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Aspen Icarus Reference Guide

Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE) V7.2

Version V7.2 July 2010


Generation No: 13 (G13) Chapters with G13 in the footer are new for this edition. Chapter generation numbers are also indicated in the Table of Contents. Copyright (c) 2001-2010 by Aspen Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, AspenTech, and the aspen leaf logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Aspen Technology, Inc., Burlington, MA. All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. This manual is intended as a guide to using AspenTechs software. This documentation contains AspenTech proprietary and confidential information and may not be disclosed, used, or copied without the prior consent of AspenTech or as set forth in the applicable license agreement. Users are solely responsible for the proper use of the software and the application of the results obtained. Although AspenTech has tested the software and reviewed the documentation, the sole warranty for the software may be found in the applicable license agreement between AspenTech and the user. ASPENTECH MAKES NO WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS DOCUMENTATION, ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Aspen Technology, Inc. Burlington, MA 02141-2201 USA Phone: 781-221-6400 Toll Free: (888) 996-7100 Website http://www.aspentech.com

Preface
Aspen Technologys Icarus Office develops and provides knowledge-based process evaluation technology, software, and services. Icarus systems are based on a core design, estimating, scheduling, and expert systems technology. They automatically develop preliminary design-based economic results - early from minimal scope, and refined designs and economics later in the project. Icarus systems are strategically located and linked into the project knowledge stream of concurrent design 0 after process simulation and before detailed design, CAD/CAE, detailed scheduling and project control. This unique technology provides: Key answers quickly Dramatic reductions in evaluation time and resources The best, most economical process and plant design for funding/ bidding decisions and project evaluation.

Aspen economic evaluation systems (including Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator) are in daily use. These systems have become industry-standard tools and are used by discerning project evaluators in owner companies and engineering design and construction firms in more than 1,000 locations in over 30 countries.

The Technology Behind Icarus Systems


Icarus systems are based on mathematical modeling technology which has been developed, refined and used since Icarus Corporation was founded in 1969. Aspen Technology purchased Icarus Corporation in 2000. Stored in Icarus systems are design and cost models for: Over 250 kinds of liquid, gas and solids handling and processing equipment More than 60 kinds of plant bulk items Approximately 70 kinds of site preparation work Nearly a dozen types of buildings.

Installation bulk models, used to develop installation quantities and field manpower and costs to install equipment and plant bulks, round out the bank of design and cost models. To support these design and cost models, Icarus systems contain design procedures and costs data for hundreds of types of materials of construction for general process equipment, vessel shells and internals, tubing, castings, linings, packings, clad plates, piping, steel and electrical bulks.

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Scope of Document
This document is designed as a reference tool for Icarus project evaluation systems. The document is best referenced when you have a question about system input.

How to Use This Document


This document uses generation numbers to track the history of updated information within each chapter. New versions of this document are assigned a new generation number, which increments by 1 (for example, G12). The purpose of these numbers is to ensure you are looking at the latest information. If you have a previous version of this document, you can compare the numbers to confirm you have the most up-to-date information available. Generation numbers are located on every page in the lower-inside corner as well as in the Table of Contents. The generation number assigned to the latest version of this document is located in the Copyright page.

A Note to Icarus System Users


Like Icarus systems, this document was designed using your ideas and suggestions. Please contact the Aspen Technology Icarus Office if you have any questions or comments regarding this document.

Related Documentation
In addition to this reference manual, AspenTech provides the following documentation for Aspen Economic Evaluation V7.0. Aspen Engineering V7.1 Known Issues Aspen Engineering V7.1 Whats New Aspen Engineering V7.1 Installation Guide Aspen IPS V7.1 Installation Guide Aspen IPS V7.1 User Guide Aspen Process Economic Analyzer V7.1 User Guide Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator V7.1 User Guide Aspen Capital Cost Estimator V7.1 User Guide Icarus Technology Application Programming Interface Manpower Productivity Expert User Guide

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Online Technical Support Center


AspenTech customers with a valid license and software maintenance agreement can register to access the Online Technical Support Center at: http://support.aspentech.com You use the Online Technical Support Center to: Access current product documentation. Search for technical tips, solutions, and frequently asked questions (FAQs). Search for and download application examples. Search for and download service packs and product updates. Submit and track technical issues. Search for and review known limitations. Send suggestions.

Registered users can also subscribe to our Technical Support e-Bulletins. These e-Bulletins proactively alert you to important technical support information such as: Technical advisories. Product updates. Service Pack announcements. Product release announcements.

Phone and E-mail


Customer support is also available by phone, fax, and e-mail for customers who have a current support contract for their product(s). Toll-free charges are listed where available; otherwise local and international rates apply. For the most up-to-date phone listings; please see the Online Technical Support Center at: http://support.aspentech.com/
Support Centers North America South America Europe Asia and Pacific Region Hours of Operation 8:00 - 20:00 Eastern time 9:00 - 17:00 Local time 8:30 - 18:00 Central europe time 9:00 - 17:30 Local time

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Contents

(G11)

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Technology Behind Icarus Systems . . . . . . . . . . . Scope of Document . . . . . . . . . How to Use This Document . . . . A Note to Icarus System Users . Related Documentation . . . . . . Online Technical Support Center Phone and E-mail. . . . . . . . . . .

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Introduction to Process Equipment (G6) 5 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Process Equipment Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 List of Process Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Agitators (G6) Agitators (AG) . . . . . Agitated Tanks (AT) . Blenders (BL) . . . . . Kneaders (K) . . . . . . Mixers (MX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 25 28 29

Compressors (G6) 1 Air Compressors (AC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Gas Compressors (GC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Fans, Blowers (FN). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Drivers (G11) 1 Electrical Motors (MOT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Turbines (TUR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Heat Transfer (G10) Heat Exchangers (HE) . . . . . . . Reboilers (RB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Furnaces, Process Heaters (FU) . Icarus Supported TEMA Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . 2 . 30 . 39 . 43 . . . . 1 2 5 7 9

Packing, Linings (G6) Introduction to Packing. . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to Lining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Packing, Linings (PAK, LIN) . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Lining Difficulty Adjustments .

