You are on page 1of 14


: 1 Date : March 1994


Approved for Implementation by ........................................................ Director (Operation) Date :.................................... Enquiries to : Executive Director, Operation Services

All locations are required to comply with this Directive

Turbine Generator Vibration monitoring CONTENTS Page Nos. 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 Superseded Documents 1 3.0 Scope 1 4.0 Procedures 2 4.1 Power Stations 2 4.2 Vibration onitoring !na"#sis 3 $.0 easurements 4 $.1 Turbine Super%isor# &'uipment (TS&) 4 *ontinuous easurements $.2 Vibration onitoring &'uipment (V &) 4 Programme o+ easurements ,.0 -e%iew , !ppendi. ! / Vibration easurements / Genera" -e'uirements 0 !ppendi. 1 / Datum easurements during 2 -eturn/to Ser%ice +rom a3or 4utages !ppendi. * / 4perating Guide"ines on Vibration 11 5imits +or 5arge T.G. Sets Page / 1 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 Turbine Generator Vibration onitoring 1.0 Introduction T9e ob3ecti%es o+ turbine generator %ibration monitoring are as +o""ows : i) To indicate to t9e operator w9et9er a mac9ine is running wit9in prescribed %ibration "imits as speci+ied b# t9e manu+acturer or b# internationa""# accepted Standards. ii) To detect de%e"opment o+ +au"ts. iii) To assist in diagnosing causes and identi+#ing appropriate action w9en eit9er %ibration "imits are e.ceeded or signi+icant c9anges in %ibration pattern are detected. i%) To assess and maintain a data base o+ mac9ine condition on a regu"ar basis.

To meet t9ese ob3ecti%es t9ere are two genera" t#pes o+ %ibration monitoring. T9ese are; +irst"#; t9e a"most uni%ersa""# insta""ed Turbine Super%isor# &'uipment (TS&) and; second"# t9e o++/"ine Vibration onitoring &'uipment (V &). In most o+ our power stations bot9 t#pes o+ instrumentation are being used Independent"#. T9e TS& continuous"# measures o%era"" "e%e"s o+ %ibration amp"itude and enab"es t9e operator to determine w9et9er a unit can sa+e"# remain in ser%ice (ob3ecti%e (i) abo%e); or; i+ t9ere are signs o+ a deteriorating situation (ob3ecti%e (ii) abo%e) w9en it ma# be necessar# to en"ist t9e 9e"p o+ specia"ists in carr#ing out +urt9er tests; measurements or ana"#sis. T9e disp"a# o+ t9is in+ormation is norma""# in t9e contro" room and continua""# a%ai"ab"e to t9e operator. T9e V & enab"es an in dept9 ana"#sis o+ t9e %ibration data; inc"uding p9ase and p"ant state in+ormation; and caters +or 9ig9 'ua"it# data to be recorded on "oad; during run/up and run/down in order to aid diagnosis o+ +au"t conditions (ob3ecti%e (ii)/(i%) abo%e). T9is can be accomp"is9ed wit9 o++/"ine and on/"ine s#stems; but t9e additiona" bene+its o+ on/"ine s#stems are impro%ed response time in t9e diagnosis o+ p"ant prob"ems and better Page / 2 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 corre"ation o+ t9e %ibration in+ormations o+ t9e state o+ t9e p"ant w9en speci+ic prob"ems arise. In NTP*; o++/"ine V & s#stem is wide"# used to gat9er re"iab"e data +or e++ecti%e +au"ts diagnosis. 2.0 SUPERSEDED DOCUMENTS / Ni" 3.0 SCOPE T9is 4peration Directi%e describes t9e procedures +or turbine generators +itted wit9 TS&. It a"so describes procedures +or use o+ t9e o++/"ine V & on a"" units. 4.0 PROCEDURES T9e +o""owing are recommended procedures to enab"e t9e ob3ecti%es (i to i%) to be ac9ie%ed. 4.1 Power Stations i) T9e Station anager s9a"" nominate a representati%e wit9in t9e station *ondition onitoring Group w9o wi"" be responsib"e +or imp"ementing t9is Directi%e; underta<ing its routine operation and "iaising wit9 specia"ists as re'uired eg. TG6SG6&G. ii) Turbine generators s9a"" be operated wit9in %ibration "imits as recommended b# anu+actures and speci+ied in =4perating Guide"ines on Vibration "imits +or Turbogenerators > -otating mac9ines= issued b# 4peration Ser%ice. iii) *riteria s9a"" be estab"is9ed de+ining acceptab"e %ibration trends and step c9anges +or eac9 turbine generator bearing position. T9e appropriate %ibration criteria s9ou"d be disp"a#ed to t9e operator; and ad%ice soug9t in t9e e%ent o+ an# "imits being e.ceeded or e.cessi%e c9anges occurring. i%) ! procedure s9a"" be estab"is9ed de+ining responsibi"ities +or operating t9e o++/"ine V & and identi+#ing arrangements +or norma" and emergenc# situations. Page / 3 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 %) ?!@ *ompre9ensi%e record o+ mac9ine bui"d s9a"" be maintained. a) -otor6*oup"ing concentricit#. b) T9e +u"" bearing a"ignment data +rom eac9 mac9ine; re"ati%e to t9e smoot9 catenar# condition be+ore and a+ter o%er9au"s. c) T9e ba"ance weig9t distribution on eac9 rotor. d) T9e g"and c"earances +or eac9 s9a+t. e) T9e angu"ar coup"ing o+ eac9 rotor re"ati%e to its neig9bour. +) Datum b"oc< c"earances to obtain t9e co"d to 9ot a.ia" mo%ement o+ t9e pedesta"s and a.ia"/trans%erse mo%ement o+ t9e c#"inder paws. g) -ecords o+ remedia" wor< carried out on t9e turbine/generator and its support structure. T9ese records s9ou"d be updated eac9 time t9e bui"d o+ an# unit is disturbed or modi+ied. 4.2 Vibration Monitoring Analysis It is recommended t9at ad%ice +rom t9e *ondition onitoring Group at sites wou"d inc"ude t9e +o""owing: i) T9e Pro%ision o+ ad%ice in order to estab"is9 %ibration "imits and response criteria. T9e interpretation o+ acceptab"e %ibration "imits s9ou"d ta<e into account appropriate %ibration standards gi%en b# manu+acturers and

