruI I sm LIuL Is wI L IouL sovereI gnL y-or ruLIer, In order Lo
beLLer serve domI nuL I on, IL LrIes Lo regIId ILs sovereIgn sII eI d: LIus
we Iuve Wur, LIe umbI guous sovereIgn-sIuve oI economI cs. wI I I
cume buck Lo u consI deruLI on oI wor I d wI L IouL end. Ls crI L I que,
Iowever, musL be no Iess rudIcuI LIun Murx' s. BuL LIere Is no doubL
LIuL rudIcuIILy no Ionger InvoIves LIe I oundI ng oI u new End , or LIe
resLoruLIon oI SovereIgnLy I n generuI. On LIe conLrury, LIIs I ogI c
seems Lo be LIe one In wII cI economI c wur consLunLIy rudIuLes sov-
ereIgn Wur, und vIce versu.
TII r d, IL Is Lrue LIuL In I nLerpreLI ng IucLs und dIscourses under
LIe IeudI ng oI LIe reLurn oI u dI mensI on oI wur, or oI u wurI Ike pose
or posLuI uLIon, wII cI one mI gIL Iuve beIIeved Lo be compIeLeIy Ior-
goLLen (or repressed), seem Lo jeLLIson | jcire ji des] LIe reserve und
prudence LIuL Ius been used In deuI I ng wI L I u wur LIuL Ius been
LIougIL oI us "weI I -Lempered. " L Is Lrue LIuL LIere Ius been I ILLI e
dIscourse LIuL Is properI y or dI recLI y wurmongerI ng; (InsLeud, LuIk
oI "goI ng Lo wur" reI gnI Led LIe poI emI cs oI LIe pucIIIsLs, wII I e ct
the scme time, some remurkubIe IIgures |oI speecI| cume up I n pr I -
vuLe dIscourse; wI I I cerLuI nI y noL be LIe onI y one Lo Iuve Ieurd
" Iow good IL wI I I be Ior LIe WesL Lo Iuve redIscovered ILs buIIs.")
TukI ng up LIIs LexL uguIn uILer LIe ceuse-IIre, wouI d I I ke Lo udd
LIe I oI I owI ng: gIven LIuL LIe conLesL wus so unequuI , Iow cun we
uvoI d L II nkI ng LIuL we needed u dIscourse oI wur, wI L IouL quI Le
wunL I ng u wu r -b uL , uII LIe wII I e, wunL I ng ILs resuIL? TIe "IourLI
urmy I n LIe wor I d" couI d noL und dI d noL wunL L o I I gIL . A n d LIe
"IIrsL" IougIL prI ncI puI I y In order Lo smoLIer LIe very possI bI I I Ly oI
buLLIe under LIe weIgIL oI ILs bombs, runnI ng LIe rIsk oI resLruInIng
ILs IeroI sm by I I mI L I ng ILs own Iosses. TII s , oI course, dI d noL pre-
venL LIere beI ng deuLI und desLrucLI on; moreover, I L dI d noL pre-
venL LIe enormous dIIIerence I n LIe umounL oI suIIerIng on eucI
sIde. BuL LIese umounLs counL Ior noL II ng (IIrsL oI uII . . . ) I n LIe
symboI I c dI mensI on oI wur; LIIs dI mensI on I s expressed onI y I n
Lerms oI vI cLory or deIeuL, oI sovereIgnLy uIIIrmed, conquered, or
reconquered. (Even uccordIng Lo LIIs very sLundurd, LIIs wu r -b o L I
cerLuIn und unc er L uI n-Iud u cerLuIn und uncerLuI n resuIL. AL LIe
momenL , ruq Is mI nL I ng coIns curryI ng LIe cI uI m " VI cL or y Is ours,"
wII I e mI I I L ury purudes ure beI ng orgunI zed I n LIe UnI L e d SLuLes,
11z
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
11
EngI und, und runce. L Is Lrue LIuL uI I oI LIIs Is pure Iucude und
LIuL, Ior LIe mosL purL, LIe perI od uILer LIe wur Ius propuguLed cI vI I
wur, uL IeusL In ruq und KuwuI L , und seL economI c wur In moL I on
uguIn. L remuIns LIe cuse, Iowever, LIuL "LIe Iucude" pIuys u roIe In
LIe consLrucLI ons oI LIe poI I LI cuI und coI I ecLI vI Ly I n generuI.)
L Is Lrue, In IucL, LIuL um presupposI ng LIe I nLerpreLuLI on oI u
number oI deLuIIs, I rom LIe upprovuI oI LIe wur by nuLI onuI purI I u-
menLs (wII cI Is u supereroguLory meusure In u poIIce operuLI on, us
weI I us In genuI neI y excepLIonuI cuses oI dI sLI ncL mI I I L ury urgency)
Lo uII LIe IndIces provI ded by LIe semunLIcs, sLyIe, und empIuses oI
muny oI LIe dIscourses devoLed Lo urgency, perI I , sucrIIIce, nuLI onuI
duLy, mI I I L ury vI rI I I Ly, LIe subI I mI L y oI greuL communders, LIe un-
I eusIIng oI pr I muI Iorce, und so on. (or InsLunce, reud LIe I oI -
I owI ng I n u promI nenL rencI newspuper: "buL Iow cun one II gIL
eIIIcIenLIy wI L IouL IreeIng one's prI mI L I ve InsLIncLs?"; Lo sLuy wI L I
LIIs poI nL Ior u momenL , LIIs senLence, Luken us sucI und In LIe or-
dI nury conLexL oI our cuI Lure, I s undoubL edI y I rreproucIubI e; uI -
L IougI IL does LesLIIy Lo LIe "ordI nury" conLexL oI u sLuLe wII c I
Lends Lowurd LIe vuIgur.) To LIose IIsLed ubove, one musL udd LIe
dIscourse oI LIe IoI y mI ssI on: boL I sIdes Iud G o d on LIeI r sIde
(monotheos versus monotheos), us weI I us cuIIs Ior LIe "I ounduLI on"
oI u new order or regIme.
Iuve no InLeresL I n coI I ecL I ng pubI I c und prIvuLe documenL s.
TIer e ure u greuL muny oI L Iem. nLerpreLIve vI oI ence Is IurdI y
cuIIed Ior In order Lo decI pIer In L Iem LIe presence oI u symboI -
I sm und wurI I ke IunLusy LIuL Is more or Iess unobL rusI veI y mI xed
LogeLIer wI L I reusons LIuL Iuve Lo do wI L I Iuw und LIe need Ior po-
IIce ucLIons. TII s does noL meun LIe IuLLer ure dI squuI I II ed, buL LIe
Iormer musL be brougIL Lo I IgIL.
n uddI LI on, IL Is ImpossIbIe Lo IorgeL LIe roIe pIuyed on boLI sIdes
by LIe poI I LI cuI desIre und need Lo recuperuLe mI I I L ury deIeuLs (VI eL-
num on LIe Amer I cun sIde, und SI nuI on LIe ArubI c, even L IougI
LIe Lwo cuses ure very dIIIerenL). n LIe cuse oI LIe UnI L ed SLuLes,
LIe mosL powerIuI oI Loduy's udversurIes, wIuL needed Lo be wusIed
uwuy wus noL onI y LIe IumI I I uL I on LIuL uLLucIes Lo uII deIeuLs, buL
uIso u wur LIuL Iud mude wur sIumeIuI.
ndeed, LIe LusLe Ior LIe specLucIe oI epIc beuuLy und IeroI c
vI rLue, wII cI wus so cIeurIy I uI d ouL dur I ng LIe buI I dup Lo wur und
In ILs IIrsL pIuses, wI I I noL be eusIIy IorgoLLen. AILer uI I , LIese I m-
uges ure noL LIe sIIgILesL bIL dIIIerenL Irom LIose oI wur IIIms. Ho w-
ever, do noL so muc I wunL Lo j oI n Iorces wI L I LIe crILIcs oI LIe
"specLucuIur socIeLy" wIo Iuve mude u poI nL oI quuI I I yI ng LIIs us u
"specLucuIur" wur (LIe denI uI oI wII c I I s dI recLI y symmeL rI cuI Lo
wIuL Is uL work In LIe dIscourse oI Iuw). YeL, LIe Imuges oI wur dI d
I orm u purL oI LIe wu r -u n d perIups wur ILseII Is I I ke u IIIm, even
beIore u IIIm ImILuLes wur. n LIe Iuce oI Iorror und pILy, wII cI Is
wIere IL necessurIIy ends up, LIere wouI d be no wur wI L IouL u wur-
IIke momenL um oI LIe ImugInury. Ls specLucIe Is InexLrIcubIy bound
up wI L I LIe someLI mes sLupeIyI ng, mecIunI cuI consLruI nL LIuL
mukes LIe soI dI er murcI on. TIe psycIoIogIsLs oI LIe Amer I cun
urmy Look pIeusure In expI uI nI ng (on LeIevIsIon) LIuL LIe bos do noL
murcI Ior u cuuse, Ior rIgIL or democrucy, buL onI y so us noL Lo gIve
up I n IronL oI LIeI r compunI ons. TIuL Is, wIuL drIves Ionor und
gI ory uIreudy beIongs Lo LIe order oI LIe "specLucIe," und IL cunnoL
be dI smunL I ed by LIe sI mpI e denuncI uL I on oI u moder n uge In
wII c I sI muI uL I on I s generuIIzed und commodI I I ed. (n uddI L I on,
und us uIwuys Iuppens wI L I LIIs sorL oI dIscourse, LIere were good
reusons Ior wonder I ng, on reudI ng cerLuI n crI LI ques oI LIe "wur-
specLucIe," ubouL LIe nosLuIgIu reveuIed LIere, nosLuIgIu Ior LIe good
oI d wurs oI yesLeryeur.) WIu L I s uL pI uy I n LIe "specLucIe" oI wur
goes muc I IurLIer buck LIun LIuL, exLendI ng ouL Lo LIe very I I mI Ls
oI u wIoI e cuI Lure (oI wII cI sI um I s u pu r L ) -u nd undoubL edI y
even beyond LIuL.
um noL cI uI mI ng LIuL LIe epIc Is on ILs wuy buck-neI L Ier LIe
Homer I c epIc, nor LIe NupoI eonI c, nor even LIose LIuL cun sLIII be
ussocIuLed wI L I LIe buLLIes oI Romme I , MonL gomer y, ecI erc, or
Guder I un, Ior exumpI e. ( AI I LIe sume, LIere wus LuIk oI LIe "Ieg-
endury pusL" oI vurIous unILs or veIIcIes oI wur LIuL Iud currIed LIe
uuru oI LIeIr deeds I rom LIe IusL wor I d wur I nLo LIe GuI I . ) A greuL
deuI Is needed Ior LIe epIc Lo muke u comebuck, buL LIIs "greuL deuI"
Is noL enougI Lo ensure LIuL no uspecL oI LIe uIIIrmuLIon or ceIebru-
LI on oI wur wouI d remuI n. AL LIe very IeusL, LIe IuceLs oI u brI I I I unL
11q
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
11
[eclct] sovereIgnLy wouI d remuI n. n wur, u brI I I I unL, IncundescenL,
IuscInuLIng sovereIgnLy Is ceIebruLed (Ior un InsLunL, Ior u spIIL sec-
ond, In u IIusI oI I I gIL). BuL Is LIIs noL un essenLIuI purL oI wIuL we
L II nk we ure deprIved oI In generuI: LIe brI I I I unL IIusI, LIe IIgures oI
LIe Sun? Even now, our wor I d does noL represenL ILseII us I uckI ng In
power or InLeIIIgence, or even compI eLeI y I uckI ng In gruce. BuL LIe
Iuck oI SovereIgnLy sureIy sLrucLures un essenLIuI purL oI our worId' s
represenLuLIon oI ILseII, und LIereIore oI ILs desIre.
SovereIgn Ends
WIu L Ius reLurned wI L I wur, or remuIns oI IL, Ius noL II ng obvI -
ousIy Lo do wI L I mI I I L ury LecInoIogIes. or LIese LecInoIogIes Iuve
never sLopped beI ng used dur I ng LIe course oI uII quusI-wurs, guer-
rI I I u wurs oI I I beruLI on und LIeIr repressIon, or I n uI I LIe poI I L I cuI ,
economI c, or j udI cI uI poIIce operuLIons. WIu L Is ucIIeved prI murI I y
by LIe LecInoIogIes regurded us properIy mI I I Lury cun be jusL us weI I ,
II noL beLLer, ucIIeved by LIe use oI so-cuIIed cI vI I LecInoIogIes puL
Lo mI I I L ury purposes. n IucL, IL Is uImosL I mpossI bI e Lo dI sLI nguI sI
beLween LIese Lwo. or exumpIe, psycIoI ogy Is uIso u weupon, und,
I n L urn, LIe progress wII cI mI I I L ur y reseurcI Ius mude regurdIng
cI vI I LecInoIogIes (Ior exumpIe, In LIe IIeI d oI sIeepIng medIcuLIon)
Is noL oILen Luken I nL o uccounL. PerIups u specIIIc dIIIerence be-
Lween L Iem onI y L ruI y begIns Lo emerge, on LIe one Iund, uL LIe
IeveI oI LIe II nuI I LI es oI mussIve desLrucLI on (buL one wonders Lo
wIuL exLenL even LIIs crI LerI on cun be used wI L I deIIcucy, uL IeusL us
regurds muLerIuI desLrucLI on LIuL cun InLerIere wI L I cI vI I ucLIvILIes)
und, on LIe oLIer Iund und ubove uI I , on LIe order oI symboI I c
murks (Ior InsLunce, LIe unI Iorms und I nsI gnI u oI urmIes). TIere ure
unI Iorms ouLsIde oI LIe urmy, buL wIere LIere ure unI Iorms, LIere Is
uIso un urmy, us u prI ncI pI e or u more or Iess IuLenL modeI . SIorL oI
|eIuboruLIng upon| LIIs dI vI dI ng I I ne, uI I LIe LecInoIogIes I n pIuy,
I rom LIe munuIucLure und use oI u rIIIe or dugger Lo LIe IogIsLIcuI
und sLruLegIc munI puI uL I on oI wIoI e urmIes, provI de no meuns oI
mukI ng LIe Ideu oI wur us sucI dI sLI ncL.
n one sense, LIIs Is wIy LIere Is no specIIIc quesLIon concernI ng
LIe LecInoIogIes oI wur, excepL LecInIcuI quesLIons, wII cI Iere, us
eIsewIere, do noL uI I ow Ior LIe quesL I onI ng or L II nkI ng oI "LecI-
noI og y " -buL LIIs Is LIe cuse wI L I uII LecInIcuI IIeIds. Dur I ng LIe
IIrsL duys oI LIIs wur, LIe wuy cerLuI n LecInoIogIes were uI I ocuLed
sLurrI ng roIes [lc mise en tedette] mude IL possIbIe Lo observe Iow
dIscourses LIuL were IuvorubIe und unIuvorubIe Lo LecInoI ogy Iud
noL II ng Lo do wI L I L II nkI ng LIrougI |LIe quesLIon oI | LecInoI ogy;
InsLeud, LIey espoused uII LIe esLubIIsIed prejudIces, probI ems, or
uporIus oI LIe wur ILseII. ( TIe EngI I sI wor d "LecInoI ogy" I s weI I
pIuced Lo suggesL u IogIc proper Lo |LIe L encI word| lc technique,
wI L I wII cI LIe dIscourses ubouL "meunI ng" or "vuIue" uImosL never
enguge.) TecInoI ogI cuI IIre power wus ceIebruLed, LIuL Is, LIe power
oI LIe eIecLronIc, cIemI cuI , und mecIunI cuI compI ex LIuL produced
LIe mIssIIes (umong oLIer LII ngs), u new uddI L I on Lo LIe serIes oI
wurI I ke embI ems LIuL sLreLcIes Lo LI me I mmemor I uI , I ncI udI ng LIe
sword, IeImeL, or cunnon. TIere wus seII-congruLuIuLIon on LIe seII-
I I mI L I ng possI bI I I LI es oI LIIs very power, und I L emerged I n u dI s-
course oI "surgI cuI " wur LIuL corresponded Lo LIe LIesIs oI I uw:
IIuunLIng I I mI Ls LIuL ure sLrIcLer LIun LIe I I mI Ls seL by I nLernuLI onuI
convenLI on serves Lo muke more credIbIe un InLerpreLuLIon LIuL op-
eruLes uccordI ng Lo LIe noL I on oI "poIIce ucLI on. " TIe LerrIbIe possI-
bIIILIes oIIered by new LecInoIogIes were depI ored (Ior exumpIe, LIe
possI bI I I Ly oI "vI LrI I I cuLI on" oIIered by LIese new bombs, wIereus
LIe possIbIIILIes oI sIrupneI bombs, or bombs wI L I pIospIorus or
nupuI m, were uIreudy weI I known by LIIs p o I nL . . . ). n LIe end,
LIere wus u Ieur LIuL recourse wouI d be mude Lo LecInoI ogIes
bunned by LIose convenLIons LIuL seL LIe ruIes oI wur; LIe eIIecLIve
use oI LIuL now- I orbI dden group oI bI ocIemI cuI weupons I n LIe
pusL, wI L I uII LIeIr cuLusLropIIc poLenLI uI , obvI ousI y pIuys u sLruLe-
gIc roIe. n LIIs regurd, convenLIons regurdIng LIe meuns oI wur con-
sLunLIy demonsLruLe LIe IrugIIILy oI LIe I uw LIuL upIoI ds LIem: noL
onI y Is IL InIInILeI y dIIIIcuIL Lo IegILImuLe LIe dI sLI ncLI on beLween dII-
IerenL sorLs oI weupons on LIe busIs oI IumunI LurI un prI ncI pI es, buL
IL uIso remuIns LIe cuse LIuL LIe c oI I I s I on-I ndeed, LIe conLrudI c-
L I on-beL ween sucI IumunI L urI un prI ncI pI es und LIe prI ncI pI es oI
wur Is consLunLIy percepLIbIe und consIsLenLIy brIngs LIe "rIgIL Lo
n 6 Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
wur" buck down Lo ILs I ounduL I on I n LIe sovereIgn excepLI on. or
exumpIe, IL Is cIeurIy noL I rom LIe rIgIL L o -o r IogIc oI -wu r LIuL
one cun InIer LIe I nLerdI cLI on uguInsL I ncI udI ng geneLIc puLrI monI es
wI L II n LIe umbI L oI wurI I ke desLrucLI on. BuL LIIs Is uIso wIy, up Lo
u cerLuIn poI nL In LIIs wur, one couI d see u purLIcuI ur progress be-
I ng mude by LIe Ideu oI depI oyI ng LucLIcuI nucIeur weupons I n re-
sponse Lo LIe cIemI cuI LIreuL posed by ruq. (L couI d very weI I be
LIuL LIe nucIeur weupon wus, Iur more LIun udmI LLed, u mujor sLuke
In LIIs conIIIcL: LIIs purLI cuI ur weupon, ILs possessIon, und ILs use
In LIe nexL wur. . . . ) One couI d deveI op puruIIeI consI deruLI ons
regurdIng LIe proLecLI on oI cI vI I I uns. BuL uII LIIs I s uIreudy weI I
known, wII c I reuIIy meuns, und rI gILI y so, LIuL no one wunLs Lo
know unyL II ng ubouL IL.
TIus , LIere I s no "quesLI on oI LecInoI ogy" proper Lo wur, uny
more LIun LIere Is u "quesLIon oI LecInoIogy" In generuI, LIuL Is, u
quesLI on puL Lo LecInoI ogy or ILs subjecL und I nvoI vI ng LIe uppIIcu-
LI on oI crILerIu LIuL do noL beI ong Lo IL. Wur-wI LI-mI ssI I es Is neILIer
beLLer nor worse LIun wur-wILI-cuLupuILs; IL Is sLIII u quesLIon oI wur.
A n d communI cuL I on Is neILIer beLLer nor worse wIen IL Is currIed
by IIber-opLIcs, InsLeud oI messengers on IooL: IL Is ruLIer u quesLIon
oI knowI ng wIuL "communI cuLI on" meuns. I "LecInIcuI" cIvII IzuLIon
dIspIuces LIe concepLs oI wur or communI cuL I on (or IeuILI, or IIIe,
und so on), LIen IL musL be u quesLIon oI LIe concepLs LIemseIves, oI
LIeIr "becomI ng-LecInoI ogy" |"devenIr-LecInIque"| In u generuIIzed
spuce oI LIe worId's becomIng-LecInoIogy. BuL LIIs Is noL u quesLIon
oI evuIuuLIng new I nsLrumenLs Ior LIe uncIunged ends oI u wor I d
LIuL Is sLII I LIe wor I d us IL used Lo be.
Wur Is undoubL edI y u prI vI I eged LerruIn Ior brI ngI ng Lo I I gIL LIe
Inuneness oI uII LIe consIderuLIons oI LecInoI ogy LIuL do noL pro-
ceed I rom LIIs preI I mI nury consI deruLI on (und IL musL be udmI L L ed
LIuL LIese Iormer sorLs oI dIscourse ure, In IucL, more numerous).
L Is cIeur LIuL LecInoIogIes ure noL responsIbIe Ior wur, uny more
LIun wur Is responsIbIe Ior LIe LecInoIogIes LIuL ure noL proper Lo
I L -e v e n L IougI LecInoIogIes gIve wur ILs meuns, und wur gener-
uLes LecInIcuI progress. TIe eLIIcuI, j urI dI cuI , und cuI LuruI probI ems
posed by cI vI I LecInoI ogy (nucIeur or bI oI ogI cuI , Ior exumpIe) ure
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
11;
no Iess ucuLe LIun LIose posed by cerLuI n urmumenL s. L Is quI Le
I I keI y LIuL LIe dI spurI Ly beLween LIe Lwo seLs oI probI ems Ius been
very muc I reduced, Ior exumpI e, sInce LIe I nvenL I on oI urL I I I ery
(wII cI LesLIIIes Lo LIIs "becomI ng-LecInoI ogy" oI LIe wor I d, wII cI
Is wIuL we Iuve Lo Luke I nLo uccounL). n LIe end, LIe I nLermI nubI e
ceI ebruLory or execruLory dIscourses on LecInoI ogy, uI I oI L Iem
I ounded on "vuIues" LIuL ure obsLInuLeI y IoreIgn Lo LIIs becomI ng-
LecInoIogy, cun onI y musk wIuL LIere Is oI "wur," us weI I us wIuL
LIere Is now oI "medI cI ne" or "LIe IumI I y, " und so I orLI.
TIere Is no sucI L II ng us LIe "quesLIon oI LecInoIogy," properI y
speukIng, so I ong us LecInoI ogy Is consIdered us u meuns Lo un end.
ExcepL Ior LecInIcuI probIems us sucI, uII sucI "quesLIons," ure posed
uccordI ng Lo LIe order oI ends: prucLIcuI, eLIIcuI, poI I LI cuI , uesLIeLIc,
und so on. nsoIur us wur Is ILseII consIdered us u meuns Lo un end
(wIeLIer poIILIcuI, economIc, j urI dI cuI , reIIgIous, und so IorLI), IL IuIIs
under LIIs IogIc. TII s Is wIuL Is reuIIy uL sLuke In CIuusewILz' s Ior-
muI uLI on LIuL "wur Is LIe conLI nuuLI on oI poIILIcs by oLIer meuns." L
IndIcuLes u moder n muL uL I on oI LIe L II nkI ng oI wur, u muL uL I on
wII cI I mpI I es LIuL LIe "cIussIcuI" wuy oI L II nkI ng ubouL wur us LIe
exercIse, seLLIng Lo work, or exLreme expressIon oI sovereIgnLy Is now
seL uL u dIsLunce und denI ed In u more or Iess conIused munner. As
Iuve uIreudy suId, sucI L II nkI ng Is sLIII LIe onI y rIgorous L II nkI ng oI
wur. TIe dIspIucemenL LIuL Look IoI d wI L I CI uusewI Lz sLII I remuIns
Lo be brougIL Lo Lerm: IL muy be LIe end oI wur.
or LIuL L II nkI ng oI wur wII cI Is sLI I I ours, wur Is sovereIgnLy's
LecInoI ogy pur exceIIence; IL Is ILs seLLIng Lo wor k und ILs supreme
execuLI on (end). n LIIs sense, u "LecInoI ogy" Is noL u meuns; I n-
sLeud, IL Is u mode oI execuLIon, munI IesLuLI on, und eIIecLuuLIon In
generuI. To be more precIse, IL Is LIe mode oI uccompI I sImenL LIuL
dIsLInguIsIes ILseII I rom LIe "nuLuruI " mode us LIuL mode's doubI e,
und ILs rI vuI I n perIecLI on. WI e n one Ius recourse Lo LIe Greek
Lerms phsis und techne, wII c I In LIeIr conL emporury use reIer Lo
HeI degger (und more dIscreLeIy Lo NI eLzscIe, II noL Lo LIe Ger mun
RomunL I cs), IL Is In order Lo gIve specIIIc numes Lo LIese "modes oI
uccompI I sImenL , " L ukI ng cure Lo dI sL I nguI sI L Iem, on LIe one
Iund, I r om "nuLure" us u coI I ecL I on oI muLerIuIs und Iorces, pos-
ni
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
sessed oI ILs own Iuws und, on LIe oLIer, I rom "LecInoI ogy" us un
"urL I I I cI uI " meuns oI reucII ng ILs ends. Phusis und techne-one
couI d suy " bI r L I" |"cIosIon"| und "urL "-ure Lwo modes oI uccom-
pI I sImenL und ure, In LIIs respecL, LIe sume (buL noL IdenLIcuI) In
LIeIr dIIIerence: LIe sume us concerns uccompI I sImenL In generuI,
us puL L I ng Lo work or curryI ng ouL [l'execution]. As u resuIL, LIey ure
doubI y LIe "sume" wI L I regurd Lo LIe end; LIey ure noL Lwo dIIIer-
enL IInuIILIes, buL Lwo IInIsIes [deux jinitions] (IIke u " Iund" IInIsI
und u "mucII ne" IInIsI-u compurI son LIuL uIso serves Lo recuII LIe
IIerurcIy wII cI we "quILe nuLuruIIy" seL up beLween LIese Lwo sorLs
oI IInIsIes . . . ). urLIermore, ever sInce PI uLo und ArI sLoLI e, LIese
Lwo modes Iuve consLunLI y reIerred Lo one unoLIer In u doubI e re-
I uLI onsII p LIuL Ius come Lo be known us mimesis: IL Is noL LIuL one
"copIes" LIe oLIer ("copyI ng" Is quI Le I mpossI bI e In LIIs cuse), buL
LIuL eucI repIuys LIe pIuy oI LIe end or ends |oI LIe oLIer|, |us| LIe
urL or bI rL I oI LIe II nI sI.
TIe IInIsI consIsLs I n execuLIng (ex-sequor meuns Lo IoI I ow LIougI
Lo LIe end), I n curryI ng ouL someL II ng Lo LIe I I mI L oI ILs own IogIc
und ILs own good, LIuL Is, Lo LIe exLremILy oI ILs own BeI ng. n our
L II nkI ng, BeI ng I n generuI, or ruLIer, BeI ng proper or pI uI nI y Be-
I ng [l'etre propre ou l'etre en propre], In eucI oI ILs sInguIur eIIecLuu-
LIons or exIsLences, Ius ILs subsLunce, end, und L ruL I In LIe IInIsI
oI ILs BeI ng. or us, IL Is so evIdenL LIuL LIIs LruIL beIongs Lo "Be-
I ng" In generuI (or Lo "reuIILy," or Lo "eIIecLIvILy") LIuL IL seems odd
Lo InsIsL on expressIng sucI u redunduncy.
We L II nk LIuL Lo be Is noL Lo IuII-be [etre-c-demi], buL Lo be
IuI I y presenL, perIecL, compIeLe, IInIsIed, und, every sIngIe LI me, II-
nuI , L ermI nuI , done. TIe wIoI e pr obI em, I I LIere I s u pr obI em, I s
oI knowI ng I I LIe execuLIon, LIe II nI sI, I s II nI Le or I nI I nI Le, und I n
wIuL sense oI LIese words. As we wI I I see, quesLIons oI LecInoI ogy
und wur come down Lo LIIs LroubI esome urLI cuI uLI on I n every IusL
InsLunce.
Phsis und techne ure, In LIIs wuy, LIe BeI ng oI BeI ng, LIe sume
LIuL pIuys ILseII ouL LwIce, wI L I u dIIIerence Lo wII c I wI I I Iuve Lo
reLurn. or LIe momenL , IeL me jusL udd LIuL histor Is LIuL generuI
reuI m oI L wI sL I ng or dIspI ucemenL LIuL uIIecLs LIIs dIIIerence.
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
11q
I LIere Is u "quesLI on oI LecInoI ogy, " LIen IL onI y begIns uL LIuL
momenL wIen LecInoI ogy Is Luken I nLo uccounL us LIe IInIsI oI Be-
I ng, und noL us u meuns Lo some oLIer end (scIence, musLery, Iup-
pIness, und so on). L onI y begIns wIen L ecInoI ogy Is Luken I nL o
uccounL us un end In ILseII, sui eneris. TecInoI ogy Is LIe "I I nuI I Ly
wI L IouL end" (= wI L IouL un exLrInsIc end) oI u genre LIuL perIups
remuIns Lo be dIscovered. L Is Lo sucI u dIscovery LIuL we expose
our IIsLory, us u LecInoI ogI cuI -becomI ng oI BeI ng or ILs IInIsI.
WIu L , I n pr I ncI pI e, IuIsIIIes so muny consI deruLI ons oI LecI-
noI ogy Is LIe desIre Lo IocuLe ILs prI ncI pI es und ends ouLsIde oI I L-
seI I -I or exumpI e, In u "nuLure" LIuL ILseII consLunLI y enLers I nL o u
becomI ng-LecInoI ogy. . . . JusL us, In LIe pusL, we never sLopped re-
I uL I ng "nuLure" Lo some sovereIgn Powe r -us LIe creuLI on und
gI ory oI u Power numed Go d , AL o m, I I e, CIunce, or Humu nI L y
- s o we Iuve never sLopped securI ng I r om LecInoI ogy, und Ior
LecInoI ogy, u Deus ex mcchinc, wII c I Is yeL unoLIer sovereIgn
Power LIuL LIe mosL IubI LuuI LendencIes oI our wuys oI represenL-
I ng Ieuds us Lo desIgnuLe us u Dicbolus ex mcchinc (LIIs Is LIe sLory
oI uusL). WI L I regurd Lo LIe ex mcchinc, LIe Deus becomes dic-
bolicus becuuse IL Is no I onger LIe "L ecInI cI un oI nuLure" or LIe
NuL ur uI TecInI cI un, LIuL Is, LIe one wIo reIuLes uII LII ngs Lo one
End, or Lo one ubsoIuLe, LrunscendenLuI , LrunscendenL, und sover-
eIgn I nI sI. or we deny "LecInoI ogy" uccess Lo LIe reuI m oI ends
und, Lo un even greuLer exLenL, Lo LIe reuI m oI LIe nII nI Le En d , I n
LIIs sense.
As u resuIL, eI bnI z muy Iuve been LIe cIosesL Lo expressIng LIe
I I rsL cIeur conscIousness oI L ecInoI ogy I n IIs I ookI ng Lo puL LIe
mcchinc ex Deo I nLo pI uy-we cun suy us mucI unIess, oI course, IL
Is noL uIso udvIsubIe Lo combI ne LIIs I ormuI uLI on wI L I LIuL oI SpI n-
ozu's, LIe Deus site ncturc site mcchinc: uILer wII cI LIe "deuLI oI
Go d " sIgnIIIes LIe rIgorous curryI ng ouL oI LIe progrum IormuI uLed
us LIe mcchinc ex mcchinc (ex ncturc), LIuL wII cI does noL IInIsI
IInIsIIng [celle qui n'en jinit pcs de jinir] und ubouL wII cI IL remuIns
Ior us Lo L II nk ILs I uw und Lo dIscover jusL wIuL Is uL sLuke In IL.
L Is necessury, Iere, Lo I ncI ude u consI deruLI on oI LIe exLremeIy
pronounced posI LI on I n wII cI our L II nkI ng puLs wur, beLween "nu-
zo
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
Lure" und "LecInoIogy. " (AIso noLe LIe "wIoI I y nuLuruI " umbI guI L y
oI our undersLundI ng oI sucI u senLence: Is IL u muLLer oI wur con-
sIdered us un I nL ermedI ury posI L I on beLween nuLure und L ecInoI -
ogy, or Is IL u muLLer oI wur wII cI Lukes pIuce beLween nuLure und
LecInoI ogy? PrecIseIy speukI ng, we ure reudy Lo L II nk LIese Lwo
LIIngs LogeLIer.) Wur Is wIuL LIere Is LIuL Is mosL undJor IeusL "nuL-
uruI . " L urIses I rom LIe mosL bruLuI InsLIncLs undJor I rom LIe coI d-
esL cuI cuI uLI on, und so on. TII s posI LI on Is noL wI L IouL cerLuIn con-
necLIons Lo LIuL pIuce beLween "urL" und "nuLure" LIuL we gIve Lo
"beuuLy. " TII s posI L I on, wII c I I s boL I probI emuL I c und pr I vI -
I eged-und Is ILseII repIuyed LwIce beLween Lwo orders, LIuL oI urL
und wur, consIdered In some wuy Lo be opposed Lo one unoL Ie r -
I s noL wI L IouL I mporLunce. We wI I I reLurn Lo LIIs beIow.
Every consI deruLI on ubouL ends Ieuds buck Lo sovereIgnLy. TIe
power oI ends, us LIe power oI LIe uI LI muLe or exLreme, resIdes In u
sovereIgnLy. A n d every end, us sucI, Is necessurIIy ordered by u sov-
ereIgn end (u "sovereIgn good"). or LIe wIoI e oI our L II nkI ng, LIe
En d I s I n SovereIgnLy, und SovereIgnLy I s I n LIe End. TIe ubsoIuLe
Lrunscendence, or LIe ubyss, or LIe mysLery oI supreme ends LIuL Is
I ound uII LIrougIouL LIe L r udI L I on-I or exumpI e, LIe I mpossI bI I -
ILy oI deL ermI nI ng LIe "conLenL" oI LIe PI uLonI c Go o d or LIe KunL -
Iun u w-I s IeI d IIrmIy wI L II n LIIs cIrcIe: LIuL wII cI Is sovereIgn Is
IInuI, LIuL wII cI Is IInuI Is sovereIgn.
SovereIgnLy Is LIe power oI execuLIon or LIe power oI IInIsIIng us
sucI, ubsoIuLeIy so und wI L IouL uny IurLIer subordI nuLI on Lo some-
L II ng eIse (Lo unoLIer end). DI vI ne creuLIon und LIe royuI decI sI on
compose ILs doubI e Imuge: Lo muke or unmuke u wor I d, Lo submI L
Lo u wI I I , Lo desIgnuLe un enemy. AI L IougI unLI cI puLed by LIe Ieg-
IsIuLIve power und conLroI I ed by LIe j udI cI uI power, LIIs Is wIy LIe
execuLIve power uLLuIns Lo un excepLIonuI sLuLe |oI power| In wur;
In spILe oI everyLII ng, Iowever, LIIs occurrence LoucIes upon (de
jure und de IucLo) LIe very exLremILy oI decIsIon mukI ng und power
(powerIuI decI sI on und decIsIve power) wIere IL uccompI I sIes ILs
"execuLIve" essence mosL properIy, LIe sovereIgn essence oI B e I n g -
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1z1
wIere LIIs Is "power" (us LIe prI nce, SLuLe, nuL I on, peopI e, IuLIer-
I und, und so on).
TII s Is wIy uccusIng u sovereIgn power oI wunL I ng wur so obvI -
ousIy IuIIs sIorL oI LIe murk. TIe execuLIon oI LIIs desIre [touloir]
Ior wur Is noL onI y one oI LIe proper ends oI LIe execuLIve orgun; IL
uIso represenLs LIe exLreme mode oI LIese ends. So LIuL IL Is no
I onger un orgun wI L I regurd Lo LIe execuLI on oI sucI desIre; I n-
sLeud, IL Is sovereIgnLy ILseI I In ILs IInIsIIng-InsoIur us we L II nk
sovereIgnLy uccordI ng Lo LIe onI y concepL LIuL Is uL our dI sposuI .
n wur, LIere Is someL II ng LIuL I mmedI uL eI y goes beyond uI I LIe
possIbIe gouIs oI wur, wIeLIer LIey be deIensIve or oIIensIve: LIe
uccompI I sImenL oI LIe SovereIgn us sucI In u reIuLIon oI ubsoIuLe
opposI LI on wI L I unoLIer SovereIgn. Wur Is I ndI ssocI ubI y LIe phsis
und techne oI sovereIgnLy. Ls Iuw, LIe excepLIon oI ILs Iuw, Ius us ILs
counL erpoI nL LIe I uw oI gruce: buL wI L I LIe IuLLer, LIe SovereI gn
never IdenLIIIes ILseII nor execuLes ILseII vIs-u-vIs LIe other.
I IL were necessury, one couI d IInd u cerLuI n conI I rmuL I on |oI
LIIs| In LIe very pecuI Iur symboI I c or IunLusLIcuI weI gIL oI LIe I n-
sLrumenLs und mucII nery oI wur. L Is dI III cuI L Lo deny LIuL even II
LIe Gu I I Wur guve rIse Lo un expI IcI L dIscourse oI sovereIgnLy onI y
In un uwkwurd und cursory munner, LIuL Is, In LIe I orm oI u denI uI ,
I L cerLuI nI y uroused un excepLI onuI depI oymenL oI LIe Imuges oI
Lunks, jeLs, mIssIIes, und IeI meLed soIdIers, Imuges suLuruLed wI L I
symboI I c weI gIL. L even depI oyed Imuges oI symboI I c suLuruLIon
ILseII, wII cI couI d weI I consLILuLe u LruIL oI sovereIgn IInIsIIng.
Obj ecLs Iose LIeIr symboI I c cIurucLer Lo LIe exLenL LIuL LIeI r
LecInI cI Ly grows, uL IeusL LIuL LecInI cI Ly posI Led In Lerms oI Iunc-
LI onuI I Ly (I n Lerms oI meuns); buL LIIs does noL prevenL LIe objecL
I rom beI ng symboI I cuI I y (or IunLusLIcuIIy) InvesLed uguIn. WI L I re-
gurd Lo LIIs, L II nk oI u sIckIe, u Iummer, u seL oI geurs, und even u
cI rcuI L bourd. BuL Loduy (und In LIe pusL, Ior LIuL muLLer), LIere Is
no beLLer pIuce Ior sucI symboI I sm Lo udIere Lo I uncL I on In sucI
un I mmedI uL eI y obvI ous munner us In LIe Imuges oI LIe weupons
oI wur. SucI udIerence undoubL edI y comes I rom LIe IucL LIuL LIIs
Imuge does noL presenL u LooI oI desLrucLI on, buL ruLIer LIe uIIIr-
muL I on oI LIe sovereIgn rIgIL oI LIe sovereIgn power Lo execuLe u
1zz Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne 1z
sovereIgn desL rucL I on, or Lo execuLe I LseI I I n desL rucL I on, cs De -
sLrucLI on (oI LIe oLIer sovereIgn). TII s Is noL reuIIy u I uncL I on; IL Is
u desLInuLIon: Lo gIve und receIve coIIecLIve deuLI, deuLI subI I muLed
I nL o LIe desLI ny oI LIe communI L y, LIe c ommunI L y I denLI II ed I n u
sovereIgn exposI LI on Lo deuLI. (s DeuL I LIe Lrue SovereIgn In LIIs
wIoI e uIIuIr? We wI I I come buck Lo LIIs.)