Contents (G11)

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Pumps (G10) Centrifugal Pumps (CP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gear Pumps (GP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piston, Other Positive Displacement Pumps (P) Pump Efficiencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Towers, Columns (G6) 1 Introduction to Towers and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Double Diameter Towers (DDT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Single Diameter Towers (TW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Vacuum Systems (G6) 1 Condensers (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Ejectors (EJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Vacuum Pumps (VP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Vessels (G10) 1 Horizontal Tanks (HT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Vertical Tanks (VT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment (G6) Crushers (CR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flakers (FL). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mills (M) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stock Treatments (ST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drying Systems (G6) Crystallizers (CRY) . . . . . . . . . Evaporators (E) . . . . . . . . . . . Wiped Film Evaporators (WFE) Air Dryers (AD) . . . . . . . . . . . Dryers (D) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drum Dryers (DD) . . . . . . . . . Rotary Dryers (RD) . . . . . . . . Tray Drying Systems (TDS). . . Solids Conveying (G10) Conveyors (CO) . . . Cranes (CE) . . . . . Elevators, Lifts (EL) Feeders (FE) . . . . . Hoists (HO) . . . . . . Scales (S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 7 7 9 1 2 4 7 8 9 11 13 14 1 2 13 13 14 18 22

Separation Equipment (G7) Centrifuges (CT) . . . . . . . . Dust Collectors (DC). . . . . . Filters (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Separation Equipment (SE) . Thickeners (T) . . . . . . . . . .

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Contents (G11)

Screens (VS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Utility Service Systems (G6) Cooling Towers (CTW) . . . . . . . . Steam Boilers (STB). . . . . . . . . . Heating Units (HU). . . . . . . . . . . Refrigeration Units (RU) . . . . . . . Electrical Generators (EG). . . . . . Water Treatment Systems (WTS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 5 6 7 8

Flares and Stacks (G6) 1 Flares (FLR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Stacks (STK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Introduction to Plant Bulks (G6) 1 Introduction to Plant Bulks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 List of Plant Bulks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Piping (G10) Piping Plant Bulks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipe Diameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Standard Equations for Pipe Diameter (Old) . . . . . . . . . . Standard Equations for Pipe Diameter (New). . . . . . . . . . Utility Piping Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility Station Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Default Piping Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipe Materials - Ferrous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pipe Materials - Non-Ferrous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic and Resin Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lined Steel Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Icarus Pipe Fabrication, Erection and Testing Procedures . Valve and Fitting Options for Installation Bulk Piping . . . . Valve Trim Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Civil (G8) Civil Plant Bulks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foundation Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical Structure Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soil Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifying Seismic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How Icarus Calculates Wind Load and Seismic Shear Example of Equipment Foundation Design. . . . . . . . Example of Pile Foundation for an Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 43 44 46 50 51 52 53 56 57 58 64 66 68 1 2 10 14 14 15 15 16 17

Steel (G6) 1 Steel Plant Bulks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Instrumentation (G10) 1 Instrumentation Plant Bulks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Sensor Loop Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Contents (G11)

Remote Control Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Transmitter Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Electrical (G13) Electrical Plant Bulks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of Transmission Line . . . . . . . . . . . . Substation Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical & Control Hook-Ups for Electric Motors Power Distribution Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wire Sizes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UK, EU, and JP Country Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical Class/Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International Electrical Code (IEC) . . . . . . . . . . Insulation and Fireproofing (G8) Insulation Plant Bulks . . . . . . . . . . . . Insulation Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fireproofing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . Insulation Schedules - System Default Customizing Insulation Specifications . ..... ..... ..... Tables ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 17 18 19 22 23 23 24 25 1 2 4 4 5 15

Paint (G6) 1 Introduction to Paint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Paint Plant Bulks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 How Icarus Systems Paint Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Site Development (G6) Introduction to Site Development Demolition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drainage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Earthwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fencing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Landscaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roads - Slabs - Paving . . . . . . . . Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 4 6 10 11 12 15 17 1 2 2 5 6 6 7

Buildings (G6) Introduction to Buildings. . . . . . . . . . . . Adding a Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building Types and Defaults . . . . . . . . . Default floor Heights/Levels . . . . . . . . . Building Construction Range Adjustment Calculating Building Costs and Labor . . .

1 Quoted Equipment and Libraries (G6) Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Quoted Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 User Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

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Contents (G11)

Material Selections (G10) ASME Design Code - Plate Materials . . . . . ASME Design Code - Clad Plate Materials . ASME Design Code - Tube Materials . . . . . ASME Non-Ferrous Tube Materials . . . . . . BS Design Code - Plate Materials . . . . . . . BS Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steel BS Design Code - Clad Plate Materials . . . BS Design Code - Tube Materials . . . . . . . JIS Design Code - Plate Materials. . . . . . . JIS Design Code - Tube Materials. . . . . . . DIN Design Code - Plate Materials . . . . . . DIN Design Code - Tube Materials . . . . . . EN 13445 Design Code - Plate Materials . . EN 13445 Design Code - Tube Materials . . Lining Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Casting Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Packing Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1 3 10 11 14 15 15 22 23 27 35 39 47 51 56 61 64 66

Units of Measure (G6) 1 Introduction to Units of Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Units of Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Project Specifications and their Use of Units of Measure . . . . . . . . . 8 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13) US Country Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UK Country Base *** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JP Country Base. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EU Country Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 6 8

Engineering (G13) 1 Design and Construction Engineering Disciplines and Wage Rates . . 2 Engineering Expenses and Indirects (Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Standard Engineering Drawing Types (Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1 Construction Equipment(G4) Introduction to Construction Equipment Rental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Construction Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Base Indices (G13) 1 Base Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Code Accounts (G10) Introduction to Code Accounts. . Indirect Codes and Descriptions. Direct Codes and Descriptions . . Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . 2 . 6 . 8 . 10

