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Training & Development.

Amit's

INDEX
Sr. No.
1. 2. !. . '. $. ,. &. ). 1+. 11. 12.

Particular
Introduction. Object of Training. Identif" Training #eed. Training & Development %as competitive advantage. (enefits of Training. Training *et%ods. Implementation of training -rogramme. .valuation of -rogramme. ./0earning. ./learning Advantage & Disadvantages. 1o2 to ma3e training effective. 4ummar".

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2. . $. &. ). 1+. 1'. 1$. 1,. 1&. 1). 2+.

Training & Development.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

0earning Objectives
After reading t%is -roject5 "ou s%ould be able to6

7nderstanding t%e nature and importance of training and development and identif" t%e various inputs t%at s%ould go into an" suc% programme.

Important *et%ods & (enefits of Training & Development

Delineate t%e different stages in a training and development programme and describe eac% step.

7nderstanding t%e need for and t%e 2a"s of training for international assignments

Training & Development.

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INTRODUCTION

Toda" 1uman 8esources are significant factor of an" organi9ation. *ostl" service organi9ation li3e (an3 & Insurance companies success depends upon :ualit" & :uantit" of 1uman resources because people %ave ta3en on an even more central role in building a firm's competitive advantage. Organi9ation can ac%ieved sustained competitive advantage t%roug% providing appropriate training & education to t%eir emplo"ees. T%erefore Training & Development programmed is ver" significant to an" organi9ation.

Origin:
T%e beginning of training could trace to t%e 4tone Age 2%en people started transferring 3no2ledge t%roug% signs and deeds to ot%ers. ;ocational training started during t%e Industrial 8evolution 2%en apprentices 2ere provided direct instructions in t%e operation of mac%ines. Training and development is increasingl" recogni9ed5 no25 as a most important organi9ational activit". 8apid tec%nological c%anges re:uire ne2er s3ills and 3no2ledge in man" areas. Training %as to be continuousl" offered to 3eep emplo"ees updated and effective. T%ere are some 2%o believe t%at training %as necessaril" been given undue importance and t%at t%e e<perience on/t%e/job is good enoug% to develop necessar" s3ills and efficienc" to perform t%e job. It is true t%at training cannot entirel" substitute e<perience5 but it %as certain definite advantages over it. 1. Training unli3e e<perience can s%orten t%e time re:uired to reac% ma<imum efficienc".

Training & Development.

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2. =ost of training is muc% less t%an t%e cost of gaining e<perience particularl" if one is dealing 2it% e<pensive e:uipment. !. T%e results of e<perience can sometimes be accidental5 particularl" 2%en e<perience depends solel" on trial and error. . T%e element of predictabilit" is far less 2%en compared to t%e outcome of a 2ell conceived and conducted training programme. '. =lear description of performance problem. $. >re:uent feedbac3 to measure t%e progress of learners?participants.

De!inition:
@It is attempt to improve current or future emplo"ee performance b" increasing an emplo"ees abilit" to perform t%roug% learning usuall" b" c%anging emplo"ees attitude or increasing %is or %er s3ill & 3no2ledge@

-Shirley Bosky
@Training & Development is a one of t%e significant tec%ni:ue to encourage emplo"ee to ta3e interest in %is 2or3 b" developing s3ill & 3no2ledge 2%ic% 2ill definitel" reflects in organi9ational profits.@ @Training & Development refer to t%ose specific learning opportunit" designed to %elp emplo"ees gro2.@

Training & Development.

Amit's

Training & development need arise to fulfill t%e gap bet2een standard performance of emplo"ee & actual performance. A%ere t%e emplo"ee is lac3ing or be%ind in %is 2or3. .<treme supervision on emplo"ees 2or3s %elp to decide degree of training & Development programmes. -eople often confuse 2it% t%e Training and .ducation. (ut bot% are different in some points as follo2s.

Training Application *et%od. Bob .<perience. 4pecific Tas3. #arro2 -erspective

E"ucation T%eoretical Orientation. =lassroom Training Ceneral =oncept. (road -erspective.

