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COS-ISO-00-OGN/OPS/CHEM/018 Rev. No. : 0 April 2006


Guidelines for Performance Optimization of P.T. Plant and Chlorination System


NTPC Limited

Rev. No.: 0

Date : April 2006

Guidelines for Performance Optimization of P.T. Plant and Chlorination System

Approved for Implementation by .. Director (O) Date: ..

n!"irie# to: $ead of %orp. Operation &ervice#

Guidelines for Performance Optimization of P.T. Plant and Chlorination System

Sl. No. 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 !.0 .0 &.0 #.0 10.0 Con !n " Introduction Superseded Documents Type of Clarifiers Clarification Operating Criteria "aintenance Criteria Trou$les%ooting Criteria C%lorination C%emistry 'actors to $e considered (%ile installing a c%lorination system )e*ie( # 10 12 15 1! P#$! No. 1 1 1 4

'a(e ) * %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem

Guideli e! "or Per"orma #e Optimi$atio o" P.T. Pla t a d C%lori atio &'!tem
(.0 INTRODUCTION T%e $asic si+e of a clarifier is a function of flo(, t%e different configurations of e-uipment, pumps, sludge remo*al mec%anism and ot%er miscellaneous apparatus are usually at t%e discretion of t%e *endor or e-uipment manufacturer. Typically, t%e four different types of clarifier designs are referred to as solids contact, sludge $, inclined/plate and adsorption types. "ost solid contact and sludge $ clarifiers are of t%e up flo( design (%ere t%e (ater flo(s up (%ile t%e suspended solids settle. Some of t%ese designs pro*ide for increased solids contact from *arious types of internal sludge recirculation systems (%ic% pro*ides additional opportunities for colloidal particle collisions / typically resulting in en%anced effluent clarity.




T+PE O, CLARI,IER& )etention time in clarification e-uipment is typically 1.5 to 3.0 %ours, $ased on con*entional rise rates from 1.2/2.4 m1%. 2lt%oug% t%is range is normal for most clarification e-uipment, muc% s%orter retention times 3e.g., 1& minutes4 %a*e $een utili+ed successfully.


&lud-e .la /et Clari"ier! )eaction products, or precipitated solids, formed (%en t%e coagulant c%emicals and ra( (ater impurities meet, settle slo(ly to(ard t%e $ottom of t%e unit due to t%e influence of gra*ity. In a sludge $ clarifier t%e $ul. of t%e precipitate does not settle to t%e $ottom $ut rat%er is .ept suspended $y a com$ination of gentle mec%anical agitation and %ydraulic flo(. T%e *elocity of (ater flo(ing t%roug% t%e clarifier unit is controlled to .eep t%e precipitate in suspension forming a $ of finite dept%. 'locculated (ater from t%e mi5ing +one passes up(ard t%roug% t%e layer of suspended floc and precipitated particles 3sludge $lan.et4 (%ic% en%ances agglomeration and capture of floc. 'igure 2 depicts a typical up flo( sludge $ clarifier. Operation of a sludge $ type clarifier is $ased on t%e principle t%at a particle is supported $y an up(ard mo*ing stream of (ater if t%e *elocity is %ig% enoug% so t%at t%e action of (ater on t%e particle e5ceeds t%e pull of gra*ity. 2s t%e up(ard *elocity of a particle decreases due to decreased (ater *elocity as it NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 2 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem ascends, a point is reac%ed at (%ic% t%e particle $ecomes too %ea*y to $e supported $y t%e up flo(ing mo*ement of t%e (ater and it ceases to rise. 2s a result of t%ese factors a (ell/defined sludge1li-uid interface is formed separating t%e sludge $ from t%e clarified li-uid a$o*e. T%e center of t%e unit is s%aped li.e an in*erted cone allo(ing t%e outer +one of t%e clarifier to possess t%e desired flow c%aracteristics / decreasing rise rate (it% increasing ele*ation. Control of t%e dept% and %eig%t of t%e sludge $ determines t%e efficiency of t%e unit. 6ig%er sludge solids le*els increase t%e filtration efficiency. T%e top of t%e sludge $ is carried at t%e %ig%est practical le*el so as to pre*ent floc carryo*er7 also, e5cessi*e sludge $lo( do(n s%ould $e a*oided as it may distur$ t%e $ T%e sludge $ le*el is responsi*e to c%anges in flow, coagulant addition and temperature. 8ariations of sludge $ clarifiers include types (%ic% feature s%ort inclined plates 3lamella4 at t%e $ottom of t%e sludge $ layer or at t%e surface of t%e (ater 9ust prior to clarified li-uid egress from t%e *essel. Inclined plates 3possi$ly e-uipped (it% deflectors4 are added in an attempt to augment t%e clarification process, eit%er $y concentrating t%e sludge $ or limiting floc carryo*er as in t%e t(o instances cited. Inclined/plate clarifiers are discussed later in t%is section. One clarifier design utili+es a *acuum system to periodically apply a %ydraulic pulse to t%e sludge $ layer in an attempt to maintain a sta$le sludge $ layer under %ig%er flow loading conditions 14. m1% depending on t%e application. Inclined plates are present (it%in t%e sludge $ layer in t%at design 3'igure 34.