Contents (G11)

vii

Database Relations (G10) Sequence Numbers of Attributes in Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . Relationship of Database Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DETAILS Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESIGN Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMARKS Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROJDATA Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEWCOA Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CERATE Relation (F-Table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EQRENT Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CRWSCH Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CSTCTRL Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CUSSPC Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPGRP Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CNTRCT Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPONENT Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INDIRECTS Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K (CUSSPC)-TABLE Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-TABLE Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QSUM Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STORED REPORTS Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STORED QUERIES Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CERATE Relation (F-Table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-Table Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U-Table Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-Table Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W-Table Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X-Table Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y-Table Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z-Table Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aspen Capital Cost Estimator Indirect Codes and Descriptions . Attribute Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1 3 7 8 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 16 16 20 22 23 25 25 27 27 27 28 29 29 31 1 2 9 10 11 13 22 26 27 29 32 34 36 36

Icarus Technology (G10) Introduction to Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Fabricate/Ship Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barchart Report Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes for Defining the Standard Control Center . . . . . . . . . . . . Notes for Defining the PLC Control Center. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of System Input Specifications for Power Distribution . Power Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Usage Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reporting of Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii

Contents (G11)

Cost Reporting: Currency and System Base Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Construction Overhead - Prime Contractor Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Contracts: Description/Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Reserved (G7) Glossary (G5) 1 1

Contents (G11)

ix

Contents (G11)

1 Introduction to Process Equipment


(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction Process Equipment Categories List of Process Equipment

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

1-5

Introduction
Chapters 2 through 16 describe the process equipment available in Icarus systems. The chapters are organized as the equipment appears in the systems. Liquid and gas equipment Solids handling equipment Off-site and packaged equipment

Process Equipment Categories


Icarus process equipment is divided into the following categories. Each category is assigned an item symbol for identification purposes.
Item Symbol AC AD AG AT BL C CE CO CP CR CRY CT CTW D DC DD DDT E EG EJ EL F FE FL FLR FN FU Description Air Compressor Air Dryer Agitator Agitated Tanks Blender Condenser Crane Conveyor Centrifugal Pump Crusher Crystallizer Centrifuge Cooling Tower Dryer Dust Collector Drum Dryer Double Diameter Tower Evaporator Electric Generator Ejector Elevator Filter Feeder Flaker Flare Fan Furnace Item Symbol HE HO HT HU K LIN M MOT MX P PAK R RB RD RU S SE ST STB STK T TDS TUR TW VP VS VT Description Heat Exchanger Hoist Horizontal Tank Heating Unit Kneader Lining Mill Motor/Motor Reducer Mixer Pump Packing Reactor Reboiler Rotary Drum Refrigeration Unit Scale Separation Equipment Stock Treatment Steam Boiler Stack Thickener Tray Drying System Turbine Single Diameter Tower Vacuum Pump Screen Vertical Tank

1-6

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

Item Symbol GC GP

Description Gas Compressor Gear Pump

Item Symbol WFE WTS

Description Wiped Film Evaporator Water Treatment System

List of Process Equipment


The following is a list of process equipment by chapter and category. The process equipment descriptions in chapters 2 through 16 include some of the entry fields for defining process equipment. The descriptions include the minimum and maximum values and the defaults. Default values appear between asterisks (*).

Chapter 2: Agitators
Agitators (AG)
Item Type FIXED PROP PORT PROP DIRECT GEAR DRIVE MECH SEAL ANCHOR PULP STOCK ANCHOR REV COUNT ROT HIGH SHEAR SAN FIXED SAN PORT Description Fixed propeller gear motor type agitator Portable propeller agitator Portable direct drive agitator Portable gear drive agitator Agitator, mechanical seal, variable diameter Fixed mount, gear drive, anchor, stuffing box Pulp stock agitator Sanitary reversing anchor agitator Sanitary counter-rotating agitator Sanitary highshear homogenizing agitator Sanitary fixed propeller/turbine mixer Sanitary port. propeller/turbine mixer

Agitated Tanks (AT)


Item Type MIXER REACTOR OPEN TOP FLOAT CELL COND CELL MACH PULP OFF MACH Description Agitated tank - enclosed Agitated tank - enclosed, jacketed Agitated tank - open top Floatation machine Floatation conditioning cell On machine pulper Off machine pulper

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

1-7

Blenders (BL)
Item Type BLENDER ROTARY KETTLE ROTARYBOWL MSHELSTAG Description Rotary drum blender Rotary double-cone blender Sanitary kettle blender without agitator Sanitary rotary bowl blender Sanitary multi-shell staggered blender

Kneaders (K)
Item Type STATIONARY TILTING VAC TILTING Description Stationary upright double-arm kneader Tilting double-arm kneader Vacuum tilting double-arm kneader

Mixers (MX)
Item Type EXTRUDER MULLER EXT PAN PORT PROP FIXED PROP SIGMA SPIRAL RIB STATIC TWO ROLL HIGH SPEED RIBBON PISTON HOM SHEAR HOM Description Cylinder type extruder with variable drive Muller type extruder mixer Pan mixer Portable propeller mixer Fixed propeller gear motor type mixer Double-arm sigma blade mixer Spiral ribbon mixer Static mixer Two-roll mixer Sanitary high-speed Norman-type mixer Sanitary ribbon blender Sanitary piston-type homogenizer Sanitary shear pump homogenizer

Chapter 3:

Compressors

Air Compressors (AC)


Item Type CENTRIF M CENTRIF T RECIP GAS RECIP MOTR SINGLE 1 S SINGLE 2 S Description Centrifugal air compressor with motor Centrifugal air compressor with turbine Reciprocating air compressor with gas engine Reciprocating air compressor with motor Single reciprocating air compressor - 1 stage Single reciprocating air compressor - 2 stage

1-8

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

Gas Compressors (GC)


Item Type CENTRIF CENTRIF IG RECIP GAS RECIP MOTR Description Centrifugal compressor - horizontal Centrifugal - integrated gear Reciprocating compressor - integral gas engine Reciprocating compressor

Fans, Blowers (FN)


Item Type PROPELLER VANEAXIAL CENTRIF ROT BLOWER CENT TURBO Description Propeller fan Vaneaxial fan Centrifugal fan General purpose blower Heavy duty, low noise blower