speci+ied in =4perating Guide"ines on Vibration 5imits +or 5arge Turbine Generator= Issued b# 4peration Ser%ices; an e.tract o+ w9ic9 is detai"ed in !ppendi. / 8*A. ii) !s a minimum; ana"#Be bot9 t9e constant speed and t9e %ariab"e speed data to gi%e t9e amp"itude and p9ase +or t9e +irst and second 9armonics o+ rotationa" speed; and be capab"e o+ ana"#Bing t9e +u"" range o+ sub/and mu"tip"e/9armonics. Page / 4 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 iii) !gree wit9 t9e Station anager suitab"e response times +or ana"#sis and reporting o+ resu"ts under norma" and emergenc# situations. i%) aintain data base o+ %ibration data as per t9e Guide"ines issued b# 4S +or eac9 turbine generator; in order to identi+# signi+icant c9anges and trends; and assess generic p"ant imp"ications. $.0 MEASUREMENTS $.1 Turbine Supervisory Equip ent !TSE" Continuous Measure ents T9e TS& enab"es t9e operator to ensure t9at o%era"" %ibration "e%e"s are <ept wit9in prescribed "imits; and to detect signi+icant departures +rom norma" be9a%iour. T9e continuous"# monitoring TS& s9ou"d remain t9e primar# sa+eguard against +au"ts w9ic9 ma# resu"t in "oad or e.citation "imits; or possib"#; mac9ine brea<down and ma3or +ai"ure. T9e measured %ibration amp"itude s9ou"d be ade'uate"# disp"a#ed to t9e operator toget9er wit9 t9e %arious agreed "imits. T9e per+ormance re"iabi"it# o+ TS& > V & e'uipment s9ou"d be Cmaintained to a 9ig9 standard. $.2 Vibration Monitoring Equip ent !VME" Progra e o# Measure ents T9e V & enab"es detai"ed in%estigations to be made; and s9ou"d a %ibrationa" c9ange be detected; pro%ides t9e data to diagnose t9e cause. D9i"e t9e presence o+ growt9 o+ %ibration/re"ated +au"ts ma# be detectab"e b# eit9er t9e TS& or V &; t9eir diagnosis o+ten re'uires measurements o+ %ibration p9ase re"ations9ips; and t9ose can on"# be identi+ied b# t9e V &. *orrect and prompt diagnosis o+ +au"ts re'uires t9e s#stematic recording and arc9i%ing o+ %ibrationa" be9a%iour. &.perience 9as s9own t9at V & measurements under t9ree t#pes o+ operation conditions are usua""# necessar# to pro%ide compre9ensi%e data +or e++icient prob"em diagnosis; i.e. i) !t norma" "oad conditions ii) During 9ot run/down iii) 4n return to ser%ice +o""owing ma3or o%er9au"s. Page / $ 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 Signa"s proportiona" to eac9 pedesta" %ibration +or t9e turbine and generator; toget9er wit9 t9eir p9ase re"ation to a +i.ed s9a+t mar<er; s9ou"d be recorded b# station condition monitoring sta++ at t9e inter%a"s recommended in $.2.1 and $.2.2 o+ t9is Directi%e. T9e se"ection o+ t9e position and direction o+ t9e measured %ibration response s9ou"d be as recommended b# *ondition onitoring Station Specia"ist. !ppendi. ! "ists t9e genera" range o+ readings re'uired and t9e detai"s +or t9e V & data co""ection s#stem. $.2.1 VME Routine On$loa% Measure ents T9e purpose o+ regu"ar on/"oad measurements is to pro%ide a continuing assessment o+ a mac9ineAs in/ ser%ice be9a%iour and to ensure t9at a detai"ed 9istor# is a%ai"ab"e to assist diagnosis in t9e e%ent o+ a prob"em. T9e measurements s9ou"d be ta<en under estab"is9ed norma" "oading and temperature conditions. it is recommended +or o++/"ine s#stems t9at t9e minimum increment between measurements s9ou"d be ana"#Bed wee<"# +or <nown prob"em mac9ine and at "east mont9"# ot9erwise. $.2.2 &M Routine 'ot Run$%own Measure ents T9e %ibration signature o+ a mac9ine obtained b# ana"#Bing %ibrations recorded during a 9ot run/down (i.e. norma" wor<ing conditions) wi"" contain muc9 more in+ormation (+or comparison wit9 t9e pre%ious 9ot run/down data) t9an can be obtained +rom t9e on/"oad +ingerprint. T9is is because t9e run/down signature contains t9e response to a range o+ dri%ing +re'uencies; rat9er t9an 3ust $0 7B. T9e measurements s9ou"d be ta<en under estab"is9ed conditions and wi"" need to co%er t9e +u"" range o+ speeds +rom s#nc9roniBed down at 300 r.p.m. (or to "ess t9an 9a"+ t9e +irst generator critica" speed). Eor o++/"ine s#stems it is recommended t9at recording and ana"#sis is carried out during e%er# p"anned outage (or si. mont9 w9ic9e%er is sooner).