'ig : 2

up flo( sludge $ clarifier

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 1 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem

2i("re 1 *.2

-odified &l"d(e 3lan4et %larifier

&olid! Co ta#t Clari"ier! 'igure 4 represents a typical solids contact clarifier design. )a( (ater and coagulating c%emicals are introduced at t%e center of t%e unit (%ere primary mi5ing and reactions ta.e place. Sludge and %ea*ier particles settle to(ard t%e $ottom. ;affles are employed for flo( direction and distri$ution. <arge *olumes of sludge are circulated internally so t%at incoming c%emically treated (ater (ill contact pre*iously coagulated solids en%ancing floc gro(t% and settling c%aracteristics. 2 typical sludge recirculation rate is fi*e to 15 times t%e ra( (ater feed rate. Solid contact units are particularly $eneficial (%en attempting to promote a precipitation reaction suc% as softening. Contact (it% recirculated sludge impro*es t%e efficiency of t%e c%emical reaction. Outside t%e reaction and mec%anical mi5ing +ones, solids1li-uids separation occurs in muc% t%e same manner as in a sludge $ type clarifier.

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 5 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem

'ig : 4 Typical solid contact clarifier 0.0 CLARI,ICATION T%e clarification of (ater is a process applied mostly to surface (aters for t%e remo*al of suspended solids, finely di*ided particles present as tur$idity or color, and ot%er colloidal materials. Con*entionally t%e clarification process in*ol*es coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation=>. T%e primary function of t%e clarification process is li-uids1solids separation. Clarification occurs as a result of increasing / t%roug% interparticle surface reactions / t%e si+e and density of particles in t%e dispersed p%ase suc% t%at t%ey separate and settle from t%e $ul. li-uid. )emo*al of suspended particles (%ic% (ill not settle $y gra*ity alone re-uires t%e addition of c%emical compounds commonly referred to as coagulants. ?articulate materials comprising dispersions may range in si+e from 0.1 to 100 microns 30.004 to 4.0 mils4. "aterials (it%in t%is particle si+e range are termed =colloids=. 0on settlea$le suspended particles present in surface (ater e5%i$it t%e properties of colloids. T%e small si+e of colloids coupled (it% t%eir surface c%arge is primarily responsi$le for esta$lis%ing conditions fa*ora$le for t%e creation of dispersions. Sta$ili+ing factors associated (it% colloidal dispersions are electrostatic c%arge and %ydration. T%ese surface p%enomena are of greater relati*e importance due to t%e large surface area to total *olume ratio of a dispersion of small particles. 'urt%er mi5ing of coagulant s%ould $e carried out in suc% a manner t%at t%e s%ear imposed on t%e (ater must not $rea. up t%e floc it coagulates. In ot%er (ords it s%ould matc% t%e floc strengt% at *arious stages of its formation. NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 6 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem Se*eral factors tend to desta$ili+e colloids. T%ey are gra*itational and 8an der @aals forces and ;ro(nian mo*ement. Ara*itational forces are relati*ely small due to t%e small mass in*ol*ed in colloidal systems. 8an der @aals forces are attracti*e forces $et(een particles t%at operate as molecular co%esi*e forces and can increase in magnitude, as particles con*erge, at a rate t%ousands of times t%at of electrostatic forces. ;ro(nian mo*ement is t%e random motion imparted to colloidal particles from impact (it% molecules of t%e suspending medium. Binetic energy of t%e molecules increases as temperature increases, as does t%e intensity of t%e ;ro(nian mo*ement. T%is p%enomenon causes a desta$ili+ing effect on dispersions. If collisions $et(een particles are stimulated, aggregation may result. 0.( Coa-ulatio 1 ,lo##ulatio T%e principal functions of c%emical coagulation are desta$ili+ation, aggregation and $inding toget%er of particles. T%is in*ol*es neutrali+ation of c%arges to desta$ili+e suspended solid particles. Once neutrali+ed particles no longer repel one anot%er and can $e $roug%t toget%er flocculation initiates (%en neutrali+ed or entrapped particles $egin colliding and gro(ing in si+e. T%is process may occur naturally, or t%e speed of reaction can $e increased $y t%e addition of coagulant c%emicals and coagulant aids. T%e processes of coagulation and flocculation are usually accomplis%ed $y t%e addition of one or more of floc/forming compounds (%ic% is usually ferric alum. C5cept for sodium aluminate, all common iron and aluminum coagulants are acid salts (%ic% lo(er t%e p6 of treated (ater. Depending on