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General

1. a construct is an abstract concept that we would like to measure (love, intelligence, aggression, self-esteem, success, taste perception) 2. the operational definiton of a counstruct is the set of procedures we use to measure or manipulate it 3. a social science hypothesis, nave or not, is a falsifiable statement of the association between two or more constructs that have to do with human social behaviour. . construct validity! to what e"tent are the constructs of theoretical interest successfull# operationalised in the research$ (do #ou measure what #ou want to measure$) %. to maximise construct validit#, we need to measure each construct in more than one wa# & using multiple operational definitions and then comparing them to see whether the# seem to be measuring the same things. (p.33) '. internal validity! to what e"tent does the research design permit us to reach causal conclusions about the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable$ (can (ust conclusions be drawn about causalit#$) ). external validity! to what e"tent can we generalise from the research sample and setting to the populations and settings specified in the research h#pothesis$ (can we generalise our conclusions to our population$) *. correlational fallacy! inappropriatel# inferring causalit# from a simple association between two variables (correlation does not impl# causalit#+++) (p.3') ,. qualitative research: research with non-numerical data 1-. quantitative research: research with numerical data 11. Reliability: something is reliable if repetition of research leads to the same results 12. achieve reliability: large sample, test-retest, multiple methods, split-half 13. Results can be reliable but not valid non-reliable results can never be valid! 1 . when researchers create rather than measure levels of an independent variable, we call it a manipulated variable (with manipulated independent variables, the researcher must test the manipulation b# subse.uentl# measuring its effects to determine its construct validit#) systematic error reflects influences form other constructs besides the desired one random error reflects nons#stematic, ever-changing influences on the score (p.*1) /he reliability of a measure is defined as the e"tent to which it is free from random error /he validity is the e"tent to which a measure reflects onl# the desired construct without contamination from other s#stematicall# var#ing constructs. How to achieve reliability: test-retest reliabilit#! the correlation between scores on the same measure and0ministered on two separate occasions provides an estimate of the measure0s reliabilit#. (no correlation! unreliable1 perfect correlation! ver# reliable) (p.*3) & difficult to assemble the same group twice internal consistenc# reliabilit#! concept! random error varies not onl# over time but also from one .uestion or test item to another within the same measure & random error influences some specific items on the measure but not others. if items measure the same construct and random error has a strong effect, results of the items would not correlate. /he# would highl# correlate

if the effect of random error was weak and each item measures the same underl#ing characteristic of the person. (p.* ) split-half reliabilit#! the set of items in the measure is split into two halves. this strateg# ensures an e.uivalent number of items from earl# and late in the measure appear in the two sets.

hapter !
2odes of direct .uestioning! 1. paper-and-pencil .uestionnaires advantanges ! i. low cost ii. no interviewer bias iii. no pressure for immediate response iv. anon#mit# disadvantages! o low response rate o problems in creating and maintaining motivation o increasing length is associated with decreasing response rate o lack of control over .uestion order o inabilit# to control the conte"t of .uestion answering and, specificall#, the presence and help of other people. o some people not able to read and understand the .uestions o misunderstandings cannot be corrected and .uestions cannot be answered 2. face-to-face interviews used when there is reason to believe that prospective research participants either would not be motivated to complete a paper-and-pencil .uestionnaire or would encounter difficult# reading it or understanding how to indicate responses advantages! i. the abilit# of the interviewer to notice and correct the respondents misunderstandings, to probe inade.uate or vague responses and to answer .uestions ii. interviewer can control the order in which the .uestions are received iii. visual aids can be used iv. can attain the highest response rate of an# surve# techni.ue v. allows the greatest length in interview schedules disadvantages i. interviewer effects! the interviewer0s e"pectations or personal characteristics can influence responses ii. high cost 3. /elephone interviews is an effective mode of direct .uestioning when ver# little information is needed from research participants and when the population of interest is scattered across a wide geographic area

