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COS-ISO-00-OGN/OPS/CHEM/018 Rev. No. : 0 April 2006

OPERATION GUIDANCE NOTE

Guidelines for Performance Optimization of P.T. Plant and Chlorination System


CORPORATE OPERATION SERVICES

NTPC Limited
NTPC LIMITED
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE FORMAL DOCUMENTATION SYSTEM OPERATION GUIDANCE NOTE : COS-ISO-00-OGN/OPS/CHEM/018

Rev. No.: 0

Date : April 2006

Guidelines for Performance Optimization of P.T. Plant and Chlorination System

Approved for Implementation by .. Director (O) Date: ..

n!"irie# to: $ead of %orp. Operation &ervice#

Guidelines for Performance Optimization of P.T. Plant and Chlorination System


INDEX
Sl. No. 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 !.0 .0 &.0 #.0 10.0 Con !n " Introduction Superseded Documents Type of Clarifiers Clarification Operating Criteria "aintenance Criteria Trou$les%ooting Criteria C%lorination C%emistry 'actors to $e considered (%ile installing a c%lorination system )e*ie( # 10 12 15 1! P#$! No. 1 1 1 4

'a(e ) * %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem

Guideli e! "or Per"orma #e Optimi$atio o" P.T. Pla t a d C%lori atio &'!tem
(.0 INTRODUCTION T%e $asic si+e of a clarifier is a function of flo(, t%e different configurations of e-uipment, pumps, sludge remo*al mec%anism and ot%er miscellaneous apparatus are usually at t%e discretion of t%e *endor or e-uipment manufacturer. Typically, t%e four different types of clarifier designs are referred to as solids contact, sludge $lan.et, inclined/plate and adsorption types. "ost solid contact and sludge $lan.et clarifiers are of t%e up flo( design (%ere t%e (ater flo(s up (%ile t%e suspended solids settle. Some of t%ese designs pro*ide for increased solids contact from *arious types of internal sludge recirculation systems (%ic% pro*ides additional opportunities for colloidal particle collisions / typically resulting in en%anced effluent clarity.

2.0

&UPER&EDED DOCU)ENT& 0il

*.0

T+PE O, CLARI,IER& )etention time in clarification e-uipment is typically 1.5 to 3.0 %ours, $ased on con*entional rise rates from 1.2/2.4 m1%. 2lt%oug% t%is range is normal for most clarification e-uipment, muc% s%orter retention times 3e.g., 1& minutes4 %a*e $een utili+ed successfully.

*.(

&lud-e .la /et Clari"ier! )eaction products, or precipitated solids, formed (%en t%e coagulant c%emicals and ra( (ater impurities meet, settle slo(ly to(ard t%e $ottom of t%e unit due to t%e influence of gra*ity. In a sludge $lan.et clarifier t%e $ul. of t%e precipitate does not settle to t%e $ottom $ut rat%er is .ept suspended $y a com$ination of gentle mec%anical agitation and %ydraulic flo(. T%e *elocity of (ater flo(ing t%roug% t%e clarifier unit is controlled to .eep t%e precipitate in suspension forming a $lan.et of finite dept%. 'locculated (ater from t%e mi5ing +one passes up(ard t%roug% t%e layer of suspended floc and precipitated particles 3sludge $lan.et4 (%ic% en%ances agglomeration and capture of floc. 'igure 2 depicts a typical up flo( sludge $lan.et clarifier. Operation of a sludge $lan.et type clarifier is $ased on t%e principle t%at a particle is supported $y an up(ard mo*ing stream of (ater if t%e *elocity is %ig% enoug% so t%at t%e action of (ater on t%e particle e5ceeds t%e pull of gra*ity. 2s t%e up(ard *elocity of a particle decreases due to decreased (ater *elocity as it NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 2 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem ascends, a point is reac%ed at (%ic% t%e particle $ecomes too %ea*y to $e supported $y t%e up flo(ing mo*ement of t%e (ater and it ceases to rise. 2s a result of t%ese factors a (ell/defined sludge1li-uid interface is formed separating t%e sludge $lan.et from t%e clarified li-uid a$o*e. T%e center of t%e unit is s%aped li.e an in*erted cone allo(ing t%e outer +one of t%e clarifier to possess t%e desired flow c%aracteristics / decreasing rise rate (it% increasing ele*ation. Control of t%e dept% and %eig%t of t%e sludge $lan.et determines t%e efficiency of t%e unit. 6ig%er sludge solids le*els increase t%e filtration efficiency. T%e top of t%e sludge $lan.et is carried at t%e %ig%est practical le*el so as to pre*ent floc carryo*er7 also, e5cessi*e sludge $lo( do(n s%ould $e a*oided as it may distur$ t%e $lan.et. T%e sludge $lan.et le*el is responsi*e to c%anges in flow, coagulant addition and temperature. 8ariations of sludge $lan.et clarifiers include types (%ic% feature s%ort inclined plates 3lamella4 at t%e $ottom of t%e sludge $lan.et layer or at t%e surface of t%e (ater 9ust prior to clarified li-uid egress from t%e *essel. Inclined plates 3possi$ly e-uipped (it% deflectors4 are added in an attempt to augment t%e clarification process, eit%er $y concentrating t%e sludge $lan.et or limiting floc carryo*er as in t%e t(o instances cited. Inclined/plate clarifiers are discussed later in t%is section. One clarifier design utili+es a *acuum system to periodically apply a %ydraulic pulse to t%e sludge $lan.et layer in an attempt to maintain a sta$le sludge $lan.et layer under %ig%er flow loading conditions 14. m1% depending on t%e application. Inclined plates are present (it%in t%e sludge $lan.et layer in t%at design 3'igure 34.