initial ra( (ater al.alinity and p6, an al.ali suc% as lime, soda as% or caustic may %a*e to $e added to ad9ust for t%e p6 depression resulting from t%e addition of t%ese acidic coagulant materials. Since p6 can affect $ot% particle surface c%arge and floc precipitation during t%e coagulation process, it is an important *aria$le. Iron and aluminum %ydro5ide flocs are $est precipitated at p6 le*els (%ic% minimi+e t%e %ydro5ide solu$ility. @it% aluminum sulfate 3alum4, t%e optimum coagulation efficiency and minimum floc solu$ility normally occur at p6 !.0/ .0. Sodium aluminate is al.aline and performs $est at ele*ated p6, 3#.5/11.04. Iron coagulants can $e used successfully o*er t%e muc% $roader p6 range of 5.0/11.0. T%ey are most often applied at a p6 #.0 and greater, %o(e*er, to minimi+e t%e solu$ility of iron in t%e treated (ater. In t%e coagulation process, t%e c%emical coagulant is added (it% rapid mi5ing to t%e ra( (ater to $e treated. 2s precipitation initiates, t%e floc consists of pinpoint si+ed particles. 'locculation follo(s coagulation, and t%e small floc particles are $roug%t toget%er using gentle agitation or slo( mi5ing, (%ic% forms large particles (%ic% settle more rapidly. 2gitation must $e controlled so as to pro*ide a %ig% incidence of collisions $et(een suspended particles and continued adsorption of suspended matter on t%e large surface area pro*ided $y t%e floc. C5cessi*e agitation s%ould $e a*oided since it tends to s%ear t%e floc. NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 6 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem Dar testing is t%e standard met%od $y (%ic% p6, temperature and c%emical additi*es 3including order of addition and mi5ing conditions4 are e*aluated e5perimentally for application to clarification processes. 3 ?l. refer Dar test ?rocedure 4 Color in t%e ra( (ater typically imparts %ig%er le*els of $acterial and algal gro(t%, causes fouling of anion e5c%ange resin, and interferes (it% t%e coagulation and sta$ili+ation of iron and manganese. Color reduction can $e a prime o$9ecti*e of clarification. "ost organic color in surface (aters is colloidal, negati*ely c%arged / usually classified as %umic or ful*ic acids / and> can $e remo*ed $y a com$ination of c%lorination and coagulation (it% iron or aluminum salts at lo( p6 *alues 34.5/5.54. Optimum p6 for tur$idity remo*al is muc% %ig%er t%an t%at for color reduction. C%lorine (ill o5idi+e some organic color compounds and t%e inorganic coagulants (ill neutrali+e surface c%arges to effect t%e remo*al of t%ose organic particles (%ic% produce t%e color. 6o(e*er, c%lorinated organic materials capa$le of passing t%roug% t%e ma.eup system may also $e formed. Tips to ensure good floc E 1. 2lum (or.s $est at p6 !/ and ferric salts at p6 5/!. 2. 'or eac% (ater and coagulant t%ere is a p6 range in (%ic% a (ide margin $efore any ad*erse effect is seen, $ut floatation is more sensiti*e. 3. T%e coagulant dose may itself gi*e t%e correct p6 and if re-uired lime is $eneficial. 4. Colour i.e. %ig% %umic acid is $est remo*ed at lo( p6. 'urt%er %ig% %umic concentration interferes (it% t%e gro(t% of floc and ma.e t%e (ater difficult to treat. 5. T%e ideal regime for mi5ing consists of a flas% tan. (it% *iolent stirring follo(ed $y +ones of decreasing s%ear to promote t%e gro(t% of floc. !. 2ir $u$$les s%ould $e a*oided. . Constant s.illed super*ision is needed to .eep a pre/treatment plant perform as per design on regular $asis. &. T%e follo(ing con*ersions come in %andy in *arious computations (it% respect to ?re/treatment plant E 1 ppm CaCO3 F 2.2.ppm as 2l23SO443 1& 62O F 0.!& ppm as 2l2O3 F 0.1& ppm as 2l 0.2 &edime tatio Sedimentation is t%e final step in t%e clarification process. 'locculated (ater from t%e slo( > mi5ing p%ase flo(s to t%e settling +one (%ere aggregated floc particles settle out. 2s t%e aggregated or conglomerated floc settles, clarified 3clear4 (ater rises and is separated from t%e sediment. Settled floc particles are remo*ed gra*itationally in a t%ic.ened state 3i.e. sludge4 from t%e $ottom of t%e sedimentation *essel. Clarified (ater typically o*erflo(s from t%e surface and is treated furt%er t%roug% filtration e-uipment. NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 7 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem 2.0 OPERATING CRITERIA T%e successful operation of units for coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation is dependent on a num$er of *aria$les 3discussed in ensuing su$sections4 / including t%e follo(ing. G G G G G G G G 2.( Temperature. p6. )a( (ater composition. 'lo( rate. C%emical addition. Cffect of mi5ing and flocculation. Sludge $ maintenance. Sludge $lo( do(n.