Chapter 4: Drivers
Electrical Motors (MOT)
Item Type OPEN SYNCHRON ENCLOSED EXP PROOF VARY SPEED Description Open drip-proof induction motor Synchronous motor Totally enclosed induction motor Explosion-proof (Class I Division I, hazardous) TEFC motor with variable speed drive

Turbines (TUR)
Item Type GAS CONDENSING NON COND Description Gas turbine with combustion chamber Steam turbine driver, condensing type Steam turbine driver, non-condensing

Chapter 5: Heat Transfer


Heat Exchangers (HE)
Item Type FLOAT HEAD FIXED T S AIR COOLER U TUBE Description Floating head shell and tube exchanger Fixed tube sheet shell and tube exchanger Air cooling, free standing or rack-mounted U-tube shell and tube exchanger

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

1-9

Item Type TEMA EXCH PRE ENGR CROSS BORE SHELL TUBE FIN TUBE HEATER STM SUC HEATER HEATER ELC JACKETED SPIRAL PLT ONE SCREW TWO SCREW WASTE HEAT PLAT FRAM CORRUGATED HOT WATER MULTI P F STM HE MOD

Description Fixed tube, float. head, or u-tube exchanger Pre-engineered (standard) U-tube exchanger Cross-bore (all graphite) heat exchanger Graphite tube/CS shell heat exchanger Finned double pipe heat exchanger Bare pipe immersion coil-heating/cooling Tank suction Electric immersion tank heater Double pipe heat exchanger Spiral plate heat exchanger Thermascrew (Reitz) single screw conveyor Twin screw agitated/jacketed heat exchanger Waste heat boiler Plate and frame heat exchanger Sanitary double pipe exchanger Water heater (shell+tube - hot water set) Sanitary multizone plate+frame exchanger Sanitary direct steam heat module

Reboilers (RB)
Item Type KETTLE U TUBE THERMOSIPH Description Kettle type reboiler with floating head U-tube kettle type reboiler Thermosiphon type reboiler

Furnaces, Project Heaters (FU)


Item Type HEATER BOX PYROLYSIS REFORMER VERTICAL Description A-frame type process furnace Box type process furnace Pyrolysis unit Box type reformer, without catalyst Vertical cylindrical process furnace

Chapter 6: Packing, Linings

1-10

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

Packing, Linings (PAK, LIN)


Item Type PACKING ACID BRICK MONOLITHIC OTHER Description Packing, variety of vessel packings Acid brick lining Castable, refractory or gunned mix Lining - other than acid brick, monolithic

Chapter 7: Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps (CP)
Item Type API 610 ANSI ANSI PLAST GEN SERV CENTRIF AXIAL FLOW TURBINE API 610 IL IN LINE PULP STOCK MAG DRIVE CANNED - SAN PUMP - FLUME PUMP Description API 610 pump (single or multi-stage) Standard ANSI single stage pump Plastic ANSI single stage pump General service pump Centrifugal single or multi-stage pump Axial flow vertical pump Vertical sump pump - turbine impeller API 610 in line pump General service in line pump Low consistency stock pump Standard ANSI magnetic drive pump Canned motor pump Sanitary centrifugal pump Sanitary fluming pump with feeder hopper

Gear Pumps (GP)


Item Type GEAR CANNED RTR MECH SEAL Description Standard external gear rotary pump Canned rotary gear pump Mechanical seal gear pump

Piston, Other Positive Displacement Pumps (P)


Item Type SIMPLEX DUPLEX TRIPLEX DIAPHRAGM SLURRY ROTARY Description Reciprocating simplex pump - steam driver Reciprocating duplex pump - steam driver Triplex (plunger) pump - motor driver Diaphragm pump - TFE type Slurry pump Rotary (sliding vanes) pump

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

1-11

Item Type RECIP MOTR HD STOCK ROTARYLOBE AIR DIAPH

Description Reciprocating positive displacement plunger pump High density stock pump Sanitary rotary lobe pump Sanitary air diaphragm pump

Chapter 8: Towers, Columns


Double Diameter Towers (DDT)
Item Type PACKED TRAYED Description Packed double-diameter tower Trayed double-diameter tower

Single Diameter Towers (TW)


Item Type PACKED TRAYED TRAY STACK DC HE TW TS ADSORB Description Packed tower Trayed tower Tray stack for tray tower Direct contact heat exchanger tower Dual vessel temperature swing adsorber

Chapter 9: Vacuum Systems


Condensers (C)
Item Type BAROMETRIC Description Barometric condenser

Ejectors (EJ)
Item Type SINGLE STG TWO STAGE 2 STAGE 4 STAGE B 4 STAGE 5 STAGE B Description One stage ejector non-condensing Two stage ejector with one condenser Two stage ejector non-condensing Four stage ejector with two condensers Four stage ejector with one condenser Five stage ejector with one condense

1-12

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

Vacuum Pumps (VP)


Item Type WATER SEALS MECHANICA MECH BOOST Description Water-sealed vacuum pump Mechanical oil-sealed vacuum pump Mechanical booster vacuum pump

Chapter 10: Vessels


Horizontal Tanks (HT)
Item Type MULTI WALL HORIZ DRUM JACKETED SAN TANK Description Multi-wall horizontal drum Horizontal drum Jacketed horizontal drum Sanitary horizontal drum

Vertical Tanks (VT)


Item Type CYLINDER MULTI WALL JACKETED SPHERE SPHEROID STORAGE CRYOGENIC PLAST TANK WOOD TANK GAS HOLDER CONE BTM LIVE BTM CHEST REC CHEST CYL CHEST MTL SAN TANK SAN HOPPER Description Vertical process vessel Multi-wall vertical process vessel Jacketed vertical process vessel Sphere - pressure or vacuum storage Spheroid - pressure or vacuum storage Flat bottom storage tank, optional roof Cryogenic storage tank Plastic storage tank (FRP or Haveg) Wooden storage tank Low pressure gas storage vessel Cone bottom storage bin Live bottom storage bin Rectangular concrete tile chest Cylindrical concrete tile chest Metal tile chest Sanitary vertical cylindrical vessel Sanitary hopper assembly