'ig : 2

up flo( sludge $lan.et clarifier

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 1 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem

2i("re 1 *.2

-odified &l"d(e 3lan4et %larifier

&olid! Co ta#t Clari"ier! 'igure 4 represents a typical solids contact clarifier design. )a( (ater and coagulating c%emicals are introduced at t%e center of t%e unit (%ere primary mi5ing and reactions ta.e place. Sludge and %ea*ier particles settle to(ard t%e $ottom. ;affles are employed for flo( direction and distri$ution. <arge *olumes of sludge are circulated internally so t%at incoming c%emically treated (ater (ill contact pre*iously coagulated solids en%ancing floc gro(t% and settling c%aracteristics. 2 typical sludge recirculation rate is fi*e to 15 times t%e ra( (ater feed rate. Solid contact units are particularly $eneficial (%en attempting to promote a precipitation reaction suc% as softening. Contact (it% recirculated sludge impro*es t%e efficiency of t%e c%emical reaction. Outside t%e reaction and mec%anical mi5ing +ones, solids1li-uids separation occurs in muc% t%e same manner as in a sludge $lan.et type clarifier.

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 5 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem

'ig : 4 Typical solid contact clarifier 0.0 CLARI,ICATION T%e clarification of (ater is a process applied mostly to surface (aters for t%e remo*al of suspended solids, finely di*ided particles present as tur$idity or color, and ot%er colloidal materials. Con*entionally t%e clarification process in*ol*es coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation=>. T%e primary function of t%e clarification process is li-uids1solids separation. Clarification occurs as a result of increasing / t%roug% interparticle surface reactions / t%e si+e and density of particles in t%e dispersed p%ase suc% t%at t%ey separate and settle from t%e $ul. li-uid. )emo*al of suspended particles (%ic% (ill not settle $y gra*ity alone re-uires t%e addition of c%emical compounds commonly referred to as coagulants. ?articulate materials comprising dispersions may range in si+e from 0.1 to 100 microns 30.004 to 4.0 mils4. "aterials (it%in t%is particle si+e range are termed =colloids=. 0on settlea$le suspended particles present in surface (ater e5%i$it t%e properties of colloids. T%e small si+e of colloids coupled (it% t%eir surface c%arge is primarily responsi$le for esta$lis%ing conditions fa*ora$le for t%e creation of dispersions. Sta$ili+ing factors associated (it% colloidal dispersions are electrostatic c%arge and %ydration. T%ese surface p%enomena are of greater relati*e importance due to t%e large surface area to total *olume ratio of a dispersion of small particles. 'urt%er mi5ing of coagulant s%ould $e carried out in suc% a manner t%at t%e s%ear imposed on t%e (ater must not $rea. up t%e floc it coagulates. In ot%er (ords it s%ould matc% t%e floc strengt% at *arious stages of its formation. NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 6 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem Se*eral factors tend to desta$ili+e colloids. T%ey are gra*itational and 8an der @aals forces and ;ro(nian mo*ement. Ara*itational forces are relati*ely small due to t%e small mass in*ol*ed in colloidal systems. 8an der @aals forces are attracti*e forces $et(een particles t%at operate as molecular co%esi*e forces and can increase in magnitude, as particles con*erge, at a rate t%ousands of times t%at of electrostatic forces. ;ro(nian mo*ement is t%e random motion imparted to colloidal particles from impact (it% molecules of t%e suspending medium. Binetic energy of t%e molecules increases as temperature increases, as does t%e intensity of t%e ;ro(nian mo*ement. T%is p%enomenon causes a desta$ili+ing effect on dispersions. If collisions $et(een particles are stimulated, aggregation may result. 0.( Coa-ulatio 1 ,lo##ulatio T%e principal functions of c%emical coagulation are desta$ili+ation, aggregation and $inding toget%er of particles. T%is in*ol*es neutrali+ation of c%arges to desta$ili+e suspended solid particles. Once neutrali+ed particles no longer repel one anot%er and can $e $roug%t toget%er flocculation initiates (%en neutrali+ed or entrapped particles $egin colliding and gro(ing in si+e. T%is process may occur naturally, or t%e speed of reaction can $e increased $y t%e addition of coagulant c%emicals and coagulant aids. T%e processes of coagulation and flocculation are usually accomplis%ed $y t%e addition of one or more of floc/forming compounds (%ic% is usually ferric alum. C5cept for sodium aluminate, all common iron and aluminum coagulants are acid salts (%ic% lo(er t%e p6 of treated (ater. Depending on