You are on page 1of 25

BACHILLERATO CLAVE EMS-3/663

I.Q. EUNICE CERVANTES GARCA

STUDENT`S NAME:_____________________________________ TEAM #_______ 2nd SEMESTER GROUP:_____________ LIST NUMBER:_________________

INSTITUTO MEXICANO MADERO


BACHILLERATO UNIDAD ZAVALETA CHEMISTRY LAB

INDEX

PRACTICE:

General Objectives for Chemistry lab

..

Guidelines for laboratory safety ..... 4 Laboratory Regulations .. 5 Grading and exemption ..... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Molar Relationship in Chemical Reactions .... 5 6

Acid Rain Effects .. 9 Methods for Separating Mixtures ..... 12 Dispersed Systems.. 14 How to produce gel alcohol hand sanitizer ... 16 Acids and Bases . 18

Preparation of Aspirin . 20 Simple Sugars .. 22 Cell Respiration ..... 24

Instituto Mexicano Madero Unidad Zavaleta High School Chemistry Lab

General Objectives in the laboratory

The student will be able to:

A) Acquire skills in handling reactive substances, materials and equipments ordinarily used in the laboratory, which will encourage and motivate them to search through their own observations and experiences. B) Be acquainted with chemical, physical, biological and biochemical phenomena concerning to the matter. C) Corroborate the knowledge learned through the theory and practice.

As a result of the previous objectives, the student will develop: A) The skill to carry out a process of research, following the steps in the experimental method. B) The skill to carry out an experimental process, comparing, demonstrating and doing a critical analysis, with basis or reasons. C) The skill to observe, and record regularities and irregularities in the finished processes and the occurred phenomena. D) The skill to visualize whether they have vocation for areas such as Science and exact subjects. E) The skill to work in team. F) Values such as respect, responsibility, tolerance and honesty.

Instituto Mexicano Madero Unidad Zavaleta High School Chemistry Lab


Guidelines for laboratory safety
The lab is a place designated to carry out experimental activities. You should realize that lab is a special place to make serious works. Your own security and that of your classmates is one of the most important concepts in this class; therefore it is important to introduce you the main safety regulations to do an appropriate work in the school laboratory.
1. Make sure that your lab/theory teacher is in the lab during the practices. 2. Read carefully the procedure of every activity before starting the practice. 3. Use properly the lab the wrapper or robe. 4. Wash perfectly your hands after each experiment and at the end of the practice. 5. Do not taste for any reason the substances, although you know them. 6. Use clothing protection, alligator clips, and special gloves to manipulate hot material. Keep in mind that the appearance of hot glass is similar of that of cold glass. 7. NEVER use open flames when a FLAMMABLE solvent is in use in the same room. Use open flames only when necessary. 8. When heating any substance in a test tube, keep it away from you and your classmates in a 30 angle. Move it slowly over the flame and take it away so that you can control the temperature if the substance is flammable. 9. If it is necessary to perceive the aroma in a substance, never do it directly, put the container away from you, open it and with your hand blow the vapors to your nose. 10. Make sure where the fire extinguisher is located. 11. Discard chemicals according to appropriate disposal methods. 12. Do not improvise the use of materials neither modify the procedure of the practice. The results can be selfdefeating. 13. If it is necessary to dilute or dissolve an acid, the best is to pour the acid in the water, help yourself using a security funnel or glass tubing. Because the reaction is strong, you can be hurt if you do not follow the rules. 14. Students should not wear contact lenses when using directly concentrated acids. 15. If having direct contact with corrosive substances, wash abundantly with water the affected area. 16. Shut correctly the gas and water faucets. 17. Use the designated table to manipulate reactive substances and reactants. For your own security do not move or change dangerous substances to another table. 18. When taking samples from the glasses containing reactive substances, do not mix the different pipettes. 19. Ask for help to your teacher or to the school doctor in case of feeling sick because of inhalation of a caustic substance, sprinkles of acid substances, burns, etc.