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O#$ECTIVES O% TRAINING

T%e objectives of training according to t%e emplo"ees belonging to different levels of organi9ations. T%e basic objective of training5 %o2ever5 is to establis% a matc% bet2een emplo"ee and %is job. T%is training is designed to improve 3no2ledge5 s3ills5 and attitude and5 t%us e:uip t%e individual to be more effective in %is present job or prepare %im for a future assignment. 1o2ever5 individualDs gro2t% s%ould not be ta3en as an end. >rom t%e point of vie2 of an organi9ation individual gro2t% is a means to organi9ational effectiveness. T%e viabilit" depends on t%e efficienc" t%at an organi9ation ac%ieves in meeting its goals. In"uction

Training constitutes a significant step in t%e induction of t%e individual into t%e compan"Ds 2a" of life. Its %elps t%e emplo"ee to 3no2 t%e compan"Ds culture5 structure5 relations%ipDs role5 policies and rules of t%e organi9ations. T%e basic idea is to ta3e relativel" "oung people and e<pose t%em to t%e various departments and functions of t%e organi9ation to %elp t%em to 3no2 t%e organi9ation better. At t%e end of t%is period5 eit%er t%e trainees are placed in a specific department or t%e" are allo2ed to c%oose. U&"ating A significant objective of training is to prevent t%e obsolescence of t%e emplo"ees b" updating t%eir s3ills and 3no2ledge. T%e jobs t%at emplo"ees %ave been doing are not static. T%e" c%ange5 sometimes5 2it%out t%e necessar" a2areness. >or e<ample5 introduction of computers %as c%anges job substantiall". 4o t%e training becomes necessar" to update t%em5 to reac% t%e ne2er s3ills and t%eir efficienc" does not suffer because of lac3 of understanding of t%e ne2 tec%nolog".

Training & Development.

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Pre&aring !or %uture A''ign(ent' One of t%e objects of t%e training is to provide an emplo"ee an opportunit" to climb up t%e promotional ladder. T%ere are t2o 2a"s to do t%is5 One5 people 2it% potential can be identified and sent to appropriate training programmes to prepare t%em for future positions. T%e ot%er could be to train t%em for t%e ne<t level and 2ait for t%e opportunit" to absorb t%em. Anot%er variation of t%is could be t%at an emplo"ee is promoted and t%en sent for training. In all cases5 it %elps an organi9ation to %ave trained manpo2er available as and 2%en needed. Co(&etence Organi9ations5 2%ic% %ave stagnated for long5 need to identif" certain individuals 2%o are creative and s%o2 potential for innovation and sent t%em to special training programmes designed to reali9e t%e ne2 competencies. T%ese programmes do not necessaril" meet t%e job related re:uirements but are designed to induce certain special talents. -rogrammes on creativit"5 innovativeness5 and t%e li3e are no2 offered b" man" agencies.

De'igning Training ) De*elo&(ent Progra((e': A%o are TraineesE

A%o are TrainersE A%at met%ods & Tec%ni:uesE A%at s%ould be level of trainingE A%at is t%e -rinciple of 0earningE A%ere to conduct programmesE

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IDENTI%+ING TRAINING NEEDS

Identif"ing training needs is a process t%at involves establis%ing areas 2%ere emplo"ees lac3 s3ill5 3no2ledge5 and abilit" in effectivel" performing t%e job and also identif"ing organi9ational constraints t%at are creating road bloc3s in t%e performance. Organi,ational Anal-'i' T%e anal"sis 2ould %elp identif" deficiencies and mec%anisms t%at 2ould be needed to ma3e adjustments in t%ose deficiencies. T%is anal"sis begins 2it% an understanding of s%ort/term and long/term goals of t%e organi9ations5 as a 2%ole5 and for eac% department specificall". T%is 2ould %elp to identif" 2%at capacities are needed to fulfill t%ese goals. Ta'. Anal-'i' T%is involves a detailed anal"sis of various components of jobs5 and %o2 t%e" are performed. Anal"sis of tas3s 2ould indicate 2%et%er tas3s %ave c%anged over period of time and 2%et%er emplo"ees %ave ade:uate s3ill in performing t%ese tas3s. Man Anal-'i' T%e focus is on emplo"eeDs s3ills abilities5 3no2ledge5 and attitude. Of t%e t%ree5 t%is is a more comple< component because of difficulties in assessing %uman contribution. Cenerall" suc% indicators as production data5 meeting deadlines5 :ualit" of performance5 personal data suc% as 2or3 be%aviour5 absenteeism5 late/ coming provide input for man anal"sis.