TIus , wur borders on urL. TII s Is noL Lo suy LIuL IL borders on LIe
urL oI wur, LIe LecInoI ogy oI LIe sLruLegIsL; IL Is Lo suy, ruLIer, LIuL IL
borders on urL undersLood ubsoIuLeIy In ILs modern sense, techne us
u mode oI LIe execuLI on oI BeI ng, us ILs mode oI II nI sII ng I n LIe
expIosIve brI I I I unce [eclct] oI LIe beuuLIIuI und subI I me, LIuL dou-
bI ed rIvuIry Ior sovereIgnLy LIuL occurs wI L II n LIe bI ossomI ng [eclo-
sion] oI phsis. (Moreover, phsis no Ionger Lukes pIuce excepL us me-
dIuLed LIrougI techne, or one couI d suy LIuL IL never Lukes pIuce " I n
ILseII," or In uny oLIer wuy, excepL us LIe Imuge oI LIe sovereIgnLy oI
techne.) UndoubL edI y, LIe uesLIeLIcIzuLIon oI LIe wurI I ke specLucIe
uIso comes I rom denI uI [denection] or dI ssI muI uLI on. BuL LIIs mu-
nI puI uL I on does noL exIuusL un uesLIeLIc (u sensIbIe presenLuLIon)
oI LIe desLI ny oI communI L y: LIe deuLI oI I ndI vI duuI s I s I mme dI -
uLeIy recuperuLed wI L II n LIe II gure oI LIe SovereIgn euder or Nu -
L I on wIere LIe c ommunI L y I I nds ILs I I nI sII ng. Wu r I s LIe mo nu-
menL, LIe IesLIvuI, LIe somber und pure sIgn oI LIe c ommunI L y I n
ILs sovereIgnLy.
n essence, wur Is coIIecLIve, und LIe coI I ecLI vI Ly LIuL Is endowed
wI L I sovereIgnLy (LIe KI ng do m, SLuLe, or EmpI re) Is by deI I nI LI on
endowed wI L I LIe rIgIL Lo wur (us TIomus AquI nus wrILes, "bellum
pcrticulcre non proprie dicitur"). TIe enLIre II sLory oI LIe concepL
oI wur demonsLruLes LIuL ILs deL ermI nuL I on I s I ocuLed wI L II n LIe
consLunL pI uy beLween ILs reI uLI on wI L I LIe res publicc (LIe c om-
monweuI L I us ood und end I n ILseII) und ILs reIuLIon wI L I LIe Prin-
ceps (LIe prI ncI pI e und prI ncI puLe oI sovereIgn uuLIorI Ly). No L onI y
Is LIe IuLLer In cIurge oI LIe Iormer, noL onI y Is LIe PrI nce In pos-
sessIon oI LIe urmed Iorces necessury Lo LIe |muInLenunce oI LIe|
RepubI I c, buL LIe commonweuI L I us sucI musL uIso presenL und
represenL IIs ubsoIuLe und IInuI cIurucLer, IIs sovereIgnLy, und ILs
urmed Iorces musL curry LIe IIug oI IIs gIory.
L Is uL LIIs very poI nL LIuL LIe I uw oI LIe r e pub I I c -o I uny kI nd
oI repubI I c, even Loduy's r epubI I cs -I nevI L ubI y comes up uguInsL
[touche] LIe excepLIon oI LIe prI nce, wIuLever LIe I orm oI govern-
menL mI gIL be. Even Loduy, democrucy Ius noL pr oI oundI y dI s-
pIuced LIIs scIemu; IL Ius onI y suppressed or repressed IL, buck I nLo
LIe sIudow oI ILs own uncerLuInLIes (LIuL Is, LIe uncerLuI nL y con-
cernI ng ILs own sovereIgnLy, un uncerL uI nL y LIuL even Loduy re-
muI ns cosubsLunLI uI wI L I I L ). I ke wIuL I s repressed, L Ien, LIe
scIemu oI LIe sovereIgn excepLIon never sLops reLurnI ng, und IL re-
Lurns us LIe perversIon oI democrucy, wIeLIer LIIs reLurn Iuppens
I n LIe I nnumerubI e coups d'eLuL oI ILs II sLory or I n becomI ng Lo-
LuI I LurI un (wIere LIe excepLIon LrunsIorms ILseII I nL o u doubI I ng oI
LIe sLrucLure oI LIe SLuLe by unoLIer |sLrucLure| wII cI IncurnuLes
Lrue sovereIgnLy).
SInce Wor I d Wur , Iowever, IL Is democrucy us s uc I-s uc I us IL
Ius ended up presenLIng ILseII us LIe generuI prI ncI pI e oI Iumun-
ILy, I I noL IumunI Ly' s En d -L I u L Ius been supposedI y endowed
wI L I LIe rIgIL Lo wur, LIereby LrunsI ormI ng wur I nL o LIe deIense oI
LIe res publicc oI IumunI Ly. TII s presupposes LIuL u neuLruI coun-
Lry (LIe UnI L e d SL uL es-wIen one LII nks ubouL IL, us I ong us LIere
ure severuI sovereIgns, neuLruI I Ly Is u sLrunge I orm oI sovereIgnLy)
decIdes Lo Luke Ieuve oI ILs neuLruI posI L I on I n LIe nume oI Iumun
rIgILs, und LIuL IL expI I cI LI y desIgnuLe us ILs enemy, noL u peopIe or
u nuL I on, buL governmenLs j udged Lo be dungerous Lo LIe good oI
uII peopIes ("cI vI I I zed" . . . ). n wor I d wur, democrucy does noL go
Lo wur uguInsL u sovereIgn ( Germuny und LIe counLrI es oI LIe A I -
IIunce), buL uguInsL bud Ieuders.
( NoL e udded 6 Apr I I 1qq1: Loduy, In LIe Iuce oI LIe suppressIon
oI LIe Kurds by LIe sume sovereIgn Ieuder on wIo m wus I nII I cLed
LIe "poIIce ucLI on" oI Iuw, LIe Powers IesILuLe beLween respecL Ior
IIs sovereIgnLy wI L II n IIs own borders und un uIII rmuLI on by LIe
"I nLernuLI onuI communI L y" oI u rI gIL Lo InLerIere I n LIe muLLers oI
cerLuIn counLrIes. . . . Toduy, LIere Is no beLLer wuy Lo IIIusLLuLe LIe
InconsIsLencIes und uporIus LIuL beI ong Lo LIe coupI I ng oI "I nLer-
1zq Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne 1z
nuLI onuI I uw" und "sovereIgnLy." TII s suId, Iowever, IL Is evI denLI y
noL LIese concepLuuI dIIIIcuILIes LIuL moLIvuLe LIe vurIous dIIIerenL
j udgmenLs und IesILuLIons. . . . TIese dIIIIcuILIes do express LIe uc-
LuuI sLuLe oI u wor I d encumbered by sovereIgnLy, buL IL Is u wor I d
LIuL does noL know Iow Lo dIspIuce or go beyond sovereIgnLy.)
n order Ior LIe decIsIon Lo go Lo wur-uguI nsL Germuny, uguInsL
r u q -I n LIe nume oI Iumun rIgILs Lo become u decIsIon (und noL
u wI sI), IL wus necessury LIuL LIIs decI sI on Luke I orm und Iorce In
und by wuy oI LIe sovereIgnLy oI u SL uL e-undJor un uIIIunce oI
SLuLes. WI e n one or severuI SLuLes speuk In LIe nume oI LIe rIgILs
oI mun, und, under LIIs nume, puL Lo use LIe preroguLIves oI the jus
belli, LIIs conLInues Lo operuLe us u sovereIgn decIsIon (or un uIIIunce
oI sucI decIsIons). n u sense, LIIs Is even un Increuse oI sovereIgnLy
I n compurI son wI L I LIuL oI LIe prInce. TII s I s wIy, I n LIe Gu I I Wur,
LIe Lug oI wur [le tc-et-tient] beLween LIe uuLIorI Ly oI LIe UnI L ed
NuLI ons und LIe UnI L ed SLuLes (und, II one consIders IL cureIuIIy, LIe
uuLIorI Ly oI some oLIer SLuLes us weII) Ius been so compI ex und so
sI mpI e uL LIe sume L I me, so deIIcuLe und so IndeIIcuLe. TIe I egI LI -
mucy wI L IouL sovereIgnLy oI "I nLernuLI onuI I uw" needed u sovereIgn
techne-und noL jusL u meuns oI execuLIon, us we Iuve been mude
Lo beIIeve. BuL LIIs sovereIgn, I n L urn, needed LIe IegILImucy oI Iu-
mun rIgILs In order Lo esLubIIsI ILs decIsIons und preLensIons, wII cI
couI d onI y be oI gI obuI dI mensI ons, jusL I I ke LIe prI ncI pI es und
promIses oI LIe Iuw (wII cI ILseII sLIII remuIns wI L IouL I ounduL I on,
LIuL Is, wI L IouL sovereIgnLy und wI L IouL "II nI sII ng").
Her e, us everywIere eIse, IL Is soIeIy u quesL I on oI LIe pubI I c
Go o d und oI Peuce. r om PI uLo und ArI sLoLI e L o CIrI sL I un und Re-
pubI I cun docLrI nes, LIe wIoI e II sL ory oI our L II nkI ng ubouL wur
LesLIIIes Lo LIIs. No L LIuL I ong ugo, He nr y KI ssI nger decIured "LIe
gouI oI uII wurs Is Lo ensure u durubIe peuce," und IIs j udgmenL oI-
Iered LIere wus upIeI d (or weukened?) by LwenLy-IIve cenLurIes oI
pII I osopII cuI , LIeoI ogI cuI , eLII cuI, und j urI dI cuI repeLI LI on. WesL-
ern [occidentcle] wur uIwuys Ius peuce us ILs end, even Lo sucI u ex-
LenL LIuL IL Is necessury Lo "buLLIe peuceIuIIy," us wus puL IorLI I rom
AugusL I ne Lo BonI Iuce. SpurLu wus LIuL sLuLe wII cI guve ILseII wur
us the end oI ILs sLrucLure und I ormuL I on, und PI uLo subjecLed IL Lo
u severe crI LI que. WIu L consLILuLes LIe prI ncI pI e oI IInuI peuce Ius
undoubL edI y sIIILed more L Iun once, noL onI y I n I uc L -wII c I I s
more LIun evIdenL, buL In LIeory ILseII (Ior exumpIe, by mI xI ng LIe
I ogI c oI "peuce" LogeLIer wI L I u I ogI c oI reIIgIous conversI on, or
wI L I u I ogI c oI LIe occupuLI on oI u LerrI Lory cI uI med us un I nIerI -
Lunce). NoneLIeI ess, LIe generuI LIeoreLIcuI reguIuLIon oI WesLern
wur remuI ns LIuL oI pucI II cuLory wur (u moL I I LIuL Ius been ex-
Lended so Iur us Lo I ncI ude LIe exporL uL I on oI cerLuI n coI onI uI I sL
Iorms oI "peuce"). WesLern wur denIes ILseII us sovereIgn end, und
ILs denI uI , oI course, consLILuLes ILs udmI ssI on.
L wouI d be necessury Iere Lo Luke LIe L I me Lo unuIyze LIe c om-
pIex pI uy beLween LIe LIree greuL monoL IeI sms " oI LIe Book, "
wII cI ure uIso LIe LIree monoLIeI sms "oI communI L y" und, LIere-
Iore, oI sovereIgnLy. AI L IougI eucI oI L Iem Ius ILs own purLI cuI ur
compI exI Ly, boL I srueIILe (uL IeusL unL I I LIe desLrucLI on LIe Tem-
pIe) und sIumIc monoL IeI sm reserve u pIuce Ior u prI ncI pI e oI wur
LIuL does go LogeLIer [se conjond] wI L I LIe peuce oI LIe peopIes.
CIr I sL I un monoL IeI sm presenLs unoLIer compI exI Ly, wII c I mI xes
LIe modeI oI LIe pcx romcnc LogeLIer wI L I LIe modeI oI LIe wur
uguInsL LIe nIIdeIs. Even us u reI I gI on oI Iove, IL does noL sI mpI y
go LogeLIer wI L I u prI ncI pI e oI peuce: Ior LIere ure enemIes oI Iove,
wIere dI vI ne Iove I s oI unoLIer essence L Iun Iumun Iove. n LIe
process oI ILs becomI ng- modern, u process IL Ius been enguged In
I rom LIe very sLurL, CIr I s L I un Iove recuperuLes wI L II n I LseI I LIe
IrenIc prI ncI pI e oI Greek pII I osopIy (wII cI presupposes LIe breuk-
down oI LIe EpI c und ImILuLes LIIs breukdown I n LIe I nsLuI I uLI on
oI loos) und becomes enLI reI y u prI ncI pI e oI peuce, und peuce In
Lerms oI unIversuI Iumun rIgILs. L Is Iere LIuL LIe god oI Iove Ioses
IIs dI vI nI L y I I LLI e by I I LLI e, und Iove In peuce Ioses ILs sovereIgnLy.
TIe peuce oI IumunI s m Is wI L IouL Iorce or grundeur; IL Is noL II ng
oLIer LIun LIe enervuLIon oI wur.
DeprI ved oI LIe TempI e und oI uny pIuce Ior sovereIgnLy, SLuLe,
und soI I , JewI sI monoL IeI sm needs Lo be unnI II I uLed, somewIere
beyond wur ILseII [dcns un cu-delc de lc uerre meme], precIseIy be-
1z6 Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1z;
cuuse oI LIIs Iuck oI sovereIgnLy. On LIe oLIer sIde, Luken up I n LIe
servIce oI WesL ern sLuLIsm und nuL I onuI I sm, LIe sI umI c jihcd
reIgnILes LIe IIume oI LIe Crusudes In LIe Iuce oI peuce und LIe ruIe
|poIIce| oI Iuw. n eucI InsLunce, Iowever, JewI sI monoL IeI sm cun
I denLI I y und s ummon [cssiner] unew LIe subI I me SovereIgnLy I L
puLs I nL o pIuy; wII I e uL every momenL , sIum cun Luke LIe ubsoIuLe
SovereIgnLy LIuL seuIs ILs c ommunI L y und pI unge I nLo conL empI u-
LI on und ubundonmenL. n LIIs wuy, LIen, LrIpIe monoL IeI sm Is po-
sI L I oned wI L II n u doubI e regIme LIuL Is consL I L uL ed, on LIe one
Iund, by LIe wur oI SovereIgnLIes und, on LIe oLIer, by LIe LensIon
beLween ILs execuLIon und ILs reL reuL -u LensIon LIuL occurs In eucI
one oI L Iem, und beLween L Iem.
BuL us sucI, LIe symbIosIs oI LIIs LrI pI e monoL IeI sm, und ILs
oLIerJsume pII I osopII cuI monoI ogI sm, presenLs ILseII under u sIgn
oI LIe wur oI prIncIpIes: sovereIgn wur (LIuL oI LIree gods uL wur wI L I
LIe LrIpIe god) versus pucIIIcuLory wu r -o r uguIn, LIe conIronLuLI on
beLween sovereIgn wur und sovereIgn peuce. TII s conI ronLuLI on Is
presenL In pII I osopIy ILseII, beLween un ubsoIuLe uppeuI Ior peuce
(LIuL demunded by LIe loos) und IncessunLIy resorLIng Lo LIe scIemu
oI LIe polemos (uIso demunded by LIe loos, LIrougI wII cI IL medI -
uLes ILseII). BuL LIe sovereIgnLy oI peuce remuIns u promI sed undJor
IdeuI sovereIgnLy, wII I e LIe sovereIgnLy oI wur Is uIreudy gIven. L
Ieuves InLucL LIe Lruce oI dI vI ne reIuIgence I ound wI L II n LIe polemos,
LIe Lruce oI LIe epIc song, und oI royuI prIvIIege. L Is In LIIs wuy LIuL
even Loduy, In pII I osopIy und In uII LIe nerve cenLers oI our cuILure,
wur underLuken Ior peuce cun never sLop beI ng wur Ior wur's suke,
und uguInsL peuce. TII s Is Lrue no muLLer wIuL course sucI wur muy
Luke. TecInoI ogy In LIe servIce oI peuce cunnoL uvoI d beI ng Luken
up uguIn I nL o LIe techne oI sovereIgnLy, LIuL Is, I nLo SovereIgnLy us
techne, LIe execuLIon und IInIsIIng oI LIe communI L y, wIere com-
munI L y uIIegedIy Ius noL II ng Lo do wI L I phsis und does noL desIre
ILs "nuLure" I rom technepolitile. (n LIIs regurd, IL wouI d be neces-
sury Lo sIow Iow, wI L I LIe Greeks, techne politile In prI ncI pI e spIILs
ILseII I nLo sovereIgn techne und LIe techne oI jusLIce or Iuw, LIereby
mukI ng LIe projecL oI suLurI ng LIem LogeLIer ImpossIbIe).
L IoIIows I rom LIIs LIuL, wIen u cI uI m Lo IL Is mude, LIe sover-
eIgnLy oI peuce Is noL perIecLIy symmeLrI cuI wI L I LIe sovereIgnLy oI
wur. nsLeud, peuce wouI d be LIe "supreme" good, wIere ILs su-
premucy couI d noL munIIesL ILseII us sucI, eILIer In gIory, power,
or coI I ecLI ve I denL I I I cuL I on. TIe wII L e dove remuI ns. . . . Peuce
wouI d be LIe supremucy oI LIe ubsence oI uny supreme dI sLI ncLI on,
LIe ubsence oI excepLI on uL LIe IeurL oI uny ruI e, everywIere I n-
deII nI LeI y und equuI I y cI osed I n on ILseII. BuL , I n LIIs wuy, peuce
cunnoL IuII Lo Iuve, Ior LIe wIoI e oI our cuI Lure, some uspecL oI re-
nuncI uL I on wI L II n IL. TII s Is becuuse, In LIe end, unyL II ng LIuL Is
properI y Lo be cuIIed SovereIgnLy requIres LIe Incundescence oI LIe
excepLIon und LIe IdenLIIIubIe dI sL I ncL I on oI ILs IInIsIIng. (n IucL,
do we ever I denLI Iy c peuce, presenLed In person, excepL under LIe
nume und I nsI gnI u oI un empI re-pcx romcnc, pcx cmericcnc)
TIe sovereIgnLy oI Iuw, wII cI wouI d necessurIIy sLrucLure peuce,
Is I nevI LubI y, und Lo Iowever smuI I un exLenL, sovereIgnLy by de-
I uuI L-wIereus Lrue sovereIgnLy Lukes pIuce noL onI y In pI enI Lude
buL In excess und us excess. Even now, LIIs I undumenL uI dI sposI -
LI on prevenLs wur I rom ever sI mpI y becomI ng u LecInIque desLIned
Lo enIIsL Iorce I nL o LIe servIce oI rIgIL, wI L IouL IL uIso uIwuys beI ng
LIe techne oI sovereIgn uIII rmuLI on.
L Is noL suIIIcIenL, LIereIore, Lo keep reL urnI ng Lo LIe IInuI exI-
gency oI peuce, uny more LIun IL Is suIIIcIenL Lo denounce LIe I I I u-
sI on oI sucI un uI m und reIy on LIe reuI I sm oI Iorce. n essence,
LIese Lwo dIIIerenL Iuces oI LIe sume uLLI Lude Iuve reguIuLed our
comporL menL Lo LIe recenL wur, by meuns oI LIe LoLuI or purLIuI re-
pressIon oI wIuL Iuve uLLempLed Lo Iuy ouL Iere. To remuI n uL LIIs
poI nL , Iowever, Is Lo prepure LIe wuy Ior LIe wurs Lo c o me -u n d
wI L IouL even boL IerI ng Lo know I I LIe resLruInL LIuL Ius been
sIown In cerLuIn uspecLs oI conducL I ng LIIs wur (Lo sucI un exLenL
LIuL LIere wus noL "LruI y" u wur, uI LIougI LIere Ius been uI I LIe de-
sIrubIe desLrucLIon) does noL, In IucL, represenL u smuI I sLep Lowurd
u compI eLe "reI egI LI muLI on" oI wur, wIere LIe condI LI ons oI sucI u
possI bI I I Ly wouI d noL be us Iur uwuy us one wouI d Iuve I I ked Lo be-
IIeve or been Ied Lo beIIeve.
1z8 Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne 1zq
AL LIIs poI nL, one mI gIL objecL LIuL LIe empIusIs pIuced on LIe
symboI I c order oI sovereIgnLy denIes, eILIer uL LIe sume LI me or In
L urn, LIe uuLIenLIcILy oI LIe need Ior Iuw und LIe pIuy oI economI c
Iorces. No L uL uI I , us we wI I I see. RuLIer, u symboI I c order so wI deI y
und deepIy woven I nLo LIe wIoI e cuILure produces uII ILs eIIecLs In
LIe reuI (und LIus, Ior exumpIe, In economy und Iuw; In L ruL I, Iow-
ever, none oI LIese "orders" sI mpI y comes I rom LIe symboI I c or LIe
r euI . . . ). L Is I mporLunL noL Lo mI sundersLund LIese eIIecLs. JusL us
mucI us urL, unyL II ng LIuL Is properI y Lo be cuIIed wur Is ubsoIuLeIy
urcIuIc In ILs symboI Ic cIurucLer, wII cI IndIcuLes LIuL IL escupes Irom
beI ng u purL oI "II sLory" undersL ood us LIe progress oI u I I neur
undJor cumuI uLI ve LI me. BuL IL reLurns Lo LIIs wIen IL Is u muLLer oI
openI ng unew u cerLuIn spuce wI L II n LIIs LI me: LIe spuce oI LIe pre-
senLuLIon oI SovereIgnLy. TII s "urcIuIsm" (uguIn, IIke LIuL oI urL) LIus
obeys Iuws LIuL ure more deepIy seL wI L II n our cI vI I I zuLI on, In sucI
u wuy us Lo I ndI cuLe LIuL IL Is someL II ng more LIun u regreLLubIe
IoI dover | jccheuse surtitcnce]. BuL IL Is precIseIy becuuse IL Is noL
consIsLenL Lo LreuL wur IIke u regreLLubIe IoIdover I rom u bygone uge,
uIwuys LendenLIousIy eIIuced In LIe progress und projecL oI u gIobuI
IumunI Ly, LIuL IL Is uII LIe more I mporLunL und urgenL Lo L II nk wIuL
Is uL sLuke In ILs "urcIuI sm, " und Lo L II nk LIIs Ior ourseIves Loduy.
(A L IorougI exumI nuL I on oI LIIs spuce oI sovereIgnLy und wur
obvI ousI y wouI d requIre someL II ng quI Le dIIIerenL I r om wIuL
Iuve jusL ouL I I ned ubove. TII s wouI d be un enormous projecL, I n
purLIcuIur us regurds oIIerIng dIIIerenL unuIyses oI LIe "sucred." Sov-
ereIgnLy Ius uIwuys been mI xed up wI L I LIe "sucred" L IrougI LIe
mecIunI sm oI excepLIon und excess, buL LIe I mpI I cuLI ons oI sover-
eIgnLy Iuve sLI I I noL been us cIeurIy LIougIL ouL us LIose oI LIe "su-
cred" ILseII (us LIougI LIIs Is LIe eIIecL oI un obscure InLeresL In noL
knowI ng Loo muc I ubouL LIe sovereIgnLy LIuL Is uIwuys uL work) .
BuL LIere wouI d uIso need Lo be u IoL oI wor k done wI L I regurd Lo
u psycIounuIysIs LIuL couI d munuge, In u wuy dIIIerenL I rom wIuL
Ius uIwuys been done, Lo LreuL coI I ecLI vI Ly or c ommunI L y us sucI
(wII cI reud uIwuys seems Lo submI L , tolens nolens, Lo LIe scIemu
oI LIe SovereIgn), noL Lo menL I on LIe sexuuI dIIIerence LIuL Is uI -
wuys puL I nL o pIuy vI u wur . . . ).
EcoLecInIcs [Ecotechnie]
A I I LIuL suId, IL sLI I I remuIns LIuL LIe persIsLence [remcnence] or
reInvenLIon oI wur does noL occur ouLsIde IIsLory, even II our epocI
uppeurs Lo be LIe greuL suspensIon oI LIe II sLorI cI Ly by wII c I we
Iuve been currI ed uI ong. TIe conII I cL beLween LIe poI I ce und LIe
bellum proprie dictum Is uIso LIe eIIecL oI u IIsLorIcuI dI spI ucemenL
oI greuL I mporLunce, und oI greuL consequence, Ior wur.
TIe II rsL "worI dwI de" wur corresponds Lo LIe emergence oI u
scIemu oI worI dwI de proporLI ons, wII cI Imposes ILseII on LIe sov-
ereIgns LIemseIves. TIus , wurJpoIIce ucLI on [lc uerre-police] Is de-
I ocuI I zed; Ior exumpIe, IL Ius Iess Lo do wI L I LIe borders oI LIe sov-
ereIgn SLuLes LIemseIves L Iun wI L I LIe muI L I pI e Iorms oI LIe
"presence" oI LIese SLuLes LIuL spun LIe wor I d (InLeresLs, zones oI
I nII uence, und so on). As sucI, wurJpoIIce ucLI on uIso becomes u
conIronLuLI on oI "worI dvIews": u "worI dvI ew" Is never LIe uLLrIbuLe
oI sovereIgnLy; by deI I nI LI on, sovereIgnLy Is IIgIer LIun uny "vIew,"
und LIe " wor I d" Is LIe I mpr I nL oI ILs decI sI on. TIe powers Iuve LIe
wor I d us LIe spuce gI ven Ior LIe pI uy oI LIeI r sovereIgnLIes. BuL
wIen LIIs spuce Is suLuruLed und LIe pI uy cIosed oII, LIe wor I d us
sucI becomes u probI em. L Is no Ionger cerLuIn LIuL LIe IInIsI oI
LIIs wor I d cun be envIsuged In LIe sume wuy LIuL LIe wor I d oI sov-
ereIgns wus. TIe wor I d, LIuL Is, mun or gI obuI IumunI Ly, Is noL LIe
sum LoLuI oI IumunI L y or LIe InsLuIIuLIon oI u new sovereIgnLy (con-
Lrury Lo wIuL IumunI s m sougIL und desIred, even Lo LIe poI nL oI
exIuusLI on). TIe wurJpoI I ce ucLI on oI gI obuI IumunI L y puLs LIe
ends oI "mun" dIrecLI y I nL o pIuy, wIereus sovereIgn wur exposes LIe
end ILseII. A n d jusL us wu r -u n d ur L -composed LIe technci oI sov-
ereIgnLy, so gI obuI IumunI L y Ius no techne oI ILs own: Iowever
LIorougII y "LecInoI ogI cuI " our cuI Lure muy be, IL Is onI y techne In
suspensIon. L Is noL surprI sI ng LIuL wur IuunLs us. . . .
As u coroIIury Lo LIe deveI opmenL oI u wor I d murkeL, one cun see
I n LIe I nvenL I on oI wor I d wur LIe resuIL oI uI I LIe wurs LIuL uccom-
punI ed LIe creuLIon oI LIe conLemporury worI d: on LIe one Iund,
LIere ure LIe Amer I cun RevoI uL I onury Wur und CI v I I Wur, wurs I n
LIe L rudI L I on oI sovereIgn wur und beurI ng LIe seII-uIIIrmuLIon oI u
1o
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
11
new und dI sLI ncL SovereIgnLy (durI ng LIe nIneLeenLI cenLury, LIese
served us LIe modeI Ior LIe wurs undJor I oundI ng oI nuLIons, pr I n-
cI puI I y LIe new Ger muny; even IuLer, LIIs modeI wus I nIerI Led by
vurIous coIonIes); on LIe oLIer Iund, LIere Is LIe wur oI I I beruLI on
I n LIe nume oI IumunkI nd, I n LIe nume oI ILs "nuLuruI " rIgILs und
IruLernILy, sucI us IL wus I nvenLed In LIe rencI RevoI uL I on. L Is
LIIs second modeI LIuL no Ionger corresponds sLrIcLIy Lo LIe sover-
eIgn scIemu: IL oscIIIuLes beLween u generuI revoIL uguInsL LIe very
order oI sovereIgns (wIo ure cuI I ed trcnts, u L erm LIuL mukes un
uppeuI Ior u possIbIe I egI LI mucy oI rebeI I I on wI L II n LIe eLII co-j u-
rI dI cuI LrudI LI on) und u poI I ced udmI nI sL ruL I on oI Iumu nkI nd,
wII c I resLruIns ILseII I rom ubusI ng ILs governunce.
As sucI, LIen, LIe gI obuI sLuLe oI wur expresses u sI mpI e need, us
eILIer ILs cuuse or ILs eIIecL: IL needs un uuLIorI Ly LIuL goes beyond
LIuL oI SovereIgns endowed wI L I LIe rI gIL Lo wur. SLrI cLI y speuk-
I ng, LIere I s no pIuce Ior LIIs need wI L II n LIe spuce und I ogI c oI
sovereIgnLy. Mo r e precIseIy, I L cun be unuI yzed I n one oI LIe I oI -
I owI ng wuys: eILIer LIIs uuLIorI Ly wouI d Iuve Lo be u gI obuI sover-
eIgnLy, wII cI couI d noL be I n u sLuLe oI wur wI L I unyone on eurLI
(buL onI y wI L I uI I LIe guIucLIc empI res oI scIence I I cL I on, wII c I
demonsLruLes LIuL we reuIIy onI y Iuve one modeI uL our dI sposuI
I rom wII cI Lo exLrupoIuLe. . . . ); or LIIs uuLIorI Ly Is oI unoLIer nu-
Lure, und oI unoLIer orI gI n (und end), LIun LIuL oI sovereIgnLy.
r om LIe eugue oI NuL I ons Lo LIe UnI L e d NuL I ons, LIere Ius
been un IncessunL puL L I ng I nLo pI uy oI LIe uporIus oI sucI "supru-
sovereIgnLy," boL I I rom LIe sLundpoI nL oI ILs IegILImuLe I ounduLI on
und I rom LIe sLundpoI nL oI ILs cupucILy Lo endow ILseII wI L I un eI-
IecLIve Iorce. To dIIIerenL degrees, unuIogous probI ems ure posed
by LIe vurI ous LrunsnuLI onuI orgunI zuLI ons oI AI r I cun or As I un
SLuLes. n yeL unoLIer wuy, Europe ILseII Is c omI ng up uguInsL LIe
probI em oI inter-, trcns-, or suprcnctioncl sovereIgnLy; In LIIs cuse,
IL Is noL pr I ncI puI I y u pr obI em LIuL perLuIns Lo wur, excepL us re-
gurds LIe LrunsIormuLIons oI LIe Lwo greuL mI I I L ury uIIIunces uIreudy
underwuy.
One cun see LIuL LIe probI em Is rudIcuI. L Is noL soIeIy u muLLer oI
c ombI nI ng LIe needs oI coordI nuL I on, LIuL Is, Lo see Iow I nLernu-
LI onuI cooperuLI on goes LogeLIer wI L I LIe respecL Ior LIe sovereIgn
rIgILs oI SLuLes. L Is uIso noL soIeIy u muLLer oI I nvenL I ng new
poI ILIco-jurIdIcuI Iorms (wIeLIer one goes In LIe dIrecLIon oI LIe de-
IIberuLIve AssembI y or In LIe dI recLI on oI u gIobuI ederuLIon, LIere
Is no I euvI ng LIese uporIus beII nd). SucI Iorms IoI d IusL Lo LIe
ground, und Lo groundI ng per se. Moreover, IL Is one oI LIe Lusks oI
I uw und ILs I ormuI I sm Lo brI ng Lo I I gIL LIe wor k oI groundI ng LIuL
goes on In LIe purI I yI ng oI concepLs. BuL cIeurIy, Iuw ILseII does noL
Iuve u I orm Ior wIuL wouI d need Lo be ILs own sovereIgnLy.
TIe probI em Is puL Iorwurd cIeurIy, und In u decIsIve munner, uL
LIe very pIuce oI sovereI gnL y-or oI LIe End .
TIe probI em Is noL u muLLer oI IIxIng up [cmencer] sovereIgnLy:
In essence, sovereIgnLy Is unLreuLubIe, buL LIe unLreuLubIe essence
oI sovereIgnLy, I n IucL, no I onger beIongs Lo u wor I d LIuL I s
"gI obuI . " TIus, LIe probI em I s I ndeed one oI groundI ng someLII ng
In un enLI reIy new wuy, someL II ng Ior wII c I LIere ure neILIer reu-
sons (wIy? Ior wIuL? Ior wIo m Is LIere or musL LIere be u lobcl
worId?) nor uny uppIIcubIe modeI s. GI obuI IumunI L y, or mun uILer
IumunI s m, Is exposed Lo u I I mI L or un ubyss oI groundI ng, oI end
und exempIurILy.
However reIuLIve IL muy be, Iowever mI xed up IL Is wI L I LIe rIse
und IuII oI muny unconvI ncI ng und purLI cuI urI sL cI uI ms Lo "sover-
eIgnLy," LIe "reLurn oI wur" expresses essenLIuIIy u need or I mpuI se
Ior sovereIgnLy. No L onI y do we Iuve noL II ng oLIer L Iun modeI s
oI sovereIgnLy, buL SovereI gnLy I n ILseI I I s uIso u pr I ncI puI modeI
or scIemu oI "cI vI I I zuL I on" wIere "gI obuI I zuL I on" Is uL work. L Is
on LIe modeI or scIemu oI "LIuL wII cI Ius noL II ng ubove ILseII,"
oI LIe unsurpussubIe, LIe uncondI L I onuI , or LIe nonsubordI nubI e.
L Is LIe modeI oI uI I LIIs quo mcis non dici potest wIere or I gI n,
pr I ncI pI e, end, II nI sII ng, Ieuder, und brI I I I unce [eclct] come Lo-
geLIer uguIn Ior us. . . . BuL gI obuI IumunI L y Is unoLIer sorL oI ex-
LremI Ly, unoLIer quo mcis. . . , Lo wII c I LIIs modeI no I onger
perLuIns.
AI L IougI LIe domI nI on oI LIIs modeI I s muI nL uI ned by deIuuIL,
1z
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1
onI y I uw uppeurs Lo eIude IL. TII s Is becuuse, rIgIL uwuy, Iuw seLs IL-
seII up beLween IIrsL prI ncI pI es und IInuI ends (LIe sovereIgn spuce
Is LIe IIgure; LIe j urI dI cuI spuce Is LIe InLervuI). uw consenLs Lo IeL
prI ncI pI es und ends IuII under un uuLIorI Ly oLIer LIun ILs own, und
LIIs consenL beIongs Lo ILs sLrucLure. L LIus escupes Irom LIe modeI
onI y In order Lo desIgnuLe unew LIe pIuces wIere LIe modeI uppIIes:
uL eucI oI LIe Lwo exLremI LI es, prI ncI pI es und ends. SovereI gnLy
cunnoL sLop IuunL I ng us, sInce IL Is uL LIese exLremILIes LIuL Iuw, oI
ILs own uccord, IocuLes uuLIorI Ly [l'instcnce] us LIe excepLI on und
LIe excess, wII cI Is uIso LIe uuLIorI Ly oI exempIurILy.
WI L I I n sucI exempIurILy, LIere Is uIwuys un excepLIon LIuL pro-
vIdes, or gIves, LIe ruIe. ( TIus, LIe sovereIgn wurrI or wus ubIe Lo
provIde u modeI LIuL dI d noL sI mpI y Ieud Lo buLLIe. n LIe end, Iow-
ever, LIe IIsLory oI sovereIgnLIes Is u IIsLory oI devusLuLIon. . . . ) BuL
wI L II n LIe dIssoIuLIon oI exempIurILy LIere ure Lwo eIemenLs: on LIe
one Iund, LIe excepLIon I nLo wII cI LIe ruIe Is reubsorbed; on LIe
oLIer, u ruIe wI L IouL exumpIe (LIe Iuw), LIuL Is, wI L IouL IInIsI.
Ever sInce LIe I nvenL I on oI "nuLuruI " mun (un expressIon wIere
"nuLuruI " reuIIy sIgnIIIes "LecInoI ogIcuI "), we Iuve InsIsLed on cIos-
I ng our eyes Lo LIe ubsence oI LIe I ounduLI on oI I u w-u nd , uI ong
wI L I LIIs, we Iuve InsIsLed on I gnorI ng LIe I ounduLI onuI roIe sov-
ereIgnLy pIuys In LIe scIemu oI LIe excepLIon (dIvIne creuLIon, orI g-
Inury vIoIence, LIe I oundI ng Iero, LIe royuI ruce, I mperI uI gIory, LIe
soIdIer's sucrIIIce, LIe genIus uL work, LIe subjecL oI one's own Iuw,
LIe subjecL wI L IouL IuILI or I uw . . . ). n LIIs wuy, we Iuve Ignored
wIuL Is L ruI y uL sLuke In wur. By wuy oI LIe j udgmenL LIuL wur Is
"evI I , " even us un evI I wII c I Is someLI mes "necessury," we repress
LIe L ruL I LIuL wur Is LIe modeI oI execuLIve und IInILIve | jinitrice]
techne, us I ong us LIe end Is LIougIL us sovereIgn end; In u puruIIeI
munner, beneuLI LIe j udgmenL LIuL LIe I uw Is u "good, " buL u Ior-
muI good wI L IouL uny Iorce, we repress LIe L ruL I LIuL LIe I uw
wII cI Is wIoI I y wI L IouL uny modeI or I ounduL I on, wIen IL Is noL
governed by sovereIgnLy, represenLs u techne wI L IouL end. TII s Is
wIuL our L II nkI ng does noL know Iow Lo deuI wI L I (excepL Lo con-
IIne IL In "urL," Ior beLLer or worse) und wIuL In every LecInoI ogy
creuLes Ieur I n our L II nkI ng. We wI I I noL Iuve responded Lo LIe
quesLI on oI wur, excepL by meuns oI ever more wur, unL I I we Iuve
crossed LIrougI LIIs probI emuLI c IIeId.
Ho w |Is one| Lo L II nk wI L IouL end, wI L IouL I I nI sII ng, wI L IouL
sovereI gnL y-und, In LIIs, wI L IouL resIgnIng oneseII Lo u weuk, I n-
sL rumenL uI , und sIuvIsIIy IumunI sL L II nkI ng oI LIe I uw (undJor
"communI cuL I on, " "jusLIce," LIe " I ndI vI duuI , " LIe " c o mmunI L y " -
uI I oI wII c I ure concepLs LIuL ure debI I I LuLed InsoIur us LIere Ius
been no response Lo LIIs quesLIon)?
L Is noL suIIIcIenL, Iowever, Lo usk LIe quesLIon In LIIs wuy. Even
IL II Is wI L IouL reuson, end, or IIgure, IL Is cIeurIy LIe cuse LIuL LIe
"gIobuI (dIs)order" Ius beII nd IL uII LIe eIIecLIveness oI wIuL we cuII
"pIuneLury LecInoI ogy" und "worI d economy": LIe doubI e sIgn oI u
sIngIe neLwork oI LIe recIprocILy oI cuuses und eIIecLs, oI LIe cI rcu-
IurILy oI ends und meuns. n IucL, LIIs neLwork or order Is wIuL Is
wI L IouL -end [scns-jin], buL wI LIouL-end I n Lerms oI mI I I I ons oI doI -
Iurs und yen, I n Lerms oI mI I I I ons oI LIerms, kI I owuLLs, opL I cuI
IIbers, megubyLes. I LIe wor I d Is u wor I d Loduy, LIen IL Is prI murI I y
u wor I d uccordI ng Lo LIIs doubI e sI gn. eL us cuII LIIs ecotechnics.