Instituto Mexicano Madero Unidad Zavaleta High School Chemistry Lab


Laboratory Regulations
1. Work in 4 or 5 people-teams seriously and with discipline (the number of members in each team will depend on the amount of students per group. This could increase or diminish.). 2. Five minutes maximum of tardiness are allowed to get into the chemistry lab. 3. In each lab session the student should wear white lab coat with your name needleworked on a visible place, the same as the lab manual. 4. In order to come in to the lab, the student should be wearing the lab coat, bring the lab manual, and know what is going to be done in the experiment. 5. Required material should be brought by the members of the team. 6. Keep in silence and extreme discipline in the lab as well as obey teachers directions. 7. Fill the form to obtain your material. Although the leader team will sign it, all the team members are responsible for the given material. 8. Food, drinks or another kind of material that are not required by the teacher are not permitted in the lab. 9. All damage equipment or materials during the class should be replaced for the next session or in a period of a week. 10. Tables and working areas should be cleaned. Wash perfectly the used material and give it to your teacher after the practices. 11. Practices will be developed in two sessions, in the first one the theory will be covered, and the experiment in the second. The student must accomplish both aspects on time. 12. The lab manual with the report will be handed in to your teacher during the established time. 13. If the student is not assisting to the theoretical session, the student can hand in this point on time only if a justification is given by the assessor, otherwise your grade will be diminished. 14. If the student is absent during the experimental session, the experiment cannot be done again, and this practice will be graded only with the theoretical section. 15. If the student dont do a practice or show a valid justification, will not be graded. 16. To be able to exempt, or to present the final exam, you should hand in the lab manual complete, clean, and in the date required. GRADING: The lab class is 30% of the total grade for Chemistry, from which a 15% is the written exam and the other 15% is the grade obtained in the practices.

INSTITUTO MEXICANO MADERO UNIDAD ZAVALETA


HIGH SCHOOL

CHEMISTRY LAB NAME:_______________________ L.N.____ 1st___ TEAM #____DATE:_________ SCORE: _________ TEACHER`S SIGNATURE: 1)________2)________3)________ PRACTICE #1 MOLAR RELATIONSHIP IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS & NUMBER OF MOLES
OBJECTIVE: (1 pt.) Determine

PROBLEM: (1 pt.)

HYPOTHESIS: (1 pt.)

BACKGROUND: (1 pt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: (1 pt.) Author (beginning with last name, name) Title Publishing House, Edition. Web page complete, please.

EXPERIMENT 1: MATERIAL: * 1 Evaporating dish * 1 Ring Stand * 1 Ring * 1 Wire Gauze * 1 Spatula * 1 Bunsen Burner * 1 Tongs * 1 - 10 ml. pipette * 1 watch glass * 1 balance

REACTANTS: * 3 gm. NaHCO3 * 6M HCl solution * Distilled water

PROCEDURE: 1. Place the evaporating dish over the ring and heat for 3 min. with the burner; cool it. 2. Using the tongs take the evaporating dish and measure its mass in the balance; record your data. 3. Measure in the evaporating dish 3 gm. NaHCO3, cover it with the watch glass . 4. Using the pipette add 6 ml. of HCl, for this raise slightly the watch glass. It is important that all the sodium bicarbonate reacts with the acid; to do so, you can move the dish a little bit so the acid touches the sodium bicarbonate. 5. When the reaction finishes, uncover the dish using the tongs and wash the side of the watch glass (using the less amount of distilled water possible) that was in contact with the reaction. 6. Heat the evaporating dish in a low flame until the liquid evaporates and you have only a solid 7. Wait until the dish cools and measure its mass on the balance; record your data.

EXPERIMENT 2: MATERIAL: * 1 Balance

REACTANTS: * 1 white chalk for each student *1/2 black cardboard

(CaCO3)

PROCEDURE: 1. Weigh a piece of ordinary chalk, record your data. 2. Write your full name on the cardboard (big). 3. Weigh the chalk again, and determine the number of moles of calcium carbonate that were used.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: (INCLUDE DRAWINGS OF BOTH EXPERIMENTS!) (2 pts.)