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Anal-'i' o! E/ui&(ent =%ange in e:uipment or modification of e<isting mac%ines and e:uipment calls for ne2 s3ills and abilities. An anal"sis of c%anging tec%nolog"5 t%erefore5 becomes a %and" mec%anism to identif" t%e 3ind of training t%at 2ould be re:uired. #rain'tor(ing It is a %elpful 2a" to determine training needs especiall" of a group. T%e tec%ni:ue consists of involving professionals 2it% different bac3grounds5 assigning t%em a tas3 and fi<ing a time limit. At t%e end of t%e time limit5 t%e ideas generated are closel" scrutini9ed to see 2%at 3ind of training 2ould %elp t%em in performing tas3s. Pro0le( Clinic In t%is case a %omogeneous group meets informall" to discuss a common problem and develop a solution. 4o5 a group of engineers can get toget%er and discuss a problem sa" mac%ine maintenance5 2%ic% is bot%ering all of t%em. T%eir solution 2ould %elp in identif"ing t%e nature of training t%at 2ould facilitate better mac%ine maintenance. Si(ulation 4imulation or business games are useful tec%ni:ues to identif" training needs. 4ome structured e<ercises are developed and individual or teams are as3ed to compete 2it% eac% ot%er on t%ese e<ercises. T%e e<ercises re:uire t%e possession or lac3 of certain s3ills li3e problem solving5 communication5 information processing5 and so on. -erformance5 on t%ese games5 %ig%lig%ts areas 2%ere training ma" be useful.

Training & Development.

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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT 1AS A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

=ompanies derive competitive advantage from training and development. Training and development programmes %elp to remove deficiencies in emplo"ees. T%is is particularl" true 2%en 1. T%e deficienc" is caused b" lac3 abilit" rat%er t%an a lac3 of motivation to perform. 2. T%e individuals involved %ave t%e aptitude and motivation need to learn to do t%e job better. !. 4upervisors and peers are supportive of t%e desired be%aviors. T%ere is greater stabilit"5 fle<ibilit"5 and capacit" for gro2t% in an organi9ation. Training contributes to emplo"ee stabilit" in at least t2o 2a"s. .mplo"ees become efficient after undergoing training. .fficient emplo"ees contribute to t%e gro2t% of t%e organi9ation. Cro2t% renders stabilit" to t%e 2or3force. >urt%er5 trained emplo"ees tend to sta" 2it% t%e organi9ation. All rounder can be transferred to an" job. >le<ibilit" is t%erefore ensured. Cro2t% indicates prosperit"5 2%ic% is reflected in increased profits from "ear to "ear. >urt%er t%e need of emplo"ees 2ill be met t%roug% training and development programmes. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training is an investment in 18 2it% a promise of better returns in future.

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Training becomes almost essential 2%en mergers or ac:uisitions ta3e place5 as %as %appened to t%e I=I=I (an3. A%en (an3 of *adura got merged 2it% t%e best ban3 of 2++! FI=I=IG5 2 ++ emplo"ees average are of 2& "ears. T%e average age of t%e merged ban3 2as become imperative. !. Integration became a c%allenge and training t%erefore

#ENE%ITS O% EMPLO+EE TRAINING

To Organization 1. 0eads to improved profitabilit" and ?or more positive attitudes to2ards profit orientation. 2. Improves t%e job 3no2ledge and s3ills at all levels of t%e organi9ation !. 1elps people identif" 2it% organi9ational goals . Improves relations%ip bet2een boss and subordinate '. =reates an appropriate climate for gro2t%5 communication $. 1elps 3eep costs do2n in man" areas5 e.g. production5 personnel5 administration5 etc.

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To the Individual 1. 1elps t%e individual in ma3ing better decisions and effective problem solving. 2. Aids in encouraging and ac%ieving self/development and self/confidence !. 1elps a person %andle stress5 tension5 frustration and conflict . *oves a person to2ards personal goals 2%ile improving interactive s3ills '. 1elps a person develop spea3ing and listening s3illsH also 2riting s3ills 2%en e<ercises are re:uired $. 1elps eliminate fear in attempting ne2 tas3s

TRAINING MET1ODS

A variet" of training met%ods are available and used b" training agencies and organi9ations. T%e c%oice of a met%od or a mi< of met%ods is a function of a number of considerations. 1. T%e purpose of training is an important consideration in t%e c%oice o met%odolog". Ino2ledge can be provided b" traditional met%ods of training li3e lectures5 and discussions. 43ills and attitudes %ave to be developed b" e<periential met%ods or training li3e in/bas3et5 T/group etc.