Chapter 11: Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

1-13

Crushers (CR)
Item Type CONES GYRATORY ECCENTRIC JAW ROTARY S ROLL LT S ROLL MED S ROLL HVY SAWTOOTH REV HAMR HAMMER MED SWING HAMR BRADFORD S IMPACT PULVERIZER ROLL RING Description Cone crusher - secondary crushing Gyratory - primary and secondary crushing Overhead eccentric jaw crusher Swing jaw crusher Rotary crusher Single roll crusher - light duty Single roll crusher - medium duty Single roll crusher - heavy duty Sawtooth roller crusher Reversible hammermill Non-reversible hammermill, medium hard material Non-reversible hammermill, hard material Bradford (rotary) breaker Single rotor impact breaker Pulverizer - crushing soft material Ring granulator

Flakers (FL)
Item Type DRUM Description Rotary drum flaker

Mills (M)
Item Type ATTRITION AUTOGENOUS BALL MILL ROD MILL MIKRO PULV ROLLER ROD CHARGR Description Attrition mill Autogenous mill Ball mill with initial ball charge Rod mill with initial rod charge Mikro-pulverizer Roller mill Rod charger for rod mill

Stock Treatment (ST)


Item Type REFINER DEFLAKE DK DEFLAKE CN Description Double disk refiner Plate or tackle type deflaker Conical type deflaker

Chapter 12: Drying Systems

1-14

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

Crystallizers (CRY)
Item Type BATCH VAC MECHANICAL OSLO Description Batch vacuum crystallizer Mechanical scraped-surface crystallizer Oslo growth type crystallizer

Evaporators (E)
Item Type FALL FILM FORCED CIR LONG TUBE LONG VERT STAND VERT STAND HOR Description Agitated falling film evaporator Forced circulation evaporator Long tube rising film evaporator Long tube vertical evaporator Standard vertical tube evaporator Standard horizontal tube evaporator

Wiped Film Evaporators (WFE)


Item Type THIN FILM WFE SYSTEM Description Agitated thin film evaporator Agitated thin film evaporator - package system

Air Dryers (AD)


Item Type AIR DRYER Description Dual tower desiccant air dryer

Dryers (D)
Item Type ATMOS TRAY VAC TRAY PAN SPRAY Description Atmospheric tray batch dryer Vacuum tray batch dryer Agitated pan batch dryer Continuous spray drying system

Drum Dryers (DD)


Item Type SINGLE ATM DOUBLE ATM SINGLE VAC S COOKCOOL Description Single atmospheric drum dryer Double atmospheric drum dryer Single vacuum rotary drum dryer Rotary drum cooker-cooler

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

1-15

Rotary Dryers (RD)


Item Type DIRECT INDIRECT JAC VACUUM VACUUM Description Direct rotary dryer Indirect rotary dryer Jacketed rotary vacuum dryer Conical rotary vacuum dryer

Tray Drying Systems (TDS)


Item Type ATM SYSTEM VACUUM TURBO VAC SYSTEM Description Atmospheric tray dryer Vacuum tray dryer Turbo tray drying system Vacuum tray dryer with condenser

Chapter 13: Solids Conveying


Conveyors (CO)
Item Type OPEN BELT CLOSED BLT APRON PNEUMATIC ROLLER SCREW VIBRATING CENT BKT L CONT BKT L Description Belt conveyor - open Belt conveyor - covered Apron conveyor - pans on endless chain Pneumatic conveying system Roller conveyor (non-motorized) Screw conveyor in a U-shaped trough Vibrating conveyor with inclined trough Elevator-spaced bucket Elevator-continuous bucket

Cranes (CE)
Item Type BRIDGE CRN HOIST Description Traveling bridge crane Hoist with track beam

Elevators, Lifts (EL)


Item Type FREIGHT PASSENGER Description Freight elevator Passenger elevator

1-16

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

Feeders (FE)
Item Type BELT BIN ACTVTR ROTARY VIBRATING WT LOSS DUMPER SACK DUMP SAN SCREW SAN BELT Description Volumetric belt feeder Bin activator Rotary feeder Vibrating feeder Loss-in-weight feeder Sanitary dumper Sanitary bulk bag unloader Sanitary screw feeder Sanitary weigh belt feeder

Hoists (HO)
Item Type HOIST 1 SPEED 5 SPEED HAND GT HAND PT HAND NT Description 5-speed electric hoist - motorized trolley 1-speed electric hoist - no trolley 5-speed electric hoist - no trolley Hand hoist - manual pull chain trolley Hand hoist - manual trolley Hand hoist - no trolley

Scales (S)
Item Type BEAM SCALE BELT BENCH FULL FRAME SEMI FRAME TANK SCALE TRACK TRUCK SAN FLOOR Description Beam scale Conveyor belt scale Bench scale - dial and beam Full floor scale - dial and beam Semi frame floor scale - dial and beam Tank scale - weigh bridge and saddles Track scale for rail cars Truck (lorry) scale Sanitary floor scale - flush mounted

Chapter 14: Separation Equipment


Centrifuges (CT)
Item Type ATM SUSPEN BATCH AUTO BATCH BOTM Description Atmospheric suspended basket centrifuge Auto batch filtering centrifuge Batch bottom - suspended centrifuge

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

1-17

TOP UNLOAD BOT UNLOAD BATCH TOP DISK RECIP CONV SCROLL CON SOLID BOWL SCREEN BWL TUBULAR VIBRATORY INVERTING

Batch top unload centrifuge Batch bottom unload centrifuge Batch top-suspended centrifuge High-speed disk centrifuge Reciprocating conveyor centrifuge Scroll conveyor centrifuge Solid bowl centrifuge Screen bowl centrifuge High-speed tubular centrifuge Vibrating screen centrifuge Inverting filter centrifuge

Dust Collectors (DC)