E""e#t O" Temperature O Coa-ulatio Coagulation and rate of floc formation are greatly influenced $y t%e temperature of t%e inlet (ater. 2s temperature decreases, t%e c%emical dosage for effecti*e coagulation must $e increased to ensure proper floc formation. T%e detrimental effect of lo( temperature on floc formation can $e minimi+ed $y proper design of e-uipment to pro*ide t%oroug% mi5ing during flocculation. C*en (it% optimum design, more c%emicals are re-uired (it% colder (ater. Cold (ater slo(s $ot% coagulation and c%emical precipitation reactions. In addition, settling rates are affected $y temperature c%anges. 2s temperature decreases, (ater density increases, t%ere$y lo(ering t%e rate at (%ic% floc particles settle.


E""e#t O" p3 O Coa-ulatio T%e amount of coagulant re-uired to effect good clarification *aries (it% t%e nature and amounts of suspended and solu$le solids present in t%e ra( (ater to $e treated. T%e p6 may affect t%e magnitude and c%arge on $ot% dispersed solids in t%e ra( (ater and on t%e micro flocs of precipitated coagulant materials. T%e solu$ility of precipitated material is usually a function of p6. Coagulation processes operate (it%in a range of p6 *alues in (%ic% t%e solu$ility of t%e coagulant is lo(. 'or some processes, optimum p6 range is narro(7 for ot%ers, it is comparati*ely (ide7 and for still ot%ers, t%ere is more t%an one effecti*e range. Hnder controlled conditions, ma5imum flocculation (it% alum occurs at p6 5.5. "a5imum flocculation does not assure minimum solu$ility of residual ions remaining in t%e treated (ater. T%e p6 can $e ad9usted (it% acid, lime, soda as%, etc. / as needed / to o$tain optimum conditions for a specific coagulant and (ater supply.