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2. T%e natures of contents often determine t%e nature of met%odolog". A concept can be clarified t%roug% a lecture t%e operation of mac%ine ma" best be demonstrated. !. >inall"5 all organi9ations %ave to be concerned 2it% cost factors. =ost considerations %ave to be ta3en into account 2%ile deciding on met%ods of training. 1o2ever5 cost considerations s%ould not override t%e :ualit" considerations. A brief discussion on some of t%e most prevalent met%ods of training is provided belo2. Lecture' 0ecture is a verbal presentation of information b" an instructor to a large audience. T%e lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable dept% of 3no2ledge of t%e subject at %and. A virtue of t%is met%od is t%at is can be used for ver" large groups and %ence t%e cost per trainee is lo2. T%is met%od is mainl" used in colleges and universities5 t%oug% its application is restricted in training factor" emplo"ees. 0imitations of t%e lecture met%od account for its lo2 popularit". T%e met%od violates t%e principle of learning b" practice. It constitutes a one/2a" communication. T%ere is no feedbac3 from t%e audience. =ontinued lecturing is li3el" to bore t%e audience. 1o2ever5 t%e lecture met%od can be made effective if it is combined 2it% ot%er met%od of training. Au"io Vi'ual' Audio/;isuals include television slides5 over%eads5 video/t"pes5 and films. T%ese can be used to provide a 2ide range of realistic e<amples of job conditions and situations in t%e condensed period of time. >urt%er5 t%e :ualit" of t%e presentation can be controlled and 2ill remain e:ual for all training groups. (ut5 audio/;isuals
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constitute a one/2a" s"stem of communication 2it% no scope for t%e audience to raise doubts for clarification and t%ere is no fle<ibilit" of presentation from audience to audience. On t2e $o0 Training 3O$T4 *ajorit" of industrial training is of t%e on/t%e/job/training t"pe. OBT is conducted at t%e 2or3 site and in t%e conte<t of t%e job. Often5 it is informal5 as 2%en an e<perienced 2or3er s%o2s a trainee %o2 to perform t%e job tas3s. Bob rotation5 brainstorming sessions5 and s"ndicate tec%ni:ues are some of t%e met%ods t%at 2ould come under t%is categor". Merits: 1. It is t%e most effective met%od as t%e trainee learns b" e<perience5 ma3ing %im or %er %ig%l" competent. 2. T%e met%od is least e<pensive since no formal training is organi9ed. !. T%e trainee is %ig%l" motivated to learn since %e or s%e is a2are of t%e fact t%at %is or %er success on t%e job depends on t%e training received. . >inall"5 t%e training is free from an artificial situation of a classroom Demerits: 1. T%e e<perience emplo"ee ma" lac3 e<pertise or inclination to train t%e juniors. 2. T%e training programme itself is not s"stemicall" organi9ed. !. A poorl" conducted OBT programme is li3el" to create safet" %a9ards5 result in damaged products or materials5 and bring unnecessar" stress to t%e trainees.