initial ra( (ater al.alinity and p6, an al.ali suc% as lime, soda as% or caustic may %a*e to $e added to ad9ust for t%e p6 depression resulting from t%e addition of t%ese acidic coagulant materials. Since p6 can affect $ot% particle surface c%arge and floc precipitation during t%e coagulation process, it is an important *aria$le. Iron and aluminum %ydro5ide flocs are $est precipitated at p6 le*els (%ic% minimi+e t%e %ydro5ide solu$ility. @it% aluminum sulfate 3alum4, t%e optimum coagulation efficiency and minimum floc solu$ility normally occur at p6 !.0/ .0. Sodium aluminate is al.aline and performs $est at ele*ated p6, 3#.5/11.04. Iron coagulants can $e used successfully o*er t%e muc% $roader p6 range of 5.0/11.0. T%ey are most often applied at a p6 #.0 and greater, %o(e*er, to minimi+e t%e solu$ility of iron in t%e treated (ater. In t%e coagulation process, t%e c%emical coagulant is added (it% rapid mi5ing to t%e ra( (ater to $e treated. 2s precipitation initiates, t%e floc consists of pinpoint si+ed particles. 'locculation follo(s coagulation, and t%e small floc particles are $roug%t toget%er using gentle agitation or slo( mi5ing, (%ic% forms large particles (%ic% settle more rapidly. 2gitation must $e controlled so as to pro*ide a %ig% incidence of collisions $et(een suspended particles and continued adsorption of suspended matter on t%e large surface area pro*ided $y t%e floc. C5cessi*e agitation s%ould $e a*oided since it tends to s%ear t%e floc. NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 6 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem Dar testing is t%e standard met%od $y (%ic% p6, temperature and c%emical additi*es 3including order of addition and mi5ing conditions4 are e*aluated e5perimentally for application to clarification processes. 3 ?l. refer Dar test ?rocedure 4 Color in t%e ra( (ater typically imparts %ig%er le*els of $acterial and algal gro(t%, causes fouling of anion e5c%ange resin, and interferes (it% t%e coagulation and sta$ili+ation of iron and manganese. Color reduction can $e a prime o$9ecti*e of clarification. "ost organic color in surface (aters is colloidal, negati*ely c%arged / usually classified as %umic or ful*ic acids / and> can $e remo*ed $y a com$ination of c%lorination and coagulation (it% iron or aluminum salts at lo( p6 *alues 34.5/5.54. Optimum p6 for tur$idity remo*al is muc% %ig%er t%an t%at for color reduction. C%lorine (ill o5idi+e some organic color compounds and t%e inorganic coagulants (ill neutrali+e surface c%arges to effect t%e remo*al of t%ose organic particles (%ic% produce t%e color. 6o(e*er, c%lorinated organic materials capa$le of passing t%roug% t%e ma.eup system may also $e formed. Tips to ensure good floc E 1. 2lum (or.s $est at p6 !/ and ferric salts at p6 5/!. 2. 'or eac% (ater and coagulant t%ere is a p6 range in (%ic% a (ide margin $efore any ad*erse effect is seen, $ut floatation is more sensiti*e. 3. T%e coagulant dose may itself gi*e t%e correct p6 and if re-uired lime is $eneficial. 4. Colour i.e. %ig% %umic acid is $est remo*ed at lo( p6. 'urt%er %ig% %umic concentration interferes (it% t%e gro(t% of floc and ma.e t%e (ater difficult to treat. 5. T%e ideal regime for mi5ing consists of a flas% tan. (it% *iolent stirring follo(ed $y +ones of decreasing s%ear to promote t%e gro(t% of floc. !. 2ir $u$$les s%ould $e a*oided. . Constant s.illed super*ision is needed to .eep a pre/treatment plant perform as per design on regular $asis. &. T%e follo(ing con*ersions come in %andy in *arious computations (it% respect to ?re/treatment plant E 1 ppm CaCO3 F 2.2.ppm as 2l23SO443 1& 62O F 0.!& ppm as 2l2O3 F 0.1& ppm as 2l 0.2 &edime tatio Sedimentation is t%e final step in t%e clarification process. 'locculated (ater from t%e slo( > mi5ing p%ase flo(s to t%e settling +one (%ere aggregated floc particles settle out. 2s t%e aggregated or conglomerated floc settles, clarified 3clear4 (ater rises and is separated from t%e sediment. Settled floc particles are remo*ed gra*itationally in a t%ic.ened state 3i.e. sludge4 from t%e $ottom of t%e sedimentation *essel. Clarified (ater typically o*erflo(s from t%e surface and is treated furt%er t%roug% filtration e-uipment. NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 7 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem 2.0 OPERATING CRITERIA T%e successful operation of units for coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation is dependent on a num$er of *aria$les 3discussed in ensuing su$sections4 / including t%e follo(ing. G G G G G G G G 2.( Temperature. p6. )a( (ater composition. 'lo( rate. C%emical addition. Cffect of mi5ing and flocculation. Sludge $lan.et maintenance. Sludge $lo( do(n.