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) . %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem 2.* E""e#t o" C%emi#al Additio &e4ue #e O Coa-ulatio T%e order in (%ic% c%emicals are added (ill %a*e a profound impact on t%e success or failure of I a coagulation process. Hsually, a series of 9ar tests is conducted on ra( (ater to determine t%e $est com$ination and se-uence of c%emicals to use to reduce suspended, colloidal and non/settlea$le matter from t%e ra( (ater. ?rocedures for conducting 9ar tests are a*aila$le from *arious sources. 'or additional information, t%e reader is directed to )eference #. @%en adding c%emicals, t%e preferred order s%ould $e al.ali or acid 3p6 ad9ustment4 t%en coagulant, and lastly flocculant. T%e coagulation process is sensiti*e to p6. 'or instance, aluminum %ydro5ide is least solu$le in t%e p6 range of 5.&/ .2. Outside t%is range, alum is a less efficient coagulant, and any residual aluminum may foul t%e media of su$se-uent treatment e-uipment. T%e critical p6 for coagulation of specific impurities and for different types of (ater may lie in a muc% narro(er range t%an for aluminum %ydro5ide. 'or organic reduction 3color4, it is typically p6 5.&/!.3. T%e coagulant dose and p6 employed in t%e treatment plant may t%en $e ad9usted to approac% t%at (%ic% ga*e t%e $est results during 9ar testing. @it% e5perience, t%e operator (ill learn to interpret 9ar test data as a guide to optimi+ing clarifier performance. 2.0 E""e#t o" )i5i - A d ,lo##ulatio 2n important re-uisite for successful coagulation and settling of suspended solids is t%e rapid, t%oroug% mi5ing of t%e *arious c%emicals and t%e influent (ater. )apid mi5ing ensures uniform coagulant c%emical adsorption onto t%e suspended particulate matter desta$ili+ing t%e colloids, t%us increasing t%e c%ances for collision. To pre*ent floc particles from $ apart, any mi5ing speeds (%ic% create e5cessi*e s%ear forces s%ould $e a*oided. )apid mi5ing time normally *aries from t%ree to fi*e minutes. T%is is follo(ed $y slo( mi5ing to permit t%e floc to gro( in si+e and agglomerate into readily settlea$le particles. Slo( mi5ing time usually *aries from 15 to 30 minutes. S%ear forces s%ould again $e a*oided during floc gro(t% periods to pre*ent ne(ly formed floc from $eing torn apart. S%eared floc particles may not readily agglomerate. 2.2 &lud-e .la /et )ai te a #e In most con*entional clarifiers, it is a$solutely necessary to maintain an ade-uate sludge $ T%e sludge $ ser*es as a floating filter $ed. @ater containing floc passes up(ard t%roug% t%e sludge $ or $ed (%ere t%e accumulated solids tend to filter out t%e floc. 2dditionally, floc gro(t% is impro*ed (it%in t%e $, furt%er en%ancing suspended solids remo*al. T%e %eig%t of t%e sludge $ depends on flo( rate t%roug% t%e plant and t%e e5tent of sludge $lo(do(n. It is important to maintain an ade-uate sludge $ to promote solids retention $ut it is also necessary to maintain a clear +one a$o*e t%e $ to minimi+e suspended solids carryo*er. 2 clear or clarified +one of !.5/10 feet 32/3 m4 is preferred to limit NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 8 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem carryo*er potential=. T%is is per%aps most important in sludge $ units, $ut also a consideration (it% sludge contact type clarifiers. It is not of importance in an inclined/plate configuration, and is, in fact, a detriment. 2.6 &lud-e .lo6 do6 Se*eral met%ods for sludge remo*al are a*aila$le, depending upon t%e e-uipment. 2 proportion to >Ilo( type remo*al system is most popular. Cac% time a fi5ed -uantity of (ater %as passed, an electric signal or pulse is transmitted to t%e $lo( do(n counter, (%ic% results in one count. T%e counter is preset $y t%e operator to a desired num$er of counts. @%en t%e preset num$er is reac%ed, t%e $lo( do(n *al*e opens and sludge is remo*ed. Sufficient $lo( do(n s%ould $e used to maintain sludge in fluid condition to pre*ent plugging of t%e $lo( do(n lines or o*erloading of t%e scraper dri*e. 2 $ac. flus% arrangement is employed on some designs to $ac. flus% t%e $lo( do(n lines, t%us minimi+ing $lo( do(n line pluggage. Operating personnel s%ould maintain a log on t%e $lo( do(n 1 $ac.flus% sc%edule used and indicate on t%e log any c%anges made and t%e reason3s4 for t%em. 2.7 Clari"i#atio &'!tem )o itori - Re4uireme t! 2 *ariety of parameters s%ould $e monitored in any clarification system. 2ll of t%e follo(ing listed criteria s%ould $e recorded on appropriate log s%eets on t(o %ourly $asis 3 for flo( rate and p6 4 and ot%er parameters once per day and re*ie(ed to assess plant operating efficiency. G G G G G 6.0 6.( 'lo( rate. ?remi5 tan. influent and clarifier effluent p6 *alues. Tur$idity of premi5 tan. influent and clarifier effluent. Conditions and results of periodic 9ar testing to determine effecti*eness of coagulant doses. C%emical dosages and feeder settings.

)AINTENANCE CRITERIA Co ve tio al Clari"i#atio ! E4uipme t One pre*entati*e maintenance operation t%at %as pro*en $eneficial is periodic draining of eac% clarifier. T%is affords an opportunity to c%ec. under(ater parts, %oppers, sludge scrapers, seals, $earings, orifices, etc. and remo*e accumulated sludge and any scale $uildup. C%ec. t%e e-uipment supplier>s Operations 2nd "aintenance 3OJ"4 "anual for specific guidelines on draining fre-uencies. Circular clarifiers %a*e a seal $et(een t%e fi5ed center column and t%e rotating mec%anism t%at pre*ents s%ort/circuiting $et(een mi5ed (ater and return sludge areas. T%e unit needs to $e empty to c%ec. t%e condition of t%is seal. Sludge can $uild up in t%e corners of noncircular clarifiers (it% circular scrapers, leading to NTPC Limited