Item Type CENTRF PRE CLOTH BAY CYCLONE MULT CYCLO ELC H VOLT ELC L VOLT WASHERS PULSE SHKR Description Centrifugal precipitator Baghouse with motor shakers Cyclone dust collector Multiple cyclone dust collector High voltage electrical precipitator Low voltage electrical precipitator Washer dust collector Baghouse with injected pulsed air

Filters (F)
Item Type CARTRIDGE LEAF DRY LEAF WET PLATE FRAM ROTY DISK ROTY DRUM SEWAGE SPARKLER TUBULAR SCROLL WHITEWATER METAL TRAP RECL REEL SAN AIR SAN PIPE SAN PRESS Description Cartridge filter (5 micron cotton) Pressure leaf-dry filter Pressure leaf-wet filter Plate and frame filter Rotary disk filter Rotary drum filter Sewage filter Sparkler filter Tubular fabric filter (bank of 3) Scroll discharge centrifugal filter White water filter - centrifugal screen Sanitary in-line metal trap Sanitary fluming reclaim reel Culinary (sterile) air filter Sanitary pipe filter Sanitary filter press

1-18

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

SAN STEAM SAN STRAIN

Culinary (sterile) steam filter Sanitary pipe strainer

Separation Equipment (SE)


Item Type WATER CYCL OIL WATER PULP STOCK Description Water-only cyclone - mineral separation Oil-water separator - API type Pulp stock centrifugal cleaner

Thickeners (T)
Item Type THICKENER Description Thickener/clarifier

Screens (VS)
Item Type ONE DECK TWO DECK THREE DECK HUMMER SIFTER 1 SIFTER 2 SIFTER 3 PRESSURE LD STOCK BAR Description Single deck rectangular vibrating screen Double deck rectangular vibrating screen Triple deck rectangular vibrating screen Hummer type screen for fine separation Single deck circular vibrating screen Double deck circular vibrating screen Triple deck circular vibrating screen Pressure screen Low consistency stock pump Mechanical bar screen

Chapter 15: Utility Service Systems


Cooling Towers (CTW)
Item Type COOLING COOLING WP Item PACKAGED Description Cooling tower, less pumps, field assembly Cooling tower, complete, field assembly Description Packaged cooling tower, factory assembly

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

1-19

Steam Boilers (STB)


Item Type BOILER STM BOILER Description Packaged boiler unit Field erected boiler unit

Heating Units (HU)


Item Type CYLINDER Description Process heater type dowtherm unit

Refrigeration Units (RU)


Item Type CENT COMPR MECHANICAL Description Centrifugal compression refrigeration unit Mechanical compression refrigeration unit

Electrical Generators (EG)


Item Type PORTABLE TURBO GEN Description Portable electrical generator - diesel Electrical generator - steam turbine drive

Water Treatment Systems (WTS)


Item Type DEMINERAL SOFTENING AERATOR Description Two stage ion exchange water treatment Hot lime, zeolite water treatment system Surface aerator

Chapter 16: Flares and Stacks


Flares (FLR)
Item Type DERRICK GUYED SELF SUPP HORIZONTAL Description Derrick-supported flare stack Guyed flare stack Self-supported flare stack Horizontal ground flare

1-20

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

THRM OX LC STORAGE

Recuperative thermal oxidizer Vapor control flare for storage/loading

Stacks (STK)
Item Type STACK Description Stack without flare tip

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

1-21

1-22

1 Introduction to Process Equipment (G6)

2 Agitators

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Agitators (AG) Agitated Tanks (AT) Description of Agitated Tanks Impeller Types - General Range of Basic Data** Impeller Type References Impeller Materials Blenders (BL) Kneaders (K) Mixers (MX)

2 Agitators (G6)

2-1

Agitators (AG)
Description Portable, clamp-on, direct drive with explosion-proof motor. Typically used for rapid disperation or fast reactions. Material: *CS*, SS304, SS316, MONEL, RUBCV Driver Power: 0.75 - 3 HP [0.75 - 2.22 KW] Portable, clamp-on, gear drive with explosion-proof motor. Typically used to keep solids in suspension, medium viscosity blending and dissolving. Material: *CS*, SS304, SS316, MONEL, RUBCV Driver Power: 0.25 - 5 HP; [0.75 - 3 KW] GEAR DRIVE Type DIRECT

2-2

2 Agitators (G6)

Agitators (AG) - continued


Description Fixed mount, top-entering, gear drive, mechanical seal, explosion-proof motor. Typically used for low speed mixing on closed tanks. Shaft enters tank through a mechanical seal. Material: *CS*, SS304, SS316, MONEL, RUBCV Impeller diameter: Max: 10 FEET [3.00 M] Driver power: Min: 2.00 HP [1.5 KW]; Max: 200 HP [140 KW] Impeller Speed: Min: 1,200 RPM [1,000 RPM]; Max: 1,800 RPM [1,500 RPM] Driver type: *STD*- Standard motor VFD- Variable frequency drive Impeller type: *MP3B5* Fixed mount, top-entering, gear drive, anchor, stuffing ANCHOR box, explosion-proof motor. Typically used for low speed mixing on closed tanks. Material: *CS*, SS304, SS316, MONEL, RUBCV Driver power: 0.75 - 5 HP [0.75 - 3 KW] Portable propeller mixer with motor to 7.5 HP [5.5 KW]. Material: *CS*, SS Driver power: 0.33 - 7.5 HP [0.75 - 5.5 KW] Fixed propeller mixer with motor and gear drive to 100 FIXED PROP HP [75 KW]. Includes motor, gear drive, shaft and impeller. Material: *CS*, SS Driver power: 2 - 100 HP [1.5 - 75 KW] PORT PROP Type MECH SEAL