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Progra((e" In'truction 3PI4 T%is is met%od 2%ere training is offered 2it%out t%e intervention of a trainer. Information is provided to t%e trainee on bloc3s5 eit%er in a boo3 form of t%roug% a teac%ing mac%ine. After reading eac% bloc3 of material5 t%e learner must ans2er a :uestion about it. >eedbac3 in t%e form t%e correct ans2er is provided after eac% response. T%us5 programmed instruction F-IG involves6 1. -resenting :uestion5 facts5 or problems to t%e learner. 2. Allo2ing t%e person to respond. !. -roviding feedbac3 on t%e accurac" of %is or %is ans2ers. . If t%e ans2ers are correct5 t%e learner proceeds to t%e ne<t bloc3. If not5 %e or s%e repeats t%e same. Advantages: 1. It is self/paced/trainees can progress t%roug% t%e programmes at t%eir o2n speed. 2. 4trong motivation is provided to t%e learner to repeat learning. !. *aterial is also structured and self/contained5 offering muc% scope for practice. Disadvantages: 1. T%e scope of learning is less5 compared to ot%er met%ods of training. 2. =ost of preparing t%e boo3s5 manuals and mac%iner" is considerabl" %ig%.
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Co(&uter A''i'te" In'truction 3CAI4 =AI is an improved s"stem 2%en compared to t%e -I met%od5 in at least t%ree respects. >irst5 =AI provides for accountabilit" as tests are ta3en on t%e computer so t%at t%e management can monitor eac% traineeDs progress and needs. 4econd5 a =AI training programme can also modified easil" to reflect tec%nological innovations in t%e e:uipment for 2%ic% t%e emplo"ee is being trained. T%ird5 t%is training also tends to be more fle<ible in t%at trainees can usuall" use t%e computer almost an" time t%e" 2ant5 and t%us get training 2%en t%e" prefer. #ot to be ignored is t%e fact t%at feedbac3 from =AI is as ric% and colorful as modern electronic games5 complete 2it% audio instructions and visual displa"s. A deterrent 2it% regard to =AI is its %ig% cost5 but repeated use ma" justif" t%e cost. Si(ulation A simulator is an" 3ind of e:uipment or tec%ni:ue t%at duplicates as nearl" as possible t%e actual conditions encountered on t%e job. 4imulation t%en5 is an attempt to create a realistic decision/ma3ing environment for t%e trainee. >or e<ample5 activities of an organi9ation ma" be simulated and t%e trainee ma" be as3ed to ma3e a decision in support to t%ose activities. T%e results of t%ose decisions are reported bac3 to t%e trainee 2it% an e<planation of 2%at 2ould %ave %appened %ad t%e" actuall" been made in t%e 2or3place. T%e trainee learns from t%is feedbac3 and improves %is?%er subse:uent simulation and 2or3place decisions. Ca'e Stu"=ase stud" is a 2ritten description of an actual situation in business t%at provo3es5 in t%e reader5 t%e need to decide 2%at is going on 2%at t%e situation reall" is or 2%at t%e problems are5 and 2%at can and s%ould be done. =ase stud" can provide stimulating discussions among participants5 as 2ell as e<cellence opportunities for individuals to defend t%eir anal"tical and judgment abilities.
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Role Pla-ing It generall" focuses on emotional mainl" %uman relations issues rat%er t%an actual ones. T%e essence of role/pla"ing is to create a realistic situation5 as in case stud"5 and t%en %ave t%e trainees assume t%e parts of specific personalities in t%e situation. >or e<ample5 a male 2or3er ma" assume t%e role of a female supervisor5 and t%e supervisor ma" assume t%e role of a male 2or3er. T%en5 bot% ma" be given a t"pical 2or3 situation and as3ed to respond as t%e" e<pect ot%ers to do. T%e conse:uence is a better understanding among individuals. 8ole/pla"ing %elps promote interpersonal relations. Attitude c%ange is anot%er result of role/pla"ing. Ve'ti0ule Training It utili9es e:uipment5 2%ic% closel" resembles t%e actual ones used on t%e job. 1o2ever5 training ta3es place a2a" from t%e 2or3 environment. T%e trainee is t%en permitted to learn under simulated conditions5 2it%out disrupting ongoing operations. A primar" advantage of vestibule training is t%at it relives t%e emplo"ee from t%e pressure of %aving to produce 2%ile learning. T%e emp%asis is on learning s3ills re:uired b" t%e job. Of course5 t%e cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage. Sen'iti*it- Training 4ensitivit" training uses small numbers of trainees5 usuall" fe2er t%an 12 in a group. T%e" meet 2it% a passive trainer and gain insig%t into t%eir o2n and ot%ers be%aviour. *eetings %ave no agenda5 are %eld a2a" from t%e 2or3places. T%e objectives of sensitivit" training are to provide t%e participants 2it% increased a2areness of t%eir o2n be%aviour and %o2 ot%ers perceive t%em/grater sensitivit" to t%e be%aviour of ot%ers5 and increased understanding of groupDs processes. T%e dra2bac3 of t%is met%od is t%at once t%e training is over5 t%e participants are t%emselves again and t%e" resort to t%eir old %abits. 4ensitivit" training can go b" a
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variet" of names/laborator" training5 encounter groups5 or T/groups Ftraining groupsG. CONDUCT O% TRAINING A final consideration is 2%ere t%e training and development programme is to be conducted. Actuall"5 t%e decision comes do2n to t%e follo2ing c%oices6 1. At t%e job itself 2. On site but not t%e job/e<ample5 in a training room in t%e compan". !. Off t%e site5 suc% as in a universit" or college classroom5 %otel5 a resort5 or conferences center. T"picall"5 basic s3ills are taug%t at t%e job5 and basic grammar s3ills are taug%t on t%e site. *uc% of interpersonal and conceptual s3ills are learnt off t%e site.