VME Measure ent on Return$to servi(e #ollowing Ma)or Over*aul During t9e outage; rotors may have been uncoupled or exchanged, alignment altered, or the mechanical balance of individual rotors adjusted. Any of these can introduce significant changes into the dynamics of the complete system, so that the previous history of the Page / , 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 machine, prior to the overhaul, is no longer a reliable baseline against which to assess changes. T9e ob3ecti%e; t9ere+ore; o+ ma<ing %ibration measurements a+ter a return/to ser%ice is to obtain a set o+ data w9ic9 accurate"# c9aracterises t9e new status o+ t9e mac9ine. T9e t#pes o+ measurements described in $.2.1 and $.2.2 abo%e are re'uired to estab"is9 a 9ot datum against w9ic9 to assess c9anges. T9e greatest %a"ue is obtained +rom t9ese measurements i+ t9e# are made under t9e same standard conditions. To obtain 9ot datum %a"ues +o""owing a return/to/ser%ice; t9e on/"oad measurements s9ou"d be made at t9e ear"iest a+ter reac9ing stead# operating conditions. T*e *ot run$%own easure ents s*oul% be a%e at t*e opportunity earliest but not later t*an si+ ont*s, !t certain power stations; it ma# additiona""# be considered desirab"e t9at measurements are ta<en immediate"# a+ter a return/to/ser%ice; be+ore t9e unit 9as reac9ed stead# operating temperatures (e.g. w9ere it is agreed po"ic# +or units wit9 <nown 9ig9 %ibration "e%e"s)C t9is ma# inc"ude a run/down be+ore t9e mac9ine is 9ot (e.g. +o""owing o%erspeed test) and a"so measurements during "oading. Suc9 measurements can on"# be compared wit9 pre%ious measurements ta<en under simi"ar circumstances; and detai"s are gi%en in !ppendi. 1. $.2.4 Spe(ial -nvestigations I+ a prob"em is identi+ied; t9e +re'uenc# and amount o+ detai" o+ t9e monitoring ma# need to be increased; and additiona" t#pes o+ measurement ma# be necessar#; e.g. s9a+t %ibration; pedesta" ti""; etc. ,.0 REV-E. T9e &.ecuti%e Director; 4peration Ser%ices wi"" be responsib"e +or re%iewing t9is document on a two #ear"# basis. Page / 0 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 !ppendi. / ! Vibration easurement / Genera" -e'uirements !1 In order to pro%ide re"iab"e %ibration data +rom turbine generators in a +orm suitab"e +or computer ana"#sis and comparison wit9 contro" room disp"a#s; it is recommended t9at t9e +o""owing measurements and signa"s are made a%ai"ab"e. !1.1 Status o# t*e Plant Para eters T9e +o""owing measurements s9ou"d be made immediate"# prior to t9e recording o+ o++/"ine V & data. i) Fnit 5oad ii) V!- generation iii) ac9ine speed i%) ain super9eat and 9ot re9eat temperatures %) Generator rotor current %i) *ondenser %acuum %ii) *D in"et and out"et temperatures %iii) S9a+t to casing and casing di++erentia" e.pansions (w9ere on/"ine s#stems are insta""ed). i.) 1earing / eta" temperatures. !.1.2 Signal Require ents T9e +o""owing signa"s s9ou"d be made a%ai"ab"e : i) ! raw (i.e. un+i"tered) %ibration "e%e"s +or eac9 bearing Page / G 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824

