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Primary funding is provided by

The SPE Foundation through member donations and a contribution from Offshore Europe
The Society is grateful to those companies that allow their professionals to serve as lecturers Additional support provided by AIME

Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program


www.spe.org/dl

Managed Pressure Drilling: Drill the Un-Drillable


Lecturers Name: Hani Qutob Reservoir Engineering & UBD/MPD Advisor

Senergy GB Limited Dubai, UAE


Society of Petroleum Engineers Distinguished Lecturer Program
www.spe.org/dl

Presentation Outlines
Reservoir Engineering & Advanced Drilling Technology Advanced Drilling Technology Variations What is Managed Pressure Drilling? Optimal Redefined Time/Cost line Variables that can be Manipulated during MPD What Are the Main MPD Benefits? Managed Pressure Drilling Variations. Health, Safety and Environment Issues Case Histories obtained worldwide. Conclusions Acknowledgement
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Advanced Drilling Technology (ADT) & Reservoir Benefits


How ADT can increase reserves and improve recovery

Minimizes Formation Damage - UBD. Accesses Challenging Reservoirs - MPD. Improves Reservoir Characterization - UBD Identifies Missed Pay UBD. Increases Production & Enhances Recovery - UBD / MPD
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How Managed Pressure Drilling MPD Benefits the Reservoir? By: Accessing Challenging Reservoirs
The single biggest reserve contribution of MPD is found to be access to reservoirs that could not be drilled conventionally. In almost all cases, MPD is used in challenging or partially depleted reservoirs, only after conventional wells prove expensive, unsuccessful or un-drillable Some reservoirs that could be difficult to access using conventional drilling techniques are: 1. Low pressure & depleted reservoirs 2. Vuggy/fractured carbonates where OB circulation is impossible 3. Reservoirs with a narrow margin between fracture pressure and pore pressure - kicks/losses cycles

Advanced Drilling Technology (ADT)


ADT is an adaptive drilling process which enables a more precise control of wellbore pressures through the use of engineered equipment & processes.

ADT Variations
Air Drilling
Improve Drilling Economics - Intent is to invite surface flow Primarily non-liquid hydrocarbon formations

Underbalanced Drilling:
Maximize Reservoir Value - Intent is to invite surface flow

Managed Pressure Drilling: 6 Optimize Drilling Process - Intent is not to invite surface flow

What is common in ADT Variations?

Personnel and Equipment

UBD , MPD & Conventional

What is Managed Pressure Drilling?


A closed and pressurizable mud-return system, a Rotating Control Head, and choke. operations provide precise control of the wellbore pressure profile.
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Reactive vs Proactive MPD


Reactive
Effective on standby basis as an enhanced form of passive well control to help manage unexpected downhole pressure.

Proactive
Used to mitigate drilling hazards and reduce NPT by changes to fluid, casing and open-hole programs

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We like prospects with big drilling windows


Overburden

Fracture

Depth

Collapse Pore

Pressure
EMW Must Stay Within Drilling Window For Drilling To Progress 11

Remaining prospects not cooperating very well


Very narrow or relatively un-known margins Difficult or impossible to drill conventionally

Overburden
When MPD is used?
Fracture

Depth

Kick-Loss Scenarios

High mud bill Excessive casing string(s) Drilling NPT Exceeding AFE Environmental issues Failure to reach TD with large enough hole for optimum well production Orsimply .not drillable
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Pore Collapse

Pressure

Small Drilling Window


Fluid Losses Fluid Losses

Bottom Hole Circulating Pressure

Fracture Pressure

Constant Bottom Hole Pressure


Pore Pressure Collapse Boundary

Influx Tight Hole

Influx Tight Hole

Time

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MPD VALUE - VISUALIZATION


Real Well Case 1
Tim e (days) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 1415 16 17 1819 20 2122 23 2425 26 2728 29 30 3132 33 3435 36 5000000 5500000 6000000 Accum ultaed cost 2100