advantages o high response rate o no strict limits on interview length o interviewer can correct mistakes,motivate the respondent o supervisors are around to answer .uestions or talk to difficult respondents o speed o computer can check for valid data and signal the interviewer to recheck implausible responses, eliminating most coding and data-entr# errors. o computer controls the se.uence of .uestions disadvantages o sampling can be a significant issue in telephone interviewing o some .uestions are difficult to ask on the phone because of their comple"it# o interviewer effects are possible . 3irect .uestioning via the 4nternet! o advantages! o the internet is a global phenomenon, making it possible to reach large and diverse populations at relativel# low cost o the e"istence of 54nternet 6ommunities7 consisting of likeninded individuals makes it possible to target ver# specific and otherwise hard-to-reach populations o participants can choose when and where to answer the .uestions o anon#mit# o disadvantages! o response rate ver# low there is no wa# to be certain that paricipants who respond to an online surve# are the person the# claim to be o possibilit# that some individuals have multiple virtual identities and do the surve# twice %. 8"perience 9ampling! e"perience sampling strategies re.uire participants to provide an account of what the# are e"periencing on repeated occasions over a short period of time o advantages! o it generates detailed information about the e"periences of respondents. o for research .uestions that concern patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors over time, e"perience sampling offers a significant advantage over t#pical, static approaches to direct .uestioning o short lapse in time between the event of interest and participants responses to it o fewer participants are re.uired in order to meet the sample si:e demands of the statistical methods used to formall# test h#potheses. the large number of observations of each participant

affords ample statistical power for h#pothesis tests, which tend to be within & rather than between & participants. o disadvantages! o handheld computers are e"pensive and fragile o e.uipment loss is common and must be anticipated o e"treme reliance on the paricipant to generate the data according to the sometimes strict rules of sampling "eneral: o for surve#s of the general population that cover more than a local geographic area, telephone interviews and, increasingl#, the 4nternet, are the methods of choice. o mailed paper-and-pencil surve#s should be considered for homogeneous groups if o the# are widel# scattered geographicall#1 o mailing lists are available, to minimi:e sampling costs1 o cost constraints are ma"imal and low data .ualit# is acceptable for the specific research purpose. o face-to-face interviews should be chosen, if o ma"imal data .ualit# is re.uired and cost is no ob(ect1 o the stud# calls for special populations difficult to reach in other wa#s1 o the population to be studied is geographicall# concentrated o e"perience samling is used for research that re.uires rich, detailed information from individual respondents in natural settings. other modes of measurement: collateral report! are third-part# responses to a .uestionnaire or interview (commonplace in research on children o advantages! o potential to overcome biases inherent in self-reports of constructs of interest to social scientists o possible to evaluate the veracit# of self-reports as well as pinpoint sources of potential bias in self-reports o disadvantages! o reports might not be in agreement either with each other or with the participants0 self-reports. o need to gather data from both participants and informants in order to complete a stud# o high costs o different recruitment strategies for informants than for participants o difficult to ensure that participants do not work with informants to provide information about themselves observation!(udges are trained b# the researcher to detect and record observable indicators of the construct of interest. o advantages o relative ob(ectivit# of ratings

o observers can take note of suble, nonverbal cues to participants0motives and emotions, constructs that might not be apparent to the participants themselves o audio- or videotaped recordings relevant to a h#pothesis might be available, these are not affected b# the goals of the research and keep the cost low o can often be accomplished while participants are in a natural setting o disadvantages! o man# constructs are not amenable to observation (emotions,motives, desires) o even when certain behaviors regularl# co-occur with certain features of the setting, it is not possible to draw firm causal inferences. physiolo"ical monitorin"! is the stud# of the interpla# of ph#siological s#stems and people0s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. o advantages o despite the fact that participants know the# are being assessed, the# cannot control the outcome of the assessment o there is little or no concern that participants0 biases are reflected in their scores o measurement is continuous in real time o disadvantages o because signals are read at ; second intervals or less, the sheer amount of information produced b# ph#siological monitoring can be overwhelming o a considerable amount of e"pertise is re.uired o e.uipment used for monitoring is e"pensive and fragile o participants are seated and relativel# still throughout measurement (man# behaviors of interest to social scientists are best studied in engaging social conte"ts.)

hapter #
$tep-by-step "uide for plannin" and carryin" out questionnaire research 1) decide on which mode of measurement (paper-and pencil .uestionnaire, face-to-face interview, telephone interview, .uestionnaires posted on the <eb, e"perience sampling) 2) decide on the specific content areas to be covered b# the .uestionnaire (also topics related to the main topic) 3) can e"isting .uestions or scales be used$ what content areas are central to the research and what topics are less important and onl# re.uire a .uestion or two$ ) writing of .uestions %) putting .uestions together to a draft of the .uestionnaire (there might be more openended .uestions than in the final .uestionnaire & some of them might be changed into closed-ended ones after pretesting) ') circulating the draft to e"perts and consultants for comments and suggestions )) pretesting (respondents from the same population as the actual stud#) purpose! identif# problems in .uestion wording, .uestion se.uence or .uestionnaire administration,