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IMPLEMENTATION O% T1E TRAINING PROGRAMME.

Once t%e training programme %as been designed5 it needs to be implemented. Implementation is beset 2it% certain problems. In t%e first place5 most managers are action/oriented and fre:uentl" sa" t%e" are too bus" to engage in training efforts. 4econdl"5 availabilit" of trainers is a problem. In addition to possessing communication s3ills5 t%e trainers must 3no2 t%e compan"Ds p%ilosop%"5 its objectives5 its formal and informal organi9ations5 and goals of t%e training programme. Training and development re:uires a %ig%er degree of creativit" t%an5 per%aps an" ot%er personnel specialt". 4c%eduling training around t%e present 2or3 is anot%er problem. 1o2 to sc%edule training 2it%out disrupting t%e regular 2or3E T%ere is also t%e problem of record 3eeping about t%e performance of a trainee during %is or %er training period. T%is information ma" be useful to evaluate t%e progress of t%e trainee in t%e compan". -rogramme implementation involves action on t%e follo2ing lines6 1. Deciding t%e location and organi9ing training and ot%er facilities. 2. 4c%eduling t%e training programme. !. =onducting t%e programme. . *onitoring t%e progress of trainees.

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EVALUATION O% PROGRAMME

T%e last stage in t%e training and development process is t%e evaluation of results. 4ince %uge sums of mone" are spent on training and development5 %o2 far t%e programme %as been useful must be judged?determined. .valuation %elps determine t%e results of t%e training and development programme. In practice5 %o2ever5 organi9ations eit%er overloo3 or lac3 facilities for evaluation. Nee" !or E*aluation T%e main objective of evaluating t%e training programmes is to determine if t%e" are accomplis%ing specific training objectives t%at are5 correcting performance deficiencies. A second reason for evaluation is to ensure t%at an" c%anges in trainee capabilities are due to t%e training programme and due to an" ot%er conditions. Training programmes s%ould be evaluated to determine t%eir cost effectiveness. .valuation is useful to e<plain programme failure5 s%ould it occur. >inall"5 credibilit" of training and development is greatl" en%anced 2%en it is proved t%at organi9ation %as benefited tangibl" from it. Princi&le' o! E*aluation .valuation of t%e training programme must be based on t%e follo2ing principles. 1. .valuation specialist must be clear about t%e goals and purposes of evaluation. 2. .valuation must be specific. !. .valuation must be continuous. . .valuation must provide t%e means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise t%emselves5 t%eir practices5 and t%eir products. '. .valuation must be based on objective met%ods and standards.

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$. 8ealistic target dates must be set for eac% p%ase of t%e evaluation process. A sense of urgenc" must be developed5 but deadlines t%at are unreasonabl" %ig% 2ill result in poor evaluation.

E LEARNING

./0earning refers to t%e use of Internet or an organi9ational intranet to conduct training on/line. ./learning is becoming increasingl" popular because of t%e large number of emplo"ees5 2%o need training. Ta3e Aipro5 for e<ample5 out of its 1,5'++ emplo"ees5 2'5 ++ are on site and 1'5+++ emplo"ees are in off/s%ore centres at (angalore5 1"derabad5 =%ennai5 -une and Del%i. 1o2 to organi9e training for all t%eseE Aipro also %as a polic" of subjecting an" emplo"ee for a t2o/2ee3 training ever" "ear. ./learning %elps Aipro considerabl". 4imilarl"5 at 4at"am nearl" &+J of t%e emplo"ees are logged into t%e in/%ouse learning management s"stem for various courses. Infos"s %as almost 1+J of its total training t%roug% e/learning. It is not t%at e/learning replaces traditional training s"stem. In fact5 e/learning becomes more effective 2%en blended 2it% traditional learning met%ods. *an" firms use e/learning as a prere:uisite before classroom training popularl" called blended training5 a combination of e/learning 2it% classroom approac%. 0earning t%at re:uires discussion5 tutoring and team/2or3 can go on/line5 t%oug% it mig%t also sta" in t%e classroom.

