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VIM method

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Somjate Duangpithak Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Loei Rajabhat University, Loei 42000, Thailand Sduangpitak@hotmail.com Abstract In this paper, we applied the Variational iteration method (VIM) is applied for solving nonlinear parabolic-hyperbolic partial differential equations. Some illustrative examples of one-dimensional and two-dimensional are presented to show the efficiency of the method. Mathematics Subject Classification: 65,35G25 Keywords: Special nonlinear partial differential equations, Variational iteration method, Lagrange multiplier

1 Introduction

In 1999, the variational iteration method (VIM) was first proposed by Ji-Huan He [1,2].The idea of the VIM is to construct an iteration method based on a correction functional that includes a generalized Lagrange multiplier. The value of the multiplier is chosen using variational theory so that each iteration improves the accuracy of the solution. The initial approximation (trial function) usually includes unknown coefficients which can be determined to satisfy any boundary and initial conditions. This method is now widely used by many researchers to study linear and nonlinear partial differential equation [8-17]. The method gives rapidly convergent successive approximations of the exact solution if such a solution exists, otherwise a few approximations can be used for numerical purposes. In this paper, we applied the VIM for solving Cauchy problem for the nonlinear parabolic-hyperbolic partial differential equation of the following

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S. Duangpithak

2 u = F (u ) (1) t 2 t where the nonlinear term is represented by F (u ) , and is the Laplace operator in R n .

Consider the following differential equation

Lu + Nu = g ( x, t )

(2)

where L is a linear operator, N is a nonlinear operator and g ( x, t ) is a known real function. According to VIM [1-7], we can construct a correction functional,

u ( x, t ) , as follows:

%n ( x, s ) g ( x, s ) ) ds un +1 ( x, t ) = un ( x, t ) + ( Lun ( x, s ) + Nu

0 t

(3)

approximation. The optimal value of the general Lagrange multipliers [8] can be identified by using the stationary conditions of the variational theory.

Consider nonlinear parabolic-hyperbolic partial differential equation. 2 u = F (u ) t 2 t To solve Eq.(4) by means of VIM, we construct a correction functional,

2 un +1 ( x, t ) = un ( x, t ) + ( s ) 2 u F (u ) ds s s 0

t

(4)

(5)

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un +1 ( x, t ) = un ( x, t ) + ( s )

0

2 s 2 u F (u ) ds s

un +1 ( x, t ) = un ( x, t ) + ( s) [ ( un ) s c1un ] ds

0

(6) (7)

Consider two cases. If c1 = 0 then = 1 and if c1 0 then = e c1 ( s t ) . Substituting these values of the Lagrange multipliers into the functional (5) give the iteration formulas

2 un +1 ( x, t ) = un ( x, t ) e c1 ( s t ) s 2 u F (u ) ds s 0 t

(8)

4. Illustrative Example

Example 1. Consider the following equation 2 2u 2u u 2 2 u = + +u 2 2 x 2 x 2 t 2 t t x t with the initial conditions u ( x, 0) = e x The exact solution is u ( x, t ) = e x + t In VIM we can construct a correction functional for Eq. (9) as follows

t

(9)

2 2u 2u u 2 2 un +1 ( x, t ) = un ( x, t ) e ( s t ) 2 2 2 un 2 2 + un ds t x x t t x t 0 (10) Assuming that u0 ( x, t ) = u ( x, 0) = e x (11) By means of the above iteration formula (10),we obtain t 2 2u0 2u0 u0 2 2 u1 ( x, t ) = u0 ( x, t ) e ( s t ) 2 2 2 u0 2 + u0 ds 2 t x x t t x t 0 t 2 2 2 2 x 2 x x e e e = e x e ( s t ) 2 2 2 e x 2 + e x ds 2 t t x t x x t 0 ( x +t ) =e (12) which is the exact solution that satisfies Eq. (9) with the initial conditions.

