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Kalman Filtering

with Real-Time Applications

Fourth Edition

123

Professor Charles K. Chui Texas A&M University Department Mathematics 608K Blocker Hall College Station, TX, 77843 USA

Professor Guanrong Chen City University Hong Kong Department of Electronic Engineering 83 Tat Chee Avenue Kowloon Hong Kong/PR China

Second printing of the third edition with ISBN 3-540-64611-6, published as softcover edition in Springer Series in Information Sciences.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2008940869

e-ISBN 978-3-540-87849-0

2009, 1999, 1991, 1987 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microlm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Violations are liable to prosecution under the German Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specic statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Cover design: eStudioCalamar S.L., F. Steinen-Broo, Girona, Spain Printed on acid-free paper 987654321 springer.com

Two modern topics in Kalman filtering are new additions to this Third Edition of Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications. Interval Kalman Filtering (Chapter 10) is added to expand the capability' of Kalman filtering to uncertain systems, and Wavelet Kalman Filtering (Chapter 11) is introduced to incorporate efficient techniques from wavelets and splines with Kalman filtering to give more effective computational schemes for treating problems in such areas as signal estimation and signal decomposition. It is hoped that with the addition of these two new chapters, the current edition gives a more complete and up-to-date treatment of Kalman filtering for real-time applications. College Station and Houston August 1998 Charles K. Chui Guanrong Chen

In addition to making a number of minor corrections and updating the list of references, we have expanded the section on "realtime system identification" in Chapter 10 of the first edition into two sections and combined it with Chapter 8. In its place, a very brief introduction to wavelet analysis is included in Chapter 10. Although the pyramid algorithms for wavelet decompositions and reconstructions are quite different from the Kalman filtering algorithms, they can also be applied to time-domain filtering, and it is hoped that splines and wavelets can be incorporated with Kalman filtering in the near future. College Station and Houston September 1990 Charles K. Chui Guanrong Chen

Kalman filtering is an optimal state estimation process applied to a dynamic system that involves random perturbations. More precisely, the Kalman filter gives a linear, unbiased, and minimum error variance recursive algorithm to optimally estimate the unknown state of a dynamic system from noisy data taken at discrete real-time. It has been widely used in many areas of industrial and government applications such as video and laser tracking systems, satellite navigation, ballistic missile trajectory estimation, radar, and fire control. With the recent development of high-speed computers, the Kalman filter has become more useful even for very complicated real-time applications. In spite of its importance, the mathematical theory of Kalman filtering and its implications are not well understood even among many applied mathematicians and engineers. In fact, most practitioners are just told what the filtering algorithms are without knowing why they work so well. One of the main objectives of this text is to disclose this mystery by presenting a fairly thorough discussion of its mathematical theory and applications to various elementary real-time problems. A very elementary derivation of the filtering equations is first presented. By assuming that certain matrices are nonsingular, the advantage of this approach is that the optimality of the Kalman filter can be easily understood. Of course these assumptions can be dropped by using the more well known method of orthogonal projection usually known as the innovations approach. This is done next, again rigorously. This approach is extended first to take care of correlated system and measurement noises, and then colored noise processes. Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems with an application to adaptive system identification is also discussed in this text. In addition, the limiting or steadystate Kalman filtering theory and efficient computational schemes such as the sequential and square-root algorithms are included for real-time application purposes. One such application is the design of a digital tracking filter such as the a - f3 - , and a - f3 - , - ()

VIII

trackers. Using the limit of Kalman gains to define the a, (3, 7 parameters for white noise and the a, (3,7, () values for colored noise processes, it is now possible to characterize this tracking filter as a limiting or steady-state Kalman filter. The state estimation obtained by these much more efficient prediction-correction equations is proved to be near-optimal, in the sense that its error from the optimal estimate decays exponentially with time. Our study of this topic includes a decoupling method that yields the filtering equations for each component of the state vector. The style of writing in this book is intended to be informal, the mathematical argument throughout elementary and rigorous, and in addition, easily readable by anyone, student or professional, with a minimal knowledge of linear algebra and system theory. In this regard, a preliminary chapter on matrix theory, determinants, probability, and least-squares is included in an attempt to ensure that this text be self-contained. Each chapter contains a variety of exercises for the purpose of illustrating certain related view-points, improving the understanding of the material, or filling in the gaps of some proofs in the text. Answers and hints are given at the end of the text, and a collection of notes and references is included for the reader who might be interested in further study. This book is designed to serve three purposes. It is written not only for self-study but also for use in a one-quarter or one-semester introductory course on Kalman filtering theory for upper-division undergraduate or first-year graduate applied mathematics or engineering students. In addition, it is hoped that it will become a valuable reference to any industrial or government engineer. The first author would like to thank the U.S. Army Research Office for continuous support and is especially indebted to Robert Green of the White Sands Missile Range for' his encouragement and many stimulating discussions. To his wife, Margaret, he would like to express his appreciation for her understanding and constant support. The second author is very grateful to Professor Mingjun Chen of Zhongshan University for introducing him to this important research area, and to his wife Qiyun Xian for her patience and encouragement. Among the colleagues who have made valuable suggestions, the authors would especially like to thank Professors Andrew Chan (Texas A&M), Thomas Huang (Illinois), and Thomas Kailath (Stanford). Finally, the friendly cooperation and kind assistance from Dr. Helmut Lotsch, Dr. Angela Lahee, and their editorial staff at Springer-Verlag are greatly appreciated. College Station Texas, January, 1987 Charles K. Chui Guanrong Chen