L Is remurkubI e LIuL LIe counL r y wII c I Ius LIus Iur been LIe
symboI oI L r I umpIunL ecoLecInIcs uIso concenLruLes wI L II n ILseII
LIe IIgure oI LIe sovereIgn SLuLe (supporLed by LIe urcIe-Iuw oI ILs
I ounduLI on und by LIe Iegemony oI ILs domI nuL I on) und LIe IIgure
oI LIe Iuw (presenL In ILs IounduLI on, und LIougIL Lo sLrucLure "cI vI I
socIeLy"). TIe SovIeL wor I d wus supposed Lo Iuve represenLed LIe
revoI uLI on LIuL boLI reverses und goes beyond LIIs LrI pI e deLermI -
nuLI on, resLorIng u socI uI -Iumun uhole In ILseII us end. n IucL, LIIs
wor I d wus noL LIe wor I d oI LIe SLuLe, or Iuw, or ecoLecInIcs, buL u
puI nI uI I y conL orL ed I mI L uL I on oI LIe LIree und LIeI r vurIous reIu-
LIons, puL Lo LIe servIce oI LIe pure upproprI uLI on oI power. BuL IL
Is no Iess remurkubIe LIuL LIese Lwo enLILIes sIured, In LIeIr dIIIer-
ence und opposI LI on (I n LIe " Co I d Wur " oI Lwo SovereIgns I I xed or
Irozen In dIIIerenL wuys), us u kI nd oI usympLoLe or c ommon I I ne oI
IIIgIL, someL II ng LIuL one wouI d Iuve Lo cuII sovereIgnLy wI L IouL
sovereIgnLy, Lo LIe exLenL LIuL LIIs wor d und ILs scIemu remuI n I n-
1q
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1
evILubIe: LIuL Is, LIe supreme domI nuL I on oI wIuL wouI d neI LIer
Iuve LIe brIIIIunce [eclct] oI orI gI n nor LIe gIory oI uccompI I sImenL
In u sovereIgn presence; uI L IougI LIere wus no Go d , no Iero, no
genIus, LIere remuI ned LIe I ogI c oI LIe subjecL oI excepLI on, LIe
subjecL wI L IouL LIe I uw oI ILs own Iuw, und LIere remuI ned un exe-
cuL I on, un IndeIInILe und unendI ng II nI sII ng oI LIIs IogIc. EcoLecI-
nIcs mI gIL be LIe IusL IIgure wI L IouL IIgure oI LIe worId' s sI ow drIIL
I nL o sovereIgnLy wI L IouL sovereIgnLy, I nL o I I nI sII ng wI L IouL end.
n LIIs wuy, L Ien, LIe recenL wur mI gIL Iuve been u powerI uI
resurgence oI sovereIgnLy (wIIIe perIups wurnI ng us Lo expecL oL I-
ers) und, uL LIe sume L I me, LIe openI ng oI u pussuge LIuL Ieuds Lo
LIe regIme (or reIgn?) oI sovereIgnLy wI L IouL sovereIgnLy, u pussuge
LIuL opens up I rom InsIde wur ILseII. BuL jusL us LIere Ius been un
uLLempL Lo skI rL LIe Issue oI wur by mukI ng IL I nL o u poIIce ucLI on,
LIere Ius been un uLLempL Lo uvoI d LIe necessury coupI I ng oI vI c-
Lory und deIeuL by mukI ng IL u muLLer oI negoLIuLIon, wIere wIuL Is
uL sLuke Is "I nL ernuL I onuI I uw" us LIe guurunLor oI ecoLecInIcs. AL
LIe sume L I me, uI I sIdes Iuve reIused Lo counL LIe deud In u cIeur
wuy (Lo suy noL II ng oI LIe dI sL I ncL I on beLween deud soIdIers und
deud cI vI I I uns): gI ven LIe pI uusI bI e reporL oI uL IeusL one deud (In
LIe No r L I, In LIe WesL . . . ) Ior every IIve Iundr ed deud (I n LIe
SouL I, In LIe Eus L . . . ), IL seems LIuL vI cLory und deIeuL ure grow-
I ng cIoser LogeLIer, Lerms wII cI LIemseIves ure us unLenubIe us LIey
ure InsIgnIIIcunL. I nuI I y, us everyone knows perIecLIy weI I , LIe Lrue
reuI m oI LIIs wur Ius reveuIed ILseII Lo be LIuL oI ecoLecInIcuI wur,
or conI ronL uL I on, u desLrucLI ve und upproprI uLI ve muneuverI ng
wI L IouL sovereIgn brI I I I unce. SucI wur yIeI ds noL II ng Lo reuI wur
us Iur us power und LIe LecInoIogIes oI ruI nuL I on und conquesL ure
concerned.
TIe cIuss sLruggIe wus supposed Lo be LIe oLIer oI boL I sovereIgn
wur und ecoLecInIcuI wur. I one cIuIms LIuL LIIs sLruggIe Is no Ionger
LukI ng pIuce, or LIuL IL no Ionger Ius u pIuce In wII cI Lo Luke pIuce,
LIen one Is uIso suyIng LIuL LIere Is no conIIIcL ouLsIde oI sovereIgn
wur (cuIIed u "poI I ce |ucLI on|, " In order Lo be denI ed uL LIe very
poI nL oI ILs reLurn) und ecoLecInIcuI wur (wII cI Is cuIIed "compeLI -
LIon"). NowIere, LIen, Is LIere wur, und everywIere LIere Is LeurIng
upurL, L rumpI I ng down, cI vI I I zed vI oI ence, und LIe bruLuI ILIes LIuL
ure mere curIcuLures oI uncIenL, sucred vIoIence. Wur Is nowIere und
everywIere, reIuLed Lo uny end wI L IouL uny Ionger beI ng reIuLed Lo
ILseII us supreme end. n u sense, LIen, ecoLecInIcs Is uIso pure
techne, LIe pure techne oI nonsovereIgnLy: buL becuuse LIe empL y
pIuce oI sovereIgnLy remuIns occupI ed, encumbered by LIIs very
voI d, ecoLecInIcs does noL uLLuIn Lowurd unoLIer L II nkI ng oI LIe end
wI L IouL end. By wuy oI LIe udmI nI sLruLI on und conLroI oI "compe-
L I L I on, " ecoLecInIcs subsLILuLes crusII ng bIows Ior sovereIgnLy.
r om now on, LIen, ecoLecInIcs I s LIe nume Ior "poI I LI cuI econ-
omy, " becuuse uccordI ng Lo our L II nkI ng, II LIere Is no sovereIgnLy,
LIen LIere cun be no poI I LI cs. TIere Is no Ionger uny polis sInce LIe
oilos Is everywIere: LIe IousekeepI ng oI LIe wor I d us u sI ngI e
IouseIoI d, wI L I "IumunI L y" Ior u moLIer, "I uw" Ior u IuLIer.
BuL IL Is cIeurIy LIe cuse LIuL LIIs bI g I umI I y does noL Iuve u Iu-
LIer or u moLIer, und LIuL, In LIe end, IL Is no more oilos LIun po-
lis, (ecoIogy: WIuL semunLIcs, wIuL spuce, wIuL wor I d cun IL oIIer?)
TII s sI LuuLI on cun be summurI zed I n LIree poI nLs:
1. L I mpI I es u LrI pI e dI vI sI on LIuL Is In no wuy u sIurIng oI sover-
eIgnLIes: LIe dI vI sI on oI LIe rI cI I rom LIe poor; LIe dI vI sI on oI LIe
InLegruLed I rom LIe excI uded; und LIe dI vI sI on oI LIe No r L I I rom
LIe SouL I. TIese LIree dI mensI ons do noL overIup us eusIIy us Is
someLImes presenLed, buL LIIs Is noL LIe pIuce Lo speuk Lo LIuL. L Is
soIeIy u muLLer, Iere, oI empIusI zI ng LIuL LIese dI vI sI ons I mpI y
sLruggIes und conIIIcLs oI greuL vIoIence, wIere every consI deruLI on
oI sovereIgnLy I s I n vuI n und uIwuys borrowed. n uddI L I on, I I LIe
scIemu oI "cIuss sLruggIe" II des I LseI I (und undoubL edI y, I L I s no
Ionger even udmIssIbI e, uL IeusL In u cerLuIn IIsLorIcuI dI mensI on),
LIen noL II ng remuIns Lo prevenL vIoIence I rom beI ng cumouIIuged
us ecoLecInIcuI compeL I L I on. Or ruLIer, noL II ng remuIns excepL Ior
bure jusLIce: BuL wIuL Is u jusLIce LIuL wouI d noL be LIe telos oI u
IIsLory, or LIe prI vI I ege oI u sovereIgnLy? L Is necessury, LIen, Lo
Ieurn Iow Lo L II nk LIIs empL y pIuce. . . .
z. EcoLecInI cs dumuges, weukens, und upseLs LIe I uncL I onI ng oI
16
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1;
uI I sovereIgnLIes, excepL Ior LIose LIuL I n reuIILy coI ncI de wI L I
ecoLecInI cuI power. NuL I onuI I sms, wIeLIer LIey be oI un uncI enL
IIneuge or oI recenL exLrucLIon, deIIver LIemseIves up Lo LIe puI nI uI
I mI LuLI ons oI u mummI I I ed sovereIgnLy. TIe currenL spuce oI sov-
ereIgnLy, wII c I cunnoL be recuperuLed by uny cosmopoI I L unI sm
(becuuse cosmopoI I L unI sm Is uIwuys LIe dreumI I ke opposILe oI LIe
sovereIgn order), wII cI Is uIso LIe spuce oI LIe IInIsIIng oI I denLI Ly
In generuI, Is soIeIy u dI sLended spuce IuI I oI IoIes, wIere noL II ng
cun come Lo presence.
. By wuy oI IypocrI sy und denI uI , buL noL wI L IouL sIgnIIIcunce
Ior uII LIuL, ecoLecInIcs gIves vuIue Lo u prI mucy oI LIe combI nu-
Lory over LIe dI scrI mI nuL I ng, oI LIe conLrucLuuI over LIe II erurcII -
cuI , oI LIe neLwork over LIe orgunI sm, und more generuIIy, oI LIe
spuLIuI over LIe II sLorI cuI . A n d wI L II n LIe spuLIuI, I L gIves prI orI L y
Lo u muI L I pI e und deI ocuI Ized spuLIuIILy over u unI L ury und concen-
LruLed spuLIuIILy. TIese moLI Is compose un epocIuI necessILy (LIe
eIIecLs oI LIIs mode ure secondury, und do noL I n uny wuy I nvuI I -
duLe LIIs necessILy). Toduy, L IougIL pusses L IrougI LIese moLI Is,
InsoIur us sucI L II nkI ng Is oI LIIs worI d, LIuL Is, oI LIIs gIobuI wor I d
wI L IouL sovereIgnLy. BuL LIIs Is I ndeed wIy LIe enLIre dI III cuI Ly oI
LIIs L II nkI ng Is concenLruLed Iere. One mI gIL gIve u generuI Ior-
muI uL I on oI I L I n LIe I oI I owI ng wuy: H o w |do we| noL conIuse LIIs
spucIng oI LIe wor I d wI L I eILIer LIe spreudI ng ouL oI sIgnIIIcuLIons
or u gupI ng open oI meunI ng | OT| ?
EI L Ier sIgnIIIcuLIons ure spreud ouL und dI I uL ed Lo LIe poI nL oI
InsIgnIIIcunce I n LIe IdeoIogIes oI consensus, dIuIogue, c ommunI -
cuLI on, or vuIues (wIere sovereIgnLy Is LIougIL Lo be noL II ng buL u
useIess memory) , or u surgery wI L IouL suLures IoI ds open LIe gup-
I ng wound oI meunI ng, I n LIe sLyIe oI u nI II I I s m or uesLIeLIcIzIng
mI nI muI I s m (wIere LIe gupI ng wound ILseII emILs u bIuck gI ow oI
IosL sovereI gnL y) -L II s noL uny Iess I deoI ogI cuI . TIere ure no I m-
provemenLs mude eILIer wI L I regurd Lo jusLIce or IdenLILy.
n order Lo L II nk LIe spccin oI LIe wor I d (oI ecoLecInIcs), LIe
end oI sovereIgnLy musL be Iuced Ieud-on, wI L IouL reserve, InsLeud
oI mukI ng IL seem us LIougI IL Ius been dIsposed oI or subI I muLed.
TII s spucI ng oI LIe wor I d is itselj the empt plcce oI sovereI gnLy
TIuL Is, I L I s LIe empL y pIuce oI LIe end, LIe empL y pIuce oI LIe
c ommon good, und LIe empL y pIuce oI LIe c ommon us u good. Or
I I you I I ke, IL Is the empt plcce oj justice (uL LIe I ounduLI on oI LIe
Iuw). WI e n LIe pIuce oI sovereIgnLy Is empLy, neILIer LIe essence
oI LIe "good, " nor LIuL oI LIe " common, " nor LIe c ommon essence
oI LIe good cun be ussIgned uny Ionger. Moreover, no essence uL uII
cun be ussIgned uny Ionger, no IInIsIIng uL uII: onI y exIsLences ure II-
nILe |or IInIsIed|; LIIs Is uIso wIuL LIe spucIng oI LIe wor I d meuns.
Ho w Lo L II nk wI L IouL u sovereIgn End? TII s I s LIe cIuIIenge oI
ecoLecInIcs, u cIuIIenge LIuL up unL I I now Ius noL been Luken up,
buL wII cI LIIs wur Is perIups IInuIIy begI nnI ng Lo muke ubsoIuLeIy
urgenL. n order Lo begI n Lo respond, IL Is necessury Lo begI n uguIn
wI L I LIe I oI I owI ng: ecoLecInIcs wusIes ouL or dIssoIves sovereIgnLy
(or ruLIer, LIe IuLLer I mpI odes I n LIe I ormer). TIe pr obI em con-
cerns LIe empLy pIuce cs such, und Is noL ubouL wuI L I ng Ior some re-
L urn or subsLILuLIon. TIere wI I I be no more sovereIgnLy; LIIs Is wIuL
II sLory meuns Loduy. TIe wur, uI ong wI L I ecoLecInIcs, IeLs us see
LIe pIuce oI LIe sovereIgn SLuLe us empL y I rom now on.
TII s Is uIso wIy ecoLecInIcs ILseII cun s ummon LIe IIgure oI sov-
ereIgnLy I nLo LIIs empL y pIuce. TIus LIe gupI ng open oI LIe I oun-
duLI on oI Iuw, und uII LIe quesLIons revoI vIng uround excepLIon und
excess, cun be IorgoLLen In LIe sovereIgn brI I I I unce LIuL LIe power
properIy wI L IouL power, wII cI poIIces LIe wor I d order und wuLcIes
over LIe prIce oI prI mury resources, borrows I n LIe LI me oI wur. Or
eIse, Lo puL IL In unoLIer wuy, LIe empL y pIuce oI LIe one wIo re-
cILes un epI c LuIe Is now occupI ed by LIe sovereIgn IIgure oI LIe
propIeL oI LIe moruI uw (wIo cun, uL LIe sume LI me, muke I I m-
seII I nLo LIe nurruLor oI smuIIer, more IumI I I ur epIcs, I I ke "our boys
I r om Texus"). Over und uguInsL LIIs, unoLIer II gure uLLempLed Lo
reIgnILe LIe Ar ub epIc, wI L I LIe soIe uI m oI L ukI ng purL I n LIe
ecoLecInIcuI power oI LIe musLers oI LIe worI d. . . . n boLI cuses, I L
wus necessury LIuL LIe modeIs, LIe IdenLIIIubIe exumpIes oI LIe sov-
ereIgn uIIure, guurunLee LIe besL presumpL I on oI jusLIce, or oI peo-
pIe [ou de peuple].
18 Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1q
TIe empLy pIuce oI SovereIgnLy wI I I gIve rIse Lo more or Iess suc-
cessIuI subsLILuLIons oI LIIs Lype, LIuL Is, unL I I LIIs pIuce cs such Is
submI LLed Lo quesLI onI ng und deconsLrucLI on, LIuL Is, unL I I we Iuve
usked LIe quesL I on ubouL LIe end wI L IouL reserve, LIe quesL I on
ubouL LIe exL reme-I I mI L oI I I nI sII ng und I denLI Iy, wII c I I s I r om
now on LIe quesLI on oI u nonsoterein mecnin us the ter sense oj
the humcnit oj humcns cnd the lobclness oj the uorld.
TIe reIuLIon oI u nonsovereIgn meunI ng, wII cI ue cre Lo InvenL,
Lo LIe urcIuI sm oI SovereIgnLy Is undoubL edI y sLI I I more compI ex
LIun LIIs. TIe very spucIng oI LIe wor I d, LIe openI ng oI LIe dI scon-
LInuous, poI ymorpIous, dIspersed, dIsIocuLed spudo-LemporuIILy pre-
senLs someLII ng oI ILseII In SovereIgnLy: jusL LIIs sIde oI ILs IIgures
und LIeIr urgenL [imperieuses], euger presences. L Ius uIso uIwuys,
und muybe I rom LIe very sLurL, exposed ILseII us spucIng, LIuL Is, us
LIe umpI I L ude (oI u brII I Iunce), us LIe eIevuLIon (oI u power), us LIe
dI sLuncI ng (oI un exumpIe), us LIe pIuce (oI un uppeurIng). n L urn,
LIIs Is wIy LIese sume moLIIs cun serve LIe urdenL und nosLuIgIc re-
cuI I I ng oI sovereIgn II gures, wur prI mury umong LIem, or uccess, Lo
LIe spucIousness oI LIe spucIng, Lo LIe (dIs)IocuIILy oI LIe pIuce, un
uccess we musL InvenL. (or exumpIe, und Lo be quILe brIeI: LIe sume
process cuIIs on Amer I c u und ArubI u, und exposes LIe pIeces oI u
dIverse und mI xed- up reuIILy, none oI wII c I I s sI mpI y "Arub" or
"AmerI cun, " und wII cI compose un errunL, sLrunge "gIobuIness.")
W I L I u cerLuI n obscurI Ly und umbI vuI ence, LIe gI obuI wor I d oI
ecoLecInIcs I LseI I deII nI LI veI y proposes LIe L IorougIgoI ng execu-
L I on oI sovereIgnLy. " TIor ougIgoI ng" Iere meuns: goI ng Lo LIe ex-
Lreme, oI ILs I ogI c und movemenL . Un L I I our own LI mes (buL LIIs
couI d conL I nue . . . ), LIIs exLreme I I mI L uIwuys IInIsIed I LseI I by
meuns oI wur, I n one wuy or unoLIer. BuL I rom now on, I L uppeurs
-L I I s I s our II s L or y-L IuL LIe exLreme poI nL oI sovereIgnLy sI Lu-
uLes ILseII sLIII IurLIer ouL, und LIuL LIe dI srupL I on oI LIe wor I d sIg-
nIIIes Ior us LIuL IL Is noL possIbIe noL Lo go uny IurLIer. Wur ILseII,
wII cI supposes LIuL we cun deLucI LIe upproprI uLI on oI weuI LI und
power I rom IL, does noL go uny IurLIer LIun LIe brI I I I unce oI deuLI
und desLrucLI on (und uILer everyLII ng eIse, LIe vorucIous upproprI -
uLI on LIuL wur I s-uI wuys uI r eudy-muy noL be so exLrInsIc Lo LIe
sovereIgn wor k oI deuLI us IL uppeurs). ( Or eIse, II IL Is necessury Lo
go IurLIer wI L I LIe sume I ogI c, I n c onL I nuI ng wur beyond ILseII,
und deuLI beyond deuLI, LIere Is LIe nI gIL und Iog oI exLermI nu-
LIon. ) DeuL I, or I denLI I I cuLI on In u IIgure oI (LIe) deuLI (wII cI Is
LIe enLI reLy oI wIuL we cuI I sccrijice, oI wII c I wur Is u supreme
I orm), provIdes LIe uI m oI sovereIgnLy, wII cI upproprIuLes ILseII I n
order Lo come Lo un end.
n doI ng LIIs, Iowever, IL Ius noL gone Iur enougI. BeIng-exposed-
Lo-deuLI, II LIIs Is Indeed LIe " Iumun condI LI on" (IInILe exIsLence), Is
noL u "beIng-yr-deuLI" us desLIny, decIsIon, und supreme IInIsIIng
oII. TIe IInIsIIng oI IInILe exIsLence Is un unI I nI sII ng [injinition],
wII c I everywIere overIIows LIe deuLI LIuL conLuIns IL. TIe I n- I I -
nILe meunI ng oI I I nI Le exIsLence I mpI I es un exposILIon wI L IouL br I I -
IIunce: dIscreeL, reserved, dI sconLI nuous, und spucIous, uccordI ngI y
sucI exIsLence does not eten recch the point oj the soterein extremit.
"Sotereint is NDTHING": BuLuIIIe exIuusLed II mseI I In L ryI ng
Lo suy LIIs, buL unyone wouI d exIuusL LIemseIves In (noL) suyI ng
LIIs. WIu L LIIs senLence "meuns" cuLs oI I one's breuLI ( do noL re-
uIIy wunL Lo go I nL o IL IurLIer Iere), buL IL mosL cerLuInIy does noL
meun LIuL sovereIgnLy Is deuL I-quI L e Lo LIe conLrury.
wI I I onI y suy LIe I oI I owI ng: LIe sovereIgn exLremI L y sIgnIIIes
LIuL LIere Is noL II ng Lo "uLLuIn"; LIere Is no "uccompI I sImenL " or
"ucIIevemenL"; LIere Is no "I I nI sII ng"; or ruLIer, jor c jinite jinish-
in, the execution is uithout end. TIe gI obuI wor I d Is uIso LIe IInILe
wor I d, LIe wor I d oI II nI Lude. I nI L ude I s spucI ng. SpucI ng "exe-
cuLes" I LseI I I nI I nI LeI y. No L LIuL LIIs meuns endI essIy begI nnI ng
uguIn, buL LIuL mecnin no Ionger occurs In u LoLuI IzuLIon und pre-
senLuLIon (oI u IInILe und uccompI I sIed I nII nI Le). Me unI ng Is In noL
I I nI sII ng wI L I meunI ng.
WI L I I n LIIs "noL II ng, " LIere I s no repressIon or subI I muL I on oI
LIe vI oI enL bursL oI sovereIgnLy: never Lo be IInIsIed wI L I, LIere Is
un expIosIon und vIoIence |LIuL comes| I rom beyond wur, LIe IIgIL-
nI ng oI peuce. (Jeun-CIrI sL opIe BuI I I y suggesLed Lo me LIuL II-
nuI I y render LIe eugIes oI wur us peuceIuI.)
n u sense, LIIs Is technolo ILseII. WIu L Is cuIIed "LecInoIogy, "
or uguIn wIuL Iuve cuIIed ecoLecInIcs (I n ILseII, wII cI wouI d be
1qo
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1q1
IIberuLed I rom cupILuI), Is LIe techne oj IInILude or spucIng. TII s Is
no Ionger LIe LecInI cuI meuns Lo un End, buL techne ILseII us I n- I I -
nI Le end, techne us LIe exIsLence oI IInILe exIsLence I n uI I ILs br I I -
IIunce und vIoI ence. L Is "LecInoI ogy" ILseII, buL IL Is u LecInoI ogy
LIuL, oI ILseII, ruIses LIe necessILy oI upproprI uL I ng ILs meunI ng
uguInsL LIe upproprI uLI ve IogIc oI cupILuI und uguInsL LIe sovereIgn
IogIc oI wur.
n LIe end, LIe quesL I on Is noL wIeLIer wur Is " bud. " Wur Is
" bud, " und IL Is ubsoI uLeI y so, especIuIIy wIen LIe spuce wIere IL
depIoys ILseII no Ionger permI Ls LIe gIorIous und powerI uI presen-
LuLI on oI ILs II gure (us LIe II gure oI LIe deuLI oI uII II gures). WI e n
LIIs spuce . . . consLILuLes spucIng, LIe InLersecLIon oI sInguIurILIes,
und noL LIe conI ronLuLI on oI Iuces or musks.
L Is Iere LIuL our II sLory comes upon ILs greuLesL dunger und ILs
greuLesL opporLunI Ly. L Is Iere In LIe sLI I I poorI y perceIved I mperu-
LIve oI u wor I d LIuL I s I n LIe process oI creuLI ng ILs gI obuI condI -
LIons, I n order Lo render unLenubIe und cuLusLropIIc LIe sIurI ng oI
rIcIes und poverLy, oI I nLegruLI on und excI usI on, oI every No r L I
und SouL I. Becuuse LIIs wor I d I s LIe wor I d oI spucIng, noL oI II n-
I sII ng; becuuse IL Is LIe wor I d oI LIe I nLersecLI on oI sI nguI urI LI es,
noL oI LIe I denLI II cuLI on oI IIgures (oI I ndI vI duuI s or oI musses) ; be-
cuuse I L I s LIe wor I d I n wII cI, I n sIorL, sovereIgnLy I s exIuusLI ng
ILseI I (und, uL LIe sume L I me, resI sLI ng LIIs wI L I gesLures LIuL ure
boL I LerrI I yI ng und puL IeL I c) -I or uI I oI LIese reusons, und I r om
wI L II n LIe very IeurL oI LIe upproprIuLIve power oI cupILuI (wII cI
ILseII sLurLed sovereIgnLy's decIIne), ecoLecInIcs obscureIy IndIcuLes
LIe techne oI u wor I d wIere sovereIgnLy Is noL II ng. TII s wouI d be u
wor I d wIere spucI ng couI d noL be conIused wI L I spreudIng ouL or
wI L I gupI ng open, buL onI y wI L I "I nLersecLI on. "
TII s Is noL gIven us u desLIny; IL Is oIIered us u IIsLory. As techne,
ecoLecInIcs Is sLI I I Lo be I I beruLed I rom "LecInoI ogy, " "economy, "
und "sovereIgnLy." AL IeusL we ure begI nnI ng Lo Ieurn wIuL LIe com-
bI ned Iesson oI wur, Iuw, und "LecInoIogIcuI cI vI I I zuLI on" Is uILer uI I ;
we Iuve Ieurned LIuL LIe orI enLuLI on, LIeme, und moLI ve oI LIIs I I b-
eruLIon ure uI I conLuI ned In LIe I oI I owI ng (provIsIonuI) sLuLemenL:
sovereIgnLy I s noL II ng. As u consequence oI IuvI ng I eurned LIIs
muc I, LIe muI L I pI I cI L y oI "peopIes" mI gIL be ubIe Lo uvoI d beI ng
enguI Ied I n LIe Iegemony oI one soIe peopI e, or I n LIe LurbuI ence
oI LIe desIre Lo cI uI m LIe sovereIgn dI sL I ncL I on Ior everyone. As
sucI, IL mI gIL become possIbIe Lo L II nk wIuL Ius noL been L II nk-
ubIe Lo LIIs poI nL : u poI I L I cuI urLI cuI uLI on oI LIe wor I d LIuL escupes
I rom LIese Lwo dungers (und Ior wII cI LIe modeI oI LIe "ederu-
L I on" Is noL uvuIIubIe). TIereI ore, I uw couI d expose I LseI I Lo LIe
noL II ng oI ILs own I ounduL I on.
L wouI d be u muLLer, LIereIore, oI goI ng Lo LIe exLreme wI L IouL
un exumpIe, wII cI beIongs Lo LIe "noL II ng" oI sovereIgnLy. Ho w Lo
L II nk, Iow Lo ucL, Iow Lo do wI L IouL u modeI? TII s Is LIe quesLI on
LIuL Is uvoIded, und yeL posed, by LIe enLIre LrudI LI on oI sovereIgnLy
Onc e "revoI uLI on" Ius uIso been exposed Lo LIe nothin oI sover-
eIgnLy, one Ius Lo Luke serIousIy Iow LIe execuLIon wI L IouL modeI
or end muy be LIe essence oI techne us u retolutioncr essence.
WIu L II eucI people (LIIs wouI d be LIe revoI uLIonury word), eucI
sinulcr intersection (LIIs wouI d be LIe ecoLecInIcuI word), subsLI-
LuLed u wIoI I y oLIer IogIc Ior LIe IogIc oI LIe sovereIgn (und uIwuys
sucrIIIcIuI) modeI , noL LIe I nvenL I on or LIe muI L I pI I cuL I on oI mod-
e I s -I r o m wII c I wurs wouI d I mmedI uL eI y I o I I o w-b u L u I ogI c
wIere sInguIurILy wus ubsoIuLe und wI L IouL un exumpIe uL LIe sume
LIme? WIere eucI one wouI d be "one" onI y In noL beIng IdenLIIIubIe
In u IIgure, buL I n-I I nI LeI y dI sLI ncL L IrougI spucIng, cnd I n-I I nI LeI y
subsLILuLubIe LIrougI LIe InLersecLIon LIuL doubIes spucIng. To pur-
ody HegeI , LIIs couI d be cuIIed gI obuI |or worI d| sInguIurILy, wII cI
wouI d Iuve LIe rI gIL wI L IouL rI gIL Lo suy LIe I uw oI LIe wor I d.
Pecce comes uL LIe prIce oI ubundoned sovereIgnLy, LIe prIce oI LIuL
wII cI goes beyond wur, InsLeud oI uIwuys remuI nI ng wI L II n IL.
um weI I uwure oI LIe IucL LIuL uI I oI LIIs does noL IeL ILseI I be
conceIved oI eusIIy. L Is noL Ior us, noL Ior our L II nkI ng, modeI ed us
IL Is on LIe sovereIgn modeI ; IL Is noL Ior our wurI I ke L II nkI ng. BuL
LIIs Is cerLuI n: LIere Is noL II ng on LIe Ior I zon excepL Ior un un-
Ieurd-oI, InconceIvubIe L us k-or wur. A I I L II nkI ng LIuL sLI I I wunLs
Lo conceIve oI un "order," u "worI d, " u "communI cuL I on, " u "peuce"
1qz
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1q
Is ubsoIuLeIy nuI ve-wIen IL Is noL sI mpI y IypocrI LI cuI . To uppro-
prIuLe one's own LI me Ius uIwuys been unIeurd oI. BuL everyone cun
cIeurIy see LIuL IL Is LI me: LIe dIsusLer oI sovereIgnLy Is suIIIcIenLIy
spreud ouL, und suIIIcIenLIy c ommon, Lo sLeuI unyone's I nnocence.
PosLscrIpL, Mu y 1qq1
n LIe mI dsL oI LIe generuI cI I muLe oI "IumunI L urI un uI d" seL up
us LIe perverse gume LIuL Is beI ng pI uyed by wur's proLugonI sLs,
"sovereIgnLy" Is more presenL L Iun ever. (Does Suddum Iuve LIe
rI gIL Lo IL? W I o grunLs I L Lo II m? WIu L I s Ie doI ng wI L I IL? A n d
wIuL ubouL LIe Kurds? A n d LIe Turks? A n d wIuL I s u border? WIuL
Is poIIce Iorce? Or eIse, u IILLIe IurLIer uwuy, wIuL ubouL nucIeur cu-
pucI Ly us AIgerIu' s sovereIgn concern? Or LIe uccord beLween LIe
US S R und LIe eIgIL repubI I cs Lo reguIuLe LIe Lense pI uy oI LIeI r
sovereIgnLIes, I n spILe oI everyLIIng eIse? Or wIuL ubouL KuwuI L re-
L urned Lo sovereIgnLy Ior purposes oI u bruLuI seLLIIng oI uccounLs
cnd Ior LIe sIumeIess recruI LmenL oI I I I pI no und EgypL I un mun-
power? WIu L Is LIe cIurucLer oI BungIudesI's sovereIgnLy, wIere u
cycIone Ius jusL mude IIve mI I I I on peopI e IomeIess? und so IorLI.)
TIe proI I I eruLI on oI LIese umbI guI L I e s -wII c I ure, I n IucL, LIose
oI LIe end oI sovereI gnL y-mukes me uIruI d oI beI ng mI sunder-
sLood II suy LIuL we sIouI d go (or LIuL we uIreudy ure) beyond ILs
modeI und ILs order. By suyIng LIIs, do noL meun Ior u InsLunL Lo
demund LIuL u Kur d, un AI gerI un, u GeorgI un, or, Ior LIuL muLLer,
un Amer I c un sIouI d ubundon LIe I denL I L y und I ndependence Ior
wII c I LIese proper numes I uncL I on us u sIgn. BuL wIuL wI I I uIwuys
cuuse u probI em Is LIe quesLI on oI exucLIy wII c I sin Is oI concern
Iere. I sovereIgnLy Ius exIuusLed ILs meunI ng, und II IL Is every-
wIere ucknowI edged LIuL I L I s I n doubL , under Iunded-or empL y
-L I e n IL Is necessury Lo reconsIder LIe nuLure und I uncLI on oI sucI
u sIgn. or exumpIe, wIuL Is u people] TIe ruquI "peopIe," LIe Cor -
sIcun "peopI e, " LIe CII cuno "peopI e, " LIe Z u I u "peopI e, " LIe Ser-
bI un "peopIe," LIe Jupunese "peopIe": s IL uIwuys LIe sume concepL?
I LIere Is u "concepL, " LIen does IL I mpI y "sovereIgnLy"? A n d wIuL
ubouL LIe "peopI e" oI Hu r I e m, or LIose oI LIe sIunLy Lowns I n
MexI co, or LIe popuI uLI ons oI ndI u or CII nu? WIu L I s un "eLInI c-
ILy"? WIu L Is u reIIgIous communI L y? Ar e LIe SIIILes u peopIe? A n d
LIe Hebrews undJor srueIIs undJor Jews? A n d LIe "ex-EusL Ger -
muns"? WIu L ure LIe reIuLIons oI u "sovereIgn" peopI e Lo u "popu-
Iur" peopIe? WIere Lo pIuce LrIbes, cIuns, broLIerIoods? A n d Iuve
Lo InsIsL on LIIs, wIere Lo pIuce cIusses, IeveIs, murgI ns, mI I I eus, so-
cI uI neLworks? TIe uI mosL-monsLrous muI L I pI I cuL I on oI LIese ques-
LIons I s LIe murk oI LIe probI em ubouL wII cI um speukIng. Ne I -
LIer LIe sovereIgn modeI , nor LIe uuL IorI L y oI LIe I uw uddresses
LIIs probI em; LIey onI y deny IL. nsLeud, wIuL Is oI concern Iere Is
lobclness us u proI I IeruLI on oI "I denL I L y" wI L IouL end or mo d e I -
und IL muy even be u muLLer oI "technolo" cs the techne oj c neu
horizon oj unhecrd-oj identities.
EuIogy Ior LIe MIe
(Ior Scrcjeto, Mcrch ipps)
"Surujevo" Ius become the expressIon oI u compI eLe sysLem Ior
LIe reducL I on Lo I denLI Ly.
1
L Is no I onger u sIgn on LIe wuy, or u
sIgn In II sLory; IL Is no Ionger u possIbIe desLI nuLI on Ior busIness
LrIps or I I I I cI L rendezvous, or LIe uncerL uI n spuce Ior u IorLuI Lous
meeLI ng or dIsLrucLed wunderI ng. L Is u dImensIon-Iess poI nL on u
dIugrum oI sovereIgnLy, un orLIo-normuLI ve guuge on u buIIIsLIc und
poI I LI cuI compuLer, u LurgeL Irozen In u LeIescopIc sIgIL, und IL Is LIe
very I I gure oI LIe exucLILude oI L ukI ng uI m, LIe pure L ukI ng uI m oI
un essence. SomewIere, u pure SubjecL decIures LIuL IL Is LIe Peo-
pIe, LIe uw, LIe SLuLe, LIe denLI Ly I n LIe nume oI wII cI "Suru-
jevo" musL be I denLI II ed pureI y und sI mpI y us u LurgeL.
Surujevo Is sI mpI y u nume or u sIgn LIuL grubs our uL L enL I on
[meme plus un nom, un ecritecu qu'on nous cloue sur les eux], so LIuL
LIere wI I I no Ionger be u Surujevun Iundscupe, or LrIps Lo Surujevo,
buL onI y u pure und nuked IdenLILy. L Is sucI so LIuL noL II ng eIse
wI I I geL mI xed I n wI L I IL, und so LIuL we do noL geL mI xed up I n IL,
LIuL Is, we oLIer cosmopoI I L un Europeuns.
A cI Ly does noL Iuve Lo be I denLI II ed by unyL II ng oLIer LIun u
nume, wII cI IndIcuLes u pIuce, LIe pIuce oI u melee
:
, u crossIng und
u sLop, u knoL und un excIunge, u guLIerIng, u dI sj uncLI on, u cI rcu-
I uLI on, u rudI uLI ng [un etoilement]. TIe nume oI u cILy, IIke LIuL oI u
:(
1q6
Eulo jor the Melee
Eulo jor the Melee
1q;
counLry, IIke LIuL oI u peopIe und u person, musL uIwuys be LIe nume
oI no one, IL musL never be LIe nume oI unyone wIo mI gIL be pre-
senLed in person or in her oun riht |en propre|. TIe "proper nume"
Ius no sIgnIIIcunce [sinijicction], or wIuL LIere Is Lo IL Is noL II ng
more LIun u skeLcI oI u descrI pLI on LIuL Is, by uII rIgILs und In IucL,
I ndeII nI Le. ncIouLe und sLocIusLIc meunI ng: IL Is u mI xLure oI syI-
IubIes sLIrred on LIe brI nk oI u semunLIc I denLI Ly LIuL Is boL I genLIy
und obsLInuLeIy deIerred. As soon us LIe proper nume poInLs Lo [cr-
rcisonne] u presence In person, u sovereIgn SubjecL, LIIs sovereIgn Is
LIreuLened; IL Is encI rcI ed, besIeged. n order Lo IIve In Surujevo,
LIere wus no need Lo IdenLIIy Surujevo. BuL now, LIose wIo dIe In
Surujevo dIe I rom LIe deuLI oI Surujevo itselj, LIey dIe I rom LIe pos-
s I bI I I L y -I mpos e d by g unI I r e -o I I denL I I yI ng some subsLunce or
presence by LIIs nume, u presence meusured by LIe yurdsLIck oI LIe
"nuLI onuI " or LIe "sLuLe," u body-symboI seL up precIseIy In order Lo
creuLe body und symboI wIere LIere Iud onI y been pIuce und pus-
suge. TIose wIo ure exIIed I rom Surujevo ure exIIed I rom LIIs pIuce,
expeIIed by LIIs body. TIey ure exIIed I rom LIe mI x, I rom LIe LIuL
melee LIuL mude up Surujevo, buL wII cI, us u resuIL, mcde noL II ng,
engendered no eo. TIe "proper" nume musL uIwuys serve Lo dIssoIve
LIe eo: LIe IuLLer opens up u meunI ng, u pure source oI meunI ng;
LIe Iormer IndIcuLes u melee, ruIses up u meI ody: Scrcjeto.
Iuve been usked Ior u "euI ogy oI LIe mI unge. "

A n d wouI d
I I ke Lo gIve u euI ogy LIuL Is ILseII " mI xed" [melcne]. TII s Is noL Lo
suy LIuL IL wI I I be u mI xL ure oI euI ogy und bI ume, so us Lo end In u
buI unced uccounL oI proIILs und Iosses. No r I s LIe Ideu Lo deI Iver
u "mI L I guL ed" euI ogy LIuL wouI d evoke un exLreme I or m oI IuII-
IeurLedness, wII cI Is u curIous concepL. n LIe end, IL Is u muLLer
(everyone undersLunds LIuL IL Is LIere; IL Is rI gIL LIere beIore our
eyes; Ior LIe momenL , IL Is wI I I suIIIce Lo know Iow Lo guLIer wIuL
IL Is u quesLI on oI und Iow Lo weI come IL) oI comI ng up uguInsL uI I
sorLs oI wI nds und L I d e s -u n d I L I s quI Le cIeur I n wIuL dI recL I on
LIese ure movI ng. L Is soIeIy u muLLer oI noL gI vI ng unyL II ng uwuy,
eILIer regurdIng I denLI Ly or regurdIng wIuL mIxes I denLI Ly up I n, or
enLungIes I L wI L I, ILs own orI gI n und prI ncI pI e. WIu L I s cuIIed Ior,
LIen, Is u euI ogy mI xed wI L I reserve, u reserve LIuL Is upproprIuLe
II one wunLs Lo uvoI d gI vI ng u euI ogy LIuL ILseII goes so Iur us Lo be-
Lruy ILs objecL by I denL I I yI ng IL Loo weI I . TII s Is wIuL musL be
uvoI ded.
n IucL, IL Ius Lo be suId rIgIL uwuy LIuL LIe mosL jusL und beuuLI-
IuI euIogy oI LIe melcne wouI d be to not hcte to ite it, exucLIy be-
cuuse LIe noLI on |oI LIe melcne] ILseII couI d noL even be dIscerned
or IdenLIIIed. TII s very noLI on presupposes LIe IsoIuLIon oI pure sub-
sLunces, und LIe work oI mI xI ng LIem. L Is un Ideu LIuL Is uL Iome In
LIe IuboruLory. BuL does LIIs sume wuy oI L II nkI ng do jusLIce Lo LIe
Ideu oI u puI nLI ng us u euIogy Ior u melcne oi coIors? PuI nLI ng never
Ius unyL II ng Lo do wI L I LIe specLrum oI coIors; IL onI y Ius Lo do
wI L I LIe I nI I nI Ly mI xed I n wI L I und derIved I rom LIeIr nuunces.
L Is exucLIy becuuse IL wus possIbIe Ior LIere Lo be LIe I gnobI e
LuIk oI "eLInIc cI eunsI ng" LIuL IL Is necessury Lo respond. BuL LIIs
response wI I I noL be jusL unoLIer, symmeLrI cuI wuy oI L uI kI ng. TII s
Is wIy conI errI ng Loo muc I I denLI Ly on LIe melcne ILseII musL be
uvoIded; In order Lo ensure LIIs, LIe empIusIs wI I I be dIspIuced, und
un uLLempL wI I I be mude Lo move I rom LIe melcne Lo LIe melee.