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Re/ui'ite' !or E Learning ./learning does not simpl" mean putting e<isting courses and materials on a 2ebsite. >ollo2ing re:uisites need to be provided before launc%ing learning on/line. 4ufficient top management support and funding needs to be committed to develop and implement e/learning. *anagers and 18 professionals need to be KretrainedL to accept t%e idea t%at training is being decentrali9ed and individuali9ed. =urrent training met%ods are not ade:uatel" meeting organi9ational training needs. -otential learners are ade:uatel" computer literate and %ave read" access to computers and t%e Internet. 4ufficient number of learners e<ists and man" of t%em are self/motivated to direct t%eir o2n learning.

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Training & Development.

Amit's

E LEARNING

ADVANTAGES It is self/paced. Trainees can proceed on t%eir o2n time It is interactive5 lapping multiple trainee senses Allo2s for consistenc" in t%e deliver" of training .nables scoring services?assessments and of t%e

DISADVANTAGES *a" cause trainee an<iet" #ot all trainees ma" be read" for e/ learning #ot all trainees ma" %ave eas" and uninterrupted access to computers #ot appropriate for all training content Fe.g. leaders%ip5 cultural c%ange. 8e:uires significant upfront cost and investment #o significantl" greater learning evidenced in researc% studies 8e:uires significant management successful support to top be

appropriate feedbac3 Incorporates built/in guidance and %elp of trainees to use 2%en needed It is relativel" eas" for trainers to update content =an be used to en%ance

instructor+led training.

1O5 TO MA6E TRAINING E%%ECTIVE.

2!

Training & Development.

Amit's

1. .nsure t%at t%e management commits itself to allocate major resources and ade:uate time to training. T%is is 2%at %ig%/performing organi9ations do.

2. .nsure t%at training contributes to competitive strategies of t%e firm. Different strategies need different 18 s3ills for implementation. 0et training %elp emplo"ees at all levels ac:uire t%e needed s3ills.

!. .nsure t%at a compre%ensive and s"stematic approac% to training e<ists5 and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis.

. *a3e learning one of t%e fundamental values of t%e compan". 0et t%is p%ilosop%" percolate do2n to all emplo"ees in t%e organi9ation.

'. .nsure t%at t%ere is proper lin3age among organi9ational5 operational and individual training needs.

$. =reate a s"stem to evaluate t%e effectiveness of training.

SUMMAR+

Training & Development.

Amit's

Training and development activities are designed5 considerable costs not2it%standing5 to impart specific s3ills abilities and 3no2ledge to emplo"ees. Distinction is often made bet2een training and education5 and bet2een t%ese t2o and development. Training refers to imparting specific s3ills. .ducation is t%e process of t%eoretical learning in classrooms. Development refers to t%e learning opportunities designed to %elp emplo"ees gro2 and evolve a vision about t%e future. All t%e t%ree form a part of training and development/onl" target groups of emplo"ees differ. Training is confined to s%op/floor 2or3ers and development is meant for e<ecutives. .ducation5 of course is needed for all emplo"ees5 irrespective of t%eir %ierarc%". 43ills education5 developments5 et%ics5 attitudinal c%anges and decision/ ma3ing s3ills must go into an" programme of training and development. A programme of training and development is important as it lends stabilit" and fle<ibilit" to an organi9ation5 besides contributing to its capacit" to gro2. Accident5 scrap5 and damage to mac%iner" of emplo"ees 2ill be ta3en care b" training and development. Training process involves several steps Defining organi9ational objectives and strategies5 Assessment of training needs5 .stablis%ing training goals5 Devising t%e training programme5 Implementation of t%e programme5 and

2'

Training & Development.

Amit's

.valuation of t%e results 4everal barriers impede t%e effectiveness of training and t%ere are 2a"s of removing t%em.

2$