indicate the need for additional .uestions on some topics or the elimination of others1 can also serve as part of the interviewers0 training *) anal#sis of pretest1 making necessar# changes ,) final training of personnel, reviewing content and form of the .uestionnaire and associated instructions 1-) actual administration of the .uestionnaire 11) coding and anal#sing data, drawing conclusions %uestion content! aimed at facts! i. approach people who know the facts and ask them ii. errors can arise from memor# problems or from response biases of various forms iii. specificit# is important in factual .uestions, to give precise information about what response is desired and to avoid interpretation of .uestions in terms of respondents0 own frame of reference. aimed at beliefs or attitudes i. alwa#s the possibilit# that people simpl# don=t have an attitude because the# never thought about the issue ii. measuring the time it takes them to response might be helpful in determining whether the# have an attitude or not iii. a person might not have an overall attitude towards a topic iv. people who have the same attitude can differ widel# in the intensit# of the attitude v. to measure the attitude0s intensit# the respondent could be asked to rate it vi. specific .uestions obtain more valid responses than general ones vii. attitudes can best be measured b# using multiple related .uestions and constructing an attitude scale according to principles aimed at behaviour i. the most important guideline is that the .uestion should be specific ii. the length of time elapsed since the behaviour in .uestion influences the accurac# of responses & the shorter the interval, the better %uestion wordin": conceptual clarit# is essential when surve#s are repeated .uestion wording should be repeated e"actl# terms should be e"act, reflecting (ust what the .uestion content is intended to mean terms must be simple, comprehensible even to the least-educated respondents %uestion structure: comple" and length# sentences are particularl# likel# to be misunderstood b# respondents, so .uestions should be short and simple the ke# idea in the .uestion should come last to avoid a premature formulation of an answer, .ualifications and conditional clauses should come first

open-ended questions allow the respondents to answer in a relativel# unconstrained wa#, either writing or t#ping a response or telling it to the interviewer allow respondents to conve# the fine shades of their attitude to their own satisfaction can be used if the researcher does not know the full range of attitude positions in the population under stud# high cost and difficult# of ade.uatel# coding the responses closed-ended questions present two or more alternatives and the repondents select the choice closest to their own position are easil# scored to produce meaningful results for anal#sis the provision of response categories can help clarif# the intent of the .uestion for the respondents or help their memor# how to deal with &don't (now) answers list it as one response alternative use filter .uestion and let people who don=t know an#thing about the sub(ect skip subse.uent .uestions use filters to screen ot uniformed respondents if the measurement of onl# informed opinion on the issue is the goal but use standard (unfiltered) .uestions if basic values, ideologies, or general attitudes are desired. %uestion sequence: should begin with a few eas# and unchallenging .uestions, but also interesting main .uestions follow .uestions about the respondents0 social and demographic background should be put at the end keep topicall# related .uestions together se.uence within a topic area! general .uestions should come first, followed b# increasingl# specific and detailed .uestions avoid conte"t or .uestion se.uence effects b# looking out for possible associations among .uestions that might produce bias if two or more .uestions are close together in the .uestionnaire in a split-ballot e"periment, two (or more) versions of a .uestionnaire, with different wordings or se.uences, are used for different, randoml# chosen subsets of respondents $ensitive ontent: cautious wording randomised response techni.ues (balls with different colours) because the properties of the randomising device are known the results can be statisticall# anal#sed

hapter *
+ultiple-,tem +easures! if a series of variables all measure a single general characteristic of an attitude or other construct, the variables should all be highl# interrelated. /he construct is then said to be unidimensional. low associations among some variables impl# that several dimensions might e"ist, that is, the consturct is multidimensional. -evels of +easurement:

>ominal few categories separate categories .ualitative .ominal $cales:

?rdinal few categories ranking .ualitative

4nterval same intervals, not e.ual+ no true :ero .uantitative

@atio e.ual intervals true :ero .uantitative

nominal scales contain .ualitativel# different categories to which we attach names rather than numerical meaning. the list of alternatives need not e"haust all possible categories, but it should include those categories relevant to the theor# and the population tested and should allow for the classification of ever# case (for e"ample b# giving categor# 5other7) an ordinal scale contains categories that can be ordered b# rank on a continuum the categories have a rudimentar# arithmetic meaning such as more or less of the .uantit# being measured. 1 means that something has less of a characteristic than 2 and 3. An ordinal scale gives onl# this information and does not provide an# information about the interval, or degree of difference, between the values. /he interval between 1 and 2 could be larger or smaller than the interval between 2 and 3. An ordinal scale does not impl# an#thing about the arithmetic values other than that the# are in ascending or descending order. <hen numbers attached to a variable impl# not onl# that 3 is more than 2 and 2 is more than 1 but also that the si:e of the interval between 3 and 2 is the same as the interval between 2 and 1, the# form an interval scale. the scale does not have a true :ero do have a true :ero and as a result the scale values represent multipliable .uantities. (a -foot length of board is twice as long as a 2foot piece1 1- pounds of feathers weigh twice as much as % pounds) for these ph#sical scales, :ero is real and meaningful. /here might be cases where numbers can be added or multiplied and where the scale begins with -, but that does not mean that the underl#ing construct has those properties. 4t is difficult to imagine an# social construct such as happiness, social status, or power for which there is a true - because it is alwa#s possible to imagine a case with a little less of the construct. Ratin" $cales for %uantifyin" ,ndividual 0ud"ements

/rdinal $cales:

,nterval $cales:

Ratio scales:

Braphic @ating 9cales!

the (udge indicates his or her rating b# placing a mark at the appropriate point on a line that runs from one e"treme of the attribute in .uestion to the other. advantage! ease of use

4temised @ating 9cales!

categor# or numerical scales, re.uire the rater to select one of a small number of categories that are ordered b# their scale position more clearl# defined categories should decrease inter(udge variabilit# in the use of the scale and hence give greater reliabilit# 6omparative @ating 9cales! re.uire the (udge to make comparisons the postiions on the rating scale are e"pressl# defined on the basis of a given population or social group or in respect to people of known characteristics @ank-order 9cale!(udges are re.uired to rank individuals specificall# in relation to one another. $ystematic 1rrors for Ratin": Calo Dias! the tendenc# for overall positive or negative evaluations of the ob(ect or person being rated to influence ratings on specific dimensions. (a person who is good at 5E7 is often deemed to be good at 5F7 even if the two items are not related. Attractive people are often (udged as having a more desirable personalit# and more skills than someone of average appearance.) the rater overestimates the desirable .ualities of people that the# like the tendenc# for raters to see others as opposite to them on a trait, arises from using one0s own position on a dimension as an anchor for rating others. @ater fatigue, inattention, or improper training 2evelopin" +ultiple-,tem $cales 4tem 6onstruction! /he items must be empiricall# related to the construct that is to be measured the items must differentiate among people who are at different points along the dimension being measured. it is important to avoid items that are 5double-barreled7 or otherwise ambiguous. it is important to include items worded in both positive and negative directions so that the construct being measured is e"pressed b# a 5#es7 or 5agree7 response appro"imatel# half the time and b# 5no7 or 5disagree7 the rest of the time. this avoids acquiescent response st#le! the general tendenc# to agree with statements regardless of their content 3hree types of +ultiple-,tem $cales 3ifferential 9cales! include items that represent known positions on the attitude scale. @espondents are assumed to agree with onl# those items whose postion is close to their own and to disagree with items that represent distant positions re.uire items that have a definite position on the scale

Benerosit# 8rror! 6ontrast 8rror!

Random 1rrors for Ratin":

6umulative 9cales!

9ummated 9cales!

Advantages! the responses offer a check on the scale0s assumptions disadvantages! the construction procedure is length# and cumbersome lower reliabilt# items are nonmonotone (many sentences, all representing different attitudes) are made up of a series of items with which the respondent indicates agreement or disagreement. the special feature of cumulative scales is that items are associated in such a wa# that a respondent who holds a particular attitude will agree with all items on one side of that position and desagree with other items. 6umulative 9cales thus re.uire each item to be monotone! either clearl# favourable or unfavourable to the ob(ect or issue. Advantages! a single number carries complete information about the e"act pattern of responses to ever# item (if there is no random error in the responses1 unidimensionalit# of the attitude is tested disadvantages! it is limited to unidimensional domains & it is hard to find those (if you say you would accept someone as your workmate you imply that you also accept them as a citizen of your country) respondents indicate a degree of agreement or disagreement to monotone items advantages! simpler to construct than a differential scale1 generall# more reliable than differential scale 3isadvantages! the# do not carr# information about the e"act pattern of responses to all the individual items1 no information about the respondents0 latitude of acceptance (range of scale values that the sub(ect agrees with) to measure the degree of issue involvement Example: strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree is a method for measuring the meaning of an ob(ect to an individual /hree subscales! 1. evaluation of the ob(ect (favourableunfavourable) 2. perceptions of the potenc# or power of the ob(ect or concept (strong-weak) 3. perceptions of the activit# of the ob(ect (activepassive) Example: agree 1 2 3 ! " # disagree fair 1 2 3 ! " # unfair

the 9emantic 3ifferential!