E""e#t O" Temperature O Coa-ulatio Coagulation and rate of floc formation are greatly influenced $y t%e temperature of t%e inlet (ater. 2s temperature decreases, t%e c%emical dosage for effecti*e coagulation must $e increased to ensure proper floc formation. T%e detrimental effect of lo( temperature on floc formation can $e minimi+ed $y proper design of e-uipment to pro*ide t%oroug% mi5ing during flocculation. C*en (it% optimum design, more c%emicals are re-uired (it% colder (ater. Cold (ater slo(s $ot% coagulation and c%emical precipitation reactions. In addition, settling rates are affected $y temperature c%anges. 2s temperature decreases, (ater density increases, t%ere$y lo(ering t%e rate at (%ic% floc particles settle.

2.2

E""e#t O" p3 O Coa-ulatio T%e amount of coagulant re-uired to effect good clarification *aries (it% t%e nature and amounts of suspended and solu$le solids present in t%e ra( (ater to $e treated. T%e p6 may affect t%e magnitude and c%arge on $ot% dispersed solids in t%e ra( (ater and on t%e micro flocs of precipitated coagulant materials. T%e solu$ility of precipitated material is usually a function of p6. Coagulation processes operate (it%in a range of p6 *alues in (%ic% t%e solu$ility of t%e coagulant is lo(. 'or some processes, optimum p6 range is narro(7 for ot%ers, it is comparati*ely (ide7 and for still ot%ers, t%ere is more t%an one effecti*e range. Hnder controlled conditions, ma5imum flocculation (it% alum occurs at p6 5.5. "a5imum flocculation does not assure minimum solu$ility of residual ions remaining in t%e treated (ater. T%e p6 can $e ad9usted (it% acid, lime, soda as%, etc. / as needed / to o$tain optimum conditions for a specific coagulant and (ater supply.