Stuck pipe Fishing

Cost Time - Depth


2200

10.3% of total cost

2300

6500000 2400 7000000 7500000 8000000 8500000 2500

11.0% of total cost Stuck pipe Well flowing


2600

Measured Depth (m )
Well control, 10%

NPT distribution

2700 Circulating, Losses 0 1 Cement 2 3 4squeeze 5 6 7 8 9 10 1112 13 1415 16 17 1819 20 2122 23 2425 26 2728 29 30 3132 33 3435 36 23% Tim e (days)
Stuck pipe, 55% POOH, 3% RIH, 4% Reaming, 5%

MPD VALUE - VISUALIZATION


Real Well Case 2
Tim e (days)
0 900000 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 1800

Cost
1400000

2.3% 10.5%

Time - Depth

1900

1900000

2000

2400000

2100

20.9% total cost


Losses Cement squeeze
2200

2900000

3400000

Gas kick, well control Cement plug Sidetrack

2300

17.7% of total cost


Losses Cement plug

3900000

Total losses Gas flow

2400

Measured Depth (m)

Accumulated cost

Time distribution (well)

10 12

14 16

18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64

Tim e (days)
NPT, 45% Effective time, 55%

Optimal Redefined Time/Cost line

0 100 200 300

Pore P. Frac. P.

Optimal time

Saving in Drilling Time

Conventional drilling (NPT)

Saving in Drilling Cost


Optimal Cost

400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900

$ vs NPT

MPD application is focused on achieving the well construction Optimal time and Cost as objective

$ vs NPT
Depth

Conventional cost due to high NPT 16


Case

Conventional Drilling
Bottom hole circulating pressure is manipulated by only two variables. BHCPconventional = Hydrostatic Pressure
Affected by Density

+ Pfriction

Affected by density and flow rate

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Managed Pressure Drilling


.

BHCPMPD = Hydrostatic Pressure


Affected by density

+ pfriction + Choke

Affected by density and flow rate Manipulated from surface

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Variables that can be Manipulated


Variable
Mud density Mud viscosity Flow rate Trapped Pressure Friction Pressure Rotating Control Head Choke Manifold Mud pumps Downhole pump

Equipment

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In what cases can MPD add value?


Drill to the target
Drilling Exploratory, Appraisal or Challenging Development wells Drill conventionally Un-drillable tight Pore /Collapse /Fracture pressure gradients Drill Un-drillable vuggy/ fractured carbonates where Over Balanced circulation is impossible
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What Are MPD Benefits?


Cost Saving

Reduced number of loss/kick occurrences

Reduced time spent dealing with well control events Earlier kick / losses detection Optimized number of casing strings

Improved Safety
Trip safely Remove H2S hazard from rig floor Drill HPHT wells safely
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MPD Added Drilling Performance Value Geo-mechanical Issues

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MPD Variations Visualization


Returns-flow-control (HSE) Constant Bottom Hole Pressure (CBHP)

MPD

Pressurized mud-cap drilling

Dual gradient MPD


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MPD Official Definition


An adaptive drilling process used to precisely control the annular pressure profile throughout the wellbore. The objectives are to ascertain the downhole pressure environment limits and to manage the annular hydraulic pressure profile accordingly. MPD is intended to avoid continuous influx of formation fluids to the surface. Any influx incidental to the operation will be safely contained using an appropriate process.

Drilling

Connection

Drilling Change in required BHP

Drilling

Connection

Drilling Change in required BHP

Required BHP (Pore Pressure + Margin)

Required BHP (Pore Pressure + Margin)

Equivalent Circulating Density (ppg)

Circulating Friction

Reduction in BHP

Circulating Friction

New Circulating Friction

Surface Backpressure Circulating Friction

Modified Surface Backpressure

New Surface Surface Backpressure Backpressure Circulating Friction Same Circulating Friction

Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

New Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Hydrostatic Pressure

Same Hydrostatic Pressure

Time / Depth

Time / Depth

Conventional Drilling Practices

Managed Pressure Drilling

Risk Management
With all MPD operations a detailed risk assessment as well as a HAZID and HAZOP should be carried out with the rig crew supervisors and the relevant service providers and operator staff. Understanding the sequence of events and when to initiate MPD operations and discussing the rig up, pressure testing and operational aspects of a job together with all of the procedures will help to ensure the maximum success for an MPD operation.