Vibration signa" conditioning e'uipment s9ou"d pro%ide an a.c. un+i"tered signa" proportiona" to t9e %ibration "e%e" and be ab"e; on demand; to transmit a ca"ibration signa" o+ <nown +re'uenc#. ii) ! P9ase/"oc<ed 4nce6-e% Signa" It is essentia" t9at t9e abo%e signa" is maintained to a 9ig9 standard; as loss of this signal will preclude the accurate analysis and comparison with earlier data, necessary for diagnosis of the turbine generator condition. The phase signal, which provides basic information and further updated details can be obtained from local Condition Monitoring Group at sites. It is essentia" t9at; w9ic9 e%er s#stem is used; t9e shaft reference is neither lost during operation of the turbine generator due to axial expansion of the rotors!, nor w9i"e on an outage +or o%er9au". Dua" Tac9ometer signa"s are ad%ised and to pre%ent tota" "oss under e.treme +au"t conditions; t9e# s9ou"d be +itted at eit9er end o+ t9e mac9ine. iii) D9en new e'uipment is to be insta""ed; t9e minimum +re'uenc# bandwidt9 s9ou"d be speci+ied to a""ow spectra" in+ormation to be p"otted as an aid to +au"t diagnosis. T9is s9ou"d pro%ide a bandwidt9 o+ up to 1000 7B. Page / 2 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 !ppendi. / 1 Datum easurements During -eturn/To/Ser%ice Erom a3or 4utages Fnder certain circumstances it ma# be considered necessar# to ta<e datum measurements on p"ant during return/to/ ser%ice; w9i"e t9e p"ant is sti"" reac9ing its wor<ing temperatures. T9e e.istence o+ t9is data wi"" enab"e detai"ed comparisons to be made between t9e new %ibration response and t9at +rom a pre%ious return/to/ser%ice. ! detai"ed <now"edge o+ an# c9anges in response wi"" o+ten enab"e a precise diagnosis to be made swi+t"# on t9e basis o+ c9anges to t9e bui"d state and <nown de+ects. i) Vibration measurements s9ou"d be ta<en during t9e run/up to speed; during an o%erspeed test and w9en unit is s#nc9roniBed. ii) Vibration s9ou"d be "ogged during t9e "oading pattern. T9is ma# be carried out continuous"# or intermittent"#; depending on t9e anticipated progress in "oading. It is e.treme"# use+u" to 9a%e readings o+ o%era"" "e%e"s (16re%; 26re% magnitude and p9ase) at 8no "oadA; appro.imate"# 0$ per cent and 100 per cent stabi"iBed +u"" "oad. I+ t9ere is c"ear e%idence o+ a generator 8t9erma"A e++ect; t9en additiona" interim "oad measurements s9ou"d be ad%ised. iii) In addition; it ma# be considered bene+icia" to arrange +or a 9ot run/down +rom +u"" speed to appro.imate"# 300 re%6min and measure t9e %ibration signatures t9roug9out t9is range; at t9e ear"iest opportunit# +o""owing a return/to/ser%ice and prior to t9e +irst natura" 89ot/run/downA. T9e ana"#sis o+ t9is reading t9en +orms t9e as/bui"t 89ot run/downA datum. !"ternati%e"# a warm (or co"d) run/down cou"d be obtained +or base "oad p"ant; during t9e return/to/ser%ice. In considering suc9 datum measurements it is wort9 recognising t9e comp"e. nature o+ t9e %ibration response o+ rigid"# coup"ed mu"ti/rotor mac9ines. T9e %ibrations depend not on"# on residua" de+ects in t9e mec9anica" bui"d o+ t9e mac9ine; but a"so on +actors contro""ing its operation; e.g. steam conditions; e"ectrica" generation; and bearing oi" supp"# conditions. In a"" cases; t9e %ibration response is determined bot9 b# t9e d#namic e.citing +orces present and b# t9e mac9ineAs response to t9ese +orces. T9e e.citation +orces t9at can arise +rom de+ects in t9e mec9anica" bui"d inc"uding t9ose due to residua" unba"ance and "ac< o+ straig9tness o+ indi%idua" rotors; toget9er wit9 an# bends w9ic9 resu"t w9en t9e rotors are Page / 10 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 coup"ed. T9e response to t9ese e.citation +orces is considerab"# in+"uenced b# t9e d#namics o+ t9e 3ourna" bearings and depends on t9e bearing "oadings w9ic9 are a +unction o+ bearing a"ignment. T9e process o+ e"ectrica""# "oading t9e mac9ine induces 8t9erma"A c9anges w9ic9 modi+# bot9 t9e d#namic e.citation +orces and t9e mac9ineAs response to t9ese +orces. T9e e.citation +orces are modi+ied because o+ t9erma""# induced bending o+ rotors (in