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) . %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem 2.* E""e#t o" C%emi#al Additio &e4ue #e O Coa-ulatio T%e order in (%ic% c%emicals are added (ill %a*e a profound impact on t%e success or failure of I a coagulation process. Hsually, a series of 9ar tests is conducted on ra( (ater to determine t%e $est com$ination and se-uence of c%emicals to use to reduce suspended, colloidal and non/settlea$le matter from t%e ra( (ater. ?rocedures for conducting 9ar tests are a*aila$le from *arious sources. 'or additional information, t%e reader is directed to )eference #. @%en adding c%emicals, t%e preferred order s%ould $e al.ali or acid 3p6 ad9ustment4 t%en coagulant, and lastly flocculant. T%e coagulation process is sensiti*e to p6. 'or instance, aluminum %ydro5ide is least solu$le in t%e p6 range of 5.&/ .2. Outside t%is range, alum is a less efficient coagulant, and any residual aluminum may foul t%e media of su$se-uent treatment e-uipment. T%e critical p6 for coagulation of specific impurities and for different types of (ater may lie in a muc% narro(er range t%an for aluminum %ydro5ide. 'or organic reduction 3color4, it is typically p6 5.&/!.3. T%e coagulant dose and p6 employed in t%e treatment plant may t%en $e ad9usted to approac% t%at (%ic% ga*e t%e $est results during 9ar testing. @it% e5perience, t%e operator (ill learn to interpret 9ar test data as a guide to optimi+ing clarifier performance. 2.0 E""e#t o" )i5i - A d ,lo##ulatio 2n important re-uisite for successful coagulation and settling of suspended solids is t%e rapid, t%oroug% mi5ing of t%e *arious c%emicals and t%e influent (ater. )apid mi5ing ensures uniform coagulant c%emical adsorption onto t%e suspended particulate matter desta$ili+ing t%e colloids, t%us increasing t%e c%ances for collision. To pre*ent floc particles from $rea.ing apart, any mi5ing speeds (%ic% create e5cessi*e s%ear forces s%ould $e a*oided. )apid mi5ing time normally *aries from t%ree to fi*e minutes. T%is is follo(ed $y slo( mi5ing to permit t%e floc to gro( in si+e and agglomerate into readily settlea$le particles. Slo( mi5ing time usually *aries from 15 to 30 minutes. S%ear forces s%ould again $e a*oided during floc gro(t% periods to pre*ent ne(ly formed floc from $eing torn apart. S%eared floc particles may not readily agglomerate. 2.2 &lud-e .la /et )ai te a #e In most con*entional clarifiers, it is a$solutely necessary to maintain an ade-uate sludge $lan.et. T%e sludge $lan.et ser*es as a floating filter $ed. @ater containing floc passes up(ard t%roug% t%e sludge $lan.et or $ed (%ere t%e accumulated solids tend to filter out t%e floc. 2dditionally, floc gro(t% is impro*ed (it%in t%e $lan.et, furt%er en%ancing suspended solids remo*al. T%e %eig%t of t%e sludge $lan.et depends on flo( rate t%roug% t%e plant and t%e e5tent of sludge $lo(do(n. It is important to maintain an ade-uate sludge $lan.et to promote solids retention $ut it is also necessary to maintain a clear +one a$o*e t%e $lan.et to minimi+e suspended solids carryo*er. 2 clear or clarified +one of !.5/10 feet 32/3 m4 is preferred to limit NTPC Limited

'a(e ) 8 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem carryo*er potential=. T%is is per%aps most important in sludge $lan.et units, $ut also a consideration (it% sludge contact type clarifiers. It is not of importance in an inclined/plate configuration, and is, in fact, a detriment. 2.6 &lud-e .lo6 do6 Se*eral met%ods for sludge remo*al are a*aila$le, depending upon t%e e-uipment. 2 proportion to >Ilo( type remo*al system is most popular. Cac% time a fi5ed -uantity of (ater %as passed, an electric signal or pulse is transmitted to t%e $lo( do(n counter, (%ic% results in one count. T%e counter is preset $y t%e operator to a desired num$er of counts. @%en t%e preset num$er is reac%ed, t%e $lo( do(n *al*e opens and sludge is remo*ed. Sufficient $lo( do(n s%ould $e used to maintain sludge in fluid condition to pre*ent plugging of t%e $lo( do(n lines or o*erloading of t%e scraper dri*e. 2 $ac. flus% arrangement is employed on some designs to $ac. flus% t%e $lo( do(n lines, t%us minimi+ing $lo( do(n line pluggage. Operating personnel s%ould maintain a log on t%e $lo( do(n 1 $ac.flus% sc%edule used and indicate on t%e log any c%anges made and t%e reason3s4 for t%em. 2.7 Clari"i#atio &'!tem )o itori - Re4uireme t! 2 *ariety of parameters s%ould $e monitored in any clarification system. 2ll of t%e follo(ing listed criteria s%ould $e recorded on appropriate log s%eets on t(o %ourly $asis 3 for flo( rate and p6 4 and ot%er parameters once per day and re*ie(ed to assess plant operating efficiency. G G G G G 6.0 6.( 'lo( rate. ?remi5 tan. influent and clarifier effluent p6 *alues. Tur$idity of premi5 tan. influent and clarifier effluent. Conditions and results of periodic 9ar testing to determine effecti*eness of coagulant doses. C%emical dosages and feeder settings.

)AINTENANCE CRITERIA Co ve tio al Clari"i#atio ! E4uipme t One pre*entati*e maintenance operation t%at %as pro*en $eneficial is periodic draining of eac% clarifier. T%is affords an opportunity to c%ec. under(ater parts, %oppers, sludge scrapers, seals, $earings, orifices, etc. and remo*e accumulated sludge and any scale $uildup. C%ec. t%e e-uipment supplier>s Operations 2nd "aintenance 3OJ"4 "anual for specific guidelines on draining fre-uencies. Circular clarifiers %a*e a gas.et seal $et(een t%e fi5ed center column and t%e rotating mec%anism t%at pre*ents s%ort/circuiting $et(een mi5ed (ater and return sludge areas. T%e unit needs to $e empty to c%ec. t%e condition of t%is seal. Sludge can $uild up in t%e corners of noncircular clarifiers (it% circular scrapers, leading to NTPC Limited