TIe wIoI e Lusk, Iere, I s Lo do rI gIL by I denLI LI es, buL wI L IouL
cedI ng unyL II ng Lo LIeIr Irenzy, Lo LIeIr presumI ng Lo be subsLun-
LIuI IdenLILIes ("subjecLs," In LIIs sense). TII s Lusk Is enormous, und
IL Is very sI mpI e. L Is LIe Lusk oI u cuILure remukI ng ILseII, or LIe re-
cusLIng oI L II nkI ng sucI LIuL I L wouI d noL be crude or obscene I I ke
every LIougIL oI purILy. L meuns mI xI ng LogeLIer uguIn LIe vurI -
ous IInes, LruIIs, und skIns, wII I e uL LIe sume LI me descrI bI ng LIeIr
IeLerogeneous LrujecLorIes und LIeIr webs, boL I LIose LIuL ure Lun-
gIed und LIose LIuL ure dI sLI ncL. L Is LIe Lusk oI never beI I evI ng In
LIe sI mpI e, Iomogenous, presenL " mun. " Or womun. Or Cr ouL or
Serb or BosnI un. L I s LIe Lusk oI knowI ng (buL oI wIuL knowI -
edge?) LIuL LIe subjecL oI knowI edge Is now onI y someonI, und I I ke
every someowI, someone oI mixed blood.
1q8
Eulo jor the Melee Eulo jor the Melee
1qq
A melcne Is u deIIcuLe und IrugIIe L II ng, boL I subLIe und voIuLIIe,
wII cI Is oILen mude LII ck [epcisse] und obscure LIese duys. n IucL,
LIere does exI s L -und um noL LIe IIrsL one Lo poI nL IL o u L -u eu-
I ogy Ior LIe melcne LIuL resonuLes wI L I u convenLI onuI sorL oI po-
I I LI cuI correcLness, LIuL Is, wI L I LIe normuLIve sLIIIenIng oI LIe mosL
weI I -I ounded demunds. SucI u euI ogy wIoI eIeurLedI y ceIebruLes
generuIIzed muI L I cuI L uruI I sm, IybrI dI zuLI on, excIunge, sIurIng, und
u sorL oI LrunscendenLuI vurIeguLIon.
AI L IougI we know LII ngs ure noL so sI mpI e, we now IeeI LIuL
IuvI ng sucI wII r I wI nds, mI xLures, wunderI ngs, und InLerIerences
ure noL enougI, LIuL Is, cs the cre. Or ruLIer, und IIrsL oI uI I : we
know LIuL LIey do noL uI I ow LIemseIves Lo be LIougIL us LIey ure.
TII s Is LIe wIoI e quesLI on.
BuL we uIso know, onI y Loo weI I , LIuL LIere sLI I I remuIns u dI s-
course LIuL Lukes udvunLuge oI LIe sImpIIIIcuLIons oI LIe oLIer In or-
der Lo go one beLLer LIun dI sL I ncL I on, IdenLILy, properLy, or purILy,
und In order Lo be ubIe Lo use LIe wor d "cosmopoI I L un, " Ior exum-
pIe, wI L I un obvI ous overLone oI mIsLrusL, even dIsgusL (someLImes
cIeurIy ussocIuLed wI L I unLI -SemI LI sm).
n LIe end, und rI gILI y so, LIere ure LIose wIo pIuce LIese Lwo
correctnesses buck Lo buck, und wIo recILe un I nL ermI nubI e cuLe-
cII sm oI unI L y I n dIversILy, compI emenL urI L y, und weI I -Lempered
dIIIerences. TII s weI I -I nL enL I oned dIscourse, someLI mes weI come
I n moruI und poI I L I cuI emergencIes, remuIns u dIscourse oI I nL en-
LIons und exIorLuLIons. L does noL reucI us Iur us LIe very LIIngs
wI L I wII cI I L deuIs.
obLuse, und IeurIuI. uIwuys IoI d my peuce In LIe Iuce oI I ong dIs-
courses und greuL coI I oquI u on LIe subjecL oI rucIsm. L seems Lo me
LIuL Loo muc I Ionor Is puI d Lo LIIs LrusI. or sI mI I ur reusons, LIIs
Is wIy um emburrussed by LIe Ideu oI u "euIogy Ior LIe mIunge":
us II the mIunge wouI d Iuve Lo be some sorL oI vuIue or uuLIenLIc-
I Ly Lo be uncovered, even L IougI IL Is onI y u pIece oI evIdence, or,
II one Iooks uL IL more cIoseIy, even LIougI IL does noL exIsL II LIere
Is never unyL II ng "pure" LIuL cun be und musL be "mI xed" LogeLIer
[melcner] wI L I some oLIer "purI Ly. "
TIereI ore, wIuL Is uL quesL I on, Iere, Is In no wuy u muLLer oI
sL I ckI ng Lo u IuIr meun | juste milieu] IeI d beLween Lwo opposI ng
LIeses, exucLIy becuuse LIere ure LIese Lwo LIeses onI y Lo LIe exLenL
LIuL LIere Is, IIrsL oI uI I , LIe sI mpI I I I cuLI on und dI sLorLI on oI wIuL Is
uL sLuke.
By deI I nI L I on, LIe melcne Is noL u sI mpI e subsLunce Lo wII c I
pIuce und nuLure couI d be ussIgned, Lo wII cI one couI d Iuy cI uI m us
sucI, und wII cI, us u resuIL, one couI d pI uI nI y euIogIze. denLILy Is
by deI I nI LI on noL un ubsoIuLe dI sLI ncLI on, removed I rom everyLIIng
und, LIereIore, dI sLI ncL I rom noL II ng: IL Is uIwuys LIe oLIer oI un-
oLIer IdenLILy. " He Is dI I I erenL -I I ke everyone" (BerLoIuccI' s Lcst
Tcno in Pcris). DIIIerence cs such Is I ndI scernI bI e. NeI L Ier melcne
nor I denLI Ly cun be pI nned down. TIey Iuve uIwuys uIreudy Luken
pIuce, ure uIwuys uIreudy gone, or uIwuys uIreudy sLII I Lo come. A n d
LIey ure in common, sIured by uII, beLween uI I , LIrougI one unoLIer.
IrsL oI uI I , IeL us be cIeur: LIe sI mpI I sLI c euI ogy oI LIe melcne
Ius und Is cupubIe oI producI ng errors, buL LIe sI mpI I sLI c euI ogy oI
purI L y Ius supporLed und sLIII supporLs crI mes. As sucI, LIere Is no
symmeL ry I n LIIs regurd, no equI I I br I um Lo IoI d Lo, no IuIr me-
dI um. TIere I s noL II ng Lo be dIscussed. TIe IeusL bIL oI dIscussIon,
LIe smuIIesL deIerruI Lo rucIsm or Lo purI I I cuLI on, In wIuLever I orm,
uIreudy purLIcIpuLes In sucI crI me. Moreover, LIIs crI me Is uIwuys
u doubI e crI me, boL I moruI und I nLeI I ecLuuI . AI I rucIsm I s sL upI d,
PrecIseIy becuuse LIe melcne Is mI xed (IL Is mixed |mI|, und IL
Is u melee), IL Is noL u subsLunce. No r Is IL possIbIe Lo repIuce LIe
nonsubsL unL I uI I L y oI ILs conLenLs wI L I u supposed consI sLency oI
LIuL In wII cI IL Is conLuI ned. TII s Is exucLIy LIe probI em wI L I Ide-
oIogIes oI LIe meltin pot, wIere LIe pot is supposed Lo conL uI n, In
uII senses oI LIe word, LIe enIgmus oI LIe melcne, us weI I us ILs dIs-
rupLI ve Iorces, uII by vI rLue oI ILs own IdenLILy.
Hybr I dI z uL I on I s noL "some L II ng. " A n d I I LIe Iybr I d, wII c I
Eulo jor the Melee Eulo jor the Melee
eucI one oI us Is In IIs or Ier own wuy, Is someone, IL Is noL by
vI rLue oI uny essence oI IybrI dI zuL I on (u conLrudI cLory noLI on), buL
ruLIer InsoIur us IL provIdes u puncL uuL I on, or u sInguIur conIIguru-
L I on, Ior LIe essenceIessness oI Iybr I dI zuL I on. To essenLIuIIze LIe
melcne Is Lo Iuve uIreudy dIssoIved IL, meI Led IL down I nL o some-
L II ng oLIer LIun ILseII. TIereIore, one musL noL suy "LIe" melcne
und, ubove uI I , one musL noL deIIver ILs euIogy.
TIe melcnecs sucI cun Luke on, or seem Lo Luke on, Lwo dIIIer-
enL IdenLILIes: LIuL oI u IusIon or u L IorougIgoI ng osmosIs, or LIuL
oI un uccompI I sIed sLuLe oI dI sorder [mise en desorder cchetee].
TIese Lwo IunLusLIcuI exLremILIes ure uI cIemy und enLropy, ex-
LremILIes LIuL, I n LIe end, come LogeLIer und IdenLIIy wI L I one un-
oLIer In un upocuIypse or u bIuck IoI e. BuL LIe melcne Is, In IucL,
neILIer LIe one nor LIe oLIer, nor Is IL LIe IuIr meun beLween LIe
Lwo. L Is someL II ng eIse, or uguIn, IL "I s" In unoLIer wuy, In quI Le
unoLIer wuy.
L wouI d be beLLer, LIen, Lo speuk oI melee: un ucLI on ruLIer LIun
u subsLunce. TIere ure uL IeusL Lwo sorLs oI melee, even LIougI LIere
muy never be u melee "pure und sI mpI e. " TIere Is LIe melee oI u
IIgIL, und LIe melee oI Iove. TIe melee oI Ares, und LIe melee oI
ApIr odI L e. TIey ure mI xed wI L I one unoLIer, noL I denLI II ed. L Is
noL u muLLer oI enLropy or uIcIemy. L Is u conLesL LIuL cun never
Luke pIuce wI L IouL desIre und wI L IouL uLLucks oI jeuIousy, wI L IouL
LIe uppeuI Lo LIe oLIer us uIwuys oLIer.
(BuL LIe melee oI Ares Is noL modern wur, wII cI, more oILen LIun
ever beIore, InvoIves no melee ct uII: modern wur begIns by exLermI -
nuLI ng Iund-L o-Iund combuL; I L uIms Lo crusI und suppress com-
buL, ruLIer LIun uLLempLI ng Lo seL IL usIde; In IucL, IL Ius no spuce Ior
combuL. nsLeud, IL spreuds everywIere und kI I I s, vIoIuLes, IrrudIuLes,
gusses, und InIecLs LIe wIoI e " cI vI I " spuce. Toduy, wur Is un unI I m-
ILed und pure melcne. L Is noL LIe melee. WI L I regurd Lo orgIes und
porn IIIms, LIe sume cun be suId oI LIe melee oI ApIrodI Le. )
TIe melcne, LIereIore, is noL. L Iuppens; IL Lukes pIuce. TIere Is
melee, crIsscrossIng, weuvI ng, excIunge, sIurI ng, und IL Is never u
sIngIe L II ng, nor Is IL ever LIe sume. On LIe one Iund, LIe melcne
Is un "I L Iuppens, " ruLIer L Iun un "I L Is": dIspIucemenLs, cIunces,
mI gruL I ons, cI I numens, meeLI ngs, I uck, und rIsks. On LIe oLIer
Iund, IL Is noL "one": In u melee LIere ure meeLIngs und encounLers;
LIere ure LIose wIo come LogeLIer und LIose wIo spreud ouL,
LIose wIo come I nL o conLucL und LIose wIo enLer I nL o conLrucLs,
LIose wIo concenLruLe und LIose wIo dI ssemI nuLe, LIose wIo
I denL I I y und LIose wIo modI I y -j us L I I ke LIe L wo sexes I n eucI
one oI us.
TIe melcne I s noL sI mpI y "r I cI" I n LIe dI versI Ly I L mI xes Lo-
geLIer. n IucL, LIIs dI versI Ly consLunLI y escupes I L, us I ong us IL Is
noL II ng itselj. TIere Is u quunLILuLIve dIscourse oI "muL uuI enrI cI-
menL , " u dIscourse LIuL Is uL boL L om cupILuIIsL und proIILeerIng. BuL
LIIs Is noL u quesLI on oI weuI LI or poverLy. CuI L ures, or wIuL ure
known us cuILures, do noL mI x. TIey encounLer eucI unoLIer, mI n-
gIe, modI I y eucI oLIer, reconIIgure eucI oLIer. TIey cuILIvuLe one
unoLIer; LIey IrrIguLe or dr uI n eucI oLIer; LIey wor k over und
pI ougI L IrougI eucI oLIer, or gruIL one onL o LIe oLIer.
To begI n wI L I -b u L wIere I s LIere un ubsoIuLe be gI nnI ng? -
eucI one oI L Iem Is u conII guruLI on, uIreudy u melee. TIe IIrsL cuI -
Lure consLI LuLed u melee oI ruces or specIes, erectus, jcber, scpiens.
TIe WesL, wII cI I s so pr oud oI LIe "Greek mI rucI e" oI ILs I ound-
I ng, sIouI d uIwuys medILuLe on LIe eLInIc und cuI LuruI dIversILy, on
LIe movemenL s oI peopI es, LIe LrunsIers und LrunsIormuLI ons oI
prucLIces, LIe LwIsLs und Lurns oI Iunguuge or mores, wII cI wenL Lo
muke up or conII gure LIe " HeI I enI cs . " TIe II sL ory oI LIIs melee
sIouI d be rereud:
TIus, uL LIe begInnIng oI LIe second mI I I ennI um, u pIenomenon oI
exLruordInury noveILy wus creuLed; u cosmopoIILun cuILure wus puL InLo
pIuce In wIIcI one couId recognIze LIe conLrIbuLIons oI LIose dIverse
cIvIIIzuLIons LIuL were buIIL on LIe edge oI LIe seu, or In LIe mIddIe oI
IL. Some oI LIese cIvIIIzuLIons were LIose LIuL becume empIres: EgypL,
MesopoLumIu, AsIu MI nor oI LIe HILLILes; sLIII oLIers oI LIese seL Lo seu
und were supporLed by cerLuIn cILIes: LIe Syro-ebunese cousL, CreLe,
und mucI IuLer, Myceuneu. BuL LIey uII communIcuLed wI LI one un-
oLIer. AI I oI LIem, even EgypL, ordInurIIy so cIosed In on ILseII, Lurned
Eulo jor the Melee
Eulo jor the Melee
1
Lowurd LIe ouLsIde wI LI u pussIonuLe curIosILy. TII s Is LIe epocI oI
voyuges, oI excIunges oI presenLs, dIpIomuLIc correspondence, und
prIncesses wIo were gIven us spouses Lo IoreIgn kIngs us prooI oI new
"InLernuLIonuI" reIuLIons. L Is LIe epocI wIere, In EgypLIun Lomb
puInLIngs, LIere uppeured, In LIeIr nuLIve dress, uII LIe peopIes oI LIe
Neur EusL und LIe Aegeun: CreLuns, Myceuns, PuIesLInIuns, NubIuns,
CunuunILes. . . .
q
Every cuI Lure Is In ILseII "muI L I cuI L uruI , " noL onI y becuuse LIere
Ius uIwuys been u prevIous uccuI LuruLI on, und becuuse LIere Is no
pure und sI mpI e orI gI n [protencnce], buL uL u deeper IeveI, becuuse
LIe gesLure oI cuI Lure Is ILseII u mI xed gesLure: IL Is Lo uIIronL, con-
IronL, LrunsIorm, dIverL, deveIop, recompose, combI ne, recIunneI .
L Is noL LIuL LIere Is no "I denL I L y. " A cuI Lure Is sIngIe und
unI que. (I LIIs Is wIuL one musL seLLIe Ior In LIe wor d "cuI Lure, "
wII c I seems Lo I denLI I y uIreudy LIuL wI L I wII c I I L I s concerned.
BuL LIIs wor d IdenLIIIes precIseIy noL II ng. L Is Lo seLLIe Ior sIorL-
cI rcuI L I ng uI I LIe dIIIIcuILIes LIuL beur down en musse II one LrIes Lo
suy "peopIe," "nuLI on, " "cI vI I I zuLI on, " "spIrIL, " "personuIILy.") A "cuI -
Lure" Is u cerLuIn "one. " TIe IucL und I uw oI LIIs "one" cunnoL be
negIecLed; even Iess cun IL be denI ed In LIe nume oI un essenLIuI-
I zuLI on oI LIe "mIunge. "
BuL LIe more LIIs "one" Is cIeurIy dI sLI ncL und dI sLI nguI sIed, LIe
Iess IL muy be ILs own or pure I ounduL I on. UndoubL edI y, LIe Lusk
I s wIoI I y u muLLer oI noL conI usI ng dI sL I ncL I on und I ounduL I on; I n
IucL, LIIs poI nL conLuIns everyLII ng LIuL Is uL sLuke pII I osopII cuI I y,
eLIIcuIIy, und poI I L I cuI I y In wIuL Is br ewI ng [se trcme] ur ound
"I denLI LI es" und "subjecLs" oI uII sorLs. TIus , LIe ubsoIuLe dI sLI nc-
LI on oI LIe eo existo, provI ded by DescurLes, musL noL be conIused
wI L I I ounduL I on I n LIe pur I L y oI u res coitcns, wI L I wII c I I L I s
j oI ned LogeLIer. or exumpI e, LIe " r encI" I denL I L y Loduy no
Ionger needs Lo I ound ILseII I n VercIngLorIx or Joun oI Ar c I n order
Lo exIsL.
TIe unI L y und unIqueness oI c cuILure ure unI que precIseIy on uc-
counL oI u melcne, or u melee. L Is u "mIe" LIuL deIInes LIe sLyIe or
Lone oI u "cuI Lure, " us weI I us LIe vurIous dIIIerenL voIces und upLI -
Ludes [portees] Ior I nLerpreLI ng LIIs Lone. TIere Is sucI u L II ng us u
rencI cuILure, buL IL ILseII Ius vurIous voIces, und nowIere Is IL pre-
senLed I n person-excepL Ior LIose wIo conIuse I L wI L I LIe coq
sportij or wI L I Dupond-I u-JoI e. VoILuIre's voIce Is noL LIuL oI ProusL,
wII c I Is noL PusLeur's, wII cI Is noL RI L u MI L souko' s. L Is perIups
never purel cnd simpl rencI. WIu L Is rencI, und wIuL Is noL,
I n SLendIuI , Hug o, PIcusso, vInus, Godur d, JoInny HuI I yduy,
KuL ' Onomu, CIumoI seuu, DI b? Once uguIn, Iowever, LIIs does noL
meun LIuL LIere Is no "rencI I denLI Ly": IL meuns LIuL LIIs sorL oI
I denLI Ly Is never sI mpI y IdenLIcuI In LIe sense LIuL u pencI I Is I denL I -
cuIIy LIe sume yesLerduy und Loduy (ussumIng LIuL LIIs Is noL muLe-
rI uI I y I nexucL . . . ). TIe I denLI Ly oI LIe pencI I Ieuves this pencI I Iur
Iess IdenLIIIubI e us "LIIs one Iere," wII cI, up Lo cerLuIn poI nL , re-
muIns uny pencI I uL uI I . TII s Is exucLIy not LIe cuse wI L I LIe I denLI Ly
oI u cuILure or u person. To IndIcuLe LIe dIIIerence, LIIs IuLLer I den-
LI Ly cun be cuIIed un ipseit, u "beI ng-I Ls-seI I" |"Lre-soI-mme"|.
An I pseI Ly I s noL |I ounded on| LIe pure I nerL I u oI LIe sume,
wII c I wouI d remuI n quI Le pI uI nI y LIe sume I n LIe sense oI beI ng
LIe seII-sume [pose c meme soi-meme]: one couI d I mugI ne LIIs us
I ormI ng LIe beI ng oI u sLone or u Go d . An IpseILy Ieuves oI I exucLIy
wIere IL Is I denLI II ed. Becuuse oI LIIs, u neLwork oI excIunges Is re-
quI red, u neLwork oI recognI LI on, oI reIerences I rom one IpseILy Lo
unoLIer, I rom dIIIerence Lo dIIIerence. An IpseILy Is vuI ued by LIe
oLIer und Ior LIe oLIer, In consI deruLI on oI LIe oLIer, LIese oLIers
Lo wI o m I L gIves und I r om wI o m I L Lukes u cerLuI n I denLI II ubI e
L o ne -u I I by wuy oI ILs sInguIur L oucI. Thct is to sc, insojcr cs it is
unidentijicble, IL Is boL I I nI mI L ubI e und I mpossI bI e Lo ussIgn I den-
LI Ly Lo uny one. n u very precIse wuy, ipseit numes wIuL, Ior un
IdenLILy, Is uIwuys und necessurIIy I mpossI bI e Lo IdenLIIy.
n IucL, u pure I denLI Ly wouI d noL onI y be InerL, empLy, coIorIess,
und IIuvorIess (us LIose wIo Iuy cI uI m Lo u pure I denL I L y so oILen
ure), IL wouI d be un ubsurdILy. A pure I denLI Ly cunceIs ILseII ouL; IL
cun no Ionger IdenLIIy ILseII. On I y wIuL Is I denLI cuI Lo ILseII Is I den-
LIcuI Lo ILseII. As sucI, IL Lurns In u cIrcIe und never mukes IL I nL o
exIsLence.
1q
Eulo jor the Melee Eulo jor the Melee
WI L I uI I due rIgor, wIo wus ever pure enougI Lo be un Ar y u n
worL Iy oI LIe nume? We know LIuL LIIs quesLIon couI d drIve u Lrue
Nuz I , u Nu z I ubsoIuLeI y I denLI II ed wI L I IIs cuuse or wI L I IIs own
concerns, Lo sLerIIIzuLIon or even suIcIde.
PurI L y Is u crysLuIIIne cIusm wIere LIe I denLI cuI , LIe proper, LIe
uuLIenLIc Is enguI Ied by ILseII; IL Is noL II ng uL uI I , und IL drugs LIe
oLIer uI ong I n order Lo curry I L I nL o LIe ubyss. TIe ubsoI uLe und
verLIgInous Iuw oI LIe proper Is LIuL In upproprI uLI ng ILs own purI L y
[<'cppropricnt sc propre purete], IL uIIenuLes ILseII purel und sI mpI y.
AnoL Ier I orm oI LIe melcne Is LIe melcne-uith-itselj seI I-mI xI ng,
uuLI sm, uuLo-eroLI cI sm.
A Iunguuge Is uIwuys u melee oI Iunguuges, someL II ng IuI I-wuy
In-beLween BubeI us LIe I orm oI LoLuI conI usI on und gIossoIuIIu |or
speukI ng In Longues| us LIe I or m oI I mmedI uL e Lrunspurency. A
sLyIe Is uIwuys u crIsscrossIng oI Lones, borrowed eIemenLs, dIsper-
sIons, und deveIopmenLs, Lo wII cI I L gIves u new LwIsL or L urn. OI
course, eucI sLyIe seems Lo Lend Lowurd mukI ng un uI LI muLe or sov-
ereIgn L urn, LIe L urn Lowurd un ubsoIuLeIy proper Iunguuge, un ub-
soIuLe IdIoIecL. BuL un ubsoIuLe I dI oI ecL or I dI om wouI d no Ionger
be u Iunguuge, und couI d no Ionger mI x wI L I oLIers In order Lo be
LIe Iunguuge LIuL IL Is: bein no loner trcnslctcble excctl in order
to be the untrcnslctcble thct it is. A pure I dI oI ecL wouI d be idiotic,
uLLerIy deprited oi reIuLIons und, LIereIore, oI IdenLILy. A pure cuI -
Lure, u pure properLy, wouI d be I dI oL I c.
WIu L Is u communI L y? L Is noL u mucroorgunI sm, or u bI g I um-
I I y (wII cI Is Lo ussume LIuL we know wIuL un orgunI sm or u I umI I y
Is . . . ). TIe common, IuvI ng-I n-common or beI ng- I n- common, ex-
cIudes InLerIor unILy, subsIsLence, und presence In und Ior ILseII. Be-
I ng wI L I, beI ng LogeLIer und even beI ng "unI L ed" ure precIseIy noL
u muLLer oI beI ng "one. " WI L I I n unitcr c ommunI L y [communcute
une| LIere Is noL II ng buL deuLI, und noL LIe sorL oI deuLI I ound In
LIe cemeLery, wII cI Is u pIuce oI spucI ng or dI sLI ncLness, buL LIe
deuLI I ound I n LIe usIes oI cremuL orI um ovens or I n LIe uccumu-
IuLIons oI cIurneI-Iouses.
To puL IL unoLIer wuy: In u purudIgmuLI c munner, LIe sysLemuLIc
rupe oI BosnI un wome n depI oyed uI I LIe vurIous I I gures oI LIIs
deIIrIous uIIIrmuLIon oI "unILury" communI L y: rupe In order Lo begeL
"busLurds" regurded us unuccepLubIe, excI uded u prI orI I rom LIe us-
sumed unI L y; rupe In order, LIereIore, Lo muke obI I guLory LIe ubor-
LI on oI LIese busLurds; rupe In order Lo LIen kI I I LIese busLurds und,
LIus, Lo desLroy LIe possI bI I I Ly oI LIere beI ng u busLurd; und rupe so
LIuL LIIs repeuLed ucL ussIgns ILs vI cLI ms Lo LIe IunLusy unI L y oI LIeIr
"communI L y. " n LIe end, IL Is rupe In order Lo sIow In every possI-
bIe wuy LIuL LIere do not hcte to be relctions beLween communI L I es.
Rupe Is LIe zero ucL; IL Is LIe neguLIon oI sex ILseII, LIe neguLIon oI uII
reI uLIon, LIe neguLIon oI LIe cII I d, LIe neguLIon oI LIe womun. L Is
LIe pure uIII rmuLI on oI LIe rupIsL In wIo m u "pure I denL I L y" (u
"rucI uI " I denLI Ly . . . ) IInds noL II ng beLLer LIun LIe submI ssI on Lo
LIe IgnobIe mI mI c r y oI wIuL I L denIes: reIuLIon und beIng-LogeLIer.
(n u generuI sorL oI wuy, wIuL Is undoubLedI y purudIgmuLIc In rupe
Is LIuL IL operuLes by wuy oI LIuL relction oI wII cI IL Is uIso LIe negu-
L I on. L sInks ILs LeeLI I nLo reIuLIon, I nL o LIe melee.)
WIu L we Iuve In c ommon Is uIso wIuL uIwuys dIsLInguIsIes und
dIIIerenLIuLes us. WIuL Iuve I n c ommon wI L I unoLIer rencImun
Is LIe IucL oI not beI ng LIe sume r encImun us II m, und LIe IucL
LIuL our "rencIness" Is never, nowIere, In no essence, In no IIgure,
brougIL Lo compI eL I on. TII s Is noL LIe ubsence oI u IIgure, buL u
pI un uIwuys beI ng skeLcIed ouL, u IIcLIon uIwuys beI ng I nvenLed, u
melee oI LruILs. A n d IL Is noL LIuL IdenLILy Is uIwuys "on LIe wuy," pro-
jecLed onLo LIe IorI zon I I ke u IrI endI y sLur, IIke u vuIue or u reguIu-
LIve Ideu. L never comes Lo be; IL never IdenLIIIes ILseII, even us un
I nII nI Le projecLIon, beccuse it is clrecd there, becuuse IL Is LIe melee.
JuI reudy um wIen my moLIer und IuLIer come LogeLIer [se me-
lent] ; br I ng L Iem LogeLIer [qui les mele] ; um LIeI r melee, und
LIus do noL brI ng myseI I Lo be.
WIu L Is u peopIe? CerL uI nI y LIere ure sucI LIIngs us eLInIc LruILs.
A SI cI I I un couI d rureIy be mI sLuken Ior u NorwegI un (even L IougI
LIe Nor muns dI d, I n LIe pusL, I orcI bI y mI x LIemseIves I nL o SI c-
16
Eulo jor the Melee
Eulo jor the Melee
1;
I I y . . . ). BuL wIuL ubouL u SI cI I I un "oI LIe peopI e" und u SI cI I I un oI
LIe upper ecIeIons oI socIeLy? Co u I d LIey be conIused? L wouI d,
In IucL, be more I I keI y LIuL, In CII cugo, one wouI d conIuse u SI cI I -
I un "oI LIe peopI e" und u PoIe "oI LIe peopI e, " or LIuL eIsewIere,
one wouI d conIuse someone I rom LIe PuI ermo upper cIuss und
someone I rom LIe upper cIuss oI yon. Under LIe pressure oI wunL-
I ng Lo Iuve noL II ng more Lo do wI L I clcsses, one ends up denyI ng
LIe mosL c ommon, everyduy evIdence. UndoubL edI y u cIuss cunnoL
be LIougIL oI us un IdenLILy, und, I ndeed, cerLuIn vurIeLIes oI LoLuI-
I LurI unI sm (perIups uII) were mude possIbIe by conI I gurI ng cIusses
uccordIng Lo IdenLILy und noL uccordIng Lo LIeIr condILIons. BuL IL Is
precIseIy noL u quesLI on oI pI uyI ng one I denLI Ly oII unoLIer. L Is u
quesLI on oI prucLI cI ng sInguIurILIes, LIuL Is, LIuL wII cI gIves ILseII
und sIows ILseII onI y In LIe pI uruI . TIe uL I n sinuli meuns "one by
one, " und Is u wor d LIuL exIsLs onI y In LIe pI uruI . pseILy exIsLs onI y
us sInguI urI y dI sLrI buLed. nsoIur us one cun speuk In LIe I oI I owI ng
wuy, IpseILy Is "I LseI I " dI sL rI buL I on, dI ssemI nuL I on, LIe orI gI nury
sIurIng oI LIuL wII cI never is-ipse itselj--und Is nowIere presenL
us sucI, " I n person. " Ipse"ls" ILs own dIspersIon.
L Is noL noL II ng-I nde e d, IL Is ever yL II ng-buL IL remuIns Ior
us Lo L II nk LIIs LoLuI ILy oI dI spersI on, oI LIIs uII-one [tout-un] LIuL
Is uII mI xed up.
The melcne does noL exIsL uny more LIun purI L y exIsLs. TIere Is
no pure melcne, nor Is LIere uny purI L y LIuL Is intcct. No L onI y Is
LIere no sucI LII ng, LIIs Is LIe very Iuw oI there is not: II LIere were
someLII ng LIuL wus pure und InLucL, LIere wouI d be noLII ng. No L I-
I ng exIsLs LIuL Is "pure, " LIuL does noL come I nL o contcct wI L I LIe
oLIer, noL becuuse IL Ius Lo border on someL II ng, us II LIIs were u
sI mpI e uccIdenLuI condI L I on, buL becuuse L oucI uIone exposes LIe
I I mI L s uL wII c I IdenLILIes or IpseILIes cun distinuish themseltes |se
dmIer| I rom one unoLIer, wI L I one unoLIer, beLween one unoLIer,
I rom umong one unoLIer.
TIe melee Is noL uccIdenLuI ; IL Is orIgInury. L Is noL conLI ngenL;
IL Is necessury. L is noL; IL Iuppens consLunLIy.
TII s Is LIe melee oI Ares und LIe melee oI ApIrodI L e, LIe melee oI
LIe one und LIe oLIer: wIeLIer LIIs comes Lo bIows und I nL erL wI n-
Ings, ussuuILs und ceuse-IIres, rI vuI ry und desIre, suppI I cuL I on und
deIIunce, dI uI ogue und conL enL I on [dijjerend], Ieur und pILy, und
I uugILer Loo. An d , on LIe IIIp sIde, IL Is LIe melee oI Her mes , u
melee oI messuges und puLIs, bI IurcuLI ons, subsLI LuLI ons, concur-
rences oI codes, conII guruLI ons oI spuce, IronLIers mude Lo be
pussed L IrougI, so LIuL LIere cun be pussuges, buL ones LIuL ure
sIured-becuuse LIere Is never uny I denLI Ly LIuL Is noL sIured: LIuL
Is, dI vI ded, mI xed up, dI sLI nguI sIed, enLrencIed, c ommon, subsLI-
LuLubIe, InsubsLILuLubI e, wI L Idr uwn, exposed.
W I y I s I L LIuL un "I denL I I I cuL I on pIoL o" I s mosL oILen poorer,
duI I er, und Iess "I I I eI I ke" L Iun uny oLIer pIoLo? A n d even more,
wIy ure Len I denLI Ly pIoLos oI LIe sume person so dIIIerenL I rom
one unoLIer? WI e n does someone resembIe himselj |In u pIoLo| ?
On I y wIen LIe pIoLo sIows someL II ng oI II m, or Ier, someL II ng
more LIun wIuL Is I denLI cuI , more LIun LIe "Iuce," LIe "I muge, " LIe
"LruILs" or LIe "porLruI L, " someL II ng more LIun u copy oI LIe dI u-
crI LI cuI sIgns oI un "I denL I L y" ("bIuck IuIr, bI ue eyes, snub nose,"
und so on). L Is onI y wIen IL evokes un unendI ng melee oj peopIes,
purenLs, works, puIns, pIeusures, reIusuIs, IorgeLLIngs, LrunsgressIons,
expecLuLIons, dreums, sLorIes, und uI I LIuL LrembI es wI L II n und
sLruggIes uguInsL LIe conIInes oI LIe Imuge. TII s Is noL someL II ng
I mugI nury; IL Is noL II ng buL wIuL Is reuI: wIuL Is reuI Ius Lo do wI L I
LIe melee. A true I denLI II cuLI on pIoL o wouI d be un I ndeL ermI nunL
melee oI pIoLos und scrIbbIes [rcphies] LIuL resembIe noL II ng, un-
der wII cI one wouI d InscrIbe u proper nume.
SucI un inscription |Igende| wouI d be meunL Lo be reud, decI -
pIered, und recounLed, buL IL wouI d noL be u myL I: Lo suy IL more
precIseIy, IL wouI d noL conIer un I denLI Ly on LIe ipse or on some one
oI wI o m IL wouI d be LIe leendum est, LIe "LIIs Is Lo be reud. "
WIuL Is Lo be reud Is wIuL Is wrI LLen. My L I Is noL wrI L L en, buL pro-
jecLed und pronounced; I L I s brundI sIed ubouL or sprIngs I orL I
pureIy, wI L IouL IubI LuuLI on, wI L IouL u IIsLory. No L onI y does myL I
18
Eulo jor the Melee
IdenLIIy, IL IdenLIIIes ILseII ubove uI I : IL Is LIe I nII nI Le presupposI LI on
oI ILs own I denL I Ly und uuLIenLIcILy. I, In myL II c mode, suy LIe
numes "Ares, " "ApIrodI L e, " " Her mes" or "runce, " LIen Iuve uI -
reudy suId more LIun uI I LIuL mI gIL be suId ubouL L Iem, und noL I-
I ng IegILImuLe couI d be suId ubouL LIem LIuL wouI d noL uIso uIreudy
be uuLIenLIcuLed by L Iem I n udvunce. TIus , onI y LIe very voIce oI
runce couI d express wIuL Is rencI. My L I Is u meunI ng LIuL Is ILs
own subjecL; myL I I s wIere LIe proper nume I s LIe I dI om oI un I d-
IoIecL [en tcnt qu'idosemie d'un idiolecte].
BuL wIuL Is wrI L L en, und wIuL Is Lo be reud, Is LIuL wII cI Ius noL
preceded ILs own IubI LuuLI on; IL Is LIe melee oI LIe Lruces oI u meun-
I ng LIuL geLs IosL I n I ookI ng Ior ILseI I und I nvenL I ng ILseII. reud
LIuL Surujevo Is u cI Ly dI vI ded I nL o uL IeusL LIree cILIes, boL I succes-
sIve und sI muI Luneous, und LIuL Bosnu-Suruy I s LIere mI xed wI L I
MI I j uc ku und I I dzu.
TIe SurprIse oI LIe EvenL
TIe LI LI e oI LIIs essuy sIouI d uIso be wrI L L en or reud us: " TIe
SurprIse: OI LIe EvenL . " L concerns noL onI y LIe "surprIse, " I n LIe
sense oI ILs beI ng un uLLrIbuLe, quuIILy, or properLy oI LIe evenL, buL
LIe evenL ILseII, ILs beI ng or essence. WIuL mukes LIe evenL un evenL
Is noL onI y LIuL IL Iuppens, buL LIuL IL s ur pr I s es -und muybe even
LIuL IL surprIses ILseII (dI verLI ng IL I rom ILs own "IuppenI ng" |"ur-
rIve"|,
1
noL uI I owI ng IL be un evenL, surprI sI ng LIe beI ng In IL, uI -
I owI ng I L Lo be onI y by wuy oI surprIse).
BuL IeL us begI n uL LIe begI nnI ng. We wI I I begI n wI L I LIe I oI -
I owI ng senLence, by wII cI someLII ng undoubLedI y sLurLed Lo duwn
on modern L II nkI ng; LIuL Is, someL II ng begun Lo surprIse ILseII I n
IL, someLII ng wI L I wII cI we Iuve noL yeL IInIsIed: "utphilosoph
is not mecnt to be c ncrrction oj hcppenins but c conition oj uhct
is Lrue in them, cndjurther, on the bcsis oj this conition, to compre-
Iend thct uhich, in the ncrrctite, cppecrs cs c mere hcppenin [or
pure etent-Truns|."
z
TII s senLence Is I ound In LIe second book oI
HegeI' s Science oj Loic, In u LexL enLI LI ed " TIe NoL I on |ConcepL|
In GeneruI , " wII cI serves us un I nL roducL I on Lo "SubjecLIve ogI c;
or LIe DocL r I ne oI LIe NoL I on. "
TII s senLence cun be reud I n Lwo wuys. Ac c or dI ng Lo LIe II rsL
reudIng, wII cI Is cerLuInIy LIe mosL obvIous becuuse IL cIoseIy con-
Iorms Lo wIuL pusses Ior LIe cunonI cuI I nLerpreLuLI on oI HegeI I un
L II nkI ng, LIIs senLence sIgnIIIes LIuL LIe Lusk oI pII I osopIy Is Lo
:p
I 6 o The Surprise oj the Etent
conceite LIuL oI wII cI LIe evenL Is onI y LIe pIenomenon. eL us be
more precIse. or pII I osopIy, LIere Is IIrsL oI uII LIe L ruL I LIuL Is
conL uI ned I n wIuL Iuppens, und L Ien, I n I I gIL oI LIIs L r uL I, LIe
concepL I on oI ILs very pr oducL I on or eIIecLuuLIon, wII c I uppeurs
I rom LIe ouLsIde us un "evenL, pure und sI mpI e (bloss)" exucLIy be-
cuuse I L I s noL conceI ved. On LIIs uccounL, LIe evenL-ness oI LIe
evenL [etenementclite de l'etenement] (ILs uppeurunce, ILs comI ng Lo
puss, ILs L ukI ng pIuce-dcs Geschehen) Is onI y LIe exLernuI, uppur-
enL, und InconsIsLenL sIde oI LIe eIIecLIve presenLuLIon oI LruLI. TIe
udvenL oI LIe L ruL I us reuI, wII cI Is conL uI ned In LIe concepL, dIs-
quuIIIIes LIe evenL us u sI mpI e, nurruLIve represenLuLIon.
TII s I I rsL reudIng, Iowever, cunnoL IoI d. WI L I uII due rIgor, LIe
loic oj the concept

In wII cI one Is enguged Iere sIouI d noL be un-


dersLood us u IogIc oI LIe cuLegory or LIe Ideu LIougIL oI us un "ub-
sLrucL generuIILy" (us In KunL ) ; on LIe conLrury, IL Is u IogIc oI "LIe
I denLI Ly oI LIe concepL und LIe L II ng" (us HegeI' s LexL suys u IILLIe
IurLIer on). Accor dI ng Lo LIIs IogIc, LIe concepL conceIves (under-
sLunds, puLs I orL I, und Iounds) uII deL ermI nuL I on, uII dIIIerence,
und uI I exLerIorILy I rom LIe poI nL oI vI ew oI reuI eIIecLIvILy. TII s I s
wIy LIe concepL, undersLood In LIIs wuy, Is LIe eIemenL In wII cI IL
Is reveuIed (uguIn, In LIe sume LexL) LIuL "LIe Appeurunce |or pIe-
nomenon| , Is noL devoI d oI essenLIuI beI ng, buL Is u munI IesLuLI on
oI essence."
q
n IucL, ruLIer LIun beI ng LIe opposILe oI sI mpI e, pIe-
nomenuI L ruL I, LIe concepL Is LIuL pIenomenon wII cI Lukes IoI d
oI ILseII us LIe L ruL I.
L Is noL obvIous, L Ien-sL uyI ng wI L I LIe sLruIgILIorwurd "cunon-
IcuI" reudI ng-L IuL LIe expressIon "evenL, pure und sI mpI e" musL be
undersLood onI y In u unIIuLeruI wuy, us II LIe predIcuLes couI d deLer-
mI ne LIe essence oI LIe subjecL: us II LIe evenL us sucI wus onI y und
necessurIIy "pure und sI mpI e" (InessenLIuI). On LIe conLrury, muybe
IL does noL r e mu I n-u nd IL sureIy musL noL -" pur e und sI mpI e, " us
LIuL consIsLency wII cI Is proper Lo LIe evenL. n oLIer words, LIe
conceited evenL wouI d remuI n LIe etent conceI ved, wII c I ILseII
wouI d enLuII cerLuIn consequences.