ANALYSING AND ORGANISING DATA: (1 pt.) Complete the reaction and balance it:

NaHCO3

HCl

NaCl

__________

________

Record the obtained data in the following chart:

Empty evaporating dish mass: Evaporating dish + NaHCO3 mass: NaHCO3 mass: Evaporating dish + NaCl mass:
NaCl mass:

NaHCO3 moles: NaCl moles:

Calculate the proportion:

moles NaHCO3 moles NaCl


GRAMS OF CHALK NEEDED TO WRITE YOUR NAME C=A-B MOLAR MASS OF CHALK (CALCIUM CARBONATE: CaCO3 ) D MOLES OF CHALK NEEDED TO WRITE YOUR NAME E=C/D

WEIGH OF CHALK A

WEIGH OF CHALK AFTER WRITING B

CONCLUSION: (2 pts.) EXPERIMENT 1:

EXPERIMENT 2:

INSTITUTO MEXICANO MADERO UNIDAD ZAVALETA


HIGH SCHOOL

CHEMISTRY LAB NAME:_______________________ L.N.____ 1st___ TEAM #____DATE:_________ SCORE: _________ TEACHER`S SIGNATURE: 1)________2)________3)________ PRACTICE #2 ACID RAIN EFFECTS
OBJECTIVE: Observe some effects of the acid rain: the destruction of the carbonate contained by marble statues, the effects in the cast structures, and the loss of coloration in the leaves because of the destruction of chlorophyll.

PROBLEM:

HYPOTHESIS:

BACKGROUND:

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

MATERIAL: * 8 small jars (Gerber) *250 ml. Erlenmeyer flask with lid *1 test tube * 1 plastic pippete

REACTANTS: * 300 ml of 1 M nitric acid solution (HNO3) * 300 ml of 1 M sulfuric acid solution (H2SO4) * 2 pieces of marble * 2 pieces of cast * 2 leaves of a plant * 2 - $2.00 coin * bromothymol blue * 25 ml. distilled water *matches

EXPERIMENT 1:

PROCEDURE: 1. Put the marbles in two beakers, in another two the cast, the leaf, and the coin in the seventh and eighth beakers. 2. Pour into 4 beakers a little bit of nitric acid (just to cover the sample). 3. Pour into 4 beakers a little bit of sulfuric acid (just to cover the sample). 4. Observe and record all the changes occurred within the next 20 min. 5. Leave the beakers for a week and observe the changes. Record your observations (comment this in your observations and results.)

EXPERIMENT 2: PROCEDURE: 1. Add bromothymol blue to 25 mL distilled water in a test tube gradually. Continue adding it one drop at a time until the solution is light blue. 2. Burn several matches in an Erlenmeyer flask, and place the lid on to extinguish the matches by oxygen deprivation. Doing this will trap the sulphur in the jar, much like emissions are trapped in the atmosphere. 3. Open the jar containing the matches, and pour the entire test tube of bromothymol blue solution into the jar. Cover with the lid quickly, keeping as much of the sulphur in the jar as possible. Shake the jar to mix the sulphur from the matches with the bromothymol blue solution. 4. Observe what happens to the color of the liquid in the jar. Bromothymol blue turns yellow when acid is introduced to it. If the solution turns yellow, you have simulated acid rain production. Observe and record the changes.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: (INCLUDE DRAWINGS AND EXPLAIN THEM!)

10

ANALYSING AND ORGANISING DATA: MATERIAL ORIGINAL APPEARANCE APPEARANCE AFTER 20 MIN. HNO3 APPEARANCE AFTER 20 MIN H2SO4

MARBLE: CAST: LEAF:

COIN:

a) b) c) d) e)

What is the gas captured in the flask? Original color of bromothymol blue: Color of bromothymol blue with distilled water? Color of bromothymol blue in presence of an acid? Name of the acid produced:

CONCLUSIONS:

11

INSTITUTO MEXICANO MADERO UNIDAD ZAVALETA


HIGH SCHOOL

CHEMISTRY LAB NAME:_______________________ L.N.____ 1st___ TEAM #____DATE:_________ SCORE: _________ TEACHER`S SIGNATURE: 1)________2)________3)________ PRACTICE #3 METHODS FOR SEPARATING MIXTURES
OBJECTIVE: Identify and use PROBLEM: HYPOTHESIS:

BACKGROUND:

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

MATERIAL:
* 3 - 100 ml. beakers * 1 short stem funnel * 1 ring stand * 1 metal ring * 1 porcelain triangle * 1 wire gauze * 1 separation funnel * 1 three prong clamp * 1 graduated cylinder ( 50 ml. ) * 1 white sheet of paper * 1 table spoon * 1 evaporating dish * 1 watch glass * 1 - 200 ml. beaker * 1 stirrer * 1 magnet * 1 dropper

REACTANTS:
* 1 gr. de calcium oxide * water * 1 big piece of cotton * 30 ml. of kitchen oil * table salt * 1 ice cube * 1 table spoon of iron fillings * iodine crystals * 1 gr. of sand

12

PROCEDURE:
EXPERIMENT 1: EVAPORATION 1. Add 20 ml. of water in a 200ml. beaker. Add salt and dissolve until the solution is saturated (that no more salt can be dissolved). 2. Heat the solution until all the liquid is evaporated and you only have the solid. 3. Observe, draw, and record your data. EXPERIMENT 2: DECANTING 1. Arrange the separation funnel over the ring stand, hold it with the three prong clamps. 2. Measure 50 ml. of water and 30 ml. of kitchen oil in a beaker. 3. Add this mixture into the separation funnel, wait until the two liquids are completely separated. 4. Carefully begin filtering and save the liquid in a beaker. Check the moment in which you completely obtain the liquid with the higher density. 5. Obtain the remaining liquid. 6. Observe both liquids, measure the amount of each one. Record and draw your data and observations. EXPERIMENT 3: SIMPLE FILTRATION 1. Add 1 gr. of calcium oxide and 60 ml. of water to a beaker, stir until the solid dissolves completely. Observe and record what happens. 2. Fix the funnel over the metal ring with the cotton as a filter; add the mixture you did before. Save the filtered liquid in another beaker. 3. Record and draw your observations. EXPERIMENT 4: MAGNETIZING 1. Over a white sheet of paper, add 1 tablespoon of salt and 1/2 of iron fillings. Mix the solids. 2. Pass the magnet over the mixture. Put the magnetized solid in another piece of paper and give it back to your teacher. Repeat this step until you have separated both solids. 3. Record and draw your observations. EXPERIMENT 5: SUBLIMATION 1. Add a few iodine crystals to the evaporating dish, and add 0.5 gr. of sand, cover the dish with a watch glass and put an ice cube over it. 2. Heat the evaporating dish slightly for a few minutes (until the iodine is in the watch glass). 3. Observe what happens, record and draw your observations.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: (INCLUDE DRAWINGS AND EXPLAIN THEM!)

ANALYSING AND ORGANISING DATA:


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) What method did you use to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid? What method did you use to separate a dissolved solid from the liquid in which it was dissolved? What method did you use to separate two solids with different densities? What method did you use to separate two solids but one with magnetic properties? What method did you use to separate iodine from sand? Which method do you thing is used most often in your everyday life? Why? Which method do you thing is used most often at industrial processes? Why?

CONCLUSION:

13

INSTITUTO MEXICANO MADERO UNIDAD ZAVALETA


HIGH SCHOOL

CHEMISTRY LAB NAME:_______________________ L.N.____ 2nd___ TEAM #____DATE:_________ SCORE: _________ TEACHER`S SIGNATURE: 1)________2)________3)________ PRACTICE #4 DISPERSED SYSTEMS: SOLUTIONS, COLLOIDS AND SUSPENSIONS
OBJECTIVE:

PROBLEM:

HYPOTHESIS:

BACKGROUND:

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

MATERIAL: * 8 test tubes * test tube holders * test tube rack * 6 filter paper * 5 watch glasses * 1 filtering funnel * 1 small lantern (a laser one may be very useful)

REACTANTS: * 0.5 gr. Sodium chloride * 0.5 gr. Iron oxide * 0.5 gr starch * 0.5 gr. Sugar *5 ml. dissolved gelatin * 2ml. milk solution *2ml. honey solution

*water
PROCEDURE: 1. Label the test tubes with each of the 7 substances, except for water. 2. Using the balance and the watch glasses, measure the required mass of each substance and pour it into the corresponding beaker. In the case of the gelatin, honey and milk, measure the volume with the graduated cylinder. 3. Fill of each test tube with water and mix them until the dispersed systems are formed. 4. Leave them apart for 5 minutes. Observe the characteristics of each dispersed system. Record and draw your observations.