'a(e ) *0 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem anaero$ic conditions (%ic% can lead to .gas generation and floating sludge, (%ic% (ill carry o*er (it% t%e treated (ater. T%ese areas can only $e cleaned (%en t%e clarifier is emptied. 2lso, anaero$ic conditions can de*elop in t%e sludge layer under t%e scraper arm, leading to t%e formation of sulfur/ric% deposits. 're-uently, t%is area is missed during empty *essel inspection periods. Since t%ere are a *ariety of %inges, springs, counter(eig%t systems, and ot%er %ard(are used $y different manufacturers, t%e manufacturer s%ould $e contacted to de*elop t%e $est approac% to t%ese features. 2 list s%ould $e composed indicating t%e e-uipment and inspection fre-uency. Detailed maintenance logs s%ould $e maintained. Ot%er areas to include in t%e maintenance sc%edule are sludge $lan.et le*el controls, return sludge flo( controls, scum remo*al, (eir le*els, coating integrity and ot%ers as indicated in t%e OJ" "anual. ;ased on e5perience, e-uipment operators (ill $e a$le to de*elop t%eir o(n list of additional maintenance re-uirements. 7.0 TROU.LE&3OOTING CRITERIA Improper operation of t%e clarifier system (ill produce an unaccepta$le -uality treated (ater t%at (ill impact performance of all process e-uipment do(nstream. Correction of out/of specification conditions in a timely manner is imperati*e. Ta$le 1 pro*ides a list of t%e common pro$lems associated (it% clarification and flocculation systems and t%eir causes and solutions. Ta$le 1
&'mptom! 6ig% effluent tur$idity, cloudy appearance Cau!e! Inade-uate treatment. c%emical Insufficient sludge in recirculation +one. C%ange in (ater -uality. &olutio ! C%ec. treated (ater analysis. C%ec. c%emical feeders. C%ec. mi5er speed 3rpm4 C%ec. recirculating sludge concentration. C%ec. automatic $lo(do(n control and *al*es for proper operation. C%ec. direction of recirculation7 rotation s%ould $e cloc.(ise. ?erform 9ar testing to determine proper treatment program. C%ec. treated (ater analysis. C%ec. c%emical feeders. 2ssess c%emical treatment re-uirements *ia 9ar testing. C%ec. mi5er speed 3rpm4

Continuous 'loc Carryo*er (it% <o( sludge le*el in setting +one.

Inade-uate treatment

c%emical

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) ** %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem
C5cessi*e recirculation speed 2ir entrainment. Intermittent or periodic floc carryo*er (it% lo( sludge le*el in settling +one. 2ir entrainment. 8aria$le ra( composition. (ater Crratic feeder operation. "alfunctioning speed dri*e. *aria$le )epeated flo( surging. of C%ec. ra( (ater piping for air introduction. C%ec. ra( (ater pumps for air lea.age t%roug% glands. C%ec. c%emical pumps for air lea.age t%roug% glands. C%ec.ing c%emical feed system for air introduced $y *orte5ing. C%ec. treated (ater analysis during difficult period. )un 9ar tests to optimi+e floc formation and settlea$ility. Continuously c%ee. ra( (ater temperature. C%ec. c%emical feeder cali$ration. C%ec. c%emical feeder for $ridging. C%ec. c%emical feeder cali$ration. C%ec. c%emical pump deli*ery. C%ec. ra( (ater piping for air introduction. C%ec. ra( (ater pumps for air in lea.age t%roug% glands. C%ec. c%emical feed system for air introduced $y *orte5ing. C%ec. re/circulator speed 3rpm4. C%ec. *aria$le speed dri*e $elt tension. C%ec. inlet meter for flo( surging. C%ec. le*el controller for proper operation. C%ec. instrument air supply system and pressure. 2dd modulating inlet *al*e. C%ec. *olume/o*er :*olume 3ten minutes4 at upper and lo(er draft tu$es. C%ec. $lo( do(n controller and *al*es for proper operation. C%ec. $ac. flus% (ater pressure. C%ec. $ac. flus% timer setting. C%ec. re/acti*ator operation (it%out $ac. flus%. C%ec. $lo( do(n controller setting. C%ec. $lo( off *al*es and timer operation. C%ec. re/circulating sludge concentration at upper and lo(er draft

2ir entrainment.

8aria$le re/circulating sludge concentration.

C5cessi*e $ac. flus%.

6ig% sludge le*el in setting +one.

C5cessi*e -uantities sludge in t%e unit.