particu"ar t9e generator rotor). -e"ati%e mo%ements o+ bearings during operation resu"t in bearing "oad c9anges w9ic9; in turn; modi+# t9e response to a gi%en unba"ance. Page / 11 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 !ppendi. /* 4P&-!TING GFID&5IN&S 4N VI1-!TI4N 5I ITS E4- 5!-G& T.G. S&TS Introduction T9e 9ea"t9 o+ "arge Steam and Gas turbine mac9iner# is usua""# assessed b# measured %a"ues o+ %ibration amp"itude; re"ati%e e.pansions; operating steam and meta" temperatures; pressures and %acuum during startup; transient condition; "oading and "oad c9anging. T9ese parameters are considered to be t9e best and true representati%e o+ d#namic be9a%ior o+ turbine mac9iner#. T9ere+ore; it is necessar# to monitor t9eir trend and tr# to <eep t9em wit9in predetermined %a"ues w9ic9 are prescribed b# t9e designers or manu+acturers. 7owe%er; most o+ t9e mac9ines are running %er# c"ose to or s"ig9t"# 9ig9er t9an t9e recommended %a"ues but wit9in t9e Bone o+ 3ust satis+actor# and to"erab"e "imits. Suc9 be9a%iour is e.perienced e%en a+ter o%er9au"ing6recommissioning a+ter certain operation 9ours in mac9ine "i+e c#c"e. !s it is imperati%e to run t9e mac9ine to its optimum capacit# under t9e pre%ai"ing en%ironmenta" condition; it is described to +ormu"ate operating guide"ines +or running t9e mac9ine upto t9e ne.t o%er9au". Determining w9en t9e mac9ine %ibration is e.cessi%e and warrants s9utdown +or o%er9au". Determining w9en t9e mac9ine %ibration is e.cessi%e and warrants s9utdown +or repairs can be one o+ t9e most di++icu"t tas<s +acing t9e %ibration ana"#st and operation engineers. T9ere is no =magic= or abso"ute %ibration to"erance to signi+# imminent +ai"ure. Trend monitoring is practised to assess t9e mac9ine 9ea"t9. &++orts 9a%e been made to bring out 4perating Guide"ines on Vibration 5imits +or t9e present =codes and practices= +o""owed b# t9e designer; manu+acturers and users +or t9e sa+e permissib"e6to"erab"e "imits o+ bearing and s9a+t %ibration +or turbine mac9iner# based on e.periences and internationa" standards suc9 as VDI/20$,; 20$2; 1S 4,0$ and IS4 2302 +or e%a"uating mac9ine 9ea"t9. T9ese guide"ines wi"" 9e"p in estab"is9ing operation and maintenance decisions suc9 as mac9ine s9ut down or +urt9er operation +or "imited period; under sur%ei""ance; wit9out causing damage to t9e mac9ine or sacri+icing its per+ormance. 4ne o+ t9e standard c9arts used +or e%a"uating t9e %ibration "imit to"erances is gi%en in +ig (1) Page / 12 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 T9e +o""owing p"ots o+ t9e %ibration parameters are gi%en in t9is +igure: i) Disp"acement in amp"itude p</p< in microns. ii) Ve"ocit# amp"itude in mm6sec p< and a"so in - S iii) !cce"eration amp"itude pea< in g. !"" o+ t9em %erses t9e +re'uenc# range o+ 0 to 3G00 re%o"ution per minute. T9e standard c9art was prepared in t9e assumption t9at t9e concerned %ibration is o+ t9e sine +orm. T9e standards c9arts s9ou"d be used as +o""ows : !!. Eor mac9iner# o+ rotating speed be"ow 1124 re%o"ution per minute a""owab"e disp"acement border s9ou"d be app"ied (Eor %e"ocit# criteria in t9is "ow range wi"" a""ow suc9 e.ceeding disp"acements t9at "ow/re%o"ution per minute mac9ines wi"" deteriorate rapid"#)/ *riteria based on internationa" standards and our e.perience. 11. Eor mac9iner# o+ rotating speed 9ig9er t9an 1124 and upto 3G00 re%o"ution per minute a""owab"e %e"ocit# borders s9ou"d be app"ied/criteria based on internationa" standard pro%ided b# VDI; IS4; 1S and our e.perience. **. T9e +o""owing d#namic state de+initions were stated and accepted. V&-H G44D / new mac9ines; 3ust insta""ed. G44D / desired to be ac9ie%ed a+termat9 o%er9au". E!I- / acceptab"e operation. STI55 !**&PT!15& / Impro%ement recommended; operationa" restrictions (rated output; temperature etc.) recommended; operation up to +ortnig9t period +or t#pica" mac9ines.