Health, Safety and Environment Issues


HAZOPs and HAZIDs are both systematic processes to identify hazards.

You cannot manage what you dont know.

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No Compromise on Rig safety all rig safety Equipment Remains unchanged

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Case History 1 Middle East


Objectives
To reach the target depth with minimum NPT To avoid uncontrolled event by maintaining a constant bottom hole pressure Offset Well MPD Well

8 3/8 Section Performance Total days spent on drilling the section Total days spent on well control events (NPT) Total days spent on tight hole/reaming

65 7.6

40 1.1

2.8 19 days hours

Saudi Arabia (Onshore)

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Case History 2 North Africa


Algeria drilling through high fractured zone Un-drillable Reservoir Drilled
A total of 191 m were drilled with a very small drilling window. Zero LTIs or near misses recorded on this well. Avoided kick/loss cycles & Improved ROP.

Case History 3: Offshore India


MPD Added Value NPT reduced to 1 day compared to 10 days experienced in the three previous wells drilled. LOC & Fluid losses minimized to 290 BBL compared to 4000 BBL on previous wells. Avoided kick/loss cycles & Improved ROP.

Case History 4 South America


Petrobras Colombia Limited,
MPD Added Value No Loss of Circulation significant cost savings

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Case History 5 Canada


Northeastern British Columbia,
MPD Added Value Reduced AFE by approximately 19% (saving Can$ 2 Million). Drilling efficiency was improved by lowering the mud weight and doubling the ROP . Considered MPD techniques to increase drilling effectiveness in this field.
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MPD application in Vietnam


BIEN DONG POC HPHT Gas Condensate Development BLOCK 05-2 & 05-3 Offshore -Vietnam

Why MPD on this project? Narrow margin of PP/FG pressure in both fields. Early kick detection & control. Better well control in HPHT wells. Drill wells to target depth and eliminate additional casing string. Providing CBHP during static and dynamic conditions which mitigates stress caging (SC).

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Project Overview
Phase-1: total sixteen (16) wells: 6 wells in block 05-3 (Moc Tinh) 10 wells in block 05-2 (Hai Thach) Contract status: singed for 4.5 years + potential extension.

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Conclusions
The challenging hydraulics of the worlds remaining prospects indicate MPD will evolve to become a key enabling technology. Managed Pressure Drilling technology is increasingly being applied in reservoirs that are difficult to drill conventionally (Un-drillable), deep water and High Pressure, High Temperature (HPHT) wells to access HC reserves, enhance operational safety and efficiency. All first adopters of MPD offshore plan future wells.
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Conclusions (contd)
Managed Pressure Drilling can reduce well costs as a result of;
Reduced number of casings = Smaller casings = smaller rig Less consumables (mud and cement) Less materials and logistics cost

Additional Benefits of MPD:


Faster drilling Reduced formation damage Improved productivity = improved recovery Reduced environmental impact
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Wrap-Up
Proper candidate screening is a deliberate process, and is a critical step in the design of a successful ADT operation. Detailed economic analysis is an important step to determine the benefit that MPD could provide compared to competing conventional drilling & completion technologies. Poor screening and planning results in an over-enthusiastic misapplication of the technology, and possibly failure. Proper Project management, engineering and execution is a key factor for a successful MPD operation.

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Speaker contact details


Hani Qutob
Reservoir Engineering & UBD-MPD Advisor Senergy GB Limited Dir: +971 4 387 3022 BB: +971 5 0622 4513 M: +971 5 0657 7328 F: +971 2 667 0408 E: Hani.Qutob@senergyworld.com W: www.senergyworld.com

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