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Performing arts in Indonesia -Art forms are not only based on folklore.

Most of them have developed in the courts of former kingdoms so that, like in Bali, they have become part of religious ceremonies. The famous dance dramas of Java and Bali are derived from Hindu mythology and often feature fragments from the Ramayana and Mahabharata Hindu epics. -Puppets of the wayang kulit shadow play are made of intricately carved and colorfully painted leather, while the wayang golek puppets are made of the light but strong arbasiah wood and dressed in batik wooden puppets. Both the wayang kulit and wayang golek theaters are operated by the dalang (puppeteer) who manipulates the puppets and makes them "speak" in different voices and accents according to character age and/or sex. Besides, the dalang must be at the same time a composer, improviser, producer, orator, singer, choir master, dance master and stage manager. Wayang golek andwayang kulit performances are accompanied by the Javanese gamelan musical instruments. The wayang kulit performance is very popular with the people in Central Java, while the wayang golek is generally performed in West Java. -The bamboo angklung musical instruments of West Java and the wooden kolintang of North Sulawesi are widely known. Another kind of musical instrument which is also attractive and unique is the sasando of East Nusa Tenggara. Sasando is a stringed musical instrument made of lontar leaves and is handled like a guitar. The Bataks of North Sumatra and the Ambonese of Maluku are known for their ability to sing to the accompaniment of the guitar. Wayang -Wayang is a Javanese word for particular kinds of theatre. When the term is used to refer to kinds of puppet theatre, sometimes the puppet itself is referred to as wayang. Performances of shadow puppet theatre are accompanied by a gamelan orchestra in Java, and by gender wayang in Bali. UNESCO designated wayang kulit, a shadow puppet theatre and the best known of the Indonesian wayang, as aMasterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on 7 November 2003. In return for the acknowledgment, UNESCO required Indonesians to preserve their heritage. Wayang Kulit -Wayang kulit, or shadow puppets, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Kulit means skin, and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully chiselled with very fine tools and supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods. The stories are usually drawn from the Hindu epics the Ramayana, the Mahabharata or from the Serat Menak, (a story about the heroism of Amir Hamza. Wayang Wong Bharata Pandawa -Wayang wong also known as Wayang orang (literally "human wayang") is a type of Javanese theatrical performance with themes taken from episode of Ramayana or Mahabharata. Wayang golek -Wayang golek are wooden doll puppets that are operated from below by rods connected to the hands and a central control rod that runs through the body to the head. The simple construction of the puppets belies their versatility, expressiveness and aptitude for imitating human dance. Today, wayang golek is mainly associated with Sundanese culture of West Java. However the wooden wayang also known in Central Java as Wayang Menak, originated from Kudus Central Java. Wayang karucil or wayang klitik -Wayang klitik figures occupy a middle ground between the figures of wayang golek and wayang kulit. They are constructed similarly to wayang kulit figures, but from thin pieces of wood instead of leather, and, like wayang kulit

figures, are used as shadow puppets. A further similarity is that they are the same smaller size as wayang kulit figures. However, wood is more subject to breakage than leather. During battle scenes, wayang klitik figures often sustain considerable damage, much to the amusement of the public, but in a country in which before 1970 there were no adequate glues available, breakage generally meant an expensive, newly made figure. On this basis the wayang klitik figures, which are to appear in plays where they have to endure battle scenes, have leather arms. The name of these figures is onomotopaeic, from the sound klitik-klitik, that these figures make when worked by the dalang. Wayang beber -Wayang beber relies on scroll-painted presentations of the stories being told. Wayang beber has strong similarities to narratives in the form of illustrated ballads that were common at annual fairs in medieval and early modern Europe. They have also been subject to the same fatethey have nearly vanished although there are still some groups of artists who support wayang beber in places such as Surakarta (Solo) in Central Java. Wayang Sadat -This newly developed form is used by teachers of Islam to show the principles of Muslim ethics and religion to the natives of Java and Bali. The termsadat derived from shahada Wayang Wahyu -Wayang wahyu or "revelation wayang" is a modern form created in the 1960s by the Javanese Jesuit Brother Timotheus L. Wignyosubroto who sought to show the Javanese and other Indonesians the teachings of the Catholic Church in a manner accessible to the audience. In the beginning, the puppets were often made of paper because it was less expensive than the traditional water buffalo hide. It became popular as an alternative method of telling Bible stories. History of Wayang -Wayang is a generic term denoting traditional theatre in Indonesia. There is no evidence that wayang existed before the first century CE, after Hinduism andBuddhism were brought to Southeast Asia. This leads to the hypothesis that the art was imported from either India or China, both of which have a long tradition of shadow puppetry and theatre in general. Jivan Pani has argued that wayang developed from two arts of Odisha in Eastern India, the Ravana Chhaya puppet theatre and the Chhau dance. However, there very well may have been indigenous storytelling traditions that had a profound impact on the development of the traditional puppet theatre. -The first record of a wayang performance is from an inscription dated 930 CE which says si Galigi mawayang, or "Sir Galigi played wayang". From that time till today it seems certain features of traditional puppet theatre have remained. Galigi was an itinerant performer who was requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event he performed a story about the hero Bhima from the Mahabharata. The kakawin Arjunawiwaha composed by Mpu Kanwa, the poet of Airlangga's court of Kahuripan kingdom, in 1035 CE describes santohltan klir sira sakng sang hyang Jagatkraa, which means "He is steadfast and just a wayang screen away from the 'Mover of the World'." Kelir is Javanese word for wayang screen, the verse eloquently comparing actual life to a wayang performance where the almighty Jagatkraa (the mover of the world) as the ultimate dalang (puppet master) is just a thin screen away from us mortals. This reference to wayang as shadow plays suggested that wayang performance is already familiar in Airlangga's court and wayang tradition has been established in Java, perhaps earlier. An inscription from this period also mentioned some occupations as awayang and aringgit. -Wayang kulit is a unique form of theatre employing light and shadow. The puppets are crafted from buffalo hide and mounted on bamboo sticks. When held up behind a piece of white cloth, with an electric bulb or an oil lamp as the light source, shadows are cast on the screen. The plays are invariably based on romantic tales, especially adaptations of the classic Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. Some of the plays are also based on local happening or other local secular stories. It is up to the conductor or dalang or master puppeteer to decide his direction.