IFST T45&-!15& / East impro%ement recommended; norma" operation +orbidden up to one da# a""owance. !n# ne.t start/up (+or ba"ancing; diagnostic purposes) is on"# possib"e pro%ided a proper %ibration monitoring is organised. N4T P&- ISSI15& / !ut9orises to s9utdown immediate"#. !n# start tria"s are strict"# pro9ibited un"ess t9e state o+ bearing; bearing pedesta"s; s9a+t 3ourna"s; s9a+t/"ine and rotors is c9ec<ed. Page / 13 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 FS& 4E *7!-T T9e e.amp"e gi%en 9ere i""ustrates t9e %arious uses o+ standard c9art as s9own in Eig. 1 (in w9ic9 J/ represents mac9ine r.p.m. and H/ represents %ibration %e"ocit# in Pea< or rms). T9e diagona" "ines s9ow %ibration disp"acement in P</P<. D9i"e acce"eration %a"ues are s9own b# dotted "ines.


Page / 14 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 Suppose a mac9ine w9ic9 is running at 1$00 rpm and its %ibration "e%e"s recorded as G0 microns P</P< and Gmm6sec P<. Now to <now w9et9er t9e mac9ine is in acceptab"e %ibration "imits or not; draw a %ertica" "ine at 1$00 rpm w9ic9 intersects diagona" disp"acement "ine at point =! o+ G0 microns. In t9is case Inter/section point =!= is +ound to +a"" in usab"e Bone w9ic9 indicate t9at mac9ine %ibration is wit9in t9e acceptab"e "imits.