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S. Duangpithak

2 4u 2u u 2u u 2 2 u = + + u + 2u (13) t x 2 t 2 x 2 t x 2 t t 4 t 2 with the initial conditions u ( x, 0) = cos x The exact solution is u ( x, t ) = e 2t cos x In VIM we can construct a correction functional for Eq.(13) as follows t 2 4u 2u 2 2 un +1 ( x, t ) = un ( x, t ) e 2( s t ) 2 2 2 un 4n 2n x t t (14) t x t 0 2 u u u un n + 2n + n 2un ds t t x To get the iteration, we start an initial approximation u0 ( x, t ) = u ( x, 0) = cos x (15) By means of the above iteration formula (14),we obtain t 2 4u 2u 2 2 u1 ( x, t ) = u0 ( x, t ) e 2( s t ) 2 2 2 u0 40 20 x t t t x t 0 u0 2u0 u0 u0 + 2 + 2u0 ds t t x t 2 2 2 4 cos x 2 cos x = cos x e 2( s t ) 2 2 2 cos x x t 4 t 2 t x t 0 cos x 2 cos x cos x cos x + + 2 cos x ds 2 t t x 2t = e cos x (16) which is the exact solution that satisfies Eq. (13) with the initial conditions. Example 3 Consider the following equation 2 2 2 2 2 u u t x 2 x 2 t 2 x 2 x 2 u = x t + u 1 1 2 1 2 with the initial conditions u ( x1 , x2 , 0) = e x1 + x2 The exact solution is u ( x, t ) = e x1 + x2 +t In VIM we can construct a correction functional for Eq.(17) as follows t 2 2 2 2 2 un +1 ( x, t ) = un ( x, t ) e ( s t ) 2 un 2 2 x12 x2 2 t x1 x2 t 0 u u n + n un ds x1 t

(17)

(18)

Assuming that

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u0 ( x1 , x2 , t ) = u ( x1 , x2 , 0) = e x1 + x2 (19) By means of the above iteration formula (18),we obtain t 2 2 2 2 2 u1 ( x, t ) = u0 ( x, t ) e ( s t ) 2 u0 2 2 x12 x2 2 t x1 x2 t 0 u u 0 + 0 u0 ds x1 t t 2 2 2 2 2 x1 + x2 = u0 ( x , t ) e ( s t ) 2 e 2 2 x12 x2 2 t x1 x2 t 0 e x1 + x2 e x1 + x2 + e x1 + x2 ds x1 t x1 + x2 + t =e (20) which is the exact solution that satisfies the Eq. (17) with the initial conditions. Example 4 Consider the following equation 2 2 2 2 2 2u 2u 5 2u u u = 3 + + + 2u (21) t x 2 x 2 t 2 x 2 x 2 x2 2 x12 2 t 2 t 1 2 1 2 with the initial conditions u ( x1 , x2 , 0) = sinh x1 + e x2 The exact solution is u ( x, t ) = sinh x1 + e x2 + 2t In VIM we can construct a correction functional for Eq.(21) as follows t 2 2 2 2 2 un +1 ( x, t ) = un ( x, t ) e 2( s t ) 2 un 2 2 x12 x2 2 t x1 x2 t 0 (22) 2un 2un 5 2un un +3 2 + 2un ds t x2 x12 2 t 2 Assuming that u0 ( x1 , x2 , t ) = u ( x1 , x2 , 0) = sinh x1e x2 (23) By means of the above iteration formula (22),we obtain t 2 2 2 2 2 u1 ( x, t ) = u0 ( x, t ) e 2( s t ) 2 u0 2 2 x12 x2 2 t x1 x2 t 0 2u0 2u0 5 2u0 u0 +3 2 + 2u0 ds t x2 x12 2 t 2 t 2 2 2 2 2 sinh x1e x2 = sinh x1e x2 e 2( s t ) 2 2 2 2 2 t x x t x x 1 2 1 2 0 2 sinh x1e x2 2 sinh x1e x2 5 2 sinh x1e x2 +3 + 2 x2 2 x12 t 2 x2 sinh x1e 2sinh x1e x2 ds t x2 + 2 t = sinh x1 + e (24)

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S. Duangpithak

which is the exact solution that satisfies the Eq. (21) with the initial conditions.