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) *2 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem
<ig%t sludge. T%ermal con*ection currents 8.0 @ater temperature is %ig%er or lo(er t%an am$ient. @ater temperature fluctuates rapidly. tu$es. C%ec. re/circulator speed 3rpm4 C%ec. scraper operation : use a pole to feel t%e scraper if s%aft rotation is *ery slo(. C%ec. $lo( off sludge concentration percent *olume/o*er/*olume for ten minutes. C%ec. treated (ater analysis. C%ec. ra( (ater analysis. C%ec. c%emical feeder operation. C%ec. for settling rate in 9ar tests. C%ec. for septic sludge odor, color and p6. C%ec. mi5er speed 3rpm4. Insulate metal surfaces or co*er clarifier. 2dd storage tan. a%ead of clarifier to control temperature *ariations.

C3LORINATION C3E)I&TR+ T%e t(o most common c%lorination c%emicals utili+ed in fossil plant applications are c%lorine 3Cl4 and sodium %ypoc%lorite 30aOCI4. @%en gaseous c%lorine 3Cl4 is dissol*ed in (ater to form a solution, t%e c%lorine %ydroly+es to form %ypoc%lorous acid 36OCI4 and %ydroc%loric acid 36Cl4 as indicated in C-uation 314. C12K 62O //L 6OCI K 6Cl 314

;ot% %ypoc%lorous acid and %ypoc%lorite ion 3OCl=4 are po(erful o5idants, $ut t%e %ypoc%lorous acid 36OCI4 can $e &0/100 times more po(erful as a $iocide. 2ccording to @%ite, =T%e germicidal efficiency of 6OCI is due to t%e relati*e ease (it% (%ic% it can penetrate cell (alls.= M>S> @%ite states also t%at t%e %ypoc%lorite ion 3OCl=4 =.... is a relati*ely poor disinfectant $ecause of its ina$ility to diffuse t%roug% t%e cell (all of microorganisms due to t%e negati*e electrical p%arge.= C%lorine is reported to induce a series of e*ents associated (it% cell en*elope acti*ity and to damage nucleic acids. @%en sodium %ypoc%lorite 30aOCI4 is dissol*ed in (ater to form a solution, t%e sodium %ypoc%lorite ioni+es to form t%e %ypoc%lorite 3OCl/4 ion $y t%e follo(ing reaction 3C-uation /24. 0aOCI K 62O ////L 0a K K OCl / K 620 324

C-uations 1 and 2 represent reactions (%ic% (ould predominate in relati*ely pure, $uffered (aters. In practice, %o(e*er, t%ere is a dynamic e-uili$rium $et(een NTPC Limited

'a(e ) *1 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem %ypoc%lorous acid and %ypoc%lorite ion. 'or disinfection purposes, t%e desired form of c%lorine in (ater is as %ypoc%lorous acid. T%e form in (%ic% c%lorine is present is a function of p6 and temperature of t%e c%lorinated (ater. <o(er p6 and temperatures are desired $ecause t%ey effect %ig%er ratios of %ypoc%lorous acid to %ypoc%lorite ion. C%lorine gas decreases t%e solution p6, (%ile sodium %ypoc%lorite additions increase t%e treated (ater p6. 8.( C%lori e Dema d In most ma.eup treatment applications, sufficient c%lorine is added to o*ercome t%e c%lorine demand, (%ic% refers to t%e -uantity of %ypoc%lorous acid or %ypoc%lorite ion re-uired to react (it% ll c%lorine/reacta$le components of t%e (ater supply. T%e difference $et(een t%e amount of C%lorine applied and t%e amount of free c%lorine remaining at t%e end of t%e contact period presents t%e free c%lorine demand of t%e (ater. Since t%e measured demand is specific to t%e contact period and t%e temperature, t%e time and temperature s%ould $e noted (%en reporting results. In order to satisfy t%e c%lorine demand 3typically 1/5 ppm c%lorine, alt%oug% c%lorine demands of 10/15 ppm and %ig%er Ne.g., 25 ppmO are not uncommon in some parts of t%e (orld4, sufficient c%lorination c%emical %as to $e added to react (it% t%e c%lorine/consuming species and t%e ammonia or amines present and must pro*ide t%e desired free c%lorine residual 3usually 0.05 / 0.5 ppm4. T%e total dose applied is referred to as t%e c%lorine re-uirement. Ta9le:2 E!timati - C%lori e Dema d Co #e tratio ; ppm < ,a#tor =Re"ere #e> ? Amou t O" C%lori e Dema d; ppm ,ree CI2 Co !titue t!; A! Iron, 'e "anganese, "n 0itrite, 0O, 2mmonia, 06, 6ydrogen Sulfide, 6S Organic 0itrogen, 0 ,a#tor =re"ere #e> 0.!4, 0.! , 0.!3 1.3 1.5 !.3/&.2 2.1/&.5 , &.3, &.4 !