Page / 1$ 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824

Status Point o# Dire($ Measure$ ent Ver# 1earing 7 Good pedesta" V Vibration Vibration 0U-DE1-NES &OR tion 1i its Operation Engineers Pre%i(tive Maint, Engineers Manage ent 'OD upto New mac9ine 3ust insta""ed -ecord base"ine %ibration data &.ception report 1G62.$ is a""owed to run to its and signatures +or +uture re+e/ ma# be seen to ma.. capacit#. rence. Vibration monitoring to assess t9e 9ea"t9 to be carried on mont9"# basis o+ critica" mac9ine. and a"so record steam temp. press; e.pansion at %arious "oads and +re'uencies. &.ception report s9ou"d be submitted to 74D. 30 Norma" operation is to be Transient c9anges in s9a+t %ibra/ Trend o+ s9a+t V done. tion 9a%e to be considered during %ibration ma# be ana"#sis as t9ese c9anges ma# be seen to assess cause b# de%iated operationa" t9e 9ea"t9 o+ cause b# de%iated operationa" t9e 9ea"t9 o+ parameters. mac9ine. 1G62.$ ac9ine is a""owed to run Trend monitoring on mont9"# basis &.ception report V to 2$64 at +u"" capacit# is to be carried out to estab"is9 ma# be seen to t9e probab"e causes o+ rise in <now t9e probab"e %ibration "e%e" +rom re+erence causes o+ rise in status. &.ception report to be %ib. "e%e" +rom submitted to 74D. pre%ious status.

S9a+t 7 Vibration


1earing 7 Vibration

Page / 1, 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 Status Point o# Dire($ Measure$ ent S9a+t 7 Vibration Vibration 0U-DE1-NES &OR tion 1i its Operation Engineers Pre%i(tive Maint, Engineers Manage ent 'OD 40 Norma" operation is to be Transient c9anges in s9a+t %ibra/ Trend o+ s9a+t V done tion 9a%e to be considered during %ibration ma# be


1earing 7 Vibration

ana"#sis as t9ese c9anges ma# be seen to assess caused b# de%iated operationa" t9e 9ea"t9 o+ parameters. mac9ine. 2$64 to mac9ine is a""owed to run ac9ine is to be monitored at &.ception report V 406,.3 at its optimum capacit#. +ortnig9t"# inter%a" to <now ma# be seen to %ibration be9a%ior and its <now critica" predominant +re'uencies and mac9ines and its prepare its trend report +or trend. understanding 9ow +ast it is rising and a"so estab"is9 =T9is "e%e"s o+ w9et9er t9e# are "oad or speed %ibration can be dependent. &.ception report to acceptab"e a+ter/ be submitted to 74D. mat9 o%er9au". &++ort 9as been made during o%er/ 8G44DA "imits can be ac9ie%ed +or time +or

9au"ing t9at increasing t9e "ead ne.t repairs.=

Page / 10 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 Status Point o# Dire($ Measure$ ent S9a+t 7 %ibration Vibration 0U-DE1-NES &OR tion 1i its Operation Engineers Pre%i(tive Maint, Engineers Manage ent 'OD $0 Norma" operation is to be Transient c9anges in s9a+t Trend o+ s9a+t V done. %ibration 9a%e to be considered %ibration ma# be during ana"#sis as t9ese c9anges seen to assess ma# be caused b# de%iatedt9e 9ea"t9 o+ operationa" parameters. mac9ine. 406,.3 to ac9ine is a""owed to run &stab"is9 t9e cause o+ rise in &.ception report ,$610 at +u"" capacit#. %ibration "e%e" b# signature ma# be seen to ana"#sis and 9ig9"ig9t in t9e <now t9e probab"e e.ception and trend reports. causes. I+ onitoring is recommended at suspected cause +ortnig9t"# inter%a". &++orts is oi" w9ir" t9en 9a%e to be made to identi+# bearing s9ou"d be

FS!/ 15&

1earing 7 pedesta" V

S9a+t 7 %ibration

,0/00 V

w9et9er t9ese %ibrations are inspected periodic or transient in nature. immediate"#. Norma" operation is a""owed Transient c9anges in s9a+t Trend o+ s9a+t in case o+ Steam Turbine %ibration 9a%e to be considered %ibration ma# be but in case o+ gas turbine during ana"#sis as t9ese c9anges seen to assess s9utdown ma# be p" be caused b# de%iatedt9e 9ea"t9 o+ !n# star/up tria" is operationa" parameters. mac9ine. strict"# pro9ibited un"ess t9e state o+ bearings; its pedesta"s; s9a+t "ine and 3ourna" is c9ec<ed.