The Surprise oj the Etent 161
( NoL e LIuL LIIs doubI e consLruI nL on LIe subjecL oI LIe evenL
comes up eIsewIere I n HegeI , Ior wIom I L undoubL edI y consLILuLes
u generuI Iuw. To gIve un exumpIe, In LIe I nL roducL I on Lo LIe Phi-
losoph oj Histor, HegeI wrI Les, " n LIe pure I I gIL oI LIe dI vI ne
Ideu, wII cI Is noL u sI mpI e IdeuI , LIere dIsuppeurs LIuL uppeurunce
uccordI ng Lo wII cI LIe wor I d wouI d be un Insune evenL, sIeer sLu-
pI dI L y [ein terrucltes, torictes Geschehen]." Here, Loo, LIe quesLIon Is
puL Iorwurd us Lo LIe sLuLus oI LIe predIcuLes: s every evenL Insune
[insense] I LIe wor I d Is u sune [sense] evenL, LIen Is ILs meunI ng
I ndependenL oI ILs evenL-ness?)
L Is necessury, LIereIore, Lo enguge In u second reudIng, puyI ng
more uLLenLI on Lo LIe dIIIerence LIuL I nI orms LIIs senLence I r om
LIe Loic. L Is LIe dIIIerence beLween, on LIe one Iund, LIe knowI -
edge oI LIe L ruL I LIuL Is I ound " I n" LIe L II ng (reuIILy, LIe subjecL)
LIuL occurs und, on LIe oLIer Iund, und "IurLIer" ( jerner), LIe con-
cepLI on oI LIuL wII cI uppeurs us |u| sI mpI e evenL. n oLIer words,
LIe empIusIs Is noL pI uced on LIe L II ng uhich Iuppens (LIe con-
LenL or LIe nonpIenomenuI subsLruLum), buL on the jcct LIuL IL
Iuppens, LIe evenL-ness oI ILs evenL (or eIse, ILs evenL ruLIer L Iun
ILs udvenL). UndoubL edI y, LIIs evenL-ness, InsoIur us IL Is conceI ved
I n Lerms oI LIe L ruL I oI LIe L II ng, I s dI sLI nguI sIed I rom LIe pIe-
nomenon; In IucL, IL Is ILs opposILe, buL onI y In dI sL I nguI sII ng IL-
seII us LIe nonpIenomenuI L ruL I oj the phenomencl itselj cs such,
LIuL Is, dI sLI nguI sIed us evenL, us Geschehen.
n LIIs sense, LIe Lusk oI pII I osopIy I s broken down I nL o Lwo
purLs: (I) Lo know LIe LruLI oI LIuL wII cI Lukes pIuce; und (z) Lo con-
ceIve oI LukI ng pIuce us sucI. By meuns oI LIIs dI I I erence-u dIIIer-
ence LIuL Is cerLuInIy noL I mmedI uLeI y uppurenL und Is IurdIy, II ever,
unuIyzed In ILseII, buL noneLIeIess remuIns very cIeur (jerner), HegeI
represenLs LIe Lusk oI pII I osopIy us LIe Lusk oI conceIvIng LIe LukI ng
pIuce oI L ruL I beond the true |ouLre Ie vruI|. n oLIer words, IL Is Lo
conceIve oI LIe L ruL I oI LIe LukI ng pIuce oI LIe L r ue -o r uguIn, Lo
conceIve oI LIe etenire oI LIe Lrue beyond ILs etentus, wI L IouL IL IuII-
I ng Lo be ILs LruLI. As u resuIL, IL Is u LruLI beyond LruLI ILseII.
I 6z The Surprise oj the Etent
L I s by wuy oI LIIs dIIIerence or LIIs surpI us oI L r uL I-noL LIe
LruLI ubove LIe Lrue, buL LIe LruLI oI LIe LukI ng pIuce oI LIe L r u e -
LIuL HegeI opens up modernI Ly, wIere LIe openI ng oI modernI L y Is
noL II ng oLIer LIun LIe openI ng oI L II nkI ng Lo LIe evenL us sucI, Lo
LIe LruLI oI LIe evenL beyond every udvenL oI meunI ng. n LIe open-
I ng-up oI modernI L y (or, puL unoLIer wuy, I n LIe cIosure oI meLu-
pIysIcs, wII cI Is ILseII noL II ng oLIer LIun LIe evenL oI LIe openI ng,
LIe evenL openI ng L II nkI ng Lo LIe surpIus LIuL overIIows LIe orI gI n),
LIere Is LIIs Lruce poI nL ed In LIe dI recLI on oI LIe evenL cs sucI.
TII s Is wIuL Is uL sLuke: LIe Lusk oI pII I osopIy Is noL u muLLer oI
subsL I L uL I ng Ior LIe nurruLIve Geschehen some subsLruLum or sub-
jecL LIuL does noL Iuppen or occur, buL sI mpI y Is (wII cI, InsoIur us
IL Is sup-posed [sup-pose], Ius uIwuys uIreudy be e n-L Ie "beI ng
wIuL IL wus, " LIe to ti en einci oI ArI sL oL I e). Beyond LIe L ruL I oI
wIuL Iuppens, wIuL Is IuppenI ng, wIuL Is In LIe IuppenI ng, wIuL
Ius Iuppened, wIuL Ius uIwuys uIreudy Iuppened In LIe IuppenI ng
ILseII, IL Is u muLLer oI L II nkI ng thct IL Iuppens; IL Is u muLLer oI LIe
IuppenI ng or, ruLIer, LIe IuppenI ng "IL-seII," wIere " I L " Is noL LIe
"seII" LIuL "I L wus," sInce IL Ius noL Iuppened. n oLIer words, IL Is
u muLLer oI L II nkI ng sumeness ILseII, us LIe sume us noL II ng
[memete meme, en tcnt que meme que rien].
TII s muy be wIy IL Is, Ior HegeI , u muLLer oI L II nkI ng Geschichte,
noL so muc I In LIe sense oI "II sLory" us we undersLund IL (und us
HegeI II mseI I undersLunds I L), buL ruLIer |us| LIe enLIre BeI ng or
ucL, LIe enLeIecIy oI Geschehen. Geschichte, LIen, wouI d noL b e -
LIuL Is, noL onIy, or In LIe IIrsL pI uce-L Ie producLI ve successIon oI
LIe dIIIerenL sLuLes oI ILs subjecL. RuLIer LIun un unI oI dI ng, ruLIer
L Iun u process or processI on, LIe IuppenI ng or LIe c o mI n g -o r ,
more Lo LIe poI nL , "Lo Iuppen, " "Lo come, " "Lo Luke pI uce" -wouI d
be u nonsubsLunLIve verb und one LIuL Is nonsubsLunLIIIubIe. TII s
Is wIy HegeI reIuses Lo uI I ow pII I osopIy Lo be I denLI II ed wI L I LIe
sLory oI un unI oI dI ng, LIuL Is, IdenLIIIed wI L I uII ILs vurIous epIsodes
[peripeties]? WIu L Ie reIuses, LIen, Is noL LIe dI mensI on oI LIe "Lo
Iuppen" us sucI, wII c I Ie wouI d I I ke Lo repIuce wI L I LIe sI mpI e
und sLubIe I denL I L y oI BeI ng und LIe IuvIng-uIwuys-uIreudy-been.
ookI ng uL IL more cureIuIIy, IL Is cIeur LIuL wIuL Ie does reIuse Is
Geschehen-wIIcI Is LIe ucLIve essence oI Geschichte, LIe II sLorI uI -
The Surprise oj the Etent 16
I Ly oI II s L or y-wIe n IL Is undersL ood us u sI mpI e epIsode (blosses
Geschehen). (n IucL, one couI d rereud LIe puges LIuL precede LIe
senLence wI L I wII cI we begun I rom LIIs perspecLIve.) TIe evenL Is
noL un epIsode; IL Is, II IL Is uL uII necessury Lo suy LIuL IL Is, thct it be
|qu' II y uI L | -L IuL Is, LIuL LIere be someL II ng, someL II ng dIIIerenL
L Iun LIe I ndeL ermI nuncy [indijjerence] oI BeI ng und noLII ngness,
Lo use LIe Iunguuge oI LIe numerI cuI IogIc oI becomI ng. TIe evenL
I ndI cuLes wIuL Ius Lo be L IougIL uL LIe very IeurL oI becomI ng,
poI nL I ng Lo IL us someL II ng more deepIy wI L Idr uwn und more de-
cIsIve LIun LIe "pussuge-InLo" Lo wII cI IL Is ordI nurI I y reduced. n-
soIur us IL Is undersLood us "pussuge-InLo," becomI ng prI murI I y I n-
dIcuLes LIuL wII cI Is pussed I nLo, LIe IuvIng-become [letre-detenu]
oI ILs resuIL. BuL I n order Ior LIe pussuge Lo Luke pIuce, I n step wI L I
LIe pussIng [dcns le pus du pcsser], LIere musL IIrsL be LIe ugILuLed
"unresL" (hcltunslose Unruhe),

wII cI Ius noL yeL pussed und does


noL puss us s uc I-buL Iuppens.
TII s I s LIe wuy I n wII c I HegeI wunLs Lo L II nk LIe essence oI
Geschehen us Geschehen. Or , uL LIe very IeusL, IIs L II nkI ng Lends Lo-
wurd LIIs LIougIL us I I Lowurd ILs own vunI sII ng poI nL . Mor e pre-
cIseIy, HegeI wunLs Lo L II nk LIe essence oI wIuL escupes u IogIc In
wII cI essence Is undersLood us subsLunce, subjecL, or ground, In Iu-
vor oI u I ogI c oI LIe "Lo Iuppen, " LIe wIoI e essence oI wII c I I s I n
LIe sLuLe oI "ugILuLIon" LIuL consIsLs In noL subsIsLIng (hcltunslos).
Moreover, LIe orI gI n oI LIe wor d Geschehen und ILs semunLIc use re-
Ier Lo rucI ng uI ong und I eupI ng, Lo precI pI L uL I on und suddenness,
Iur more LIun Lo process und wIuL Is produced. (n conLrusL Lo LIe
rencI wor d "vnemenL, " LIIs wor d does noL Iuve LIe sense oI u
"ouLsLundI ng or remurkubIe evenL," Ior wII cI LIere ure oLIer words
I n Ge r mu n, begI nnI ng wI L I LIe cIoseIy reIuLed L erm Geschehnis,
wIose sI IgIL dIIIerence noneLIeIess brI ngs ouL LIe verbuI , ucLIve,
und busy [pcsscnt] cIurucLer oI Geschehen.)
n c omI ng Lo LIIs recognI LI on, one cerLuI nI y LoucIes on LIe ex-
Lreme I I mI L oI wIuL IL Is possIbIe Lo muke HegeI suy. SucI Is noL u
16q
The Surprise oj the Etent The Surprise oj the Etent
16
muLLer oI exercIsIng InLerpreLIve vIoIence, nor Is IL u muLLer oI muk-
I ng HegeI , conLrury Lo IIs own muxI m, Ieup over IIs own LI me. L Is
u muLLer oI reuIIzIng LIuL Ie musL be mude Lo suy LIIs, Iowever sur-
prI sI ng LIuL mI gIL seem Lo LIe "HegeI I uns" (I I LIere ure uny IeIL),
und u muLLer oI noL I ng LIuL HegeI' s own L I me I n pII I osopIy, LIe
LI me oI LIe modern cI osureJopenI ng, I ncI udes LIIs surprIse wI L II n
I L s eI I -u secreL [sourde] unxIeLy (Unruhe) regurdIng LIe evenL.
TI I n k I n g LIe evenL In ILs essence us evenL surprIses HegeI I un
L II nkI ng I rom LIe InsIde. OI course, sucI u LIougIL cIoses I n on IL-
seII jusL us quI ckI y us IL Is opened. n sIorL, HegeI IeLs LIe Geschehen
come und go, Iuppen und Ieuve, wI L IouL seIzIng IL. BuL Ie does
sLuLe, noneLIeIess, LIuL IL Iuppens Lo II m und LIuL IL Is wIuL Is Lo
be LIougIL, uI LIougI IL goes beyond IIs own dIscourse.
Or ruLIer, one couI d jusL us eusIIy suy LIe IoI I owI ng: HegeI seIzes
LIe Geschehen, Ie sLops IL or InspecLs IL In ILs comI ng und goI ng; Ie
IIxes ILs concepL (IL Is Geschichte). BuL In doI ng so, Ie demonsLruLes
LIuL IL Is exucLIy In LIe seIzIng LIuL Ie mIsses IL cs such. n LIIs wuy, Ie
opens, tolens nolens, LIe quesLIon oI LIe "us sucI" oI LIe Geschehen.
TIe "us sucI" oI LIe evenL wouI d be ILs BeI ng. BuL LIen LIIs
wouI d Iuve Lo be LIe beI ng-IuppenI ng, or eIse LIe beIng-LIuL-
Iuppens, ruLIer LIun LIe BeI ng oI wIuL Iuppens-L IuL Is, oI wIuL Is
IuppenI ng-or even LIe BeI ng oI LIe "LIuL IL Iuppens." Or Lo puL IL
unoLIer wuy, IL wouI d noL be LIe "LIere Is, " buL LIe thct LIere Is, LIe
thct wI LIouL wII cI LIere wouI d be noLII ng. TIe dIIIerence beLween
"I L Is" und "LIere Is" consIsLs precIseIy In LIe IucL LIuL LIe there murks
LIe proper InsLunce oI LIe LukI ng pIuce oI BeI ng, wI L IouL wII cI Be-
I ng wouI d noL be. TIuL LIere Is = LIe BeI ng oj BeI ng, or LIe LrunsI-
LIve BeI ng oI LIe InLrunsILIve or subsLunLIve BeI ng, LIe evenL oI Be-
I ng LIuL Is necessury In order Ior BeI ng Lo be; IL does noL In uny
sense equuI LIe subsLunce, subjecL, or ground oI BeI ng. TIe evenL oI
BeI ng, wII cI Is In no wuy BeI ng, Is noneLIeIess BeI ng " I L seI I " -L Ie
sume us wIuL hcs not been, us IL were, or, more precIseIy, LIe sume us
noL IuvI ng been, LIe sume us noL II ng. . . .
TIereIore, wIuL Is opened wI L I LIe quesLI on oI LIe "us sucI" oI
LIe evenL Is someL II ng on LIe order oI u neguLIvILy oI LIe "us sucI. "
Ho w Is one Lo L II nk "us sucI" wIere LIe "us" does noL reIer Lo uny
one "sucI"? Here, L II nkI ng Is surprIsed In LIe sLrong sense oI LIe
word: IL Is cuugIL I n LIe ubsence oI L II nkI ng [elle est prise en dejcut
de pensee]. TII s Is noL Lo suy LIuL IL Ius noL IdenLIIIed ILs objecL, buL
ruLIer LIuL LIere Is no IdenLIIIubIe objecL II "LIe evenL" cunnoL even
be suId or seen "us sucI, " LIuL Is, II one cunnoL even express "LIe
evenL" wI L IouL ILs I osI ng ILs evenL-ness.
eL us dweI I upon LIIs cIurucLerIsLIc oI surprIse.
TIere Is, LIen, someL II ng Lo be L IougIL -L Ie evenL -L Ie very
nuLure oI wII c I-e v e nL - ne s s -c un onI y be u muLLer oI surprIse,
cun onI y Luke L II nkI ng by surprIse. We need Lo L II nk ubouL Iow
L IougIL cun und musL be s ur pr I s e d-und Iow I L muy be exucLIy
LIIs LIuL mukes I L L II nk. Or LIen uguI n, we need Lo L II nk ubouL
Iow LIere wouI d be no LIougIL wI L IouL LIe evenL oI L II nkI ng.
To L II nk LIe surprIse oI LIe evenL musL be someL II ng oLIer LIun
quesL I onI ng LIe unL II nkubI e, I n wIuLever mode LIIs mI gIL occur,
und uIso, oI course, someL II ng oLIer LIun wI nnI ng over surprIse I n
order Lo deLucI IL I rom ILs (sur)prIse by ussIgnIng IL u pIuce under u
concepL. TII s undoubL edI y comes down Lo L II nkI ng L IrougI LIe
Ieup LIuL Is Luken uL LIe very core oI LIe HegeI I un Geschehen, LIe
dI uI ecLI cuI sprI ng I ocuLed uL LIuL poI nL wIere, beIore beI ng LIe
meuns oI LIe |dIuIecLIc's| dr I vI ng Iorce, IL musL be ILs reIuxuLIon or
reIeuse, und, LIereIore, ILs ter |eIIe-mme| neguLIvILy. As sucI, IL Is
Iess u muLLer oI LIe concepL oI surprIse LIun oI u surprIse oI [c
meme] LIe concepL, essenLIuI Lo LIe concepL.
n goI ng mucI IurLIer buck LIun HegeI , us Iur buck us LIe PI u-
LonI c und ArI sLoLeI I un Lopos oI "wonder, " wIuL muy need Lo be un-
dersLood Is LIe IucL LIuL LIIs Lusk Is LIe Lusk oI pII I osopIy, und LIuL
pII I osopIy Is surprised thouht |Iu pense surprIse|. We come buck
Lo LIIs Lopos uguIn und uguIn, us II Lo uwuken LIe Ideu oI u IIrsL
"wonder, " wII cI Is boLI u sorL oI rupLure und un udmI ssI on oI I g-
norunce, und wII cI sLurLs sucI "wonder" on ILs wuy Lowurd ILs own
seII-upproprIuLIon, LIuL Is, ILs seII-resorpLIon.
I we puy cIose uLLenLI on Lo LIe Metcphsics (specIIIcuII y Az) ,
wIuL ArI sL oL I e LeIIs us Is LIuL "pII I osopIy" Is LIe scIence wII cI Is
i The Surprise oj the Etent The Surprise oj the Etent
16;
neI LIer "prucLI cuI " nor "poeLI c, " und LIe scIence wII c I proceeds
I rom wonder-insojcr cs LIIs Is exucLIy wIuL provIdes uccess Lo LIuL
scIence wII c I Is ILs own end. Wonder , L Ien, does noL uppeur us
some Ignorunce Lo be overcome or us un uporIu Lo be surmounL ed,
wII cI wouI d be u sILuuLIon wIereI n one scIence couI d noL reuIIy be
dI sLI nguI sIed I rom LIe oLIers; InsLeud, wonder uppeurs us u dI spo-
sI L I on L owurd sophic Ior ILs own suke. Wonder , L Ien, Is properI y
pII I o-sopII cuI . One couI d even uppeuI Lo LIIs InLerpreLuLIon In suy-
I ng LIuL wonder I s uIreudy, by ILseII, I ound wI L II n LIe eIemenL oI
sophic or, In u puruIIeI munner, LIuL sophic IoI ds wI L II n ILseI I LIe
momenL oI wonder. (n LIe sume pussuge, ArI sL oL I e decIures LIuL
LIe philomuthos, LIuL Iover oI myLIs und LIeIr usLonIsIIng wonders,
Is uIso, In some wuy, u philosophos.) n us muc I us IL Is conL uI ned
wI L II n sophic und noL suppressed, LIe momenL oI wonder I s LIuL
oI u surprIse kepL uL LIe very core oI sophic und consLI LuLI ve oI IL,
InsoIur us IL Is ILs own end. On LIe one Iund, knowI edge LIuL Is noL
ordered or urrunged by unyL II ng eIse Is vuIuubIe onI y us ILs own up-
peurI ng; on LIe oLIer Iund, und recIprocuIIy, LIe uppeurIng ILseII Is
LIe onI y Lrue objecL oI knowI e dg e -I I I L cun, I n IucL, be un objecL.
Sophic musL surprIse ILseII, und LIe surprIse musL be " known. "
TIus , LIe surprIse oI LIe evenL wouI d noL onI y be u I I mI L -sI L uu-
LI on Ior LIe knowI edge oI BeI ng, IL wouI d uIso be ILs essenLIuI I orm
und essenLIuI end. r om LIe very begI nnI ng oI pII I osopIy Lo ILs
end, wIere ILs begI nnI ng Is repIuyed In new Lerms, LIIs surprIse Is
uI I LIuL Is uL sLuke, u sLuke LIuL Is IILeruII y I nL ermI nubI e.
AguI n, IL Is necessury Lo sLuy precIseIy wI L II n LIe eIemenL oI won-
de r -L Iu L Is, wI L II n wIuL couI d never properI y be mude I nL o un
"eIemenL," buL Is InsLeud un evenL. Ho w Is one Lo sLuy In LIe evenL?
Ho w Is one Lo IoI d onL o IL (I I LIuL Is even un upproprIuLe expres-
sIon) wI L IouL L ur nI ng I L I nL o un "eIemenL" or u "momenL"? Under
wIuL condI L I ons cun one keep L II nkI ng wI L II n LIe surprIse, wII cI
Is ILs Lusk Lo LII nk?
We wI I I exumI ne some oI LIese condI L I ons, uL IeusL I n u pr eI I mI -
nury wuy.
eL us begI n uguIn wI L I LIIs: "LIe surprIse oI LIe evenL" Is u Luu-
LoIogy. A n d IL Is precIseIy LIIs L uuL oI ogy LIuL musL IIrsL be ex-
pressed. TIe evenL surprIses or eIse IL Is noL un evenL; so IL Is uII u
muLLer oI knowI ng wIuL "surprIse" Is.
n u bI rL I or In u deuL I-exumpI es wII cI ure noL exumpIes, buL
more LIun exumpIes; LIey ure LIe L II ng I L seI I -L Iere Is LIe evenL,
someL II ng| uwuILed, someLII ng LIuL mI gIL Iuve been ubIe Lo be. L
cun uIso be IormuI uLed I I ke LIIs: wIuL Is uwuILed Is never LIe evenL;
IL Is LIe udvenL, LIe resuIL; IL Is wIuL Iuppens. AL LIe end oI nI ne
monL Is, one expecLs LIe bI r L I, buL LIuL IL Lukes pIuce Is wIuL Is
sLrucLuruI I y unexpecLed I n LIIs wuI L I ng. Or more precIseIy, LIe un-
uwuI L e d-und LIe unuwuI L ^^JI -I s noL "LIe IucL LIuL" LIIs Lukes
pIuce, In LIe sense LIuL LIIs "IucL" muy I LseI I be cI rcumscrI bed
wI L II n LIe sequence oI u process und be u gIven oI LIe experIence.
L Is noL "LIe IucL LIuL"; IL Is LIe thct ILseII oI LIe "LIuL IL Iuppens" or
LIe "LIuL LIere Is. " Or even beLLer, IL Is LIe "I L Iuppens" us dI sLI ncL
I rom uI I LIuL precedes I L und I rom everyLII ng uccordI ng Lo wII cI
IL Is codeLermI ned. L Is LIe pure presenL oI LIe "I L Iuppens " -und
LIe surprIse Ius Lo do wI L I LIe presenL us sucI, In LIe presence oI
LIe presenL InsoIur us IL Iuppens.
TIuL IL Iuppens Is u quidditcs, wII c I Is neI LIer LIuL oI "wIuL
Iuppens" nor oI LIe "I L Iuppens. " L Is noL even LIuL oI LIe succes-
sIon or sImuILuneILy oI LIe "LIuL" uL LIe IeurL oI uII "LIuL's." As KunL
suys, In order Lo L II nk oI some L II ng LIuL occurs In u serIes, IL Is
necessury Lo conceIve oI IL us LIe cIunge oI u subsLunce (wII cI |IL-
seII| remuIns I denL I cuI , us I n LIe "I rsL AnuI ogy oI ExperI ence"),
und IL Is necessury Lo reIer LIIs cIunge buck Lo cuusuIILy ("Second
AnuI ogy oI ExperI ence"). " | TIe| concepL oI uI LeruLI on supposes
one und LIe sume subjecL us exIsLIng wI L I Lwo opposILe deLermI nu-
LI ons, und LIereby us ubI dI ng. "
;
OuL s I de LIIs concepL oI cIunge,
LIere Is sI mpI y no concepL oI "some L II ng, " Ior LIen LIere wouI d
be " comI ng I nLo beI ng und pussIng uwuy oI subsLunce," wII cI cun-
noL Luke pIuce " I n L I me, " buL ruLIer musL Luke pIuce excIusIveIy cs
time itselj. YeL, "LI me cunnoL be perceIved I n ILseII." TIe pure oc-
currI ng (dcs blosse Enstehen)-In oLIer words, LIe ex nihilo und uIso
I 68 The Surprise oj the Etent
The Surprise oj the Etent
LIe in nihilum-Is noL II ng Ior wII cI LIere Is u concepL; IL Is LI me
"ILseII," ILs purudoxIcuI I denL I L y und permunence us "empLy L I me. "
TIe evenL us sucI, LIen, Is empL y L I me or LIe presence oI LIe
presenL us neguLIvILy, LIuL Is, InsoIur us IL Iuppens und Is, us u re-
suI L, nonpr es enL -und In sucI u wuy LIuL IL Is noL even "noL yeL
presenL" (wII cI wouI d reInscrIbe everyLIIng In u successIon oI pre-
senLs uIreudy uvuIIubIe " I n LI me"), buL Is, on LIe conLrury, LIe sorL
|oI LIIng| LIuL noL II ng precedes or succeeds. L Is L I me ILseII In ILs
uppeurIng, us LIe uppeurIng LIuL IL I s.
8
BuL empL y L I me or LIe voI d oI L I me "us sucI, " u voI d wII c I I s
noL un empLI ness I nLerI or Lo uny I or m, buL LIe condI L I on oI LIe
IormuLI on oI every I orm, Is noL u "LII ng In ILseII," beyond reucI und
uccessIbIe onI y Lo un intuitus oriincrius. " EmpL y L I me, " or LIe ur-
L I cuI uL I on oI LIe nihillquid us nonsuccessIve, us LIe IuppenI ng or
comI ng oI someL II ng In generuI, Is L I me ILseII, In LIuL IL Is noL suc-
cessIvILy, buL LIuL wII c I does noL succeed und I s noL permunenL
subsLunce. One wouI d Iuve Lo suy IL In LIe I oI I owI ng wuy: IL Is per-
munence wI L IouL subsLunce, LIe presenL wI L IouL presence; ruLIer
LIun LIe comI ng [lc tenue], IL Is LIe unexpecLed urrIvuI [sur-tenueY
oI LIe L II ng ILseII. L Is neILIer (successIve) LI me, nor (dIsLrIbuLIve)
pIuce, nor (exLunL) L II ng, buL ruLIer LIe L ukI ng pIuce oI some-
L II ng -L Ie evenL. To use u wor d LIuL Is Ieuvy wI L I LIe weI gIL oI
un enormous L rudI L I on, wII c I I L wI I I be necessury Lo probI emuLI ze
IuLer, IL Is crection.
EmpL y LI me, or neguLIvILy us LI me, or LIe evenL, mukes ILseII LIe
" I n ILseII" oI LIe "L II ng I n ILseII." UndoubL edI y, LIIs I s exucLIy wIuL
KunL wus unubIe Lo grusp. L Is uIso wIuL HegeI und LIose oI us wIo
come uILer II m, wI L II n LIe InsIsLenL L rudI L I on oI pussIng uI ong u
L II nkI ng oI LIe evenL, ure consLunLI y uddressIng. " TI me " or "LIe
evenL" (boLI oI LIese Lerms ure sLII I Loo I I rmI y rooLed In u LIemuLIc
oI conLI nuous-dI sconLI nuous successIon) murk ouL, or jusL ure, LIe
"posI LI on oI exIsLence" us sucI: LIe nihillquid LIuL cunnoL even be
expressed us "I rom LIe nihil to LIe quid." TII s Is LIe evenL oI Be-
I ng, neI LIer us un uccIdenL nor us u predIcuLe, buL us LIe BeI ng oI
BeI ng [l'etre de l'etre].
Accor dI ng Lo LIese condI LI ons, LIe evenL Is noL "someLII ng" be-
yond LIe knowubI e or LIe suyubI e-und, us sucI, resLrIcLed Lo LIe
beyond-speecI und beyond-knowI edge oI u mysLI cuI neguLIvILy. L
Is neI LIer u cuLegory nor u meLucuLegory dI sLI ncL I r om Be I ng .
1 o
RuLIer, IL Is rIgIL uL [c meme] BeI ng, LIe necessury condI L I on Ior LIe
cuLegorIzuLIon oI BeI ng: Ior suyIng IL, uddressIng IL, s ummonI ng [in-
terpeller] IL Lo LIe IeveI oI LIe surprIse oI ILs unexpecLed urrIvuI.
As sucI-cls Geschehen, cls Entschehen, c Is Verschuinden, us Luk-
I ng pIuce, uppeurIng, dI suppeurI ng-L Ie evenL Is noL "presenLubIe."
(n LIIs sense, IL exceeds LIe resources oI uny pIenomenoI ogy, even
L IougI LIe pIenomenoI ogI cuI LIeme I n generuI Ius never been
more mugneLI zed by unyL II ng eIse). BuL IL Is noL, Ior uI I LIuL, " un-
presenLubIe" I I ke some II dden presence, Ior IL Is LIe unpresenLubIe
or, ruLIer, LIe unpresenLIIIubIe oI LIe presenL LIuL Is rIgIL uL LIe pre-
senL ILseII. TIe unpresenLIIIubIe oI LIe presenL Is LIe dIIIerence LIuL
sLrucLures LIe presenL, us Ius been known I rom LIe LI me oI Ar I sL o-
LIe rI gIL up unL I I LIe presenL duy, vI u HusserI und HeIdegger. TIuL
LIIs dIIIerence oI LIe presenL Is noL presenLubIe does noL meun LIuL
I L I s noL L II nkubI e -buL LIIs couI d meun LIuL L II nkI ng, I n order Lo
be LIougIL, musL ILseII become someL II ng oLIer LIun u seeIng or
knowI ng; IL musL muke ILseII LIe surprIse oIJI n ILs "objecL." n De -
IeuzIun Lerms, u becomIng-surprIse oI L II nkI ng musL correspond Lo
LIe unexpecLed urrIvuI oI LIe presenL (oI BeI ng).
n LIIs I ormuI uL I on, LIere Is no evenL "us sucI. " TII s Is becuuse
LIe evenL us evenL -L IuL Is, quo modo or uccordI ng Lo ILs own mode
(etenire quo modo etenit), LIe evenL uccordI ng Lo LIe upproprIuLe-
ness und meusure oI LIe evenL I L seI I -I s noL wIuL Is produced or
couI d be sIown (us LIe specLucuIur, us LIe newborn I nIunL, us LIe
deud mun). RuLIer, IL Is LIe evenL cs IL comes ubouL [e-tient], cs IL
Iuppens. AI mos L I mmedI uLeI y, one cun dIscern LIuL I n sI mI I ur cI r-
cumsLunces LIe moduI cs Is conIused wI L I LIe LemporuI cs (LIe one
LIuL Is used wIen one suys "us IL Iuppened, LIere wus u IIusI oI IIgIL-
nI ng" |"comme II urrIvuIL, II y euL un cIuIr"|). Here, quo modo =
quo tempore.
TIe mode oI LIe evenL, ILs "us sucI, " Is L I me ILseII us LIe L I me oI
;o
The Surprise oj the Etent
The Surprise oj the Etent
1;1
LIe unexpecLed urrI vuI . A n d LIe L I me oI LIe unexpecLed urrIvuI I s
"empLy" LI me. TIe voI d oI LI me, or beLLer sLI I I , LIe voI d us LI me, LIe
voI d I n LIe mode oI L I me, I s "neguLIvILy Ior I LseI I" (LIe pIruse by
wII cI HegeI deIInes LI me In LIe Encclopedic In z;). BuL LIIs Is
noL neguLIvILy undersLood us HegeI undersLood IL, us "ubsLrucLIy re-
IuLed Lo I LseI I" (wII cI, I n sIorL, umounLs Lo LIe KunL I un "voI d").
n LIIs cuse, one wouI d remuI n IIrmIy rooLed In u modeI oI LIe suc-
cessIon oI presenLs, u successIon dI vI ded up und reconnecLed by
LIIs ubsLrucL neguLIvILy. RuLIer, LIe reIuLIon oI neguLIvILy Lo I L seI I -
" bI r L I und deuLI, " us HegeI suys In LIe sume secL I on-musL be un-
dersLood us LIe nonubsLrucL, ILseII undersLood us noL LIe resuIL |oI
some process|. ( TII s Is exucLIy wIuL HegeI IeLs IuII by LIe wuysIde,
buL uIso wIuL Ie Is very cIose Lo wIen Ie numes LI me "LIe ubsLrucL
beI ng"). WIu L Is neI LIer ubsLrucLIon nor resuIL Is LIe unexpecLed
urrIvuI; In IucL, IL Is neguLIvILy "Ior ILseII," buL Ior ILseII onI y InsoIur
us IL Is LIe posI LI on oI BeI ng or exIsLence.
TII s posI LI vI Ly oI neguLIvILy Is noL ILs dIuIecLIcuI IecundILy. n or-
der Lo uvoI d reopenI ng LIe wIoI e Issue oI deconsL rucL I ng LIe dI -
uIecLIc, IeL us jusL suy LIuL LIIs posI LI vI Ly Is LIe exucL reverse oI LIIs
IecundI Ly, wI L IouL goI ng so Iur us Lo suy LIuL IL Is ILs dI uI ecLI cuI
sLerIIILy. L Is BeI ng or exIsLence LIuL exIsLs, |wII cI Is| neILIer en-
gendered nor unengendered, buL wII cI urrI ved unexpecLedIy, ur-
rIves unexpecL edI y-or uguIn, Is "creuLed."
NeguLIvILy, Iere, does noL deny ILseII und Is noL ruIsed up ouL oI
ILseII. L does someL II ng eIse; ILs operuL I on, or ILs I n-operuL I on, Is
oLIerwIse und obeys unoLIer mode. One couI d suy LIuL IL becomes
sLruI ned: LensI on und exLensI on, LIe onI y meuns by wII c I some-
L II ng couI d uppeur us "pussI ng-LIrougI" und "process," LIe non-
L emporuI und nonI ocuI exLensI on oI LIe tclin-plcce cs such, LIe
spucIng L IrougI wII cI LI me uppeurs, LIe LensIon oI noL II ng wII cI
opens LI me. As HeI degger puL IL: Spcnne.
TIe unexpecLed urrI vuI : LIe noL II ng sLreLcIed L o LIe poI nL oI
rupLure und Lo LIe I eupI ng-oII poI nL oI LIe urrI vuI , wIere presence
Is presenLed [pres-ente].
TIere Is u rupLure und u Ieup: rupLure, noL In LIe sense oI u breuk
wI L I LIe uIreudy presupposed LemporuI c onL I nuum, buL rupLure us
L I me ILseII, LIuL Is, us LIuL wII c I udmILs noL II ng presupposed, noL
even, or especIuIIy noL, u presupposI LI on. To do so wouI d be Lo ud-
mI L un unLecedenL oI LI me |In| Lo ILseII. TIe rupLure oI noL II ng, LIe
Ieup oI noL II ng I nL o noL II ng, Is LIe exLensIon oI neguLIvILy; or Lo
be more precIse, sInce LIe neguLIve Is noL someL II ng LIuL cun be
sLreLcIed I I ke u rubber bund, |IL Is| neguLIvILy us LensIon, u LensIon
LIuL Is noL ILseII progressIve, buL Is uII In one go, In u sIngIe sLroke,
LIe LensIonJexLensIon oI BeI ng, "LIuL LIere Is. "
I LIe evenL oI LIe "LIuL LIere Is" Ius neguLI on us ILs coroI I ury
"und noL noL II ng, " IL does noL Iuve IL us ILs neguL I ve-wII cI Is Lo
suy, noL us jusL unoLIer Inverse und symmeL rI cuI possI bI I I Ly: LIuL
LIere be "noL II ng" in the plcce oJsomeLII ng. TII s Is becuuse LIere
Is no pIuce Ior LIe L ukI ng pIuce oI u " noL II ng" In LIe guIse oI
"someL II ng. " " And noL noL II ng, " us IL Is used ubove, does noL
meun LIuL LIIs I s noL " noL II ng" wII c I exIsLs. On LIe conLrury, I L
suys LIuL noL II ng exIsLs excepL Ior "someL II ng, " und LIuL "some-
L II ng" exIsLs wI L I no presupposI LI on oLIer LIun ILs own exIsLence,
LIe exLensIon oI "noL II ng" us LIe LensIon oI ILs becomI ng-presenL,
oI ILs evenL.
(n LIIs, IL musL be conceded LIuL LIe L II nkI ng oI exIsLence wouI d
prove "noL II ng. " BuL LIe pr ooI oI noL II ng Is noL necessurIIy, or ex-
cIusIveIy, LIe unguIsI oI noL II ngness-wII cI uIwuys runs LIe rIsk
oI projecLIng LIIs "noLIIngness" us LIe ubysmuI presupposILIon (und
posLsupposILIon) oI BeI ng. nsLeud, LIe experIence [preute] oI noL I-
I ng Is wIuL we ure LryI ng Lo upproucI: LIe LIInkIng-surprIse [pensee-
surprise] oI LIe evenL.)
WIuL , LIen, Is LIe surprIse?
TII s Is exucLIy wIuL cun no Ionger be usked. TIe surprIse is not
unyL II ng. L Is noL some newness oI BeI ng LIuL wouI d be surprIs-
I ng In compurI son Lo LIe BeI ng LIuL Is uIreudy gIven. WIe n LIere Is
LIe evenL (wIeLIer LIere Is LIe evenL onI y Ior LIe LoLuIILy oI beIngs
or Ior dIverse, dIspersed, und uncerL uI n be I ngs -wII c I comes
down Lo LIe sume L II ng) , IL Is LIe "uIreudy" LIuL Ieups up, uI ong
wI L I LIe "noL yeL." L Ieups |over| every presenLed or presenLubIe
1;z
The Surprise oj the Etent The Surprise oj the Etent
1;
presenL, und LIIs Ieup Is LIe comI ng, or LIe pre-sence or prce-sens
ILseII wI L IouL u presenL.
WI e n "LIe I nIunL Is bor n, " us HegeI suys In LIe Iumous pussuge
I r om LIe Phenomenolo, LIe evenL Is noL LIuL LIe I nIunL Is bor n,
becuuse LIIs wus uIreudy weI I esLubIIsIed In LIe order oI process und
LIe modI I I cuL I on oI subsLunce. nsLeud, LIe evenL Is LIe I nL errup-
LI on oI LIe process, LIuL Ieup wII cI HegeI represenLs us LIe "quuI I -
LuLIve Ieup" oI LIe "IIrsL breuLI" (or even, us Ie suys eIsewIere, us
LIe "L r embI I ng" wII c I crosses L IrougI und dI vI des LIe muLernuI
subsLunce in utero). To use HeIdegger' s Iunguuge, Lo be born or Lo
dIe Is noL "Lo be," buL Lo be "L Irown I nL o BeI ng. "
TII nk I ng LIe Ieup cun onI y be uccompI IsIed by u Ieup oI LIougIL
- b y LIougIL us u Ieup, us LIe Ieup LIuL IL knows und Is uwure oI be-
I ng, necessurIIy. BuL IL knows ILseII und Is uwure oI ILseII cs surprise
(surprIse In ILs knowIedge und uwureness, surprIse us knowIedge und
uwureness). TIe surprIse Is noL II ng excepL LIe Ieup rIgIL uL [c meme]
BeI ng, LIIs Ieup wIere LIe evenL und L II nkI ng ure "LIe sume." n u
cerLuI n wuy, LIe L II nkI ng oI LIe surprIse repeuLs LIe PurmenI dI un
sumeness oI BeI ng und L II nkI ng.
L Ieups; buL wIo or wIuL Is LIIs "IL"? NoL II ng, no one. "L" onI y
I s I n LIe Ieup. TIuL Is, I L e x I s L s -I I LIe ek-sI sLI ng oI exIsLence I s
mude oI LIe LensIon und exLensIon beLween BeI ng und LIe beI ng,
beLween noL II ng und someL II ng. L Ieups I nL o noL II ng, und LIIs Is
Iow IL exIsLs. L Is Lo Ieup I nLo noL II ng. L Is ILseII LIe urLI cuI uLI on
oI LIe dIIIerence beLween noL II ng und someLII ng, und LIIs dIIIer-
ence Is uIso u dijjerend [ein Austrc, dIspuLe, conIIIcL, dI sL rI buL I on,
sIur I ng-us HeIdegger Iuys ouL I n LIe second voI ume oI IIs NI eL -
zscIe IecLures). TIere Is u dIsugreemenL beLween BeI ng und LIe be-
I ng: BeI ng Is In dIsugreemenL wI L I LIe presenL, gI ven, dIsposed be-
Ing-ness [etcntite] oI LIe beI ng, und LIe beI ng Is In dIsugreemenL
wI L I LIe subsLunLIuI , I oundI ng essenLIuIILy oI BeI ng. TIe dIsugree-
menL Is u dIsugreemenL wI L I LIuL wII cI, b cccordin ein to the
bein, uould hcte ecsed the tension oj el-sistin. DIsugreemenL, LIen,
consLILuLes LIe evenL: LIe nonpresence oI LIe comI ng Lo presence,
und ILs ubsoIuLe surprIse.