NTPC Limited

'a(e ) *5 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem 8.2 Trou9le!%ooti - #%art "or Ga!eou! C%lori atio &'!tem! &'mptom! Cau!e! &olutio !

?lugging Of Small ?orts In C%lorinator

S%ut *al*es leading to containers $efore replacing containers. ?urge G Corrosion products resulting from c%lorine gas lines (it% dry air $efore reaction of moist air, c%lorine, and and after long outages. piping (%ile c%anging containers Clean ports. and during long s%utdo(ns. Do not allo( cylinders to sit in t%e %ot Concentration of impurities in t%e sun. 2ssure c%lorine containers are at c%lorine gas as it cools. am$ient temperature $efore use. Clean ports. Install a gas filter a%ead of t%e *acuum regulating *al*e. G G Insufficient In9ector *acuum. Inspect pressure. in9ector operating (ater

C%lorinator 0ot 'eed ?roperly

G )emo*e t%e t%roat and tail(ay and clean a replace t%e part, if necessary. @ill G C%ec. for lea.s in c%lorinator G Clogged *acuum regulator/c%ec. G Clean *acuum regulator1 c%ec. unit as unit. per instruction manual. G Clean gas supply line, c%lorine inlet $loc. and tu$e to %ead $loc.. G 'ailed in9ector diap%ragm c%ec. G Inspect O/rings and diap%ragms7 *al*e. replace if needed. G Insufficient (ater supply G Increase (ater pressure. pressure. G Clogged gas line.

<o( 8acuum )eading On In9ector 8acuum Aauge

Crroneous )otameter )eadings

G Open and flus% roug%ly. C%ec. strainer G Inlet to in9ector t%roat may periodically and dean, if necessary. $e partially plugged $y C%ec. t%at all *al*es are open. impurities or small pieces of C%emically dean t%roat and tail(ay in gra*el or lea*es. Disc%arge muriatic acid. ?eriodically remo*e application7 component, steam/clean may %a*e some stoppage causing affected 3metal parts only4, line/dry completely %ig% $ac./pressure. and t%en reinstall t%e component. G 2ir lea. upstream of *acuum G C%ec. all diap%ragms and seals. regulator. C%ec. piping connections to t%e Dirty rotameter. *acuum regulator. G ?eriodically dean filters and drip %eaters.

<o( C%lorine 'eed G ?lugged gas filter or drip %eater. )ate NTPC Limited

'a(e ) *6 %O&)I&O)00)O+N,O'&,%$ -,0*. Rev. No.: 0 +"ideline# for 'erformance Optimi#ation of './. 'lant and %0lorination &y#tem &'mptom! Cau!e! G Outdoor storage (it% lo( outdoor temperature 3P50/!0Q', 10/ 1!QC4. &olutio ! G Increase num$er of c%lorine containers in ser*ice 3(%en c%lorine gas is (it%dra(n directly from cylinders or ton containers4.

<o( C%lorine C%anging in ra( (ater c%lorine G Increase c%lorine feed. )esidual demand. G Inspect reagent deli*ery. C%ec. G "alfunctioning c%.5ine analy+er reagent -uantities and replenis% if 3if present4. necessary. G )ecali$rate analy+er. Corrosi*e Damage ?iping C-uipment to or G <ea.3s4 e5posing non corrosion resistant materials to c%lorine solution. G Inappropriate materials used for components in contact (it% c%lorine. G ?eriodic e5ternal inspection to identify and correct lea.s. G )eplace affected components (it% ot%ers of appropriate materials.

;efore performing maintenance on t%e system, s%ut off t%e c%lorine gas supply, purge lines of c%lorine, and t%en turn off t%e (ater supply. Ot%er applica$le precautions and procedures indicated in e-uipment manuals s%ould $e follo(ed also. @.0 ,a#tor! to 9e #o !idered 6%ile i !talli - a #%lori atio !'!tem 1. Determine t%e p6 of t%e ra( (ater 2. Calculate t%e contact time 3 T%e contact time for t%e c%lorinating agent and (ater s%ould $e at least 10/15 minutes (it% longer contact time more desira$le.4 3. Determine or estimate typical temperature *ariations. 4. Decide t%e desired free residual c%lorine le*el 3 typically it *aries $et(een 0.05 : 0.5 pm 4 5. Determine t%e c%lorine re-uirement for maintaining a free residual. !. Determine t%e c%lorine dose from t%e c%lorine re-uirement and ma5imum flo( rate of ra( (ater. (0.0 REAIEB T%e C5ecuti*e Director 3Operation Ser*ices4 (ill $e responsi$le for re*ie(ing t%is document on t(o yearly $asis or as necessary. NTPC Limited