'a(e ) *0 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem anaero$ic conditions (%ic% can lead to .gas generation and floating sludge, (%ic% (ill carry o*er (it% t%e treated (ater. T%ese areas can only $e cleaned (%en t%e clarifier is emptied. 2lso, anaero$ic conditions can de*elop in t%e sludge layer under t%e scraper arm, leading to t%e formation of sulfur/ric% deposits. 're-uently, t%is area is missed during empty *essel inspection periods. Since t%ere are a *ariety of %inges, springs, counter(eig%t systems, and ot%er %ard(are used $y different manufacturers, t%e manufacturer s%ould $e contacted to de*elop t%e $est approac% to t%ese features. 2 list s%ould $e composed indicating t%e e-uipment and inspection fre-uency. Detailed maintenance logs s%ould $e maintained. Ot%er areas to include in t%e maintenance sc%edule are sludge $ le*el controls, return sludge flo( controls, scum remo*al, (eir le*els, coating integrity and ot%ers as indicated in t%e OJ" "anual. ;ased on e5perience, e-uipment operators (ill $e a$le to de*elop t%eir o(n list of additional maintenance re-uirements. 7.0 TROU.LE&3OOTING CRITERIA Improper operation of t%e clarifier system (ill produce an unaccepta$le -uality treated (ater t%at (ill impact performance of all process e-uipment do(nstream. Correction of out/of specification conditions in a timely manner is imperati*e. Ta$le 1 pro*ides a list of t%e common pro$lems associated (it% clarification and flocculation systems and t%eir causes and solutions. Ta$le 1
&'mptom! 6ig% effluent tur$idity, cloudy appearance Cau!e! Inade-uate treatment. c%emical Insufficient sludge in recirculation +one. C%ange in (ater -uality. &olutio ! C%ec. treated (ater analysis. C%ec. c%emical feeders. C%ec. mi5er speed 3rpm4 C%ec. recirculating sludge concentration. C%ec. automatic $lo(do(n control and *al*es for proper operation. C%ec. direction of recirculation7 rotation s%ould $e cloc.(ise. ?erform 9ar testing to determine proper treatment program. C%ec. treated (ater analysis. C%ec. c%emical feeders. 2ssess c%emical treatment re-uirements *ia 9ar testing. C%ec. mi5er speed 3rpm4

Continuous 'loc Carryo*er (it% <o( sludge le*el in setting +one.

Inade-uate treatment


NTPC Limited

'a(e ) ** %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem
C5cessi*e recirculation speed 2ir entrainment. Intermittent or periodic floc carryo*er (it% lo( sludge le*el in settling +one. 2ir entrainment. 8aria$le ra( composition. (ater Crratic feeder operation. "alfunctioning speed dri*e. *aria$le )epeated flo( surging. of C%ec. ra( (ater piping for air introduction. C%ec. ra( (ater pumps for air lea.age t%roug% glands. C%ec. c%emical pumps for air lea.age t%roug% glands. c%emical feed system for air introduced $y *orte5ing. C%ec. treated (ater analysis during difficult period. )un 9ar tests to optimi+e floc formation and settlea$ility. Continuously c%ee. ra( (ater temperature. C%ec. c%emical feeder cali$ration. C%ec. c%emical feeder for $ridging. C%ec. c%emical feeder cali$ration. C%ec. c%emical pump deli*ery. C%ec. ra( (ater piping for air introduction. C%ec. ra( (ater pumps for air in lea.age t%roug% glands. C%ec. c%emical feed system for air introduced $y *orte5ing. C%ec. re/circulator speed 3rpm4. C%ec. *aria$le speed dri*e $elt tension. C%ec. inlet meter for flo( surging. C%ec. le*el controller for proper operation. C%ec. instrument air supply system and pressure. 2dd modulating inlet *al*e. C%ec. *olume/o*er :*olume 3ten minutes4 at upper and lo(er draft tu$es. C%ec. $lo( do(n controller and *al*es for proper operation. C%ec. $ac. flus% (ater pressure. C%ec. $ac. flus% timer setting. C%ec. re/acti*ator operation (it%out $ac. flus%. C%ec. $lo( do(n controller setting. C%ec. $lo( off *al*es and timer operation. C%ec. re/circulating sludge concentration at upper and lo(er draft

2ir entrainment.

8aria$le re/circulating sludge concentration.

C5cessi*e $ac. flus%.

6ig% sludge le*el in setting +one.

C5cessi*e -uantities sludge in t%e unit.