hapter 4 and 5
a population is the aggregate of all of the cases that conform to some designated set of specifications. a stratum is defined b# one or more specifications that divide a population into mutuall# e"clusive segments. (males under 21, females under 21, and so on) a single member of a population is referred to as a population element a census is a count of all the elements in a population a sample is the group of elements that is selected with the intention of finding out something about the population from which the# are taken

if our estimates do not differ from the corresponding true population figures b#, sa#, more than %G on more than , sa#, 1-G of these occasions, the estimates will be correct within % percentage points (the mar"in of error) ,-G of the time (the probability or confidence level) probability samplin"! the probabilit# for each element of the population to be included in the sample can be specified nonprobability samplin"! there is no wa# to estimate the probabilit# each element has of bein included in the sample and no assurance that ever# element has some chance of being included. (advantages! convenience and econom# .onprobability $amplin"

Accidental 9amples! simpl# taking the cases that are at hand, continuing the process until the sample reaches a designated si:e. /here is no known wa# of evaluating the biases introduced in such samples. Huota 9amples! the basic goal is the selction of a sample that is a replica of the population to which one wants to generalise (if it is known that the population has e.ual numbers of males and females, the investigators attempt to include e.ual numbers of males and females, or if 1-G of the population lies within a particular age range, 1-G of the sample should lie within that range as well) the total sample is still an accidental one

Iurposive 9amples! tho pick cases that are (udged to be t#pical of the population in which we are interested, assuming that errors of (udgment in the selection will tend to counterbalance one another. 9nowball 9amples! a multistage sampling procedure b# which a small initial sample 5snowballs7 into a sample large enough to meet the re.uirements of research design and data anal#sis. /he snowballing results from members of an initial sample from the target population enlisting other members of the population to participate in the stud#. it is impossible to know how representative thefinal sample is of the population from which it was drawn 6robability $amplin" 9imple @andom 9amples! selected b# a process that not onl# gives each element in the population an e.ual chance of being included in the sample, but also makes the selection of ever# possible combination of the desired number of cases e.uall# likel#. re.uires either a list or some other s#stematic enumeration of the population elements (sampling frame) random number generator careful! don0t use s#stematic sampling (i.e. ever# tenth element) 9tratified @andom 9ampling!the population is first divided into two or more strata, then a somple random sample is taken from each stratum, and the subsamples are then (oined to form the total sample

6luster 9ampling!

9ampling 8rror!

we arrive at the ultimate set of elements to be included in the sample b# first sampling in terms of larger groupings-clusters. multistage sampling! the procedure moves through a series of stages, from more inclusive to less inclusive sampling units until we finall# arrive at the population elements that constitute the desired sample the difference in the distribution of characteristics between a sample and the population as a whole

hapter 77
Random samplin" is the procedure we use to select in the first place the participants we will stud#. @andom sampling serves not to e.uate two or more e"perimental groups but to make sure the participant group we stud# is representative of a larger population. 4t is a fair procedure, whereb# all participants in a given population have an e.ual chance of being included in the stud#. Random assi"nment is a procedure we use after we have a sample of participants and before we e"pose them to a treatment. 4t is a wa# of assigning participants to the levels of the independent variable so that the groups o not differ as the stud# begins. 4t is a fair procedure, whereb# all participants have an e.ual chance of being assigned to the various e"perimental conditions. (p.2 1) between participants! some participants are in one condition and some in the other within participants! all participants are in both conditions (repeated measures design) 3hreats to ,nternal 8alidity! 1. 9election! the threat posed b# selection is obvious in cases in which participants selfselect into e"perimental conditions. /he threat is also obvious in cases in which participants do not self-select, but rather pree"isting groups are used that could differ on an# number of characteristics. 2. 2aturation! maturation involves an# naturall# occurring process within persons that could cause a change in their behaviour. 8"amples include fatigue, boredom, growth, or intellectual development. 4n addition to developmental changes that occur in individuals over e"tended periods of time, maturation also refers to short-term changes that can occur within an e"perimental session. 3. Cistor#! Cistor# refers to an# event that coincides with the independent variable and could affect the dependent variable. (4f participants are run in groups out of necessit# or convenience, researchers should ensure that the different e"perimental conditions are represented wothin each group if at all possible. 4f that is not possible then multiple groups for each condition-as man# as possible-should be run so that an# uni.ue histor# effects for a given group will not contaminate the entire stud#.) (p.2 )) . 4nstrumentation! 4nstrumentation is an# change that occurs over time in measurement procedures or devices. (/he cure is careful training and monitoring of observers or measurement procedures and ensuring that the order of e"perimental conditions is counterbalanced or randomised throughout the course of the stud#.) (p.2 )) %. 2ortalit#! 2ortalit# refers to an# attrition of participants from a stud#.

