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I/O Structures and Jitter Presentation

RELATIVE SIGNAL SWINGS AND LEVELS


4V 3V LVPECL 2V LVDS 1V 0V -1V -2V Referenced to Ground ECL Older Technology - Rarely seen - Uses Negative supply 3V ECL 2.5V ECL LVPECL CML (1.8V) CML (1.2V) PECL 5V ECL CML (3.3V) CML (2.5V)

LVDS is Ground Referenced ECL, PECL, LVPECL and CML are all referenced to the positive rail.
So as the positive rail changes from 5V, to 3.3V to 2.5V these swings move down accordingly 2

I/O Levels

Parameter VOH VOL VOUT Reference

LVDS 1.425V 1.1V 325mV GND

PECL VCC0.9V VCC1.7V 800mV VCC

LVPECL VCC0.9V VCC1.7V 800mV VCC

CML VCC-0.2V VCC0.6V 400mV VCC

PECL

PECL Input Structure


VCC VCC

Positive Supply PECL:


OUT IN /OUT /IN

Positive Emitter-Coupled-Logic

LVPECL:
Low Voltage Positive EmitterCoupled-Logic

Output Structure

Same Characteristics as ECL


800mV swing Termination to Vcc-2.0V

Input Structure

PECL Termination

V CC

VOH=VCC-0.9V VOL=VCC-1.7V IOH=22mA IOL=6mA


50 50

PECL

V CC -2V

CML

CML Input Structure


VCC 50 50 VCC

IN /IN

CML Output Structure


VCC 50 50 OUT /OUT

16mA

CML Terminations
VCC 50

VCC 50

VCC 50 50

VCC CML 50 100

VCC 50

16mA

16mA

VOH=VCC-0.2V VOL=VCC-0.6V

VOH=VCC VOL=VCC-0.4V

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LVDS

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LVDS Input Structure


VCC

IN

/IN

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LVDS Output Structure


VCC

OUT /OUT VCCS VCCS

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LVDS Termination

VCC

VOH=1.425V VOL=1.100V
VCCS 100

VCCS

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Micrel Any-In

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Precision Edge Patented Designs


Any-In is simple Internal Termination
Improves Jitter Performance Simplifies Designs Eliminates external components Eliminates Stubs in Layout

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Any-In Input Structure


VCC

Termination Inside Chip


IN 50 VT 50 /IN

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The Any-In Advantage


VCC VCC VCC

IN

IN 50 VT 50

/IN

/IN

Conventional

Any-In
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Jitter Discussion

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What is Jitter

Jitter is the deviation from the ideal timing of an event. Jitter is composed of both deterministic and Gaussian (random) content. Total Jitter (TJ) is the convolution of all independent Jitter Components.

Example: 1ns of Jitter in a 100Mbps signal represents a 10% data uncertainty.


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Jitter Versus Skew

Q1

Q2

Q3

Jitter:

The deviation of a timing event from its ideal position.

The difference between multiple signal outputs

Skew:

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Types of Jitter

TJ
Bounded (Pk-Pk)

DJ

RJ

Unbounded (RMS)

PJ DDJ DCD ISI

TJ = Total Jitter DJ = Deterministic Jitter RJ = Random Jitter (Gaussian) PJ = Periodic Jitter DDJ = Data Dependent Jitter DCD = Duty Cycle Distortion ISI = Intersymbol Interference

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Random Jitter
Random Jitter has a Gaussian distribution and is unbounded (RMS).

TJ
Bounded (Pk-Pk)

Unbounded so Peak-to-Peak numbers need to be qualified. 3 types,

DJ

RJ

Unbounded (RMS)

Adjacent-Edge, Cycle-to-Cycle and Period

Common sources of RJ:


Shot Noise, Flicker Noise (1/f) and Thermal Noise

PJ DDJ DCD ISI

Semiconductor Originated

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Deterministic Jitter
Deterministic Jitter is non-Gaussian and bounded (Pk-Pk).

TJ
Additive, i.e. a simple summation.
Bounded (Pk-Pk)

DJ RJ

Unbounded (RMS)

Common sources of DJ:


EMI, Crosstalk, and Reflections
System Related

PJ DDJ DCD ISI

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DJ, PWD/DCD Example

PWD/DCD is characterized as having an asymmetric rise/fall time


Also see this with re-bias mismatch

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Deterministic Jitter Example


Long Consecutive Bit Stream LF Droop PJ

Midpoint

Classify the following into types of jitter


AC Coupling cutoff too high PJ/DDJ/ISI

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DJ Limited Channel Bandwidth


Long Consecutive Bit Stream

Midpoint 0-1-0 Bit Stream

HF PJ

Classify the following into types of jitter


Limited channel bandwidth PJ/DDJ/ISI

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Total Jitter
Total Jitter is the convolution of all independent jitter components.

TJ
Bounded (Pk-Pk)

TJ = DJ (p-p) + a * RJ (rms)
a = 12 for 10-9 BER a = 14 for 10-12 BER (commonly assumed) a = 16 for 10-15 BER

DJ

RJ

Unbounded (RMS)

Adding Jitter Components:


DJTOT = DJ1 + DJ2 RJTOT2 = RJ12 + RJ22

PJ DDJ DCD ISI

With TJ the customer has a single pk-pk jitter parameter that correlates to BER (bit error rate). TJ incorporates both RJ and DJ in a single number. Not all vendors have adopted TJ.
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SY58011 Datasheet AC Parameters

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Jitter Definitions Cheat Sheet


Jitter Definition Jitter Categories Common Sources of DJ
Total Jitter (TJ):
The convolution of all independent jitter component Probability Density Functions (PDF) both deterministic and random.
Bounded (Pk-Pk)

TJ DJ RJ
Unbounded (RMS)

EMI: Can induce noise current in a signal conductor and corrupt the signal by altering its bias. Crosstalk: Occurs when the magnetic or electric fields of a signal on a conductor are inadvertently coupled to an adjacent signalcarrying conductor, which can slightly alter its bias. Reflections: Occur when impedance mismatches are present.
Jitter is the deviation from the ideal timing of an event. Jitter is composed of both Deterministic and Gaussian (random) content. Total Jitter (TJ) is the convolution of all independent Jitter Components.

PJ DDJ DCD ISI

Deterministic Jitter (DJ):


Non-Gaussian PDF and is characterized by its bounded pk-pk amplitude. There are 2 types:

DJ eye diagram

Periodic Jitter (PJ)


Also known as sinusoidal jitter Has a signature that repeats at a fixed frequency

Common Sources of RJ
Shot Noise: Broadband white noise generated when electrons and holes move in a semiconductor. Shot noise amplitude is a function of average current flow. Flicker Noise: Proportional to 1/f. Most dominant at lower frequencies. Flicker noise is caused by a surface effect due to fluctuations in the carrier density as electrons are randomly captured and emitted from oxide interface traps. Thermal Noise: Can be represented by broadband white noise, generated by the transfer of energy between free electrons and ions in a conductor. Unlike shot noise, thermal noise is unrelated to signal current flow.

Data Dependent Jitter (DDJ)


Duty Cycle Distortion (DCD) Different rise and fall times and threshold variations of a device could cause DCD. Intersymbol Interference (ISI) Occurs when the transmission medium propagates the frequency components of data (symbols) at different rates.

RJ eye diagram

Random Jitter (RJ):


Gaussian distribution and unbounded.

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