14

5. 6.

Homogenize again the systems, take the lantern and point the beam over each one of them. Identify the ones that present the Tyndall effect. Record and draw your observations. Filter each of the dispersed systems (using the paper filter) and verify which ones left particles in the filter. Record and draw your observations.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: (INCLUDE DRAWINGS AND EXPLAIN THEM!)


DISPERSED PHASE CONTINUOUS PHASE TYNDALL EFFECT RETENTION OF PARTICLES TYPE OF DISPERSED SYSTEM

SODIUM CHLORIDE IRON II OXIDE STARCH SUGAR GELATIN MILK HONEY WATER

ANALYSING AND ORGANISING DATA: (SEARCH FOR THE ANSWERS!!!)


1) How can you differentiate a solution, a colloid and a suspension?

2) What is the Tyndall effect and why is it not presented in all the dispersed systems?

3) Why not all the dispersed systems present retention of the dispersed phase in the filter paper?

CONCLUSION:

15

INSTITUTO MEXICANO MADERO UNIDAD ZAVALETA


HIGH SCHOOL

CHEMISTRY LAB NAME:_______________________ L.N.____ 2nd___ TEAM #____DATE:_________ SCORE: _________ TEACHER`S SIGNATURE: 1)________2)________3)________ PRACTICE #5 HOW TO PRODUCE GEL ALCOHOL HAND SANITIZER
OBJECTIVE:

PROBLEM:

HYPOTHESIS:

BACKGROUND:

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

MATERIAL:

REACTANTS:

SAFETY EQUIPMENT:

2 - 400 ml. beakers 1 stirrer 1 100 ml. graduated cylinder 1 spoon 1 tongue depressor clean plastic containers 1 sieve

Distilled water 90 ml ethylic alcohol (70) carbopol polymer pure glycerin triethanolamine (TEA)

gloves
goggles

surgical masks

PROCEDURE: 1. Set up the sieve over a beaker, add spoon of carbopol and sieve, make sure to pulverise it completely. 2. Add 90 ml. of ethylic alcohol (70) into the other beaker; stir vigorously while adding slowly the sieved carbopol. 3. Add spoon of pure glycerine, continue stirring. 4. When the carbopol is completely dissolved, add spoon of triethanolamine, continue stirring until the mixture is homogenized. 5. Pour the gel into the containers.

16

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: (INCLUDE DRAWINGS AND EXPLAIN THEM!)

ANALYSING AND ORGANISING DATA: 1) What type of system is the substance that you have prepared?______________________________

2) How should the hand sanitizer be used? (Search for the information!) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3) Write the function of each component of the hand sanitizer: +Ethylic alcohol (70): +Carbopol polymer: +Glycerin: +Triethanolamine:

CONCLUSION:

17

INSTITUTO MEXICANO MADERO UNIDAD ZAVALETA


HIGH SCHOOL

CHEMISTRY LAB NAME:_______________________ L.N.____ 2nd___ TEAM #____DATE:_________ SCORE: _________ TEACHER`S SIGNATURE: 1)________2)________3)________ PRACTICE #6 IDENTIFICATION OF ACIDIC AND BASIC SUBSTANCES

OBJECTIVE:

PROBLEM:

HYPOTHESIS:

BACKGROUND:

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

MATERIAL: * 1 test tube rack * 12 test tubes * 1 5ml pipette * 1 50 ml. beaker * 1 stirrer * 1 dissecting forceps * 10 Pasteur pipettes

REACTANTS: * distilled water * acetic acid * sodium hydroxide * lemon juice * soapy solution * litmus paper (red and blue) * phenolphthalein * methyl orange

* prepared coffee *coke * milk * yoghurt * antacid

SAFETY EQUIPMENT: * gloves * safety glasses * mask

PROCEDURE: 6. Set up 8 test tubes in the rack and number them. Pour into each one 1 ml of distilled water. 7. Add 1 ml of acetic acid to tubes 1, 3, and 5. 8. Add 1 ml of sodium hydroxide to tubes 2, 4, and 6. 9. Introduce the blue litmus paper into tube 1. Record your observations. 10. Introduce the red litmus paper into tube 2. Record your observations.