'. 9election b# 2aturation! occurs when there are differences between individuals in the treatment groups that produce changes in the groups at different rates. 3ifferences in spontaneous changes across the different groups can be confused with effects of the treatment or the independent variable. /he selection b# maturation threat is addressed either b# the strateg# for addressing selection threats & random assignment & or the strateg# for addressing maturation threats & inclusion of a control group. 9lternative 1xperimental 2esi"ns 1. @andomised /wo-Broup 3esign! participants are randoml# assigned to the e"perimental treatment group or to a comparison group. no selection threat to internal validit# (randoml# assigned) no maturation threat (groups mature at the same rate) no instrumentation threat if groups were tested under similar conditions 2. Iretest-Iosttest /wo-Broup 3esign! pretest! test before the e"perimental treatment posttest! test after the e"perimental treatment 3. 9olomon Jour-Broup 3esign! combination of design one and two the e"perimenter can test whether the posttest differences were caused b# the treatment, the pretest, or the combination of treatment plus pretest . Detween-Iarticipants Jactorial 3esign! in a factorial design, two or more independent variables are alwa#s presented in combination. the entire design contains ever# possible combination of the independent variables we can ask whether the effect of one of the independent variables is .ualified b# the other independent variable. 4f it does, the two independent variables are said to 5interact7 in producing ? (dependent variable) Repeated +easures 2esi"ns repeating a measure within participants re.uires fewer participants and provides more sensitive measures of the effects of a variable precision gained b# using each participant as his or her own comparison $tren"th and :ea(nesses of Randomised 1xperiments Artifacts! an uninteded effect on the dependent variable that is caused b# some feature of the e"perimental seeting other than the independent variable randomised e"periments rarel# #ield descriptive data about fre.uencies or the likelihood of certain behaviours that we can generalise to the rest of the population the goal of e"perimental research is not to ma"imise e"ternal validit#! it is to ma"imise internal validit#! it is used for answering .uestions about causal processes.

hapter 7;
.onrandomised 2esi"ns participants are not randoml# assigned to levels of the independent variable & the comparisons between levels, or between treatment and nontreatment conditions, must alwa#s be made with the presumption that the groups are none.uivalent. causal inferences about the effects of independent variables on dependent variables are difficult to make panel design! the same ob(ects (families) are reinterviewed regularl# .uasi-e"perimental design! one or more independent variables are manipulated but participants are not randoml# assigned to levels of the manipulated variables. interrupted time-series design! time series! the strateg# of measuring a set of variables on a series of occasions (e.g. monthl#) during a specified period of time (e.g. 32 months) interrupted! the strateg# of introducing the stimulus or event during the period of assessment in order to evaluate its effect on the variables being measured numerous pre- and posttests, spread out before and after e"posure to the treatment we can e"amine the trends in the data before the treatment, at the time of intervention and after the treatment replicated interrupted /ime-series design! design 1! one group is e"posed to the treatment, second never e"posed to it1 design 2! both groups are e"posed to the treatment although at different times although not randoml# assigned, internal validit# .uite strong 9tatic-Broup 6omparison 3esign! as man# groups as there are levels of the independent variable & participants are not randoml# assigned to the groups selection therefore a threat to internal validit#

Iretest-Iosttest none.uivalent 6ontrol Broup 3esign

e"tension of the static-group design, it includes measures of the dependent variable at multiple points in time ?ne-Broup Iretest-Iosttest 3esign! based on within-individual treatment comparisons