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) *2 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem
<ig%t sludge. T%ermal con*ection currents 8.0 @ater temperature is %ig%er or lo(er t%an am$ient. @ater temperature fluctuates rapidly. tu$es. C%ec. re/circulator speed 3rpm4 C%ec. scraper operation : use a pole to feel t%e scraper if s%aft rotation is *ery slo(. C%ec. $lo( off sludge concentration percent *olume/o*er/*olume for ten minutes. C%ec. treated (ater analysis. C%ec. ra( (ater analysis. C%ec. c%emical feeder operation. C%ec. for settling rate in 9ar tests. C%ec. for septic sludge odor, color and p6. C%ec. mi5er speed 3rpm4. Insulate metal surfaces or co*er clarifier. 2dd storage tan. a%ead of clarifier to control temperature *ariations.

C3LORINATION C3E)I&TR+ T%e t(o most common c%lorination c%emicals utili+ed in fossil plant applications are c%lorine 3Cl4 and sodium %ypoc%lorite 30aOCI4. @%en gaseous c%lorine 3Cl4 is dissol*ed in (ater to form a solution, t%e c%lorine %ydroly+es to form %ypoc%lorous acid 36OCI4 and %ydroc%loric acid 36Cl4 as indicated in C-uation 314. C12K 62O //L 6OCI K 6Cl 314

;ot% %ypoc%lorous acid and %ypoc%lorite ion 3OCl=4 are po(erful o5idants, $ut t%e %ypoc%lorous acid 36OCI4 can $e &0/100 times more po(erful as a $iocide. 2ccording to @%ite, =T%e germicidal efficiency of 6OCI is due to t%e relati*e ease (it% (%ic% it can penetrate cell (alls.= M>S> @%ite states also t%at t%e %ypoc%lorite ion 3OCl=4 =.... is a relati*ely poor disinfectant $ecause of its ina$ility to diffuse t%roug% t%e cell (all of microorganisms due to t%e negati*e electrical p%arge.= C%lorine is reported to induce a series of e*ents associated (it% cell en*elope acti*ity and to damage nucleic acids. @%en sodium %ypoc%lorite 30aOCI4 is dissol*ed in (ater to form a solution, t%e sodium %ypoc%lorite ioni+es to form t%e %ypoc%lorite 3OCl/4 ion $y t%e follo(ing reaction 3C-uation /24. 0aOCI K 62O ////L 0a K K OCl / K 620 324

C-uations 1 and 2 represent reactions (%ic% (ould predominate in relati*ely pure, $uffered (aters. In practice, %o(e*er, t%ere is a dynamic e-uili$rium $et(een NTPC Limited

'a(e ) *1 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem %ypoc%lorous acid and %ypoc%lorite ion. 'or disinfection purposes, t%e desired form of c%lorine in (ater is as %ypoc%lorous acid. T%e form in (%ic% c%lorine is present is a function of p6 and temperature of t%e c%lorinated (ater. <o(er p6 and temperatures are desired $ecause t%ey effect %ig%er ratios of %ypoc%lorous acid to %ypoc%lorite ion. C%lorine gas decreases t%e solution p6, (%ile sodium %ypoc%lorite additions increase t%e treated (ater p6. 8.( C%lori e Dema d In most ma.eup treatment applications, sufficient c%lorine is added to o*ercome t%e c%lorine demand, (%ic% refers to t%e -uantity of %ypoc%lorous acid or %ypoc%lorite ion re-uired to react (it% ll c%lorine/reacta$le components of t%e (ater supply. T%e difference $et(een t%e amount of C%lorine applied and t%e amount of free c%lorine remaining at t%e end of t%e contact period presents t%e free c%lorine demand of t%e (ater. Since t%e measured demand is specific to t%e contact period and t%e temperature, t%e time and temperature s%ould $e noted (%en reporting results. In order to satisfy t%e c%lorine demand 3typically 1/5 ppm c%lorine, alt%oug% c%lorine demands of 10/15 ppm and %ig%er Ne.g., 25 ppmO are not uncommon in some parts of t%e (orld4, sufficient c%lorination c%emical %as to $e added to react (it% t%e c%lorine/consuming species and t%e ammonia or amines present and must pro*ide t%e desired free c%lorine residual 3usually 0.05 / 0.5 ppm4. T%e total dose applied is referred to as t%e c%lorine re-uirement. Ta9le:2 E!timati - C%lori e Dema d Co #e tratio ; ppm < ,a#tor =Re"ere #e> ? Amou t O" C%lori e Dema d; ppm ,ree CI2 Co !titue t!; A! Iron, 'e "anganese, "n 0itrite, 0O, 2mmonia, 06, 6ydrogen Sulfide, 6S Organic 0itrogen, 0 ,a#tor =re"ere #e> 0.!4, 0.! , 0.!3 1.3 1.5 !.3/&.2 2.1/&.5 , &.3, &.4 !