BuL LIIs Is noL u surprIse Ior u subjecL. No one Is surprIsed, jusL us
no one IeupL. TIe surprI se-L Ie evenL -does noL beI ong Lo LIe or-
der oI represenLuLIon. TIe surprIse Is LIuL LIe I e u p-o r beLLer LIe
" I L , " LIe "someone" wIo occurs In LIe Ieup und, In sIorL, occurs us
LIe Ieup "I L seI I "-surprI ses ILseII. L is surprIsed; IL Is InsoIur us IL Is
surprIsed LIuL IL I s -u n d IL Is us surprIse, surprIsIng ILseII In LIe gIur-
I ng ubsence oI beIng-presenL. L surprIses ILseII precIseIy InsoIur us
IL represenLs neILIer "ILseII" nor ILs surprIse. TIe Ieup coIncIdes wI L I
LIe surprIse; IL Is noL II ng buL LIIs surprIse, wII cI sLIII does noL even
"beI ong" Lo IL.
TIe LensIon or exLensIon oI LIe Ieup, LIuL Is, LIe spucIng oI LI me,
LIe dIscord oI BeI ng us ILs LruLI: LIIs Is LIe surprIse. TIe Spcnne Is
noL surprIsIng In LIuL IL comes Lo LroubIe or desLubIIIze u subjecL LIuL
wus LIere, buL In ILs LukI ng someone LIere uhere he is not, or InsoIur
us IL overLukes II m, seIzes II m, puruIyzes II m insojcr cs he is not there.
TII s "noL beI ng LIere" Is exucLIy LIe mosL upproprIuLe mode oI
"beI ng LIere," sInce IL Is u muLLer oI "I eupI ng I nLo BeI ng, " or u muL-
Ler oI exIsLIng. " No L Lo be LIere" Is noL Lo be uIreudy LIere, buL Lo
be LIe LIere ILseII (wIIcI Is LIe prI ncI puI exIsLenLIuI condI L I on oI Dc-
sein). TIe "LIere" Is LIe spucIng oI LIe LensIon, oI LIe ex-LensIon. L
Is spuce-LIme; IL Is noL spuce, noL LI me, noL u coupI I ng oI LIe Lwo,
noL u source-poInL ouLsIde LIe Lwo, buL LIe orIgInury dIvIsIon [coupe]
und cII usm LIuL opens LIem up Lo one unoLIer.
TIe surprIse I s LIe Ieup I nL o LIe spuce-LIme oI noL II ng, wII c I
does noL come "beIore" or I rom "eIsewIere"; us sucI, IL Is LIe Ieup
I nL o LIe spuce-LIme oI spuce-LIme "ILseII." L Is LIe LukI ng pIuce oI
pIuce, oI LIe LIere LIuL Is noL u pIuce "Ior" BeI ng, buL BeI ng us
pIuce, beIng-LIe-LIere. L Is noL presenL BeI ng, buL LIe present oj e-
in insojcr cs it hcppens, und LIereIore InsoIur us IL Is noL.
L Is In LIIs wuy LIuL LIe surprIse oI LIe evenL Is neguL I vI L y-buL
noL neguLI vI Ly us u resource, us un uvuIIubIe I ounduL I on, us noL I-
Ingness or un ubyss I rom LIe depLIs oI wII c I LIe evenL wouI d
come; Ior sucI un "evenL" wouI d sLII I be u resuIL. TIe noL II ng (I n
order Lo keep LIIs drI ed-up wor d und Lo muke IL IncIsIve Ior every
"ubyss" und uI I LIeI r vurIous depLIs), wII c I Is "uL boL L om" |"uu
Iond"| noL II ng und no more LIun LIe noL II ng oI u Ieup I nL o noL I-
I ng, Is LIe neguLIvILy LIuL Is noL u resource buL LIe uIII rmuLI on oI
1;q
The Surprise oj the Etent The Surprise oj the Etent
1;
ek-sIsLenL LensIon: ILs InLensILy, LIe I nLensI Ly or surprI sI ng Lone oI
exIsLence.
Ac c or dI ng Lo LIese condI L I ons, I I u scIemuLI sm oI LIe surprIse
were necessury-und IL Is necessury; IL Is wIuL concerns us Iere; IL
Is necessury Lo gIve LIe u prI orI condI LI ons oI gruspIng LIe surprIse
us sucI, LIe condI LI ons oI u surprIse seIzure oI s ur pr I s e-I L couI d
be suId LIuL LIe surprIse Is LIe scIemuLI sm ILseII. or II LIe scIemu-
LI sm Is LIe producL I on oI u "pure vI sI on, " unLerIor Lo every IIgure,
und II "pure vI sI on" Is ILseII LIe ex-posI LI on oI L I me us "pure uuLo-
uI I ecLI on, "" IL Is In pure uuLo-uIIecLIon LIuL vI sI on sees ILseII seeIng
und, in this uc, sees-(LIe) noL II ng. n generuI, LIe scIemuLI sm
Is prI ncI puI I y LIe vI sI bI I I L y oI noL II ng us u condI L I on Ior LIe possI-
bI I I L y oI uny vI sI bI I I L y oI someLII ng. n every vI sI on oI someLII ng,
LIe vI sI on IIrsL oI uII sees ILseII us pure vI sI on, seeIng noL II ng, seeIng
noL II ng L Ie r e -und yeL, IL Is uIreudy "vI sI on, " und us sucI Is uIeud
oI ILseI I or ouLsI de ILseII, noL u II gure und LIe II gure oI LIe noL I-
I ng -L II s surprI sI ng I I gure wI L IouL I I gure LIuL LIe evenL oI BeI ng
Lruces In u IIusI.
TIereIore, LIe s cIemuL I s m-und uI ong wI L I I L, uII Lrunscenden-
LuI I mugI nuL I on-wouI d neILIer be some sorL oI "I muge" (us Is uI -
reudy weI I known) nor some sorL oI urcIe-Imuge, uny more LIun I L
wouI d be u sorL oI subI I me ubyss oI LIe breukI ng down oI LIese I m-
uges. Mo r e sI mpI y, more unI mugI nubI y, I L wouI d be LIe evenL-
scIemu, LIe I I gIL I ng oI LIe Lruce sLreLcIed ouL rIgIL uL noL II ng und
LIe pure uI I I rmuLI on oI exIsLence. I nuI I y, I L wouI d noL even be
" bI r L I" or "deuLI, " buL onI y wIuL LIese I ncI sI ons dIssecL: LIe BeI ng
oI u beI ng, ILs evenL.
W I I I IL be suId, LIen, LIuL LIIs evenL Is u n I q u e -I n LIe sense In
wII c I HeI degger speuks oI LIe "I undumenL uI evenL oI DuseI n"?
1 z
CerLuInIy. n u cerLuIn respecL, LIere Is noL II ng upurL I rom un evenL,
und LIere Is noL II ng "oI LIe evenL" LIuL Is scuLLered Iere und LIere
wI L I no connecLI on Lo essenLIuI evenL-ness. TIere Is un evenL, u sur-
prIse. WIu L exIsLs does noL recover; IL does noL reLurn. L Is Lo exIsL.
BuL LIe unI L y oI LIe evenL Is noL numerI cuI . L does noL consIsL
In beI ng guLIered uL u poI nL oI orI gI n (Ior onLoI ogy, LIere Is no BI g
Bung). Becuuse IL Is or creuLes surprIse, ILs nuLure und sLrucLure ure
sucI us Lo be dIspersed In LIe IIow [l'clec] oI evenLs, und, us u re-
suIL, uIso In LIe IIow oI LIuL wII cI does noL consLILuLe un evenL und
wI L Idruws dIscreeLIy I nL o LIe I mpercepL I bI e c onL I nuum, I nL o LIe
mur mur oI "I I Ie" Ior wII cI exIsLence Is LIe excepLIon.
I LIe evenL were I undumenLuI und unI que I n LIe or dI nu r y -or
"meLupIysI cuI "-sense oI LIese words, I L wouI d be gI ven, und LIIs
gI vI ng wouI d uIso be LIe orI gI nury dI ssoI uL I on oI uII evenL-ness.
TIere wouI d be no surprIse. On I y becuuse I L I s noL gIven, buL I n-
sLeud Iuppens, Is LIere surprIse und un unpredI cLubI e [clectoire]
muI L I pI I cI L y oI wIuL mI gIL now be cuIIed LIe urrIvuIs (or LIe "urrIv-
Ings") oI LIe unI que evenL. n LIIs sense, LIere ure onI y evenLs,
wII cI meuns LIuL "LIere Is" Is evenLIIke [etenementiel] (Sein, Erei-
nis). TII s meuns LIey ure noL onI y dIverse, dIscreLe, und dIspersed,
buL uIso rure. Or , I n oLIer words: LIe evenL I s sI muI L uneousI y
unI que, I nnumerubI e, und rure.
L never sLops IuppenI ng-und surprI sI ng. TII nk I ng never sLops
cuL cII ng ILseI I In LIe ucL [se surprendre c] oI seeIng IL c omI ng, ILs
open I ook L urned upon LIe Lrunspurency oI noL II ng. A LIougIL Is
un evenL: wIuL I L L II nks Iuppens Lo I L LIere, wIere I L I s noL. An
evenL Is u LIougIL: LIe LensIon und Ieup I nL o LIe noL II ng oI BeI ng.
L Is In LIIs sense LIuL " BeI ng und L II nkI ng ure LIe sume" und LIuL
LIeIr sumeness Lukes pIuce uccordI ng Lo LIe IncIsIve ex-LensIon oI
ek-sIsLence.
L Is uIso In LIIs sense LIuL IL mI gIL be suId LIuL LIe creuLIon oI
LIe wor I d I s LIe LIougIL oI Go d . |We couI d suy LIIs| I I I rom now
o n -g I v e n LIuL LIe uncondI L I oned I s no I onger subjecLed Lo LIe
condI L I on oI LIe supreme b e I ng -I L were noL uIso necessury Ior us
Lo L II nk LIIs wI L IouL " Go d " und wI L IouL u "creuLor": LIIs Is wIuL Is
meunL by LIe demund Lo L II nk oI LIe evenL us we Iuve I nIerI Led IL
I rom HegeI .
|SInce HegeI | uL LIe very I eus L -I L mI gIL be necessury Lo puy
some renewed uLLenLI on Lo LIe wor k oI PurmenI des IImseI I, pur-
LI cuI urI y Lo Iow onLoI ogI cuI L ruL I Is I nscrI bed LIere In LIe recILu-
L I on oI un evenL. AILer uI I , LIe poem I mmedI uL eI y opens onL o LIe
i; The Surprise oj the Etent
presenL wI L I "LIe Iorses wII cI curry me, " wIere noL II ng IndIcuLes
u sL oppI ng poI nL In uny I ormuI wuy. n IucL, LIe speuker's cIurI oL
enLers LIe domuI n oI LIe goddess, buL LIIs domu I n I s onI y pre-
senLed us LIe roud opened wI de by LIe gupI ng openI ng LIuL DI ke
ugreed L o open. He , LIe "young mun, " LIe one wIo "knows" or
"sees" IIs roud "puss L IrougI uI I LIe cI LI es, " does noL come down
I r om IIs cIurI oL. He I s I nsL rucL ed by LIe goddess uI ong LIe wuy,
wI L IouL sLoppI ng, I nsLrucLed noL ubouL BeI ng buL ubouL LIe "I L Is. "
PussIng L IrougI LIe openI ng, Ie sees LIuL LIere Is; LIuL Is uI I LIuL
Iuppens Lo II m, und noL II ng eIse ever Iuppens -wIen someL II ng
Iuppens.
L Is precIseIy LIIs LIuL musL be suId und L IougIL -L Ier e Is noL I-
I ng buL LIIs Lo suy und Lo L II nk; uI I meunI ng Is LIere.
WIu L meunI ng, LIen? TIe meunI ng LIuL mukes IL LIe cuse LIuL
"LIere Is"; LIuL wII cI desLInes or provokes BeI ng I nL o IuppenI ng;
LIuL wII c I sends BeI ng on ILs wuy I nL o Iuppe nI ng-I nL o Iuppen-
I ngJurrI vI ngJI euvI ng. WIu L Is LIIs? TII s cunnoL be represenLed us
un uxI om, or us u IucL. L wI I I be suId LIuL IL Is un "I L musL. "
Wr I L L e n beneuLI LIe LI LI e oI LIe IusL movemenL oI BeeLIoven' s
uurL eL , op. 1-"LIe decI sI on mude wI L I dI I I I cuI L y" -Ie udded
LIIs weI I - known noLe: "Muss es sein? Es muss sein." ( TII s couI d be
InLerpreLed In LIe I oI I owI ng wuy: " Mus L IL (be)? L musL (be)" |"e
I uuL -I I (Lre)? I I e IuuL (Lre)"|). I BeI ng s I mpI y were, noL II ng
wouI d ever Iuppen, und LIere wouI d noL be uny L II nkI ng. n uddI -
L I on, LIe "I L musL" Is noL LIe expressIon oI u sI mpI e, I mmunenL ne-
cessILy (oI u nuLure or desLI ny). NecessI Ly ILseII cun onI y be LIe de-
cI ded response oI L II nkI ng Lo LIe suspense oI BeI ng wIereI n I L I s
surprIsed: Muss es sein?
Humun Excess
Meusure Is LIe nume Ior LIe proprI eLy [contencnce] oI one BeI ng
Lo unoLIer, or Lo ILseII. On LIe one Iund, us proprI eLy Lo unoLIer,
meusure Is LIuL "dI mensI on" Ior wII cI LIere Is no prescrI bed pro-
prI eLy excepL Ior LIuL oI convenL I on. SysLems oI meusuremenL
[mesure] ure uI I grounded, uL IeusL In purL, on consIderuLIons oI use
(wII cI ure more or Iess mI xed up wI L I vurIous kI nds oI symboI I sm).
On LIe oLIer Iund, upurL I rom every I nL enL I on Lowurd some sorL
oI use, IL Is uIwuys possIbIe Lo meusure LIe uveruge IIIe oI u mun In
mI I I I onL Is oI u second, or In deIInILe IrucLIons oI LIe L I me IL Lukes
Ior LIe I I gIL oI u dIsLunL sLur Lo reucI us. TII s Is Iow LIe curI osI -
LIes LIuL II I I uImunucs ure obL uI ned (LIe IeI gIL oI LIe c oI umn
I ormed by uII LIe books In LIe BIbIIoLIque NuL I onuI e . . . ), IucLs
devoI d oI meunI ng buL noL oI L ruL I, uIbeIL I nI I nI LeI y I mpoverI sIed
L ruL I. WI L I I n LIIs order oI L ruL I, excess Is I mpossI bI e. uI L e Lo LIe
conLrury, IL Is LIe perIecL domuI n oI Iurge numbers, sIIILs In scuIe,
I ncommensurubI es, uI I LIe surpIuses wI L I regurd Lo uveruges, und
so I orLI. Seven mI I I I on sIx Iundr ed LIousund pounds sLerI I ng Ior
Cunovus The Grcces Is u commercI uI L ruL I LIuL Is neILIer meusured
nor excessIve. Ten bI I I I on peopI e on Eur L I Is u prospecLIve demo-
grupIIc L ruL I, wII cI Is neILIer meusured nor excessIve us sucI.
n L urn, LIese IIgures LIemseIves meusure someLII ng: LIe enguge-
menL wI L I cerLuI n evuIuuLIons wI L II n u murkeL, LIe engugemenL
wI L I u cerLuIn number oI rIsks und Lusks In u wor I d (I n u wor I d LIuL
:;;
1;8 Humcn Excess Humcn Excess
1;q
becomes wor I dI y by LIIs very engugemenL). n oLIer words, eucI
LI me LIese IIgures meusure u responsIbIIILy.
TukI ng uccounL oI LIe "excess" oI Iurge numbers someLI mes
comes down Lo sI mpI y esLubI I sII ng u proprI eL y LIuL Ius no sense
oI "excess" wI L I reI uLI on Lo I LseI I (us Is LIe cuse wI L I curI osI LI es
I rom uImunucs, record books, or LIe pureI y specLucuIur exII bI L I on
oI LIe unIverse's dI me ns I ons -uI I oI I L scIence und L ruL I Ior IooIs).
BuL someLI mes, IL Is uIso u muLLer oI br I ngI ng u cerLuIn responsI-
bI I I L y Lo I I gIL. EucI oI LIese gesLures Is LIe reverse oI LIe oLIer, so
LIuL LIe proI I IeruLI on oI Iurge numbers I n our cuI Lure, our InLeresLs
und our needs (LIe sIze oI u compuL er memory, LIe prIce oI u nu-
cIeur submurI ne, und so on) uIso deIInes LIe exponenLI uI growLI oI
sucI responsIbII ILy.
(SergIo Mor uvI u Iud LIIs IeeIIng, uIbeIL In u I orm LIuL wus sLI I I
ImprecIse und Loo MunI cIeun, wIen Ie wroLe: " Ev I I Loduy I s cuIIed
' Number ' . . . . NucI eur weupons, weupons oI muss IomI cI de, were
bor n oI Numbe r . WI L Io uL Numbe r , LIeI r I nvenL I on wouI d Iuve
been meunIngIess. TIus , LIe Numbe r oI LIe specIes Is opposed Lo
LIe Numbe r oI LIe end oI LIe specIes."')
L Is noL wI L IouL reuson LIuL LIe IIgures Ior genocIde und oLIer
Iorms oI exLermI nuLI on Iuve become, I I noL numes properI y speuk-
I ng, uL IeusL LIe semcntemes oI modernI Ly. "SI x mI I I I on" Is I ndI sso-
cIubIe I rom LIe SIouI. "SI x mI I I I on" (us weI I us IIgures Ior oLIer ex-
LermI nuLI ons und mussucres), us IL Is used, does noL meun LIe sume
us beI ng "very bI g" or "Loo II gI, " excessIve or ouL oI pr opor L I on.
Wo u I d I L be " wI L II n meusure" Lo kI I I Len Jews, or u Iundred Ar me -
nIuns, or LwenLy-IIve TuLsIs? s IL " wI L II n meusure" Lo IeL Lwo peo-
pIe dIe oI Iunger ruLIer LIun u mI I I I on? TIese IIgures do noL des-
IgnuLe u surpussIng or goI ng beyond [depcssement] (oI wIuL norm?
oI wIuL uveruge?). TIey IndIcuLe un order, u regIsLer upproprIuLe Lo
engugemenL und responsIbIIILy, oI wII cI LIey ure LIemseIves u purL.
( OI course, one musL Lruce buck Lo Mu r x LIe roIe Iurge numbers
pI uy I n wIuL mI gIL be cuI I ed moruI exposI L I on. n order Ior LIe
I uncL I on LIese numbers serve Lo j ump ouL In IronL oI our eyes IL Is
enougI Lo gIunce L IrougI uny number oI cIupLers I rom Ccpitcl,
Ior exumpI e, LIe cIupLer on LIe "GeneruI uw oI AccumuI uL I on. "
TIe IIgures ure LIere noL onI y us eIemenLs oI LIe dIscourse; LIey
precede IL. n u cerLuIn wuy, LIey IndIcuLe ILs meunI ng In udvunce
oI uI I ILs urLIcuIuLed sIgnIIIcuLIons. " CupI L uI " ILseII muy uIso be ub-
soIuLeIy generuI exposI LI on und exponenLIuIILy.)
JusL us In LIe vuI n exercIse oI curIosILy (or ILs exucL opposILe), Iere
Loo, "excess" Is ILs own proprI eLy und Iorms LIe meusure oI un " un-
Ieurd-oI " |"Inoue"| meusure. L meusures ILseII; LIuL Is, IL Is en-
guged us LoLuIILy. n Loduy's wor I d, excess [lc demesure] Is noL un ex-
cess [un exces], In LIe sense LIuL IL Is I ndeLermI nunL wI L I reIuLIon Lo
normuL I ve sLrucLures; IL does noL I or m u monsL rous excrescence
und, us sucI, Is noL doomed Lo perIsI. L consLILuLes u LendenLIous,
conL I nued upproxI muL I on oI LoLuIILy. L IndIcuLes noL so muc I LIe
degree or quunL um oI ILs mugnI Lude [rcndeur] (sIx or Len or IorLy
mI I I I on, or even 1 or zo meLers squure oI urubIe I und per person by
LIe yeur zoo), buL mugnI L ude ILseII us un ubsoIuLe wII cI LoucIes
upon unoLIer proprI eL y oI BeI ng (or LIe Iumu n, or me u n I n g -
Iowever we wunL Lo suy I L). TII s cun be I I I usLruLed I n LIe I oI I ow-
I ng wuy: LIe BI g Bung Is noL ubouL "very Iurge" quunLILIes (oI LI me,
energy, LIe dI mensI ons oI LIe UnI verse, und so on), IL Is ubouL u
mugnI Lude (LIe UnIverse) LIuL Is enLIreIy ILs own meusure, und LIe
meusure oI no oLIer.
TII s mugnI L ude, wII c I I s ILs own "excessIve" meusure or meu-
sured excess, uIso provIdes LIe scuIe oI u LoLuI responsI bI I I Ly: wIen
I L I s L IorougII y unuIyzed, LIe wIoI e muLLer oI LIe BI g Bung con-
cerns LIe IucL LIuL LIe Lrue "meusure" oI LIe unIverse Is I ound In
LIe "excessIve" responsI bI I I Ly LIuL we Iuve Ior I L, or wII c I we Luke
on I r om LIuL very momenL we meusure I n LIIs wuy. M u n us LIe
meusure oI uII LIIngs Ius Luken on u new, excessIve meunI ng: Iur re-
moved I rom every reI uLIon Lo LIe Iumun us some medI ocre sLun-
durd, und uIso Iur removed I rom ILs remnunLs, LIIs meunI ng reIuLes
Iumuns LIemseIves Lo un I mmensI L y oI responsIbIIILy.
n un uge wIere IumunI L y Is undersLood us LIe popuI uL I on oI u
very Iurge number oI peopI e, LIe humcnitcs oI IumunI L y ILseII up-
peurs us un excess LIuL gIves LIe meusure or seLs LIe sLundurd uguInsL
wII c I we musL meusure ourseIves. As sucI, u murder Is excessIve
I n reI uLI on Lo LIe ordI nury mores oI u socIuI group. BuL un exLer-
SO Humcn Excess
mI nuL I on (LIe nume oI wII cI IndIcuLes uI I Loo weI I wIuL IL Is suy-
I ng: Lo go Lo L erm, exIuusL LIe uccounL [epuiser le compte], Lo meu-
sure u peopI e onI y uguInsL ILs exIsLence wI L II n LoLuI I Ly), LIIs ILseII
meusures u socIuI reI uLI on, or ILs ubsence, us IL were. TIe opposILe
oI un exL ermI nuL I on cunnoL be I ound |by I ookI ng Ior some| "jusL
meusure": IL musL recI uI m LIe sume LoLuIILy. TII s Is uIso LIe meun-
I ng oI demogrupII c musLery: IumunI L y us LoLuI I Ly cI eurI y comes
down L o beI ng IumunI Ly' s responsI bI I I Ly. TII s responsI bI I I L y I s
gIven wI L IouL meusure, becuuse LIe quesLIon Is noL Iow muny peo-
pIe LIe Eur L I or LIe unIverse cun supporL, buL ruLIer wII cI peopIe
I L cun supporL, wII cI exIsLences. Number , Iere, I mmedI uL eI y con-
verLs ILs mugnI Lude I nLo moruI mugnILude: LIe sIze oI IumunI L y be-
comes IndIssocIubI e I rom ILs dI gnI Ly.
BuL LIIs dI gnI Ly, LIIs humcnitcs, Is noL ILseII gIven us u meusure
(Lo beIIeve LIuL IL Is consLILuLes LIe noLorIous weukness oI uII dI s-
courses oI "meusured" und meusurI ng IumunI sm). n u cerLuIn wuy,
uI I cuIIs Lo "meusure" ure In vuI n, sInce LIere Is no excess LIuL cun
be deL ermI ned wI L I reI uLI on Lo u gI ven meusure, nor m, scuIe, or
meun. TIus , LIe use undJor ruIe LIuL gIves LIe meusure musL ILseII
be I nvenLed.
n our cuILure, u I ong perI od oI ruIe wus needed In order Lo recuII
Iow muc I LIe uncIenL wor I d wus u wor I d oI meusure, und Iow I L
wus LIuL under LIIs IeudI ng, perIups more LIun uny oLIer, IL Iud
Lo be u modeI Ior us (modeI und meusure, modeI oI meusure, und
meusure oI LIe modeI : LIIs uI I mukes up u Iurge purL oI our II sLory
und meLupIysIcuI consLILuLIon). L wus u worI d oI weII-deIIned I I mI L ,
u wor I d oI LIe IorI zon, oI phronesis, mesotes, und metron. Hubris ucs
LIe meusurubIe excess pur exceIIence, und one knew, or couI d know
I n prI ncI pI e, I I Aj ux, AnL I gone, or Cr e on, Cuesur or BruL us sur-
pussed LIe meusure und one couI d know wII c I meusure wus ex-
ceeded. TIus , meusure Is LIe proprI eL y oI BeI ng Lo ILseII. L Is ILs
mode (ILs LemperumenL, ILs r IyL Im, ILs own [propre] coIerence),
noL ILs dI mensI on.
L I s noL I mpor L unL wIeLIer LIIs I nLerpreLuLI on oI LIe uncI enL
Humcn Excess
8 I
wor I d Is uccuruLe or noL. WIu L Is I mporL unL Is LIuL we Iuve seL up
LIIs mo d e I -u n d LIuL IL geLs exIuusLed. L Is exIuusLed becuuse IL
does noL Luke I nL o uccounL (us LIe proper mode, us LIe proprI eL y
oI BeI ng Lo ILseI I) LIuL LIe meusure oI LIe moder n wor I d I s ILseII
LIe "excessIve" mode oI I nII nI Ly.
Ls orI gI n [protencnce] Is undoubLedI y CIrI sL I un; or ruLIer, CIr I s-
LI unI Ly wus onI y ever LIe InsLuIIuLIon oI LIIs I nII nI Le mode oI BeI ng.
ProperI y speukIng, CIrI sL I unI L y Iud I ong conceuIed LIe LruLI oI LIIs
InIInILe mode under LIe uppurenL preservuLIon oI u meusurubIe meu-
sure, LIe meusure oI LIe creuLed BeI ng [l'etre cree]. As u creuLure, Be-
I ng Iud Lo observe LIe proprI eLy oI ILs dependence. BuL InsoIur us
LIe wIoI e oI creuLIon essenLIuIIy currIes LIe murk or vesLIge oI ILs
creuLor us ILs proper mode (mun I n LIe Imuge oI Go d wus noL II ng
more LIun LIe pI nnucI e oI LIIs sLrucLure or process), IL ILseII Ius us
ILs proprI eLy LIe I mmensI Ly, LIe nonmeusure, oI LIe creuLor. To puL
IL more precIseIy, LIIs Is LIe nonmeusure oI LIe ucL oI creuLI on
(wIere LIe subjecL creuLor Is noL II ng oLIer LIun ILs ucL), wII cI Ius
us ILs properLy LIe Iuck oI meusure und LIe IucL LIuL IL operuLes wI L I-
ouL meusure, us dIsLIncL I rom uII cosmogony. n IucL, creuLIon meuns
LIe nonorI gI n [non-protencnce] oI exIsLence us sucI, wI L I no oLIer
meusure or mode, und IL meuns BeIng's ubsoIuLe und excIusIve pro-
prIeLy Lo ILseII.
As Ior " Go d, " Ie Is onI y LIe InLerpreLuLIon oI LIIs excess In Lerms
oI u process und us LIe ugenL oI pr oducL I on. BuL LIIs Is uIso wIy,
even wI L II n LIe I rumework oI LIIs I nL erpreL uL I on, creuLI on Ius
brougIL ubouL so muny compI ex eIuboruLIons on LIe sLrucLure und
exLenL oI IIs ucL: on LIe "ex nI II I o, " on God' s expunsI on ouL oI
II mseI I or reLreuL I nLo IImseII, on LIe vurIous LIemes oI Iove, gIory,
gI vI ng, or ubundonmenL. A I I LIese consIderuLIons gruvILuLe Lowurd
LIe I oI I owI ng: "creuLIon" Is LIe ubsoIuLe meusure, LIe BeI ng wII cI
Is, unL o ILseII, LIe pure und sI mpI e proprI eLy oI ILs exIsLence.
TIe resuIL I s LIuL LIe I ormuI u Ior Go d , us LIe meusure oI uII
LII ngs, does noL Iuve LIe sume meunI ng Ior PI uL o us IL does Ior
HegeI . or PI uLo, Go d Is LIe meusure oI u reIuLIon beLween eucI ex-
I sLI ng L II ng [existcnt] und ILs own mode oI beI ng; us sucI, Go d I s
LIe ubsoIuLe meusure oI LIe moduI I zuL I on oI beIngs. or HegeI ,
18z Humcn Excess
Humcn Excess 18
Go d Is LIe excessIve meusure [(de)mesure] uccordIng Lo wII cI BeI ng
Is moduI I zed us BeI ng, essenLIuIIy und In every exIsLIng L II ng (wII cI
uIso I mpI I es LIuL IIs own mode Ius jusL us muc I Lo do wI L I noL I-
Ingness und becomI ng).
Up Lo u cerLuIn poI nL , HegeI represenLs LIIs meusure-L Ie beIng-
moduI [l'etre-mode] oI BeI ng I LseI I -us un ubsoIuLe meusure, us un
ubsoIuLeIy IInIsIed or uccompI I sIed InIInILy.
TII s cun be LrunscrI bed I nL o unoLIer regIsLer I n LIe I oI I owI ng
wuy: Ior HegeI , us weI I us Ior PI uLo, LIere Is un ubsoIuLe jusLIce Lo
ubsoIuLe meusure. n moduI I zI ng ILseII, BeI ng conIers on ILseII LIe
rI gIL modes [justes modes] oI ILs moduI I LI es (und precIseIy becuuse
IL moduI I zes ILseII, or becuuse ILs sLrucLure Is subjecLIvILy). n pr I n-
cI pI e, L Ien, LIIs jusLIce I n I LseI I deIInes LIe good. WIu L IoI I ows
I rom LIIs Is LIuL LIere Is, oI ILseII, u jusL socIuI order und u jusL sov-
ereIgnLy. or us, I n L urn, LIe moduI I zuL I on oI BeI ng I s LIuL oI LIe
wI LIouL-meusure [scns-mesure] us sucI. WIu L we sLI I I InLerpreL I n
LIe uncIenL or CIr I sL I un wuys us "excessIveIy Iurge," wIeLIer IL be
speed, popuI uL I on, mussucres, poverLy, LIe unIverse, or nucI eur
power, Ior exumpI e, I s onI y LIe moduI I zed LrunsI uLI on oI LIe I oI -
I owI ng: "creuLIon" Is now undersLood us LIe ucL oI BeI ng wII cI Is
wI L IouL meusure ILs own meusure [comme l'ccte de l'etre qui est scns
mesure sc propre mesure].
PerIups we cun uIso undersLund LIe unIversuI consLunLs oI mo d-
ern pIysIcs In LIIs wuy, Ior exumpIe, LIe speed oI IIgIL or qucntum
oI energy. TIese do noL meusure LIemseIves uguInsL oLIer LIIngs,
buL, on LIe conLrury, ure LIe orI gI n oI uII possIbIe meusure. TIese
duys, jcit lux meuns LIuL LIere Is u "speed" uguInsL wII cI uII speed Is
meusured und wII c I I s noL meusured uguInsL unyL II ng superI or
(LIuL Is, IL Is IIxed mereIy by convenLI on). L Is no Ionger LIe wor d
oI G o d |u creuLor| wIo wouI d Iuve meusured LIIs speed I n ud-
vunce. L Is no I onger u wor d uL uI I . BuL LIe unIverse LIuL Ius LIIs
consLuncy Is "creuLI on. " BeI ng [etcnt] wI L IouL u creuLor Is noL cre-
uLI on; creuLI on Is sI mpI y BeI ng. Cr euL I on Is LIuL LIere Is BeI ng In
LIIs wuy, und noL oLIerwIse. BeI ng, LIen, Is IInILe, In LIe sense LIuL
LIere Is no "I nI I nI Le speed," buL ILs IInILude Ius no meusure; IL Is ILs
own LoLuI meusure oI BeI ng. n LIIs sense, I L I s I nI I nI Le, buL un I n-
II nI Lude LIuL consIsLs I n beI ng ILs own excessIve meusure. TIe re-
suIL Is noL BeI ng us u subsLunce, buL BeI ng us responsIbIIILy.
To be responsI bI e Is noL, prI murI I y, beI ng I ndebL ed Lo or uc-
counLubI e beIore some normuLI ve uuLIorILy. L Is Lo be enguged by
ILs BeI ng Lo LIe very end oI LIIs BeI ng, In sucI u wuy LIuL LIIs en-
gugemenL or conctus Is LIe very essence oI BeI ng. ("EngugemenL"
Is, uILer uI I , u good LrunsIuLIon oI "conuLus.")
TIe epocI LIuL uppeurs Lo us us LIe epocI oI very Iurge numbers,
LIe one we cun descrIbe us LIuL oI "exponenLI uI BeI ng, " Is In IucL
LIe epocI oI BeI ng wII cI Is exposed Lo und us ILs own I mmensI L y
In LIe sLrIcLesL sense: noL II ng meusures I L, und IL Is precIseIy LIuL
wII c I meusures LIe exIsLence wII c I enguges IL, und wII c I I L en-
guges I n LIe mode oI u responsI bI I I Ly LIuL I s ILseII I mmense. " H u -
munI L y" und "gIobuIness" |"mondIuIIL"| now meun LIIs enguge-
menL wI L IouL meusure |or LIIs meusureIess engugemenL|.
EI LIer LIe LIme Lo come wI I I know Lo Luke LIe meusure |oI LIIngs|,
or LIere wI I I be LIe Ioss oI uII meusure, und exIsLence uIong wI L I IL. n
boL I u dI sL urbI ng und exII I uruLI ng wuy, LIIs Is wIuL Is I mmenseI y
grund In wIuL Is IuppenI ng Lo us Loduy, Lo LIe exLenL [c mesure] LIuL
we ure exposed Lo IL.
Cosmos BuseIIus
Nomos bcsileus. . . .
- P I n d u r
TIe unI L y oI u wor I d I s noL one: I L I s mude oI u dIversILy, und
even dI spurI Ly und opposI L I on.
1
L Is In IucL, wII cI Is Lo suy LIuL IL
does noL udd or subLrucL unyL II ng. TIe unI L y oI u wor I d I s noL II ng
oLIer L Iun ILs dIversILy, und LIIs, In L urn, Is u dIversILy oI worI ds. A
wor I d I s u muI L I pI I cI L y oI worI ds; LIe wor I d I s u muI L I pI I cI L y oI
worI ds, und ILs unI L y Is LIe muL uuI sIurI ng und exposI LI on oI uII ILs
wo r I ds -wI L II n LIIs wor I d.
TIe sIurI ng oI LIe wor I d I s LIe I uw oI LIe wor I d. TIe wor I d Ius
noL II ng oLIer; IL Is noL subjecL Lo uny uuLIorI Ly; IL does noL Iuve u
sovereIgn. Cosmos, nomos. Ls supreme I uw Is wI L II n IL us LIe muI L I -
pIe und mobI I e Lruce oI LIe sIurI ng LIuL IL Is. Nomos Is LIe dI sL rI b-
uL I on, upporL I onmenL, und uI I ocuLI on oI ILs purLs: u pIece oI LerrI -
Lory, u porL I on oI Iood, LIe deI I mI LuLI on oI rIgILs und needs In eucI,
und uL every LI me, us Is IILLIng |JJ contient].
BuL Iow does I L II L? TIe meusure oI LIe suI L ubI I I L y [lc conte-
ncnce]
z
-LIe I uw oI LIe Iuw, or ubsoIuLe j us L I c e-I s onI y I n LIe
sIurI ng ILseI I und I n LIe excepLI onuI sI nguI urI Ly oI e u c I-o I eucI
InsLunce [ccs], eucI uccordI ng Lo LIIs sIurI ng. YeL, LIIs sIurI ng Is
noL gI ven, und "eucI" Is noL gIven (LIuL wII cI Is LIe unI L y oI eucI
purL, LIe occurrence oI ILs I nsLunce, LIe conI I guruL I on oI eucI
worI d). TII s I s noL un uccompI I sIed dI sL rI buL I on. TIe wor I d I s noL
gIven. L Is ILseII LIe gI vI ng [le don]. TIe wor I d Is ILs own creuLIon
(LIIs Is wIuL "creuLIon" meuns). Ls sIurI ng Is puL I nLo pIuy uL eucI
i8
I 86 Cosmos cselius Cosmos cselius
18;
InsLunL: LIe unIverse I n expunsI on, LIe un- I I mI L uL I on oI I ndI vI du- I s L n e coexIsLence by wII c I I L deIInes ILseII us exIsLence ILseII und u
uIs, LIe I nI I nI Le need oI jusLIce. w o r I d I n gener uI -boL I, uL once.
"JusLI ce" desIgnuLes wIuL needs Lo be rendered (us one suys In
EngI I sI, "Lo render jusLIce"). WIu L needs Lo be resLored, repuIred,
gIven In reLurn Lo eucI exI sLI ng sInguIur, wIuL needs Lo be uLLrI b-
uLed Lo IL uguIn, Is LIe gI vI ng wII cI IL Is ILseII. A n d LIIs uIso enLuIIs
LIuL one noL know exucLIy (LIuL one noL know "uu jusLe," us Is suId
In rencI) wIuL or wIo Is un "exIsLIng sInguI ur, " neILIer wIere IL
begIns nor wIere IL ends. Becuuse oI LIe IncessunL gI vI ng und sIur-
I ng oI LIe wor I d, one does noL know wIere LIe sIurI ng oI u sLone
sLurLs or IInIsIes, or wIere LIe sIurIng oI u person sLurLs or IInIsIes.
TIe deI I neuLI on Is uIwuys more umpI e und, uL LIe sume LI me, more
resLrIcLed L Iun one beIIeves IL Lo be (or ruLIer, II one Is uLLenLIve,
one knows uI I Loo weI I Iow muc I LIe conLours ure L rembI I ng, mo-
bI I e, und II eeLI ng). EucI exIsLence [existcnt] uppeurs I n more en-
sembIes, musses, LIssues, or compI exes LIun one perceIves uL IIrsL,
und eucI one Is uIso I nI I nI L eI y more deLucIed I rom sucI, und de-
LucIed I r om ILseII. EucI opens onL o und cIoses oI I more worI ds,
LIose wI L II n I LseI I jusL us LIose muc I us ouLsI de oI, br I ngI ng LIe
ouLsIde I nsI de, und LIe oLIer wuy uround.
SuI LubI I I Ly, LIereIore, Is deII ned by LIe proper meusure In eucI
exIsLence cnd In LIe I nI I nI Le c ommunI L y (or communI cuL I on, con-
LugI on, conLucL), or I n LIe I ndeI I nI L e openI ng, cI rcuI uL I on, und
LrunsI ormuLI on oI uI I exIsLences [les existences] umong LIemseIves.
TII s Is noL u doubI e suILubIIILy. L Is LIe sume one, Ior c ommu-
nI L y Is noL udded Lo exIsLence. Co mmunI L y Is noL some proper con-
sIsLency und subsIsLence oI exIsLunce us IL sLunds upurL I rom IL: ex-
IsLence Ius sucI onI y us LIe sIurI ng oI communI L y. TII s (wII cI no
I onger Ius unyL II ng Lo do wI L I subsIsLence by ILseII, LIuL Is, wI L I
conLucL, encounLer, porousness, osmosIs, und r ubbI ng up uguInsL,
uLLrucLIon und repuI sI on, und so IorLI) Is cosubsLunLIuI wI L I exIsL-
I ng: I n eucI one und I n every one, I n eucI one us I n every one, I n
eucI one InsoIur us In every one. TrunsI uLI ng IL I nL o u cerLuIn I un-
guuge, IL Is LIe "mysLIcuI body" oI LIe worI d; In unoLIer Iunguuge, IL
Is LIe "recIprocuI ucLI on" oI purLs oI LIe wor I d. BuL In every cuse, IL
CoexI sLence IoI ds ILseII jusL us Iur I rom j uxLuposI LI on us IL does
I r om I nLegruLI on. CoexI sLence does noL Iuppen Lo exIsLence; IL Is
noL udded Lo IL, und one cun noL subLrucL IL ouL: IL Is exIsLence.