2 Agitators (G6)

2-3

Agitators (AG) - continued


Description Top entry (for Open or Closed tanks) and Side entry type. Includes motor driver, baseplate, bearings, speed reducer, seals and a variety of shaft and impeller configurations. Material: *CS*, SS403, SS316, SS321, SS347, 304L, 316L, NI, INCNL, MONEL, HAST, TI Driver type: DRCT - Direct drive, no speed reduction BELT- Belt driven speed reduction VFD - Variable frequency drive GEAR - Gear drive speed reduction Liquid volume: Enter Capacity or Impeller Diameter Impeller diameter: Enter Capacity or Impeller Diameter Agitator orientation: Default: *VTOP* VTOP - Top entry agitator for open tanks VTCL - Top entry agitator for closed tanks SIDE - Side entry agitator Driver speed: Max: 3,600 RPM [3,000 RPM, metric units]; Default: *1,800* RPM: [*1,800* RPM, metric units] Consistency - Air Dried%: Max: 10.0; Default: *4.0* Fluid density: *62.4* PCF [*1000* KG/M3] Seal type: Default: *PACK* PACK - Packing MECH - Mechanical seal Sanitary reversing anchor agitator With large paddle, reversing motor, and proximity sensors. Stainless steel material for sanitation. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. Liquid volume: MIN: 50 GALLONS [0.19 M3], MAX: 1,000 GALLONS [3.78 M3] Agitator diameter: MIN: 32 INCHES [813 MM], MAX: 72 INCHES [1,825 MM] Agitator height: MIN: 24 INCHES [610 MM], MAX: 72 INCHES [1,825 MM] ANCHOR REV Type PULP STOCK

2-4

2 Agitators (G6)

Agitators (AG) - continued


Description Sanitary counter-rotating agitator Two-piece agitator with center armed shaft and outer frame parallel wall rotating opposite each other. Stainless steel material for sanitation. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. Liquid volume: MIN: 50 GALLONS [0.19 M3]; MAX: 1,000 GALLONS [3.78 M3]. Required to enter capacity. Agitator diameter: MIN: 32 INCHES [813 MM], MAX: 72 INCHES [1,825 MM] Agitator height: MIN: 24 INCHES [610 MM], MAX: 72 INCHES [1,825 MM] Sanitary highshear homogenizing agitator Agitators perforated disk rotates to create shear for homogenizing immiscible liquids. Used in the sanitary industry. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. Liquid volume: MIN: 3 GALLONS [0.012 M3], MAX: 1,500 GALLONS [5.67 M3]. Required: Enter either liquid volume or driver power. Seal for shaft: *NO*- Shaft seal not required YES- Shaft seal is required Driver power: MIN: 0.33 HP [0.25 KW], 40 HP [30 KW]. Required: Enter either liquid volume or driver power. Driver type: *WXXDC*- Washdown, direct drive, CS WVRDC - Washdown, VFD rated, direct drive, CS WVCDC- Washdown, VFD controlled, direct dive, CS WXXDS - Washdown, direct drive, SS WVRDS - Washdown, VFD rated, direct drive, SS WVCDS - Washdown, VFD controlled, direct drive, SS TXXDC - TEFC, direct drive, CS TVRDC - TEFC, VFD rated, direct drive, CS TVCDC - TEFC, VFD controlled, direct drive, CS - Continued on next page HIGH SHEAR Type COUNT ROT

2 Agitators (G6)

2-5

Agitators (AG) - continued


Description HIGH SHEAR - continued Impeller type: *INTGH*- Integral head RSDIH- Rotator stator w/ slotted disintegr. head RSSQR- Rotator stator w/ high shear screen RSGENRotator stator w/ GP disintegrating head Sanitary fixed propeller/turbine mixer. Stainless steel material for total washdown capability and no risk of open container contamination from paint chips. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. Driver power: MIN: 0.5 HP [0.375 KW], 25 HP [18.5] Driver type: *WVRGP*- Washdown, VFD rated, gear drive WVCGP - Washdown, VFD controlled, gear drive WXXGP- Washdown, gear drive Impeller type: *PROP*- propeller type impeller (not available above 3 HP [2.22 KW]) TURB- turbine type impeller No. of impellers: *1*, MIN: 1, MAX: 2 Angle riser: *NO*- Angle riser not required YES- Angle riser is required Mounting type: *UNSLF*- Unsealed flange mounting SLF- Sealed flange mounting FLWB- Flange with bridge SAN FIXED Type

2-6

2 Agitators (G6)

Agitators (AG) - continued


Description Sanitary port. propeller/turbine mixer Stainless steel material for total washdown capability and no risk of open container contamination from paint chips. Quick-disconnect prop allows for easy inspection. Driver type selections allow you to choose between gear or direct drives. Gear drives feature removable shafts retained by a positive fit internal shaft coupling. Direct drives have fixed, non-removable shafts with a sealed entry at the mounting flange face for superior sanitation. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. Driver power: MIN: 0.33 HP [0.25 KW], MAX: 0.75 HP [0.55 KW] Driver type: *WVRDN*- Washdown, VFD rated, direct drive, NI plate WVRGN- Washdown, VFD rated, gear drive, NI plate WVCDN- Washdown, VFD contr, direct drive, NI plate WVCGN- Washdown, VFD contr, gear drive, NI plate Type SAN PORT

2 Agitators (G6)

2-7

Agitated Tanks (AT)


Small to large, pressure/vacuum, jacket, driver, motor-reducer, agitator and supports. For MIXER, REACTOR and OPEN TOP: Liquid Volume: To secure desired vessel size, specify the diameter and height directly. A value must be specified if diameter and height are not both specified. Otherwise, calculated from diameter and height. If both vessel dimensions and capacity are specified, the system-calculated capacity must agree with the specified capacity to within +/- 10%. Skirt or Leg Height: If the capacity is 1000 GAL. [37 M3] or less, the vessel is designed with 4 FEET [1.25 M] pipe legs. For a capacity greater than 1000 GAL. [37 M3], the vessel is designed with a skirt. The skirt height is calculated as 1.5 x (vessel diameter) with minimum and maximum heights of 4 and 32 FEET [1.25 and 9.5 M] respectively. Enter 0.0 if hung in open structure. Manhole Diameter: If no value is specified, a value is calculated as a function of vessel diameter and height with a maximum manhole diameter of 48 INCHES [1200 MM]. Corrosion Allowance: For CS alloys, the default is 0.125 INCHES [3 MM]; 0.0 for all other materials. Weld Efficiency%: 5- - 100 (For ASME and JIS codes only). Product Density: *62.4* PCF [*1,000*KG/M3] Viscosity: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S]

Description Pressure/vacuum vessel, optional jacket Includes top entering impeller and geared motorreducer, tank designed for 15 PSIG [100 KPA]. Application: Defines vessel function and related pipe/instrum. model. <blank>- Standard continuous process BATCH- Batch process Shell Material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. (Cladding is defined below.) Default: *A285C*. Liquid Volume: Enter either Capacity or Diameter and Height. Vessel Diameter: Enter either Capacity or Diameter and Height. Vessel Tangent to Tangent Height: Enter either Capacity or Diameter and Height.