18

11. Add 4 drops of phenolphthalein to tube 3 and 4, observe if there is a change of colour in the solutions. Record your observations. 12. Add 5 drops of methyl orange to tube 5 and to tube 6. Record your observations. 13. Add 1 ml of lemon juice to tube 7 and 5 drops of methyl orange. Record your observations. 14. Add 1 ml of soapy solution and 4 drops of phenolphthalein. Record your observations. 15. Set up 5 clean test tubes, add 1 ml of each household product and add 4 drops of methyl orange. Record your observations. 16. Wash perfectly the test tubes and add 1 ml of each household product and then add 4 drops of phenolphthalein. Record your observations. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: (INCLUDE DRAWINGS AND EXPLAIN THEM!) TEST TUBE # (SUBSATNCE) INDICATOR USED COLOR-CHANGE ACIDIC / BASIC SUBSTANCE

ANALYSING AND ORGANISING DATA: 1) Substances that allows us to identify acidic and basic compounds according to their change of colour: ____________________________________________________________________________________ 2) What colour do the acidic substances take with the methyl orange? _______________________________ 3) What colour do the basic substances take with the phenolphthalein? ______________________________ 4) What kind of substances can we identify with the phenolphthalein? _______________________________ 5) What kind of substances can we identify with the methyl orange? ________________________________ CONCLUSION:

19

INSTITUTO MEXICANO MADERO UNIDAD ZAVALETA


HIGH SCHOOL

CHEMISTRY LAB NAME:_______________________ L.N.____ 2nd___ TEAM #____DATE:_________ SCORE: _________ TEACHER`S SIGNATURE: 1)________2)________3)________ PRACTICE #7
PREPARATION OF ASPIRIN

OBJECTIVE: Identify and use PROBLEM: HYPOTHESIS:

BACKGROUND:

BIBLIOGRAPHY: MATERIAL:
* 1 test tube holders * 2 test tubes * 1 tripod * 1 - 250 ml. beaker * 1 stirrer * 1 wire gauze * 1 bunsen burner * 1 test tube rack * 1 5ml. pipette * 1 funnel * 1 balance * 1 watch glass * filter paper * absorbing paper

REACTANTS:
* 1 ml. Acetic anhydride * 2 ml. Concentrated sulphuric acid * 1 gr. Salicylic acid * distilled water

PROCEDURE:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Prepare a Bain Marie using the 250 ml beaker. Using the watch glass weight 1 gr of salicylic acid. Use the funnel and pour the salicylic acid in the test tube; using the pipette add to the same test tube the 2ml. of acetic anhydride. Make sure that there is any leftover of the acid in the funnel or in the test tube. Using the test tube holders, put the test tube in the Bain Marie previously prepared. Stirr constantly the test tube until both compounds are totally mixed. Turn off the burner. Carefully put the test tube on the rack. While the mixture is decreasing its temperature, crystals will be formed. If they doesnt appear, put the tube in an ice bath.

20

7. 8. 9.

When crystallization is completed, add 10 ml. of distilled water and filter the mixture. Wash the obtained solid with a little amount of distilled water. Put the obtained product on the absorbing paper to eliminate the water. Let it dry.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: (INCLUDE DRAWINGS AND EXPLAIN THEM!)

ANALYSING AND ORGANISING DATA:


1) 2) What is the chemical name of the obtained product? ___________________________________________ What medicine contains this substance as an active salt? ______________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3) What is the use of this salt? __________________________________________________________ 4) To what type of organic compound belongs this product? ________________________________________ 5) Write the molecular formula and the chemical structure of the acetylsalicylic acid.