Contents

Notation 1. Preliminaries

XIII 1

1

1.1 Matrix and Determinant Preliminaries 1.2 Probability Preliminaries 1.3 Least-Squares Preliminaries Exercises

2. Kalman Filter: An Elementary Approach

8 15 18

20 20

2.1 The Model 2.2 Optimality Criterion 2.3 Prediction-Correction Formulation 2.4 Kalman Filtering Process Exercises

3. Orthogonal Projection and Kalman Filter

21 23 27

29

33

3.1 Orthogonality Characterization of Optimal Estimates 33 3.2 Innovations Sequences 35 3.3 Minimum Variance Estimates 37 3.4 Kalman Filtering Equations 38 3.5 Real-Time Tracking 42 Exercises 45

4. Correlated System and Measurement Noise Processes

49 49 51 52 55 61 63 65

4.1 The Affine Model 4.2 Optimal Estimate Operators 4.3 Effect on Optimal Estimation with Additional Data 4.4 Derivation of Kalman Filtering Equations 4.5 Real-Time Applications 4.6 Linear DeterministicjStochastic Systems Exercises

Contents

5. Colored Noise

67 67 68 70 73 73 75 77 78 79 88 93 95 97 97 103 105 107 108 108 111 113 115 118 124 129 131 131 134 136 139 140

5.1 Outline of Procedure 5.2 Error Estimates 5.3 Kalman Filtering Process 5.4 White System Noise 5.5 Real-Time Applications Exercises

6. Limiting Kalman Filter

6.1 Outline of Procedure 6.2 Preliminary Results 6.3 Geometric Convergence 6.4 Real-Time Applications Exercises

7. Sequential and Square-Root Algorithms

7.1 Sequential Algorithm 7.2 Square-Root Algorithm 7.3 An Algorithm for Real-Time Applications Exercises

8. Extended Kalman Filter and System Identification

8.1 Extended Kalman Filter 8.2 Satellite Orbit Estimation 8.3 Adaptive System Identification 8.4 An Example of Constant Parameter Identification 8.5 Modified Extended Kalman Filter 8.6 Time-Varying Parameter Identification Exercises

9. Decoupling of Filtering Equations

9.1 Decoupling Formulas 9.2 Real-Time Tracking 9.3 The a - {3 -1 Tracker 9.4 An Example Exercises

Contents

10. Kalman Filtering for Interval Systems

XI

143

10.1 Interval Mathematics 10.2 Interval Kalman Filtering 10.3 Weighted-Average Interval Kalman Filtering Exercises

11. Wavelet Kalman Filtering

164

12. Notes

164 170 177 178 178 180 182 184 185 186 188 191 197 227

The Kalman Smoother The a - {3 - , - () Tracker Adaptive Kalman Filtering Adaptive Kalman Filtering Approach to Wiener Filtering 12.5 The Kalman-Bucy Filter 12.6 Stochastic Optimal Control 12.7 Square-Root Filtering and Systolic Array Implementation 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4

References Answers and Hints to Exercises Subject Index

Notation

ej,

systena naatrices "square-root" of A in Cholesky factorization "square-root" of A in upper triangular deconaposition control input naatrices naeasurenaent naatrices covariance of randona variables X and Y expectation of randona variable X conditional expectation probability density function joint probability density function conditional probability density function vector-valued nonlinear functions linaiting Kalnaan gain naatrix Kalnaan gain naatrix naatrix-valued nonlinear function

103 107

ej

fk(Xk) G Gk Hk(Xk) H* In J Kk

L(x, v)

MAr NCA Onxm P Pk,k P[i,j] P(X) Qk Rk

controllability matrix observability matrix n x m zero matrix limiting (error) covariance matrix estimate (error) covariance matrix (i, j)th entry of naatrix P probability of random variable X variance matrix of random vector i k variance matrix of random vector !l.k

XIV

Notation space of column vectors x = [Xl ... xn]T covariance matrix of Sk and '!1k trace deterministic control input (at the kth time instant) variance of random variable X y) conditional variance observation (or measurement) data (at the kth time instant) weight matrix integral wavelet transform state vector (at the kth time instant) optimal filtering estimate of Xk optimal prediction of Xk suboptimal estimate of Xk near-optimal estimate of Xk

Rn Sk

tr

Uk

55

5

Var(X) Var(XIY

Vk

10 14

V 2#

Wk

Wj

(W1/Jf)(b, a)

Xk

53 15 34 164

Xk, xklk

xklk-l

Xk

Xk

x* x# , x# k

"norm" ofw IIwll (x, w) "inner product" of x and W Y(wo,, w r ) "linear span" of vectors Wo,, Wr {Zj} innovations sequence of data

a,{3,,,,/,(}

52 53,57 34 33 34 35

136,141,180 67

r, rk

bij

!.k,'

{~k}'

{lk}

~k,

'!1k Sk

<I>k

df/dA

8hj8x

tracker parameters white noise sequences system noise matrices Kronecker delta random (noise) vectors measurement noise (at the kth time instant) system noise (at the kth time instant) transition matrix Jacobian matrix Jacobian matrix

15 22

22

65

110

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