ExIsLence Is noL done uIone, II one cun puL IL LIIs wuy. L Is ein
LIuL Is uIone, uL IeusL In uI I LIe ordI nury senses wII c I ure gIven Lo
BeI ng. BuL exIsLence I s noL II ng oLIer LIun BeI ng exposed: begI n-
nI ng I rom ILs sI mpI e I denL I L y I n ILseI I und I rom ILs pure posI L I on,
exposed In uppeurIng, In creuLIon, und, us sucI, exposed Lo LIe ouL-
sIde, exLerIorILy, muI L I pI I cI L y, uILerILy, und cIunge. ( And I n one
sense, Lo be sure, LIIs Is noL unyL II ng oLIer LIun BeI ng exposed Lo
BeI ng ILseII, In ILs own "beI ng, " und, us u consequence, BeI ng ex-
posed us BeI ng: exposI LI on us LIe essence oI BeIng. )
JusLIce, LIereIore, Is reLurnI ng Lo eucI exIsLence wIuL reLurns Lo IL
uccordI ng Lo ILs unI que, sInguIur creuLIon In ILs coexIsLence wI L I uI I
oLIer creuLIons. TIe Lwo sLundurds [les deux mesures] ure noL sepu-
ruLe: LIe sI nguI ur proprI eL y Is equuI Lo LIe sI nguI ur Lruce, wII c I
j oI ns IL Lo oLIer proprIeLIes. TIuL wII c I dIsLInguIsIes Is uIso LIuL
wII cI puLs "wI L I" und "LogeLIer."
JusLIce needs Lo be rendered Lo LIe Lruce oI LIe proper, In LIe
curvI ng up oI I L LIuL I s upproprIuLe eucI L I me -u curvI ng up wII cI
does noL cuL up or deducL I rom u I ounduLI on, buL u c ommon curv-
I ng up LIuL, uI I uL once [d'un seul coup], consLILuLes dIsLunce und
conLucL, sucI LIuL LIe coexIsLence wII c I I ndeI I nI LeI y I nLerLwI nes
wI L I IL Is LIe onI y "IounduLI on" upon wII cI LIe "I orm" oI exIsLence
Is [s'enlete]. TIereI ore, LIere Is no I ounduL I on: LIere Is onI y LIe
" wI L I" -pr ox I mI L y und ILs dI s L unc I ng-L Ie sLrunge I umI I I urI L y oI
uI I LIe worI ds I n LIe wor I d.
or eucI one, ILs mosL upproprIuLe IorI zon Is uIso ILs encounLer
wI L I LIe oLIer Ior I zon: LIuL oI LIe coexIsLenL, oI uII LIe coexIs-
I 86 Cosmos cselius Cosmos cselius
18;
InsLunL: LIe unIverse I n expunsI on, LIe un- I I mI L uL I on oI I ndI vI du- |s L n e coexIsLence by wII cI I L deIInes ILseII us exIsLence ILseII und u
uIs, LIe I nI I nI Le need oI jusLIce. wor I d ; n gener uI -boL I, uL once.
"JusLI ce" desIgnuLes wIuL needs Lo be rendered (us one suys In
EngI I sI, "Lo render jusLIce"). WIu L needs Lo be resLored, repuIred,
gI ven In reLurn Lo eucI exI sLI ng sInguIur, wIuL needs Lo be uLLrI b-
uLed Lo IL uguIn, Is LIe gI vI ng wII cI IL Is ILseII. A n d LIIs uIso enLuIIs
LIuL one noL know exucLIy (LIuL one noL know "uu jusLe," us Is suId
In rencI) wIuL or wIo Is un "exIsLIng sInguI ur, " neILIer wIere IL
begIns nor wIere IL ends. Becuuse oI LIe IncessunL gI vI ng und sIur-
I ng oI LIe wor I d, one does noL know wIere LIe sIurI ng oI u sLone
sLurLs or IInIsIes, or wIere LIe sIurIng oI u person sLurLs or IInIsIes.
TIe deI I neuLI on Is uIwuys more umpI e und, uL LIe sume LI me, more
resLrIcLed L Iun one beIIeves IL Lo be (or ruLIer, II one Is uLLenLIve,
one knows uII Loo weI I Iow muc I LIe conLours ure L rembI I ng, mo-
bI I e, und II eeLI ng). EucI exIsLence [existcnt] uppeurs I n more en-
sembIes, musses, LIssues, or compIexes LIun one perceIves uL IIrsL,
und eucI one Is uIso I nI I nI L eI y more deLucIed I rom sucI, und de-
LucIed I r om ILseII. EucI opens onL o und cIoses oI I more worI ds,
LIose wI L II n ILseI I jusL us LIose muc I us ouLsI de oI, br I ngI ng LIe
ouLsIde I nsI de, und LIe oLIer wuy uround.
SuI LubI I I Ly, LIereIore, Is deII ned by LIe proper meusure In eucI
exIsLence cnd I n LIe I nII nI Le c ommunI L y (or communI cuL I on, con-
L ugI on, conLucL), or I n LIe I ndeI I nI L e openI ng, cI rcuI uL I on, und
LrunsI ormuLI on oI uI I exIsLences [les existences] umong LIemseIves.
TII s Is noL u doubI e suILubIIILy. L Is LIe sume one, Ior c ommu-
nI L y Is noL udded Lo exIsLence. Co mmunI L y Is noL some proper con-
sIsLency und subsIsLence oI exIsLunce us IL sLunds upurL I rom IL: ex-
IsLence Ius sucI onI y us LIe sIurI ng oI communI L y. TII s (wII cI no
Ionger Ius unyL II ng Lo do wI L I subsIsLence by ILseII, LIuL Is, wI L I
conLucL, encounLer, porousness, osmosIs, und r ubbI ng up uguInsL,
uLLrucLIon und repuI sI on, und so IorLI) Is cosubsLunLIuI wI L I exIsL-
I ng: I n eucI one und I n every one, I n eucI one us I n every one, I n
eucI one InsoIur us In every one. TrunsI uLI ng IL I nL o u cerLuIn I un-
guuge, IL Is LIe "mysLIcuI body" oI LIe worI d; In unoLIer Iunguuge, IL
I s LIe "recIprocuI ucLI on" oI purLs oI LIe wor I d. BuL I n every cuse, I L
CoexI sLence IoI ds ILseII jusL us Iur I rom j uxLuposI LI on us IL does
I rom I nLegruLI on. CoexI sLence does noL Iuppen Lo exIsLence; IL Is
noL udded Lo IL, und one cun noL subLrucL IL ouL: IL Is exIsLence.
ExIsLence Is noL done uIone, II one cun puL IL LIIs wuy. L Is ein
LIuL Is uIone, uL IeusL In uII LIe ordI nury senses wII cI ure gIven Lo
BeI ng. BuL exIsLence I s noL II ng oLIer LIun BeI ng exposed: begI n-
nI ng I rom ILs sI mpI e I denL I L y I n ILseII und I r om ILs pure posI L I on,
exposed In uppeurIng, In creuLIon, und, us sucI, exposed Lo LIe ouL-
sIde, exLerIorILy, muI L I pI I cI L y, uILerILy, und cIunge. ( And I n one
sense, Lo be sure, LIIs Is noL unyL II ng oLIer LIun BeI ng exposed Lo
BeI ng ILseII, In ILs own "beI ng, " und, us u consequence, BeI ng ex-
posed us BeI ng: exposI LI on us LIe essence oI BeIng. )
JusLIce, LIereIore, Is reLurnI ng Lo eucI exIsLence wIuL reLurns Lo IL
uccordI ng Lo ILs unI que, sInguIur creuLIon In ILs coexIsLence wI L I uII
oLIer creuLIons. TIe Lwo sLundurds [les deux mesures] ure noL sepu-
ruLe: LIe sI nguI ur proprI eL y Is equuI Lo LIe sI nguI ur Lruce, wII c I
j oI ns IL Lo oLIer proprI eLI es. TIuL wII c I dIsLInguIsIes Is uIso LIuL
wII cI puLs "wI L I" und "LogeLIer."
JusLIce needs Lo be rendered Lo LIe Lruce oI LIe proper, In LIe
curvI ng up oI I L LIuL I s upproprIuLe eucI L I me -u curvI ng up wII cI
does noL cuL up or deducL I rom u I ounduL I on, buL u c ommon curv-
I ng up LIuL, uI I uL once [d'un seul coup], consLILuLes dIsLunce und
conLucL, sucI LIuL LIe coexIsLence wII c I I ndeI I nI L eI y I nLerLwI nes
wI L I I L I s LIe onI y "I ounduLI on" upon wII cI LIe "I orm" oI exIsLence
Is [s'enlete]. TIereI ore, LIere Is no I ounduL I on: LIere Is onI y LIe
" wI L I" -pr ox I mI L y und ILs dI s L unc I ng-L Ie sLrunge I umI I I urI L y oI
uII LIe worI ds I n LIe wor I d.
or eucI one, ILs mosL upproprIuLe IorI zon Is uIso ILs encounLer
wI L I LIe oLIer IorI zon: LIuL oI LIe coexIsLenL, oI uI I LIe coexIs-
I 8 8 Cosmos cselius Cosmos cselius 18q
Lences, oI LIe wIoI e oI coexI sLI ng. BuL "encounLer" I s sL I I I Lo suy
Loo I I LLI e, especIuII y I I one does noL undersLund LIuL uI I LIe Ior I -
zons ure sIdes oI LIe sume curvI ng up, oI LIe sume wI ndI ng und
I I gILnI ng-I usL Lruce oI LIe wor I d (ILs "unI L y") . TII s Lruce I s noL
proper Lo uny exIsLunL, und sLI I I Iess Lo un oLIer sorL oI subsLunce
LIuL Iungs over LIe wor I d: IL Is LIe c ommon I mproprI eLy, LIe non-
membersII p [lc non-cppcrtencnce], LIe nondependence, LIe ub-
soIuLe erruncy oI LIe creuLIon oI LIe wor I d.
JusLIce, LIen, needs Lo be rendered uL once Lo LIe sI nguI ur ub-
soIuLeness oI LIe proper und Lo LIe ubsoIuLe I mpr opr I eL y oI LIe
c ommunI L y oI exIsLences. L needs Lo be rendered equuIIy [exccte-
ment] Lo boL I, Lo LIe one und LIe oLIer: sucI Is LIe pI uy (or LIe
meunI ng) oI LIe wor I d.
As u consequence, I nI I nI Le jusLIce needs Lo be rendered uL once
Lo LIe proprI eLy oI eucI one und Lo LIe c ommon I mproprI eLy oI uI I :
L o bI r L I und L o deuLI, wII c I IoI d beLween L Iem LIe I nI I nI L y oI
meunI ng. Or ruLIer: Lo bI rL I und Lo deuLI, wII cI ure, one wI L I LIe
oLIer und one In LIe oLIer (or one L IrougI LIe oLIer), LIe I nI I nI Le
overII owI ng oI meunI ng und, LIereIore, oI jusLIce. BI r L I und deuLI
ubouL wII c I LIere Is noL II ng IILLIng Lo suy-sI nce LIIs Is LIe sLrIcL
jusLIce oI L ruL I, buL wIere uII Lrue speecI dIsLrucLedIy uIms uL LIe
jusL meusure.
TII s I nII nI Le jusLIce I s I n no wuy vIsIbIe. On LIe conLrury, I nL oI -
erubIe InjusLIce urIses everywIere. TIere ure eurLIquukes, InIecLIous
vIruses, und peopI e ure crI mI nuI s, IIurs, und LorLurers.
JusLIce cunnoL be dIsenguged I rom LIe gungue

or Iuze oI Injus-
LIce. NeI L Ier cun IL be projecLed us u supreme conversI on oI Injus-
LIce. L consLILuLes purL oI I nI I nI Le jusLIce LIuL IL wouI d IuII Lo de-
IIver u decIsIve bI ow Lo InjusLIce. BuL LIere ure no reusons LIuL cun
be gIven Ior Iow und wIy LIIs consLILuLes purL oI IL. L Is noL sub-
jecL Lo LIose InLerroguLIons LIuL concern reuson or LIe demund Ior
meunI ng. TII s consLILuLes purL oI LIe I nI I nI L y oI jusLIce, und oI LIe
I nLerrupLed creuLIon oI LIe wor I d: In sucI u wuy LIuL LIe I nI I nI L y Is
never unywIere cuIIed upon Lo uccompI I sI ILseII, noL even us un I n-
I I nI Le reLurn oI ILseII I n ILseII. BI r L I und deuLI, sIurI ng und coexIs-
Lence, beI ong Lo LIe I nI I nI L e. LseII, II one cun suy IL I I ke LII s, up-
peurs und dIsuppeurs; IL dI vI des ILseII und coexIsLs: IL Is LIe move-
menL, LIe ugILuLIon und generuI dIversILy oI LIe worI ds LIuL muke
up LIe wor I d (und unmuke IL us weI I ).
TII s Is uIso wIy jusLIce Is uI wuys -und muybe pr I ncI puI I y-L Ie
need Ior jusLIce, LIuL Is, LIe objecLIon Lo und proLesL uguInsL Injus-
LIce, LIe cuII LIuL crIes Ior jusLIce, LIe breuLI LIuL exIuusLs ILseII In
cuI I I ng Ior IL. TIe Iuw oI jusLIce Is LIIs unuppeusubIe LensIon wI L I re-
gurd Lo jusLIce ILseII. n u puruIIeI munner, LIe I uw oI LIe wor I d Is un
I nII nI Le LensIon wI L I regurd Lo LIe wor I d ILseII. TIese Lwo Iuws ure
noL onI y IomoI ogous, LIey ure uIso LIe sume und sInguIur I uw oI ub-
soIuLe sIurIng (one couI d suy: LIe I uw oI LIe AbsoI uL e us sIurIng).
JusLIce does noL come I rom LIe ouLsIde (wIuL ouLsIde?) Lo Iover
ubove LIe wor I d, In order Lo repuIr IL or brI ng IL Lo compI eL I on. L Is
gI ven wI L I LIe wor I d, gI ven I n LIe wor I d us LIe very I uw oI ILs
gIvenness. SLrI cLI y speukI ng, LIere Is no sovereIgnLy, or cIurcI, or
seL oI Iuws LIuL Is noL uIso LIe wor I d ILseII, LIe severed |or curved-
up| Lruce LIuL Is boL I InexLrIcubIe I rom ILs IorI zon und unuccom-
pI I sIubI e. One mI gIL be L empL ed Lo suy LIuL LIere Is u jusLIce Ior
LIe wor I d, und LIere Is u wor I d Ior jusLIce. BuL LIese IInuIILIes, or
LIese recI procuI I nLenLI ons, suy ruLIer poorI y wIuL sucI jusLIce Is.
n ILseII, LIe wor I d Is LIe supreme I uw oI ILs jusLIce: noL LIe gIven
wor I d und LIe "sucI LIuL IL I s, " buL LIe wor I d LIuL sprIngs I orLI us
u properI y I ncongruous I ncongruI Ly.
Rejerence Mctter
NoLes
[Epircph]
EPGRAPH SOURCE: rIedrIcI NIeLzscIe, Thus SpcleZcrcthustrc, Lruns.
R. J. HoIIIngduIe (New York: PenguIn Books, 1q6q), 1oz.
1. n opLIng Ior "LIe Iumun" us u LrunsIuLIon oI l'homme, we eIecL u
more gender-neuLruI LrunsIuLIon. AL LIe sume LIme, Iowever, we Iend LIe
LexL u Iew connoLuLIons LIuL Nuncy IImseII cIeurIy wunLs Lo uvoId. n
reudIng "LIe Iumun, " LIen, one musL reud IL In sucI u wuy us Lo noL Ieur
LIe sume sorL oI "IumunIsL" Lone LIuL Is ouL oI LIe quesLIon In uII LIe
LexLs LIuL IoIIow.-Truns.
z. rIedrIcI NIeLzscIe, The Gc Science, Lruns. WuILer KuuImunn (New
York: VInLuge Books, 1q;q), 18o.
. Lc terre des hommes IILeruIIy meuns "LIe eurLI oI men." TIe rencI
expressIon Is u common one, reIerrIng Lo LIe eurLI In ILs specIIIc cIuruc-
Ler us LIe mIIIeu InIubILed by Iumuns.-Truns.
Prejcce
1. TIrougIouL LIe work, we LrunsIuLe l'etre-wIIcI coIncIdes wILI LIe
Germun Sein-us "BeIng," In keepIng wILI un esLubIIsIed, II noL enLIreIy
suLIsIucLory, LrudILIon. We do LIIs onIy wIen l'etre sLunds uIone, Iowever,
und onIy so us Lo muke BeIng eusIIy dIsLInguIsIubIe Irom beIng [l'etcnt].
TIe dIIIIcuILy Is LIuL LIe cupILuI IeLLer Ius LIe dIsLrucLIng und oILen mIs-
IeudIng eIIecL oI mukIng "BeI ng" uppeur us u proper nume, suggesLIng
LIuL BeIng Is someIow quILe IndependenL oI beIngs. TIIs becomes pur-
m
1qq
Notes to Pces z- Notes to Pces -:o
1q
L I cuI ur I y unc omI or L ubI e wIe n LIe uuL Ior uses c o mp o u n d expressI ons
sucI us etre-ctec or etre-ensemble, wII c I cI eurI y reIer Lo LIe concreLe c on-
dI L I ons I n wI I c I beI ngs uI wuys do I I nd LIemseI ves. TIer eI or e, we Iuve
cIosen Lo LrunsIuLe LIose c ompounds us " beI ng- wI L I, " "beI ng-LogeLIer, "
und so I or L I. -Tr u ns .
z. I, us LIe uuL Ior poI nL s ouL I n LIe I oI I owI ng pur ugr upI, I unguuge
does noL eusIIy uccommoduL e I L seI I L o LIe I ogI c oI " wI L I, " L Ien LIe En g -
I I sI I unguuge I s even Iess gI vI ng L Iun r enc I I n L II s regurd. n order L o
cupL ure uI I ILs pI uruI I L y, one wo u I d Iuve L o LrunsIuLe etre-les-uns-ctec-les-
cutres I I LeruI I y us "beI ng-LIe-ones-wI LI-LIe-oLIers, " buL we Iuve opL ed Ior
LIe sI I gIL I y Iess pI ur uI , buL Iur Iess puI nI uI , " beI ng- wI L I- one- unoL Ier . " -
Truns.
Dj ein Sinulcr Plurcl
1. L Is eusy Lo see LIe reIerence Iere Lo z oI Mu r L I n HeI degger' s e-
in cnd Time, Lruns. J o In Muc quur r I e und Edwu r d RobI ns on ( Ne w York:
Hur per , 1q6z). n u generuI wuy, und excepL wIe n I L I s quI L e necessury, I L
I s Iess L o deveI op u c o mme nL u r y on HeI degger L Iun L o move on I r om
I I m, und I r om some o L I e r s -I r o m us. n L II s us u nd I n LIe reI uL I on L o
HeI degger , one mus L r emember LIe sI nguI ur roI e pI uyed by Hu n n u I
Ar e ndL u nd Ier reII ecLI on on " Iumu n pI uruI I L y. "
z. SI nce LIe empIusI s I n L II s essuy I s on " wI L I, " we Iuve uI mosL I n -
vurI ubI y LrunsI uLed pcrtcer us "Lo sIure, " buL I L Is I mpor L unL Lo r emem-
ber LIuL I L uIso meuns "Lo dI vI de" or "sIure ouL . " L I s uIso wor L I beur I ng
I n m I n d LIuL LIe udj ecLI ve pcrtce Is used Lo descrI be, u mo ng oL Ier
L II ngs, u r equI L ed I ove, u sIured meuI , u nd u dI v I de d c ounL r y . -Tr u ns .
. meme reIers Lo u reI uL I on LIuL becomes cr ucI uI uL severuI poI nL s I n
LII s book, buL LIe pIruse resIsLs eusy descr I pL I on I n EngI I s I. An under -
sII rL Is wo r n c meme LIe s kI n; someone sI eepI ng ouL doors mI gIL sIeep c
meme LIe gr ound. Nu n c y II ms e I I Ius wr I L L e n ubouL u IeurL II s body re-
ceI ved I n u L runspI unL oper uL I on, buL IuLer rejecLed, us beI ng c meme II s
body. T I e reI uLI on I s one oI beI ng rI gIL nexL Lo, rI gIL uL, or even I n , wI L I-
ouL beI ng wIo I I y u purL oI. See uIso Br I u n HoI mes ' s LrunsI uLor' s noL e I n
Jeun- uc Nuncy' s The irth to Presence ( SL unI ord, CuI I I . : SL unI or d U n I -
versI Ly Press, 1qq), q6, n 1z. -Tr uns.
q. "BeL ween LIe us uI I ' oI ubsLrucL unI versuI I sm und LIe ' me, V oI mI s-
erubIe I ndI v I duu I I s m, LIere I s LIe ' we oLIers' oI NI eL zscIe, u L II nk I ng oI
LIe sI nguI ur cuse LIuL LIwurLs LIe opposI L I on oI LIe purLI cuI ur und LIe unI -
versuI " (runoIs Wu r I n, Nietzsche et ctcille: Lc pcrodie c l'injini |PurIs:
Presses UnI versI L uI res de runce, 1qqq|, z6).
. Se pcsser Is mosL c o mmo n I y used Lo meun "Lo Iuppen, " buL Lruns-
I uL I ng I L us we do Iere Ius LIe udvunLuge oI empIus I z I ng wIuL Iuppens
us reI uL I on, wII I e r eL uI nI ng LIe I I nk wI L I "pussI ng" u nd "pussuge" I n LIe
prevI ous s ec L I on. -Tr uns .
6. We Iuve I orsuken LIe c oI I oquI uI L runsI uL I on oI propre-"own" -
Ior LIe mor e sL I I L ed " pr oper" I n order L o mu I nL u I n LIe ussocI uL I on wI L I
"properI y, " " uppr opr I uL I on, " u nd so o n, wII c I becomes sI gnI I I cunL I n LIe
course oI LIe wo r k . -Tr u ns .
;. "es gens sonL bI zurres. " T I e wor d bizcrre \s LrunsI uLed us "sLrunge"
L Ir ougIouL LIe LexL I n order L o preserve LIe I dI o m. TI I s presenLs u pur-
L I cuI ur dI I I I cuI L y onI y I n LIe I I nuI senLence oI LIe I I rsL purugrupI oI p. 1o
wIere Nu n c y druws uL L enL I on L o LIe eL ymoI ogy oI LIe r enc I ( und uIso
LIe EngI I sI) wor d bizcrre.-Truns.
8. HeI degger' s dcs Mcn Is generuI I y LrunsI uLed I nL o r encI us le 'on buL
Ius generuI I y uppeured I n Eng I I s I us LIe "LIey. " We Iuve uvoI ded LIuL
IubI L Iere becuuse u pI ur uI pr onoun I s unwurrunL ed und wo uI d onI y serve
L o conIuse wIuL Is, uILer uI I , un unuIysIs oI sI nguI urI L y und pI uruI I L y. Truns-
I uL I ng I L us LIe "one" Ius LIe udded udvunLuge oI pr eser vI ng ecIoes oI
boL I LIe uuLIor' s r enc I und HeI degger' s Ge r mu n. -Tr u ns .
q. AI L Io ug I LIe exercIse mI g IL be I nsL rucL I ve, wI I I noL sL op Iere Lo
exumI ne wIuL "peopI e" und "one" desI gnuLe I n vurI ous I unguuges, or LIe
II sL ory o I LIe wor d "peopI e" |"Ies gens"| (entes, " GenL I I es , " nuL I ons, und
so on) .
1o. TI I s crot expressI on meuns " II s Ieud I n LIe c I ouds " or "noL
down- L o- eur L I, " or even "ouL oI II s mI n d , " buL we Iuve used LIe I I L eruI
L runsI uL I on us LIe onI y wuy Lo preserve LIe uuLIor' s pI uy on "besI de" [c
cte].-Truns.
11. AI L Io u g I reusonubI y uccuruLe, "uppeurs" Is u somewIuL puI e Lruns-
I uL I on o I surit, so some uddI L I onuI connoL uL I ons s IouI d be bor n I n mI n d :
uppeurs suddenI y, ubr upL I y, even vI oI enL I y, emerges, weI I s up, surges
I orL I. T I e empIusI s, Iowever, Iere und eIsewIere, I s on LIe mo me nL oI
uppeur I ng. -Tr uns .
1z. izcrre Is LIe r encI wor d we Iuve LrunsI uLed us "sLrunge" L Ir ougI-
ouL LII s pussuge. -Truns.
1. Hu v I n g , guI nI ng, u nd beI ng uccess I s wIuL I s uL Issue Iere, buL I L
s IouI d be r emember ed LIuL ccceder uIso meuns "Lo uccede L o" or "Lo uc-
c ommodu L e . " -Tr u ns .
1q6 Notes to Pces ::-: Notes to Pces :-z 1q;
1q. eL me be quI L e cIeur LIuL LIe uI I usI on Lo uc un I s deI I beruLe.
1. mmu nue I Ku nL , Critique oj Pure Recson, Lruns. No r mu n K e mp
SmI L I ( Ne w York: SL. Mu r L I ns Press, 1q6), oq. AI s o presupposed Iere I s
Mu r L I n HeI degger' s cnts These Uber dcs Sein ( r unkI ur L um M u I n : VI L -
L orI o KI os L e r mu nn, 1q6).
16. T I e c ompI ex umbI guI L y Nu n c y empIusI zes Iere I s noL eusIIy cup-
L ured I n EngI I s I. L operuLes uI ong L wo uxes, one IuvI ng L o do wI L I LIe
expressI on c lc terite, LIe oLIer wI L I LIe verb ccceder. T I e pIruse c ouI d be
rendered us " We Iuve uccess Lo LIe L r uL I, " or us " Tr uI y, we Iuve uccess,"
buL eI LIer " We uccede L o LIe L r uL I" or " Tr uI y, we uccede" wo u I d uIso be
wurrunL ed. n BuL uI I I es LexL, LIe IuLLer uxIs I s dI ssoI ved (I ndeed, does noL
urIse) buL , us LIe noLe beI ow mukes cIeur, Nu n c y wI I I noL uI I ow LIe c on-
noL uL I ons oI uccessI on or u c c ommodu L I on L o dI suppeur . -Tr uns .
1;. Georges BuLuI I I e, Histoire des rcts. Deutres completes, JJJ(PurI s: Gu I -
I I mu r d, 1q;1), 11q. As u muL L er oI IucL [c lc terite], my me mo r y IuIIs me
und BuL uI I I e wrI Les "we uL L uI n" |"nous uLLeI gnons"|: Lo uL L uI n, Lo guI n uc-
cess |Lo uccede|: us LIe s pI I L L I ng oI LIe "uI mosL LIere" | Tu- peu- pr es " |
cIurucLer oI reucII ng LIe or I gI n. BuL musL cI Le LIe wIoI e pussuge I r om
BuL uI I I e: " We do noL Iuve LIe meuns oI uL L uI nI ng uL our dI sposuI : we uL-
L uI n L o L r uL I; we suddenI y uLLuI n L o LIe necessury poI nL und we spend LIe
resL oI our duys I ookI ng Ior u I osL mome nL : buL we mI ss I L onI y uL L I mes,
precI seI y becuuse I o o k I ng Ior I L dI verL s us I r om I L , L o unI L e us I s u n -
doubL edI y u meuns o I . . . Iorever mI s s I ng LIe mo me n L oI r eL ur n. Sud-
denI y, I n my nI gIL , I n my soI I L ude, unxI eL y gIves wuy L o convI cL I on: I L I s
sIy, no I onger even dI s L ur bI ng ( by dI nL oI ILs beI ng dI s L ur bI ng, I L no
I onger dI sL urbs), suddenl the hecrt oj. is in m hecrt."
18. n SecL I on z, we LrunsI uLed toucher c us "Lo L ouc I" sI nce LIe c on-
LexL specI I I ed surIuces LIuL L oucI one unoLIer. Her e, LIe pr I mur y sense I s
oI reucII ng or uL L uI nI ng un end, buL I L I s uIso I mpor L unL L o beur I n mI n d
LIe LucLI I e sense, us weI I us LIe mor e c o mmo n sense oI " beI ng I n L ouc I
wI L I. " -Tr u ns .
1q. W I e n LIe uuL Ior presenLed LII s secLI on (uI ong wI L I SecLI ons und
6) us purL oI " Ope nI ngs : T I e Spuce oI T I I n k I n g , " u conI erence uL Vu n-
der bI I L UnI v e r s I L y I n Junuur y 1qq6, Ie udded LIe I oI I owI ng quoL uL I on
I r om Ku nL us un epI grupI: " . . . I I we were enL I L I ed L o regurd muL erI uI be-
I ngs us L II ngs In LIemseI ves . . . LIe unI L y LIuL Is LIe busIs on wII c I nuL-
uruI I or muL I ons ure possI bI e wo u I d be onI y LIe unI L y oI spuce, u nd yeL
spuce I s noL u busIs |responsIbIe| Ior reuI I Ly oI pr oducL s buL I s onI y L IeI r
I or muI c ondI L I on; spuce mereI y resembI es LIe busIs we ure seekI ng I nus-
mu c I us no purL I n spuce cun be deL er mI ne d excepL I n reI uL I on L o LIe
wIoI e (so LIuL |I n ILs cuse Loo| LIe possI bI I I L y oI LIe purLs I s bused on LIe
presenLuLI on oI LIe wIoI e) " ( mmunueI KunL , Critique oj 1udment, Lruns.
We r ne r S. PI uIu r | ndI unupoI I s , nd. : Hu c k e L L PubI I s II ng Co mp u n y ,
1q8;|, zq).
zo. See Je u n- uc Nuncy' s Lc deconstruction du christicnisme, I or L I-
c omI ng .
z1. TIe recenL book by Serge Mur c e I , Le tombecu du dieu crtiscn (PurIs:
es dI L I ons de MI n u I L , 1qq) Is un umuz I ng rereudI ng o I LIe Timceus,
wI I c I muy oIIer s omeL II ng quI L e cIose L o LIe noL I on oI LIe PI uL onI c
demI ur ge oI "creuLI on" um L r yI ng L o br I ng ouL Iere.
zz. Eclct Is u dI I I I cuI L wo r d Lo LrunsI uLe, exucLI y becuuse I L Ius mu ny
dI IIerenL meunI ngs LIuL do noL come LogeLIer eusIIy I n one EngI I s I wor d.
n uI I LIe essuys LIuL consL I L uL e LII s book, we Iuve LrunsI uLed I L us " b r I I -
I I unce, " wII c I onI y cupLures purL oI ILs sense. OL Ie r eI emenLs oI LIe wor d
suggesL LIuL " br I I I I unce" c ouI d be, und muybe even s IouI d be, predI cuL ed
wI L I uny oI LIe I oI I owI ng udjecLIves: s II nI ng, I I usII ng, gI urI ng, expI osI ve,
sIuL L erI ng, und so I or L I. TIes e udjecLIves, I n L ur n, c ouI d be mude I nL o
nouns , uny oI wI I c I wo u I d uIso suIIIce us un Eng I I s I L r unsI uL I on. T I e
poI nL Is LIuL LIe eclct Is boL I s udden und r udI unL . -Tr uns .
z. BenoI L GoeL z uses LIIs L Ieme oI spucI ng I n II s " u dI sI ocuL I on: A r -
cII L ecL ure eL exprI ence" (LIesIs, UnI versI L de SL rusbourg, 1qq6); Ie dI s-
cusses I L I n reI uL I on Lo u dI scourse ubouL generuI I zed "urcII L ecL ure" u nd
ILs be c omI ng "exI sL enL I uI . "
zq. See 6, ;, und 68c oI HeI degger' s ein cnd Time. n I ower I ng
LIe sLuLus oI curI osI L y by meusur I ng I L uguInsL L II nk I ng , wII c I I s u I uI rI y
L rudI L I onuI gesLure, HeI degger compI eL eI y mI sundersL unds und cIeupens
un eI emenL oI LIe mode r n wor I d: scIence und L ecInoI ogy. n LII s wuy, Ie
cIuI I enges wIuL Ie oL IerwI se preL ends Lo uI I I r m us be I ongI ng Lo LIe
" sendI ng" oI BeI ng. n reI uL I on L o LIe roI e oI curI osI L y wI L I I n moder nI L y,
see Hu ns BI umenburg' s cIussIc book Der Prozess der theoretishen Neuierde
( r unkI ur L uu M u I n : SuIr kump, 1q66).
z. n cerL uI n regurds, wIuL I oI I ows pursues LIe dI uI ogue pr oposed by
Jucques RuncI re I n II s book Discreement: Politics cnd Philosoph, Lruns.
JuI I e Rose ( MI nne upoI I s : UnI ver s I L y oI MI nne s o L u Press, 1qqq).
z6. Andr ToseI , Democrctie et liberclismes (PurI s: KI m , 1qq), zo.
See uIso LIe cIupLer enL I L I ed "' guIIL, dI I I I cI I e eL ncessurIre. "
z;. EL I enne BuI I bur, " u pr opos I L I on de I ' guI I berL" (puper deI I vered
uL es conIrences du PerroqueL , no. zz, PurI s, Nov e mbe r 1q8q).
1q8 Notes to Pces z-: Notes to Pces ;-(8 1qq
z8. ugree, L Ien, wI L I Jucques DerrI du' s cr I L I que oI I ruL ernI L y I n II s
Politics oj Iriendship, Lruns. Geor ge Co I I I ns ( o ndo n: Verso, 1qq;). BuL
musL poI nL ouL LIuL Iuve uIso, on occusI on, ruIsed LIe quesL I on oI CIr I s -
L I un IruLernILy. Mor eover , Iuve reversed my pos I L I on uguI n und uguI n on
LIe possI bI I I L y oI I ookI ng I nL o wIeL Ier I ruLernI L y I s necessurI I y generI c or
congenI L uI . . . .
zq. See " ' I nsucr I I I ubI e, " I n Je u n- uc Nunc y, Une pensee jinie (PurI s:
GuI I I e, 1qqo).
o. runoI s RuIIouI ' s Heideer cnd the Problem oj Subjectitit ( HI g I -
I unds, N . J . : Humu nI L I e s Press, 1qq;) I s one oI LIe I I rsL works LIuL enguges
I n ope nI ng up u puL I Ior u rvuIuuLIon oI Mitsein, u nd IL does so I n u re-
mur kubI e wuy.
1. HeI degger, ein cnd Time, 161.
z. Jeun-runoI s Mur queL ' s Sinulcrite et etenement ( Gr enobI e:
Jer ome M I I I o n , 1qq) gIves u I uI I uccounL oI LIe L r udI L I on oI L I I nk I n g
ubouL LIe one, I n LIe sense oI eucI one und LIe sI nguI ur, und wIuL dI I -
Ierences LIere ure u mong our vurI ous perspecLIves. BuL even beIore goI ng
LIere, one s IouI d I ook uL LIose LexLs wIere L II s pr eoc c upuL I on comes
L o us I n LIe I I r sL pI uce: LIe LexLs oI GI I I e s DeI euz e uI ong wI L I LIose oI
Jucques De r r I du ( und LII s uith wI I I de mu nd ILs o wn c omme nL ur y some
duy). BusI cuI I y, LII s pr eoc c upuL I on LruveIs I n LIe sume dI r ecL I on us LIuL
under L uken by GI or g I o Ag u mbe n, on one sI de, und AI u I n BudI ou, on LIe
oL Ier (even I I Bu dI ou wunL s L o puL LIe quesL I on I n LIe I or m oI un oppo-
sI L I on by pI uyI ng muI L I pI I c I L y uguInsL LIe One ) . A I I oI LII s I s L o muke LIe
poI nL LIuL we ure onI y L II nkI ng ubouL LIe ones uith LIe oLIer [les uns uvec
les cutres] (by, uguI nsL, I n spI Le oI, cI ose L o, Iur I r o m, I n L ouc I wI L I , I n
uvoI dI ng I L, I n dI ggI ng L Ir ougI I L ).
. See PurL 1, oI mmunue I KunL' s Der einzi moliche eueisrund:
The Dne csis jor c Demonstrction oj the Existence oj God Lruns. Go r d o n
TreusI ( Ne w York: Abur I s Books , 1q;q).
q. G . W. . HegeI , Heel's Loic, Lruns. WI I I I u m WuI I uce ( OxI or d: Ox -
I ord UnI ver s I L y Press, 1q;), 1.
. E d m u n d Hus s er I , Ccrtesicn Meditctions: An Introduction to Phe-
nomenolo, Lruns. Do r I o n CuI r ns ( TIe Hugue: Mu r L I nus NI j IoI I , 1q;;),
1qo.
6. DescurL es II ms e I I uLLesLs L o L II s, LIuL we uI I purL I cI puL e I n LIe
process und dI scourse oI LIe eo sum: " . . . by LIuL I nL er nuI uwureness
wII c I uIwuys precedes reIIecLIve knowI edge. TII s I nner uwureness oI one's
L IougIL s und exIsLence I s so I nnuLe I n uI I me n LIuL, uI L IougI we muy pre-
L end LIuL we do noL Iuve I L . . . we cunnoL I n IucL I uI I L o Iuve I L " ( " Au-
LIor' s RepI I es Lo LIe SI xL I SeL o I Obj ecL I ons , " The Philosophiccl Writins
oj Desccrtes, Volume II, Lruns. J o In Co L L I ng Iu m, Rober L SL ooL IooI , und
Du g u I d Mu r d o c I | Cumbr I dge: Cu mbr I dg e UnI ver s I L y Press, 1q8q|, z8).
;. n u sense, evI nus LesLIIIes Lo LII s pr obI emuL I c I n un exempI ur y
munner. BuL wIuL Ie undersL unds us "oLIerwI se L Iun Be I ng" I s u muL L er
oI under s L undI ng "LIe ownmos L oI Be I ng, " exucLI y becuuse I L I s u muL L er
oI L II nk I ng beI ng- wI L I ruLIer L Iun LIe opposI L I on beLween LIe oL Ier und
BeI ng.
8. Mu r L I n HeI degger, eitrce zur Philosophie ( r unkI ur L u m M u I n :
VI L L or I o KI os L e r munn, 1q8q), 1q.
q. Jeun-Jucques Rousseuu, The Socicl Contrcct, Lruns. Mu u r I c e
Cr uns L on ( Ne w York: PenguI n Books , 1q68), 6.
qo. r I edr I cI NI eL zscIe, Thus Spcle Zcrcthustrc, Lruns. R. J . Ho I I I n g -
duI e ( Ne w York: PenguI n Books , 1q6q), zzq.
q1. TII s Is, oI course, un expressI on LIuL I s deur L o BuL uI I I e. On e c ouI d
even suy LIuL LIIs consL I L uL ed IIs expressI on, ubsoI uLeI y.
qz. See An L o n I o NegrI ' s " u crIse de I' espuce poI I L I que, " und LIe resL
o I LIe urLIcI es guLIered I n numbe r z;, " E n uL L endunL I ' empI r e, " o I Iutur
Anterieur (PurIs: I ' Hu r mu r L u n, Junuury 1qq).
q. See LIe wor k guLIered LogeLIer noL I ong ugo I n Retrectin the Po-
liticcl, ed. S I mo n Spurks ( o ndo n: RouL I edge, 1qq;), und I n Rejouer le
politique (PurIs: GuI I I e, 1q8).
qq. or u deconsL rucL I ve r eudI ng oI LIe "us sucI" oI Be I ng I n I undu-
menL uI onL oI ogy, see LIe wo r k oI Yves Du p e u x (LIesI s, UnI versI L de
SL rusbourg, 1qqq).
q. T I e L r unsI uL I on oI L Ie I oI I owI ng LIree secLI ons, " CoexI s L enc e, "
" Co ndI L I o ns oI Cr I L I q ue , " und " Co- uppe ur I ng, " beneI I L ed I r om our re-
vI ew oI LIe L runsI uL I on o I LIese oIIered by uI n Mu c Do n u I d I n LIe Uni-
tersit oj Essex Theoreticcl Studies Worlin Pcpers ( Mu r c I 1qq6).
q6. See Mu r c Aug' s A Sense jor the Dther: The Timeliness cnd Rele-
tcnce oj Anthropolo, Lruns. A m y Jucobs (SL unI ord, Cu I I I : SL unI ord U n I -
versI Ly Press, 1qq8).
q;. Mu r c Cr pons recenL wor k, " u probI me de I u dIversIL IumuI ne.