5. Conclusion

In this paper, we have successfully applied the VIM in finding the exact solution for the nonlinear partial differential-hyperbolic equation. Results obtained by the method confirm the easily, accurately and efficiency of the method.

Acknowledgement. The authors would like to thank A. Saratasananun and M. Torvattanabun, for helpful for this paper and the Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Loei Rajabhat University.

References

[1] J. H. He, Variational iteration method kind of non-linear analytical technique: Some examples, Int. J. Non-Linear Mech, 34 (1999), 699708. [2] J. H. He, Variational iteration method for delay differential equations, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul, 2 (4) (1997), 235236. [3] J.H. He, ariational iteration method for autonomous ordinary differential systems, Appl.Math. Comput, 114 (23) (2000), 115123. [4] J.H. He, Y.Q.Wan and Q. Guo, An iteration formulation for normalized diode characteristics, Int. J. Circuit Theory Appl. 32 (6) (2004), 629632. [5] J.H. He, Some asymptotic methods for strongly nonlinear equations, Int. J. Modern Phys ,B 20 (10) (2006), 11411199. [6] J.H. He, Variational iteration methodSome recent results and new interpretations, J. Comput. Appl. Math, (in press). [7] M. Inokuti, H. Sekine and T. Mura, General use of the Lagrange multiplier in nonlinear mathematical physics, in: S. Nemat-Nassed (Ed.),Variational Method in the Mechanics of Solids, Pergamon Press, 1978, pp. 156162. [8] A. Wazwaz, A study on linear and nonlinear Schrodinger equations by the variational iteration method, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 37 (2008), 11361142. [9] M. Dehghan and F. Shakeri, Application of Hes variational iteration method for solving the Cauchy reactiondiffusion problem, Comput. Appl. Math, 214 (2008), 435 446. [10] A. Shidfar, A.Babaei, A. Molabahrami and M. Alinejadmofard, Approximate analytical solutions of the nonlinear reaction-diffusion-convection problems, J.Math.Comput, 53 (2011), 261-268. [11] A. S. V. Ravi Kanth and K. Arana, Hes variational iteration method for treating nonlinear singular boundary value problems, Comput. Appl. Math, 60 (2010), 821-829.

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[12] G. Rezazadeh, H. Madinei and R. Shabani, Study of parametric oscillation of an eletrostatically actuated microbeam using variational iteration method, Appl. Math. Model, 36 (2012), 430-443 [13] G. Yang and R. Chen, Choice of an optimal initial solution for a wave equation in the variational iteration method, Comput. Appl. Math, 61 (2011) , 2053-2057 [14] M. Torvattanabun and S. Duangpithak, Numerical Simulations of Fokker-Plank equation by variational iteration method, Int. J. Math. Analysis, 5 (44) (2011), 2193-2201. [15] M. Torvattanabun and S. Koonprasert, Convergence of the Variational Iteration Method for Solving a First-Order Linear System of PDEs with Constant Coefficients, Thai Journal of Mathematics, Special Issue Annual Meeting in Mathematics, (2009), 1-13. [16] M. Torvattanabun and S. Koonprasert, Variational Iteration Method for Solving Eighth- Order Boundary Value Problems, Thai Journal of Mathematics, Special Issue Annual Meeting in Mathematics. (2010), 121-129. [17] S. Duangpithak and M. Torvattanabun, Variational Iteration Method for Solving Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion-Convection Problems, Appl. Math. Sci., 6 (17) (2012), 843-849.

Received: November, 2011

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