Page / 1G 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 Status Point o# Dire($ Measure$ ent STI55 1earing 7 !**&P/pedesta" V T!15& %ibration Vibration 0U-DE1-NES &OR tion 1i its Operation Engineers Pre%i(tive Maint, Engineers Manage ent 'OD ,$610 ac9ine is a""owed to run -igorous monitoring is to be done 1ased on > abo%e at partia" "oad c"ose"# at t9e inter%a" o+ G 9ours e.ception report to estab"is9 t9e probab"e causes re+er matter to and 9ig9"ig9t in t9e e.ception specia"ist and report. prepare p"an +or &++ect 9a%e to be made to actions. (opera/ *on+irm t9e cause o+ 9ig9 tiona" restriction %ibration w9en 6c is running must be imposed at partia" 5oad ti"" desired impro%ement is ac9ie%ed. -educed operation upto +ortnig9t"# period is a""owed.) !bo%e -educed operation is a""owed Transient c9anges in s9a+t Trend o+ s9a+t V 00 in case o+ steam turbine %ibration 9a%e to be considered %ibration ma# be s9utdown ma# be p"anned during ana"#sis as t9ese c9anges t9e 9ea"t9 o+ immediate"#. !n# start/up ma# be caused b# de%iated. mac9ine. tria"s are strict"# pro9ibited operationa" parameters. un"ess t9e state o+ bearings;

ta<ing remedia"

S9a+t 7 Vibration

its pedesta"s s9a+t "ine and 3ourna" is c9ec<ed. Page / 12 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 Status Point o# Dire($ Measure$ ent IFST 1earing 7 T45& Vibration -!15& Vibration 0U-DE1-NES &OR tion 1i its Operation Engineers Pre%i(tive Maint, Engineers Manage ent 'OD 1e"ow ac9ine ma# not be a""owed I+ operated under t9is a"arming East decision is V 10061$ to run a+ter ac9ie%ing t9is condition must be <ept under to be ta<en based "e%e". Fpto one da# strict sur%ei""ance b# continuous on e.ception report a""owance ma# be gi%en +or monitoring +or obser%ing sudden a+ter consu"ting +or p"anning. c9anges in %ibration "e%e"s. specia"ist or site. Immediate im/ pro%ement is re'uired. (Fpto one 9our ma# be a""owed to run at "ow6partia" "oad to con+irm and estab"is9 t9e cause %ibration (diagnostic pur/ pose). S9a+t 7 &'ua" > -educed operation is a""owed Transient c9anges in s9a+t Trend o+ s9a+t Vibration V be"ow 120 in case o+ steam turbine %ibration 9a%e to be considered %ibration ma# be but in case o+ gas turbine during ana"#sis as t9ese c9anges seen to assess s9utdown ma# be p"anned ma# be caused b# de%iatedt9e 9ea"t9 o+ immediate"#. !n# start/up operationa" parameters. mac9ine. tria"s are strict"# pro9ibited un"ess t9e state o+ bearings; its pedesta"s; s9a+t "ine and 3ourna" is c9ec<ed. Page / 20 4D64PS6 &*76000 Issue / 1 ar./824 Status Point o# Dire($ Vibration 0U-DE1-NES &OR Measure$ tion 1i its ent Operation Engineers Pre%i(tive Maint, Engineers

o+ 9ig9

Manage ent 'OD

N4T 1earing 7 !bo%e Trip t9e mac9ine P&- I/ pedesta" V 10061$

SSI15& %ibration

4perationa" engineer s9ou"d

I+ operated; under 9is condition;

S9utdown t9e

not a""ow to run t9e m6c s9ou"d continuous"# be <ept mac9ine +or a+ter ac9ie%ing t9is under strict sur%ei""ance b# doing inspection based %ibration "e%e". No continuous monitoring +or an# on e.ception a""owance is gi%en +or untoward 9appening. reports and a"so p"anning t9e s9ut down. consu"t supp"ier or specia"ist. S9a+t 7 %ibration !bo%e In case o+ steam and gas/do /do 120 turbine s9utdown s9ou"d be ta<en immediate"#. !n# start/up tria"s are strict"# pro9ibited un"ess t9e state o+ bearings; its pedesta"s s9a+t 3ourna"s; s9a+t/"ine and rotors is c9ec<ed