EnquL e sur I u curucLrIsuLIon des peupI es eL de I u cons L I L uL I on des go-
grupII es de I ' esprI L de e I b nI z u He g e I " (LIesIs, UnI versI r de Pur I s - -
NunL er r e, 1qq) I s LIe I I rsL wor k oI I mpor L unce I n LIe I I eI d.
q8. We Iuve LrunsI uLed droit cs "rI gIL " I n LII s pussuge, Ior LIe suke o I
consI sL ency und I n order L o preserve s ome L II ng oI Nuncy' s pI uy on LIe
zoo Notes to Pces o-: Notes to Pces :-p zo1
wor d. To under s L und LIe pussuge, Iowever, LIe reuder musL r emember
LIuL droit currIes mu ny connoL uL I ons LIuL, I n Eng I I s I, uLLucI Lo LIe wo r d
" I uw. " -Tr uns .
qq. um j usL goI ng Lo consI der I L u s y mpL o m I n ILseII, wII c I I s u sL I I I
mor e remurkubI e s y mpL o m gI ven LIe unexpecL ed r eL ur n L o Iuvor I L Ius
Iud sI nce LIe deuL I oI G u y De b o r d I n 1qq. On e wo uI d Iuve L o cILe LIe
urLIcI es LIuL uppeured uL LIe L I me Lo s Iow Io w LIe reIerence Lo De b o r d
c ouI d uppeur Lo be necessury und I mpor L unL , c ouI d uppeur us LIe IusL crI L -
I cuI resource oI u wo r I d wI L IouL cr I L I que. On LIe quesL I on oI I eL I sII sm
und crI L I que, see Jucques De r r I du , Specters oj Mcrx: The Stcte oj Debt, the
Worl oj Mournin, cnd the Neu Internctioncl, Lruns. Peggy Ku mu I ( Ne w
York: RouL I edge, 1qqq).
o. " e I ooL buI I r end I nsI gnI I I unL e LouLe uuLre I orme d' urL . " TII s wus
un udverL I semenL Ior NI k e I n LIe PurI s Me L r o I n Augus L 1qq. s IouI d
poI nL ouL , wIeL Ier I nL enL I onuI I y or noL , LIe wo r d " I nsI gnI I I cunL " wus I n
IucL wr I L L en I n LIe muscuI I ne |wIere us "urL I or m" wouI d requI re LIe I em-
I nI ne; I n LIe ubove LexL, Nu nc y correcLs LIe mI sL uke, mu kI ng LIe I ooLnoLe
necessury-Truns. | .
1. O I course, LIe Gr e e k sumbolon wus u pI ece o I poL L ery br oken I n
L wo pI eces wIe n I rI ends, or u IosL u nd II s guesL, pur L ed. Ls j o I nI ng
wouI d IuLer be u sI gn oI r ecognI L I on.
z. A L r I nI L ur I un G o d represenLs u BeI ng-L ogeL Ier us ILs very dI vI nI L y:
und I L I s cIeur, LIereIore, LIuL Ie I s no I onger " G o d , " buL Be I ng- wI L I oI
LIe onL o- L IeoI ogI cuI specIes. Her e, unoL Ier mo L I I oI LIe "deconsL rucL I on
oI CIr I s L I unI L y, " wII c I I nvoked I n reI uL I on L o LIe Cr euL I on, I s L oucIed
upon. L I s uIso possI bI e Lo dI scern Iere LIe I nL I muL e connecL I on oI uI I LIe
greuL moL I I s oI CIr I s L I un dogmu, none oI wII c I deconsL rucL I on cun Ieuve
I nLucL.
. Hus s er I , Ccrtesicn Meditctions, 1q. L Is undoubL e dI y Iere, more
L Iun unywIere eIse, LIuL Hus s er I sIows I o w pIe nome noI og y I L seI I
reucIes ILs I I mI L , und exceeds IL: I L I s no I onger LIe egoIsLI c kerneI , buL LIe
wo r I d "us u consL I L uL ed sense" LIuL sIows I L seI I Lo be consL I L uL I ve (1;).
T I e cons L I L uL I on I s I LseI I consL I L uL ed: I n LIese Lerms, LII s I s undoubL edI y
LIe uI L I muL e sL rucL ur e oI "I unguuge" u nd oI LIe " wI L I , " oI I unguuge cs
" wI L I. " T I e I mmedI uL e conL exL oI LIe pussuge sIows Iow Husser I meuns
Lo gIve II s mosL dI recL repI y Lo HeI degger u nd Lo u L II nk I ng oI Mitsein
sL I I I I nsuI I I cI enL I y I ounded I n LIe "essenLIuI necessILy" oI LIe "gI ven O b -
j ecLI ve wo r I d" und ILs "socI uI I Ly oI vurI ous IeveIs" (1;). A II gII y remurk-
ubI e cII usmu I s pr oduc ed, Iere, beLween L wo L IougIL s LIuL provoke und
cross L Ir ougI one unoL Ier uccor dI ng Lo wIuL cun onI y be cuI I ed tuo stles
oj the essenticlit oj the uith. Br oudI y speukI ng, LIey mI gIL be descrI bed us
LIe sLyIe o I c obeI ongI ng ( I n ein cs truth, HeI degger) und LIe sLyIe o I
correI uL I on ( I n eo cs mecnin, Husser I ) . BuL LIese somewIuL scIemuL I c
cIurucLerI sLI cs c ouI d j usL us eusI I y be reversed. TI I s I s noL wIuL I s mosL
I mpor L unL . WI u L Is I mpor L u nL Is I n LIe common L es L I mony o I LIe eru
( wI L I r eud, wI L I BuLuI I I e, wI L I . . . ), uccordI ng Lo wII c I onL oI ogy musL,
I r om LIuL poI nL o n, be LIe onL oI ogy oI LIe " wI L I, " or oI noL II ng.
q. As runcI s IsIer, u I ongL I me c ompu nI on I n LIe recognI L I on oI LIIs
demund, suI d, " TIe ' wI L I' I s u sLrIcL deL er mI nuL I on oI LIe Inessence oI ex-
I sLence. BeI ng- uL Is I mme dI uL e I y ' wI L I' becuuse Dcsein Ius no essence"
("HeI degger eL I u quesL I on de I ' Iomme " |LIesIs, UnIversIL de SLrusbourg,
1qq|)-
. On e s IouI d keep I n mI n d LIuL "couppeur" LrunsIuLes com-pcrution,
LIe exucL EngI I s I equI vuI enL oI wII c I I s " compeur I ng. " TI I s I LseI I I s u Ie-
guI L er m LIuL I s used Lo desI gnuLe uppeurI ng beIore u j udge LogeLIer wI L I
unoLIer per s on. -Tr uns .
6. See LIe I or L Ic omI ng voI ume L'ethique oriincire ( wII cI sLurLs wI L I
HeI degger) .
;. or I nsL unce, see LIe L I L I e o I PuuI RI coeur' s Dneselj cs Another,
Lruns. KuL II e e n BI urney ( CII c ugo: UnI ve r s I L y oI CII c u g o Press, 1qqz).
8. A muj or purL oI LIe wor k oI PII I I ppe ucoue- ubur L Ie I s devoL ed
Lo LIe deconsL rucL I ve unuIysIs o I LII s or I gI nury mimesis.
q. TII s I s Lrue onI y up Lo u cerLuI n poI nL . AI L er uI I , Rousseuu dI d Iuve
u keen sense oI LIe necessILy oI LIe specLucIe Ie so c onde mne d, und Ie
wI s Ied L o L II nk u sorL oI seI I-surpussI ng oI specL ucuI ur-represenL uL I onuI
exLerI orI Ly, boL I I n Lerms oI " cI vI I reI I gI on" und I n Lerms oI I I LeruLure. n
LII s wuy, "I I L eruL ure" (uI ong wI L I " musI c, " or "urL" I n generuI ), und " c I vI I
reI I gI on" (LIuL Is, LIe presenLubI e II gure oI secuI ur socI uI I Ly) ure LIe Lerms
LIuL serve us precursors Lo our pr obI e m c onc e r nI ng me unI ng- wI L I. "To
shou u mu n Lo LIose I I ke II ms eI I . . . ," on LIe one Iund, und Lo ceIebruLe,
on LIe o L Ie r -s I nc e we c ouI d noL I I ve LIe evenL I L s eI I -I s LIe I nsL I L uL I ve
pucL oI Iumu nI L y ILseII. TI e mode I I s everywIere und nowIere, sI nguI ur
pI ur uI . TII s Is uIso wIy, I r om LIe very begI nnI ng, LIe pr obI em Is seL up us
u convergence oI cnd u dI v I s I on beL ween "urL " u nd " c I v I I r eI I gI on" . . . .
6o. TII s I s noL L o suy LIuL uny specLucIe wIuLever wo u I d be " good on
LIe wIoI e. " On LIe conLrury, u socI eLy Ior wII c I LIe specLucuI ur I or m I s
no I onger codI I I ed poses, und musL pose Ior ILseII, LIe mosL dI I I I cuI L pr ob-
I ems c onc er nI ng LIe specLucIe: noL onI y musL I L conI r onL ILs subjecL wI L I
u muI L I L ude oI eL II cuI , prucL I cuI , economI c, uesLIeLIc, und poI I L I cuI decI -
sIons, buL I L musL uIso, I I rsL oI uI I , recupLure und I ound unew LIe L II nkI ng
z o z Notes to Pces ;o-;p
Notes to Pces 8o-88 zo
oI LIe "specLucI e" us sucI. Mo r e oI L en L Iun noL , LIe generuI cr I L I que oI
LIe " s pe c L uc uI ur " -oI medI uL I zuL I on, L eI evI sI on, und so o n-p r o v I de s un
uI I bI und sLuge Ior u very poor I deoI ogy. WIe L Ie r I L I s beI I I gerenL, wI I n -
I ng, or dI s duI nI uI , I L I s mosL I nLeresLed I n pr opuguL I ng LIe noL I on LIuL I L
possesses LIe key Lo wIuL I s un I I I us I on und wIuL I s noL. or exumpI e, I L
preLends L o k no w LIuL "peopI e" ure "IooI s" becuuse oI "L eI evI sI on, " wII c I
I s L o suy, becuuse oI "LeIe-crucy." BuL LII s I deoI ogy knows noL II ng ubouL
LIe genuI ne use "peopI e" muke oI T V - u use LIuL I s, perIups, mu c I
more dI sL unced L Iun LIe crI LI cs wo u I d I I ke L o u d mI L -o r unyL II ng ubouL
LIe reuI sLuLe, someL I mes genuI neI y " I ooI I s I, " oI LIe popuI ur cuI L ures oI
eurIIer LI mes. T I e crI L I que oI LIe specLucuI ur Ius been per I or mI ng ILs r ou-
L I ne Ior some L I m e - b u L now I L I s begI nnI ng L o geL o I d.
61. I phsis= wIuL presenLs I L seI I und wIuL uccompI I sIes I LseI I by I L -
seII, L Ien LIe " wI L I" I s oI u dI IIerenL order. Even " I n nuL ure, " specIes pr o-
IIIeruLe und I I ve uI ongsI de one unoLIer. Techne wo u I d uIwuys Iuve Lo do
wI L I wIuL neI L Ier proceeds I r om nor L o ILseII, wI L I dI spurI Ly, conL I guI L y,
und, L Ius, wI L I un unucII eved und unucII evubI e essence oI LIe " wI L I. "
6z. A I I LII s reIers, obvI ousI y, L o LIe wor k oI De r r I du und ucoue-
uburL Ie on mimesis, und Lo LIe wor k oI EL I enne BuI I bur I n The Phibso-
ph oj Mcrx, Lruns. CIr I s Tur ner ( o ndo n und N e w Yor k: Verso, 1qq),
wII c I InsIsLs on LIe I nL r I nsI c connecL I ons beLween "LIe necessILy oI up-
peurunce" und LIe "socI uI reI uL I onsII p, " und on LIe de mu nd LIuL un " on-
L oI ogy oI LIe reI uL I on" be eI uboruLed uccor dI ng L o LIese condI L I ons.
6. T I e |rencI| Re voI uL I on und LIe Ge r mu n RomunL I c s d I d presenL
unoLIer, repubI I cun Ro me us LIe poI I L I cuI LIeuLer LIuL wus I mmedI uL e und
wI L IouL LIeuLer, wII c I I s Lo suy, LIe LIeuLer oI LIe Logu und LIe SenuLe.
6q. AI L Io ug I LIe r enc I wo r d exposition Is mor e oI L en L runsI uL ed us
" exII bI L I on, " we Iuve LrunsI uLed I L Iere, und I n LIe oLIer cIupLers, us "ex-
pos I L I on. " We Iuve done so I n order Lo muI nL uI n, us muc I us possI bI e, LIe
pI uy beL ween I L und oL Ier wor ds LIuL sIure ILs rooL , I nc I u d I ng "pose, "
"posed, " " pos I L I on, " und so o n. -Tr u ns .
6. Hus s er I , Ccrtesicn Meditctions, 16.
66. Du nI e I GI ovunnungeI I , Lc pcssion de l'oriine: recherches sur l'esthe-
tique de lc phenomenoloie (PurIs: GuI I I e, 1qq), 1.
6;. evI L I cus 1q:18, wI I c I I s L uken up uguI n I n Mu L L I e w zz:q
u n
d
Jumes z:8, "upupseI s L on pI sI on sou s seuuLov, " "dI I I ges p r o c I mu m
L u u m sI cuL L eI psum": I ove oLIers us you Iove your s eI I -L Ie "goI den ruI e, "
or c ommu ndme nL , wII c I summurI zes, LogeLIer wI L I LIe c o mmu ndme nL
L o I ove G o d , "uI I LIe Iuws und propIecI es. "
68. wI I I noL sLop Lo consI der Iere LIe I nLrI cucI es oI Ideus LIuL I ncI ude
"I ove" uL LIe core: ros, ccp, ccritcs. No r wI I I consI der LIe Judeo- CIr I sL I un
I nL rI cucy oI LIe reI uLI on beLween Iove und Iuw. L I s obvI ous wIuL un enor-
mous I I eI d oI I nvesLI guLI on LIIs represenLs. On e I nvI Les punI sImenL I n Lry-
I ng Lo L II nk ubouL I L I n concepL uuI Lerms, especIuI I y wIere LIere I s I I LLI e Lo
suy wIe n LIe wIoI e oI our L r u d I L I o n -u I I our L II nkI ng ubouL " u s " -wI I I
Iuve Lo revoIve ur ound IL. TIe Lusk I s LIIs: LIe deconsL rucL I on oI L IeoI og-
IcuI undJor senL I menL uI CIr I sL I unI L y, oI LIe "I ove one unoLIer. "
6q. TI I s uIso underI I es LIe I ogI c oI LIe "poI I L I cs oI I r I endsII p" oI LIe
I or m De r r I du proposes L o deconsL rucL .
;o. HeI degger, ein cnd Time, :-.
;1. bI d. , 16q- 6.
;z. bI d. , 16o. Umuillen muy be LrunsI uLed us " wI L I regurd L o, " "Ior, "
" I n vI ew oI, " "uccordI ng L o, " " I n Iuvor oI," "Ior LIe I ove o I " (um Gottes
Willen).
;. n uI mosL every cuse, LIe vurI uL I ons oI "Lo dI scI ose" I ound I n LII s
purugrupI ure LrunsI uLI ons o I some vurI uL I on o I outrir, wII c I meuns "Lo
open. " We Iuve sLuyed wI L I "dI scI ose" becuuse I L I s mor e consI sLenL wI L I
LIe exLunL LrunsI uLI ons oI HeI degger' s wor k, und becuuse Nu n c y I s cI eurI y
InLeresLed I n mur kI ng u cerLuI n reI uLI on Lo LIe HeI deggerI un L exL . -Tr uns.
;q. n mos L o I LIe oL Ier essuys, we Iuve L runsI uL ed surir us "Lo up-
peur, " doI ng so I n order L o muI nL uI n u cerL uI n consI sL ency wI L I LIe c on-
LexL. n LII s purL I cuI ur essuy, we s wI L cI buck und I or L I beL ween "Lo up-
peur" u nd "Lo s pr I ng I or L I" ; we cIose LIe I uLer I n LIose cuses wIere ILs
reI uL I on L o gr owL I und surprI se I s I mpor L u nL . -Tr u ns .
;. Je u n- uc Nunc y , Corpus (PurI s: An n e - Mu r I e ML uI I I , 1qqz), z.
;6. "Lcnuce, wIeL Ier spolen or silent, Is LIe IIrsL und mosL exLensIve
IumunI z uL I on o I LIe beI ng. O r so IL uppeurs. BuL this Is precIseIy LIe mosL
or I gI nur y deIumunI z uL I on o I mu n us bein litin present-there und ' sub-
jecL, ' und uIso LIe wIoI e oI wIuL Ius occur r ed L o LIIs poI nL " |"SprucIe,
ob gesprocIen oder gescIwI egen, die erste und ueiteste Vermenschun des
Seienden. So scheint es. Aber sIe ercde die ursprun lichste Entmenschun
des Menschen cls Vor Iundenes ebenwesen und 'Subjelt' und ciles ish-
erien"] ( Mu r L I n HeI degger, eitrce zur Philosophie | runkI urL um Mu I n :
VI L L or I o KI os L e r munn, 1q8q|, 1o).
;;. GI or gI o Ag u mbe n, The Comin Communit, Lruns. MI c Iu e I Hu r dL
( MI nne u poI I s : UnI ver s I L y oI MI nne s o L u Press, 1qq), q8- 1 oo.
;8. Mu ur I c e BI unc IoL , " I L er uL ur e und LIe RI g IL L o De u L I, " I n The
Worl oj Iire, Lruns. CIur I oL L e Mu n d e I (SLunI ord, CuI I I . : SL unI ord UnI ver -
zoq
Notes to Pces o-:oz Notes to Pces :oz-i zo
sI Ly Press, 1qq). BuL LII s I s LIe wIoI e oI BI uncIoL ' s wor k, wII c I never
sLops L uI kI ng ubouL LII s L uI k oI deuL I, LIuL Is, LIe " unI que bI r L I" oI LIe
I unguuge oI wor k, wIere wor k unwor ks ILseII. See II s " Co mmu nI c u L I o n
und LIe Wo r k , " The Spcce oj Litercture, Lruns. A n n Smoc k ( I nc oI n: U n I -
versI Ly oI Nebr us ku Press, 1q8z).
;q. HeI degger, ein cnd Time, o8.
8o. L wo u I d be eusy, buL L edI ous, L o I ur nI s I LIe over ubundunL evI -
dence Ior LII s.
81. Iuve I n mI n d , Iere, LIe I ndI cuL I ons I r om HeI degger' s eitrde zur
Philosophie I r om puge 1q Lo LIe end, I n order Lo, L Ien, Luke up uguI n LIe
ensembI e o I k n o wn I ndI cuL I ons I r om ein cnd Time, wI L I LIe u I m o I
suggesLI ng u r ecompos I L I on I n wII c I Mitsein wo u I d be cctucll coessen-
LI uI und orI gI nury. L Is necessury Lo rewrI Le ein cnd Time: LII s Is noL u
r I dI cuI ous preL ensI on, und I L I s noL " mI ne" ; I L I s LIe necessI Ly oI uI I LIe
muj or wor ks, I nsoI ur us LIey ure ours. On e cun guess wI L IouL muc I L r ou-
bI e LIuL LII s necessILy uIso beI ongs Lo LIe sLukes oI u poI I L I cuI r ewr I L I ng.
8z. n usI ng LIe wor d l'eccrtement, Nu n c y Is I uyI ng ouL expI I cI L I y LIe
connecL I on Lo II s eurIIer use oI LIe wor d eccrt. So, uI L IougI we Iuve c on-
sI sLenLI y LrunsI uLed l'eccrtement cs "LIe dI spersuI , " so us Lo muI nL uI n u cer-
L uI n I I uI dI L y wI L I II s use oI "dI spersI on, " one s IouI d keep I n mI n d LIuL
wIuL I s conL uI ned LIereI n I s LIe reIerence Lo someL II ng I I ke "u dIspersuI oI
expI osI ve br I I I I unc e . " -Tr uns .
8. ei sich: one wo u I d Iuve Lo respond, ever sI nce HegeI uL IeusL, Lo
LIe consL unL crossI ng over, LIe muL uuI I nL r I cuL I on und dI sL uncI ng, I n LIe
I undumenL uI sL rucL ure oI LIe "seII," oI LIe " I n ILseII, " oI LIe "neur L o I L -
seII," und oI LIe "rI gIL uL ILseII. " T I e "I or ILseII," sI nce I L occurs und I I I L
occurs, I s onI y LIe resuIL.
Wcr, Riht, Sotereint-Techne
1. PubI I s Ied I n Les Temps Modernes no. q (PurI s, June 1qq1). GI v e n
LIe IucL LIuL LIIs LexL Is IIrmIy bound up wI L I LIe evenLs oI LIe duy, Iuve
noL uI I owed myseI I L o modI I y I L , upurL I r om some L I ny edI L orI uI deLuI I s.
L IoI ds us weI I Ior wIuL ensued.
SI nce pubI I sIed us " Wur , uw, Sover eI gnL y-TecIn, " Rethinlin Tech-
noloies, ed. Verenu Ande r muL L ConI e y ( MI nneupoI I s : UnI ver sI L y oI M I n -
nesoLu Press, 1qq). O u r LrunsI uLI on beneII Led greuLIy I r om u revI ew oI LIe
L runsI uL I on oIIered by JeIIrey S. I br eL L I n LIe ubove L exL . -Tr uns .
z. L uI mosL cerL uI nI y goes wI L IouL suyI ng LIuL L runsI uL I ng LIe r encI
wor d le droit Is u dI I I I cuI L Lusk, exucLI y becuuse IL meuns boL I "rI gIL " und
"I uw. " WI L I I n LIIs LexL, I L I s uI mosL I nvurI ubI y LIe cuse LIuL wIe n eI LIer
LIe wor d "I uw" or LIe wor d "rI gIL " uppeurs IL Is us LIe LrunsI uLI on oI droit.
We Iuve done our besL L o r emuI n uL L uned L o LIe course oI LIe LexL und
L o cIoose LIe upproprI uL e L runsI uL I on I n eucI I ns L unce. -Tr uns .
Eulo jor the Melee
1. T I I s essuy uppeured I n Ge r mu n I n Lettrelnternctioncle no. z1
( Be r I I n, 1qq), und I n Ser bI un I n Mostoti ( BeI grude, Mu r c I 1qq); LIe
r encI LexL uppeured I n Trcnseuropeennes no. 1 (Genevu: CenL r e europen
de I u cuI L ure, 1qq) und wus r epr I nL ed I n Mlmensuel, Mcrxisme, moute-
ment no. ;1 (PurIs, JuI y 1qqq). T I e requesL Ior LIe pI ece or I gI nuI I y cume
I r om GII s I uI ne GI us s on- Des cIuumes , dI recL or o I Trcnseuropeennes.
z. T I e r encI wor d melee Ius enLered LIe EngI I s I I unguuge I n un I m-
poverI sIed I or m. TIr o ug Io uL LII s pI ece, I L s IouI d noL be reud us meun-
I ng onI y u conI used IIgIL, u Iruy, scrup, s kI r mI s I, or scuIIIe, LIuL Is, us u
wor d I n EngI I s I. RuLIer, I L remuI ns un unL runsI uL ed r enc I wor d meun-
I ng u IIgIL, buL uIso u mI ng I I ng oI u more sexuuI nuLure. n uddI L I on, us ILs
connecL I on Lo LIe verbs meler und se meler ("Lo mI x") muke cIeur, LIe Ideus
oI mI xL ur e, mI x I ng , moL I ey, und vurI eguL I on ure uIso I mp I I e d . -Tr u n s .
. AguI n, we Ieuve LIe wor d melcne unLrunsI uLed, buL one s IouI d reud
Iere ILs connecL I on Lo LIe ubove-cILed melee, us weI I us ILs suyI ng someL II ng
I I ke "mI xL ure" or " muddI e. " L I s LIIs IuLLer deI I nI L I on LIuL seems Lo I nI or m
LIe L runsI L I on Nu nc y wunLs Lo muke I r om melcne Lo melee.-Truns.
q. er nund Br uudeI , The Mediterrcnecn cnd the Mediterrcnecn World
in the Ae oj Philip II, Lruns. SIn ReynoI ds ( BerkeI ey und os AngeI es:
UnI ver s I L y oI Cu I I I or nI u Press, 1qq). Nuncy' s essuy, us I L uppeurs I n LIe
or I gI nuI r encI edI L I on, does noL gIve LIe puge numbe r oI LII s quoL uL I on
I r om Br uudeI . SeeI ng us LIe wIoI e oI BruudeI ' s book I s mor e L Iun 1,oo
puges, LIe L runsI uL I on oIIered oI LIe quoL uL I on I s ours, und noL I r om LIe
ubove EngI I s I e dI L I on. -Tr u ns .
The Surprise oj the Etent
1. n uI mosL every cuse, wIuL we LrunsIuLe Iere us " Iuppen, " " Iuppen-
I ng, " und " Iuppened, " Is some versI on o I LIe r encI wor d crriter. On e
s IouI d uIso keep I n mI n d LIe vurI ous oL Ier LrunsI uLI ons LIuL mI gIL be oI-
Iered oI LIe sume wor d, LrunsI uLI ons wII c I suggesL oL Ier I mpor L unL c on-
noL uL I ons: "Lo occur, " "Lo urrI ve, " "Lo come, " "Lo be on LIe wuy, " und so
I orL I.
##
zo6 Notes to Pces :p-:8 Notes to Pces :8-:88 zo;
z. G . W . . HegeI , Heel's Science oj Loic, Lruns. A . V. MI I I e r ( AL I unL I c
HI gII u nds , N . J . : Humu nI r I e s Press nL ernuL I onuI , 1q8q), 88. TI e Lruns-
I uL I on oIIered by MI I I e r , LIe one we Iuve used In LIIs essuy, Ius u dIIIerenL
empIusI s L Iun LIe one gI ven I n LIe r enc I L runsI uL I on oI LIe sume sen-
Lence. T I e r e nc I L r unsI uL I on suys s ome L II ng mor e I I ke LIe I oI I owI ng:
" PII I os opIy musL noL be u sL ory oI wIuL Iuppens, buL u knowI edge oI
wIuL , I n sucI IuppenI ng, I s Lrue, und begI nnI ng I r om LIe Lrue I r musL uIso
conceI ve oI wIuL I n LIe nurruLI ve uppeurs us u pure evenL. " TI e sI gnI I I cunL
dI I I erence comes I n LIe IusL pIruse, wI I c I I n MI I I e r ' s L runsI uL I on suys
"mere IuppenI ng" und I n LIe r encI LrunsI uLI on suys "pure evenL. " |"Aber
dI e PII I os opII e soI I keI ne ErzuII ung dessen seI n, wus geseIIeL, sonder n
eI ne Er kennL I s dessen, wus uchr dur I n IsL, u nd uus de m Wu Ir e n soI I sIe
Ierner dus begreI Ien, wus I n der ErzuII ung uIs eI n bIoILes GescIeIen er-
scIeI nL . "| ( G. W . . HegeI , WissenschcjtderLoic | r unkI ur L u m M u I n :
SuIr ku mp VerI ug, 1q6q|, z6o) . -Tr uns .
. n LIe r encI edI L I on, " ogI que du concepL " I s LIe LI LI e oI LIe sec-
o n d v oI ume o I HegeI ' s Science oj Loic, wII c I Is LrunsI uLed by "Subj ec-
LI ve ogI c ; or LIe Do c L r I ne oI LIe No L I o n " I n LIe ubove Eng I I s I edI -
L I on. -Tr u ns .
q. bI d. , q1.
. T I e mosL c o mmo n L r unsI uL I on o I LIe wo r d lc peripetie wo u I d be
"LIe evenL, " buL we Iuve cIosen LIe wor d "epI sode" Lo reserve LIe specI -
IIcILy o I LIe L er m "evenL" Ior L runsI uL I ng l'etenement. BuL one s IouI d uIso
keep I n mI n d ArI sLoLI e' s use oI peripeteic.-Truns.
6. HegeI , Heel's Science oj Loic, q1.
;. mmu nue I Ku nL , Critique oj Pure Recson, Lruns. No r mu n Ke mp
SmI L I ( Ne w York: SL. Mur L I n' s Press, 1q6), z18.
8. TIereI ore, I L I s u muLLer oI "orI gI nury L emporuI I L y, " LIe muj or c on-
cepL oI ein cnd Time. s sucI u concepL I LseI I uguI n subordI nuL ed Lo LIe
concepL oI LIe L I me oI presence (uIreudy presenL und Iomogenous wI L I
I LseI I), or does IL excI ude ILseII I r om IL? TII s Is LIe mosL I mporL unL L II ng uL
sLuke I n u debuLe enLI reI y I nL ernuI Lo HeI degger, und LIen opened beLween
De r r I du und HeI degger, und I ndeed beLween De r r I du und II mseI I . or ex-
umpI e, compure "Dusic cnd Grcmme: A No L e on u No L e I r om ein cnd
Time," Mcrins oj Philosoph, Lruns. AI u n Buss ( CII cugo: UnI ver s I L y o I
CII c ugo Press, 1q8z), und porL I ons o I Giten Time: I. Counterjeit Mone,
Lruns. Peggy Ku mu I ( CII cugo: UnI ver sI L y oI CII c ugo Press, 1qqz). PerIups
IL Is necessury Lo L II nk LIuL IL Is presence wII c I precedes I r seI I -L IuL pres-
enLs I L seI I -IeL erogeneous Lo ILseII, und LIuL LIe evenL ( oI BeI ng) Is Iere.
q. Surtenir, wII c I we LrunsI uLed eurIIer us "Lo occur, " uIso Ius LIe c on-
noL uL I on o I oc c ur r I ng unexpecL edI y, und LIe noun le surtenue meuns "u
sudden or unexpecL ed ur r I vuI . " -Tr uns .
1o. Ev e n u nd especI uI I y I I I L "reveuIs LIe L IuL - wII cI- I s- noL - beI ng- us-
beI ng. " AI u I n BudI ou, L'etre et l'etenement (PurIs: EdI L I ons du SeuI I , 1q88),
z11. L I s "noL - BeI ng- us- beI ng, " L Ien, LIuL I s LIe c ondI L I on oI BeI ng, or Lo
be mor e precI se, LIe exI sLenL c ondI L I on oI Be I ng (or LIe "exI sL enL I uI " oI
Be I ng I L seI I ). N o doubL uI I purLIes Lo LIe disputctio wo uI d ugree on LIIs us
un (essenLIuI) m I n I m u m - u L IeusL I nsoI ur us LII s I s onI y LIe begI nnI ng oI
expressI ng sucI u mI n I mu m.
11. See zz u nd o I M u r L I n HeI degger' s cnt cnd the Problem oj
Metcphsics, Lruns. RI c Iur d TuIL ( BI oomI ng L on: ndI unu UnI ver s I L y Press,
1qqo).
1z. Mu r L I n HeI degger, The Iundcmentcl Concepts oj 'Metcphsics, Lruns.
WI I I I u m M c N e I I I und NI c IoI us WuI ke r ( BI o o mI ng L o n: ndI unu UnI v e r -
sI Ly Press, 1qq), o1 II.
Humcn Excess
1. SergI o Mor u v I u , 1ourncl europeen, Lruns. De nI s ernundez-RcuLuI u
u nd GI u n n I Bur u L L onI (PurI s: Ec r I L ur e , 1q8q), q8. T I e L r unsI uL I on I nL o
EngI I s I I s our s . -Tr uns .
Cosmos cselius
1. TII s LexL wus IIrsL pubI I sIed I n csileus, un nLerneL pII I os opIy j our-
nuI , ed. PuuI MI n k k I n e n (IL L p: JJwww. IeI sI nkI . I I JbusI I eus, Mu r c I 1qq8).
z. n LIe prevI ous essuy, " H u m u n Excess, " we L runsI uL ed LIe wo r d
cotencnce us "proprI eL y" I n order Lo muI nL uI n u cerLuI n pr oxI mI L y wI L I LIe
r encI words propre und protencnce. n LIe ubove LexL, we Iuve rendered
IL us "suI L ubI I I L y" I n order LIuL I L I oI I ow more cI oseI y I r om LIe verb con-
tenir, wII c I meuns "Lo be suI L ubI e, " or "Lo be IILLIng." However , I n u Iew
cuses, we Iuve once uguI n LrunsI uLed cotencnce us "proprI eL y, " buL LIese
I nsLunces ure mur ked I n LIe L exL . -Tr uns .
. T I e wor d "gungue" exIsLs boL I I n r encI und EngI I s I, buL I L I s noL
oILen used excepL In cerLuI n specI uI I zed dIscourses. L Is LIe worLII ess rock
or veI n muL L er I r om wII c I vuI uubI e meLuI s or mI neruI s ure e xL r uc L e d. -
Truns.
- " + # . # * $
Crossin Aesthetics
Jeun- uc Nuncy, ein Sinulcr Plurcl
Mu ur I c e BI unc IoL J Jucques De r r I du , The Instcnt oj M Decth I
Demeure: Iiction cnd Testimon
NI kI u s u I mu n n , The Socicl Sstem oj Art
Emmu n u u I evI nus, God, Decth, cnd Time
Er nsL BI oc I, The Spirit oj Utopic
GI or g I o Ag u mbe n, Potenticlities: Collected Esscs
EI I e n S. Bur L , Poetr's Appecl: Nineteenth-Centur Irench Lric cnd
the Politiccl Spcce
Jucques De r r I du , Adieu to Emmcnuel Letincs
We r ne r HurnucIer, Premises: Esscs on Philosoph cnd Litercture
jrom cnt to Celcn
Ar I s I oreLos, The Grc ool
De bor uI Es c I, In the Etent: Recdin 1ournclism, Recdin Theor
WI n I r I e d Me nnI ng Iu us , In Prcise oj Nonsense: cnt cnd luebecrd
GI or g I o Ag u mbe n, The Mcn Without Content
GI or g I o Ag u mbe n, The End oj the Poem: Studies in Poetics
TIe o do r W. Ado r no , Sound Iiures
ouI s Mu r I n , Sublime Poussin
PII I I ppe ucoue- ubur L Ie, Poetr cs Experience
Jucques De r r I du , Resistcnces oj Pschocnclsis
Er ns L BI oc I, Litercr Esscs
Mu r c r ome nL - Me ur I c e , Thct Is to Sc: Heideer's Poetics
runcI s Ponge, Socp
PII I I I pe ucoue- ubur L Ie, Tporcph: Mimesis, Philosoph, Politics
GI or g I o Ag u mbe n, Homo Sccer: Soterein Pouer cnd cre Lije
Emmu n u e I evI nus, Dj God Who Comes to Mind
Ber nur d SLIegIer, Technics cnd Time, :: The Icult oj Epimetheus
We r ne r HurnucIer, pleromc-Recdin in Heel
Serge ecI uI re, Pschocnclzin
Serge ecI uI re, A Child Is ein illed
SI g mund r eud, Writins on Art cnd Litercture
Cor neI I us CusL orI udI s, World in Ircments: Writins on Politics, Societ,
Pschocnclsis, cnd the Imcinction
TIo mu s Keenun, Icbles oj Responsibilit: Aberrctions cnd Prediccments
in Ethics cnd Politics
Emmu n u e I evI nus, Proper Ncmes
AI exunder Gu r c I u DI I L L mu n n , At Ddds uith AIDS: Thinlin cnd
Tcllin About c Virus
Mu ur I c e BI unc IoL , Iriendship
Jeun- uc Nuncy, The Muses
Mu s s I mo Cuc c I ur I , Posthumous People: Viennc ct the Turnin Point
Du v I d E. WeI I bery, The Speculcr Moment: Goethe's Ecrl Lric cnd the
einnins oj Romcnticism
E d mo n d Jubs, The Little ool oj Unsuspected Subtersion
Huns- JosL rey, Studies in Poetic Discourse: Mcllcrme, cudelcire,
Rimbcud, Hblderlin
PI erre Bour dI e u, The Rules oj Art: Genesis cnd Structure oj the
Litercr Iield
NI c oI us Abr u Iu m, Rhthms: Dn the Worl, Trcnslction, cnd
Pschocnclsis
Jucques De r r I du , Dn the Ncme
Du v I d WI I I s , Prosthesis
Mu ur I c e BI uncIoL , The Worl oj Iire
Jucques De r r I du , Points ... : Intertieus, I1(-:p(
J . HI I I I s MI I I e r , Toporcphies
PII I I ppe ucoue- ubur L Ie, Musicc Iictc (Iiures oj Wcner)
Jucques De r r I du, Aporics
Emmu n u e I evI nus, Dutside the Subject
Jeun-runoI s yoL ur d, Lessons on the Ancltic Sublime
PeLer enves, "Chctter": Lcnuce cnd Histor in ierleccrd
Jeun- uc Nunc y, The Experience oj Ireedom
Jeun-JosepI Go ux , Dedipus, Philosopher
H u u n Suussy, The Problem oj c Chinese Aesthetic
Jeun- uc Nunc y, The irth to Presence
TII s book, by one oI LIe mosL I nnovuLI ve und cIuI I engI ng conL emporu
LII nkers, consIsLs oI un exLensIve essuy I rom wII cI LIe book Lukes ILs LILIe
und IIve sIorLer essuys LIuL ure I nLernuI I y reIuLed Lo " BeI ng SI nguI ur PI ur uI . "
One oI LIe sLrongesL sLrunds In Nuncy' s pII I osopIy Is IIs uLLempL Lo reLII nk
c ommunI L y und LIe very Ideu oI LIe socIuI In u wuy LIuL does noL ground LIese
Ideus I n some I ndI vI duuI subjecL or subjecLIvILy. TIe I undumenLuI urgumenL oI
LIe book Is LIuL beI ng Is uIwuys "beI ng wI L I, " LIuL " " Is noL prI or Lo "we," LIuL
exIsLence Is essenLIuIIy co-exIsLence. Nunc y LII nks oI LIIs "beI ng-wI L I" noL us u
comIorLubI e encIosure In u pre-exIsLIng group, buL us u muL uuI ubundonmenL
und exposure Lo eucI oLIer, one LIuL wouI d preserve LIe " " und ILs Ireedom In
u mode oI I mugI nI ng c ommunI L y us neILIer u "socIeLy oI specLucIe" nor vI u
some I orm oI uuLIenLIcILy.
TIe II ve sIorLer essuys ImpressIveIy LrunsIuLe LIe pII I osopII cuI I nsI gIL oI
" BeI ng SI nguI ur PI ur uI " I nLo sopIIsLIcuLed dIscussIons oI nuLI onuI sovereIgnLy,
wur und LecInoIogy, I denLI Ly poI I LI cs, LIe Gu I I Wur, und LIe LrugIc pI I gIL oI
Surujevo. TIe essuy " EuI ogy Ior LIe MI e, " In purLIcuIur, Is u brI I I I unL
dIscussIon oI I denLI Ly und IybrI dI sm LIuL resonuLes wI L I muny conL emporury
socIuI concerns.
As Nunc y moves L IrougI LIe exposI LI on oI IIs cenLruI concern, beI ng-wI L I,
Ie enguges u number oI oLIer I mporL unL Issues, I ncI udI ng currenL noLIons oI
LIe "oLIer" und "seII" LIuL ure reIevunL Lo psycIounuI yLIc, poI I L I cuI , und muI L I -
cuI LuruI concepLs. He uIso oIIers usLonI sII ngI y orI gI nuI reInLerpreLuLIons oI
mujor pII I osopII cuI posI LI ons, sucI us NIeLzscIe' s docLrI ne oI "eLernuI
recurrence," DescurLes's "cogI Lo, " und LIe nuLure oI Iunguuge und meunI ng.
MER D AN: CROSS NG AESTHET CS
" , - $ . / 0 1 2 $ ! ( 3 0 " ! , 4 5 0 3 " "
$$$%&'(%)*+
Cover IIusLruLIon: DunI eI RI cIurdson, 1qqq. Counseled
Ascent (\eh) und Conseil de Cent (rIgIL). Reproduced by
permIssIon oI LIe urLIsL.
( over desIgn: Jumes V. Brommer, usIng LIe serIes concepI
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