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) *5 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem 8.2 Trou9le!%ooti - #%art "or Ga!eou! C%lori atio &'!tem! &'mptom! Cau!e! &olutio !

?lugging Of Small ?orts In C%lorinator

S%ut *al*es leading to containers $efore replacing containers. ?urge G Corrosion products resulting from c%lorine gas lines (it% dry air $efore reaction of moist air, c%lorine, and and after long outages. piping (%ile c%anging containers Clean ports. and during long s%utdo(ns. Do not allo( cylinders to sit in t%e %ot Concentration of impurities in t%e sun. 2ssure c%lorine containers are at c%lorine gas as it cools. am$ient temperature $efore use. Clean ports. Install a gas filter a%ead of t%e *acuum regulating *al*e. G G Insufficient In9ector *acuum. Inspect pressure. in9ector operating (ater

C%lorinator 0ot 'eed ?roperly

G )emo*e t%e t%roat and tail(ay and clean a replace t%e part, if necessary. @ill G C%ec. for lea.s in c%lorinator G Clogged *acuum regulator/c%ec. G Clean *acuum regulator1 c%ec. unit as unit. per instruction manual. G Clean gas supply line, c%lorine inlet $loc. and tu$e to %ead $loc.. G 'ailed in9ector diap%ragm c%ec. G Inspect O/rings and diap%ragms7 *al*e. replace if needed. G Insufficient (ater supply G Increase (ater pressure. pressure. G Clogged gas line.

<o( 8acuum )eading On In9ector 8acuum Aauge

Crroneous )otameter )eadings

G Open and flus% roug%ly. C%ec. strainer G Inlet to in9ector t%roat may periodically and dean, if necessary. $e partially plugged $y C%ec. t%at all *al*es are open. impurities or small pieces of C%emically dean t%roat and tail(ay in gra*el or lea*es. Disc%arge muriatic acid. ?eriodically remo*e application7 component, steam/clean may %a*e some stoppage causing affected 3metal parts only4, line/dry completely %ig% $ac./pressure. and t%en reinstall t%e component. G 2ir lea. upstream of *acuum G C%ec. all diap%ragms and seals. regulator. C%ec. piping connections to t%e Dirty rotameter. *acuum regulator. G ?eriodically dean filters and drip %eaters.

<o( C%lorine 'eed G ?lugged gas filter or drip %eater. )ate NTPC Limited

'a(e ) *6 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem &'mptom! Cau!e! G Outdoor storage (it% lo( outdoor temperature 3P50/!0Q', 10/ 1!QC4. &olutio ! G Increase num$er of c%lorine containers in ser*ice 3(%en c%lorine gas is (it%dra(n directly from cylinders or ton containers4.

<o( C%lorine C%anging in ra( (ater c%lorine G Increase c%lorine feed. )esidual demand. G Inspect reagent deli*ery. C%ec. G "alfunctioning c%.5ine analy+er reagent -uantities and replenis% if 3if present4. necessary. G )ecali$rate analy+er. Corrosi*e Damage ?iping C-uipment to or G <ea.3s4 e5posing non corrosion resistant materials to c%lorine solution. G Inappropriate materials used for components in contact (it% c%lorine. G ?eriodic e5ternal inspection to identify and correct lea.s. G )eplace affected components (it% ot%ers of appropriate materials.

;efore performing maintenance on t%e system, s%ut off t%e c%lorine gas supply, purge lines of c%lorine, and t%en turn off t%e (ater supply. Ot%er applica$le precautions and procedures indicated in e-uipment manuals s%ould $e follo(ed also. @.0 ,a#tor! to 9e #o !idered 6%ile i !talli - a #%lori atio !'!tem 1. Determine t%e p6 of t%e ra( (ater 2. Calculate t%e contact time 3 T%e contact time for t%e c%lorinating agent and (ater s%ould $e at least 10/15 minutes (it% longer contact time more desira$le.4 3. Determine or estimate typical temperature *ariations. 4. Decide t%e desired free residual c%lorine le*el 3 typically it *aries $et(een 0.05 : 0.5 pm 4 5. Determine t%e c%lorine re-uirement for maintaining a free residual. !. Determine t%e c%lorine dose from t%e c%lorine re-uirement and ma5imum flo( rate of ra( (ater. (0.0 REAIEB T%e C5ecuti*e Director 3Operation Ser*ices4 (ill $e responsi$le for re*ie(ing t%is document on t(o yearly $asis or as necessary. NTPC Limited