6) What was the function of the H2SO4 in the reaction? __________________________________________

CONCLUSION:

21

INSTITUTO MEXICANO MADERO UNIDAD ZAVALETA


HIGH SCHOOL

CHEMISTRY LAB NAME:_______________________ L.N.____ 2nd___ TEAM #____DATE:_________ SCORE: _________ TEACHER`S SIGNATURE: 1)________2)________3)________ PRACTICE #8
SIMPLE SUGAR TESTS

OBJECTIVE: Recognise the substances that contain simple sugars by using an indicator. PROBLEM: HYPOTHESIS:

BACKGROUND:

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

MATERIAL:
* 1 - 400 ml. beaker * 1 - 10 ml. graduated cylinder * 2 boiling pearls * 5 test tubes * test tube holders * test tube rack
* stirrer * tripod * wire gauze * Bunsen burner * metallic container

REACTANTS:
* 10% glucose solution * 10% starch solution * 10% honey solution * 10% gelatin solution * 10 ml. whole milk * 10 ml. orange juice * 10 ml. water * Benedict solution

22

PROCEDURE:
17. Fill with water 1/3 of the 400 ml. beaker and put the beaker in a bain Marie over the tripod and start heating until boiling. 18. Add 5 ml. of 10% glucose solution into a test tube. 19. Add 3 ml. of Benedict solution to the test tube. Mix both solutions using the stirrer. Add a boiling pearl into the test tube. 20. Using the test tube holders, put the test tube into the bain Marie and heat for 5 min. 21. Record the change of coloration from blue into yellow or orange as a positive test in the obtention of a simple sugar. (This will be the witness sample, because we know for sure that glucose is a simple sugar.). 22. Repeat the procedure using the rest of the samples. Record all your observations.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: (INCLUDE DRAWINGS AND EXPLAIN THEM!) SAMPLE GLUCOSE SOLUTION STARCH SOLUTION GELATIN SOLUTION WATER HONEY SOLUTION WHOLE MILK ORANGE JUICE CHANGE OF COLORATION CONTAINS SIMPLE SUGARS? YES / NO

ANALYSING AND ORGANISING DATA: 1) Which samples contain simple sugars? How do you know? 2) What is the chemical structure of a simple sugar?

3) What was the job of the Benedict solution in the experiment? 4) How do we call these substances? CONCLUSION:

23

INSTITUTO MEXICANO MADERO UNIDAD ZAVALETA


HIGH SCHOOL

CHEMISTRY LAB NAME:_______________________ L.N.____ 2nd___ TEAM #____DATE:_________ SCORE: _________ TEACHER`S SIGNATURE: 1)________2)________3)________ PRACTICE #9 YEAST PLUS SUGAR: LET IT RISE! PRODUCTS OF RESPIRATION
OBJECTIVE: Compare the time production of carbon dioxide through the combination of yeast and sucrose, and yeast and flour. Determine the difference between both processes. PROBLEM:

HYPOTHESIS:

BACKGROUND:

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

MATERIAL: * 1 - 250 ml. beaker * 1 thermometer * 1 water trough * 1 50 ml. graduated cylinder * 1 tripod

REACTANTS: * 2 sandwich-size, zipper close bags * 2 pkgs. of dry yeast * 2 tbsp. of sucrose (table sugar) * 2 tbsp. of flour * 100 ml. of warm water

PROCEDURE: 1. Fill the water trough about 2/3 full of hot water, and adjust the temperature to between 40 and 50C. 2. Put one package of dry yeast and one tablespoon of sucrose in a labeled bag sucrose. Mix well. 3. Put one package of dry yeast and one tablespoon of flour in a labeled bag flour. Mix well. 4. Working quickly, measure and add 50 ml. of the warm water from the trough to each of the bags, and thoroughly mix the contents. 5. Remove all the air you can and seal the bags. Start timing when both bags are sealed.

24

6. Put both bags into the trough of warm water. Determine and record the time required for sufficient carbon dioxide to fill each bag completely. * If either of the bags is not completely filled in 30 minutes, estimate the fraction of the bag that is filled.

OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: (INCLUDE DRAWINGS AND EXPLAIN THEM!)

ANALYSING AND ORGANISING DATA: 1) Based upon your data, rank the rates at which yeast breaks down each type of carbohydrate.

2) Why might the carbohydrates be broken down at different rates?

CONCLUSION:

25