Type MIXER

- Continued on next page -

2-8

2 Agitators (G6)

Agitated Tanks (AT) - continued


Description MIXER - continued Design Gauge Pressure: Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA] If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: Pressure. Vacuum Design Gauge Pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: Pressure. Design Temperature: *250* DEG F [*120* DEG C] Operating Temperature: Default: Design temperature. Jacket Design Gauge Pressure: Pressure must be specified to obtain a jacket. Default: No jacket. Jacket Type: Default: *FULL* FULL - Full jacket PIPE - Half-pipe jacket Jacket Thickness: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: No jacket. Jacket Material: Default: *CS* CS - Carbon steel A 515 - A 515 A 204C - C - .5Mo A 387B - 1Cr - .5Mo A 387D - 2.25Cr - 1Mo SS304 - SS304 SS316 - SS316 SS321 - SS321 SS347 - SS347 SS410 - SS410 SS430 - SS430 304L - 304L 316L - 316L NI - Nickel INCNL - Inconel MONEL - Monel HAST - Hastelloy Type

- Continued on next page -

2 Agitators (G6)

2-9

Agitated Tanks (AT) - continued


Description MIXER - continued SEE CARBON STEEL - Select from types of Carbon Steel SEE HEAT-TREATED STEEL - Select from types of Heat Treated Steel SEE LOW ALLOY STEEL - Select from types of Low Alloy Steel SEE HIGH ALLOY STEEL - Select from types of High Alloy Steel SEE NON-FERROUS - Select from types of Non-Ferrous Steel Driver Type: Default: *STD* STD - Standard motor VFD - Variable frequency drive Cladding Material: Default: None. Skirt or Leg Height: Enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure, legs provided if capacity < 10,000 GAL [37 M3]. Manhole Diameter: If no value is specified, a value is calculated as a function of vessel diameter and height with a maximum manhole diameter of 48 INCHES [1200 MM]. Base Material Thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion Allowance: For CS alloys, the default is 0.125 INCHES [3 MM]; 0.0 for all other materials. Weld Efficiency%: 5 - 100 (For ASME and JIS codes only). Stress Relief: CODE - Provide stress relief if code requires YES - Provide stress relief NO - No stress relief required Cladding Thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise 0.0. Fluid Depth: Maximum fluid depth: vessel height less 12 INCHES [300 MM] - Continued on next page Type

2-10

2 Agitators (G6)

Agitated Tanks (AT) - continued


Description MIXER - continued Fluid Density: *62.4* PCF [*1,000* KG/M3] Fluid Viscosity: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Impeller Type: See Impeller Types table later in this chapter. Stiffening Ring Spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Number of Body Flange Sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Diameter Option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD. Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside Diameter ID- Inside Diameter Open with loose-fitting cover, optional jacket. Includes OPEN TOP impeller and geared motor reducer, supported by structural steel spanning tank top, tank without head. Shell Material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. (Cladding is defined below.) Default: *A285C*. Liquid Volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel Diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel Tangent to Tangent Height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Design Temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Operating Temperature: Default: Design Temperature. Jacket Design Gauge Pressure: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: no jacket. Jacket Type: Default: *FULL* FULL- Full jacket PIPE- Half-pipe jacket Type

- Continued on next page -

2 Agitators (G6)

2-11

Agitated Tanks (AT) - continued


Description OPEN TOP - continued Jacket Thickness: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: no jacket. Jacket Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel A 515- A 515 A 204C- C - .5Mo A 387B- 1Cr - .5Mo A 387D- 2.25Cr - 1Mo SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 SS321- SS321 SS347- SS347 SS410- SS410 SS430- SS430 304L- 304L 316L- 316L NI- Nickel INCNL- Inconel MONEL- Monel HAST- Hastelloy SEE CARBON STEEL - Select from types of Carbon Steel SEE HEAT-TREATED STEEL - Select from types of Heat Treated Steel SEE LOW ALLOY STEEL - Select from types of Low Alloy Steel SEE HIGH ALLOY STEEL - Select from types of High Alloy Steel SEE NON-FERROUS - Select from types of Non-Ferrous Steel Driver Type: Default: *STD* STD- Standard Motor VFD- Variable frequency drive Cladding Material: Default *none*. Skirt or Leg Height: Enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure, legs provides if capacity < 10,000 GAL. [37 M3]. - Continued on next page Type

2-12

2 Agitators (G6)

Description OPEN TOP - continued Manhole Diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1200 MM]. Base Material Thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion Allowance: Default 0.125 INCHES [3.0 MM] for CS; 0.0 for other material; double if jacketed. Weld Efficiency: ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Default: Area Basis 50 - 100. Stress Relief: Default: See Area Basis CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding Thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: 0.0. Fluid Depth: Maximum fluid depth: vessel height less 12 INCHES [300 MM]. Fluid Density: Default: *62.40* PCF. Fluid Viscosity: Default: *1.00* CPOISE. Impeller Type: See Impellor Types table. Stiffening Ring Spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Number of Body Flange Sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Diameter Option: Defines desired diameters as ID or OD; Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter

Type

2 Agitators (G6)

2-13

Agitated Tanks (AT) - continued


Description Pressure/vacuum vessel, jacketed. Includes jacket motor gear drive and shaft seal, agitator, shaft, thermometer well, blow-pipe, insulation and safety valves. Rating of full vacuum and design pressure. Application symbol: Defines vessel function and related pipe/instrum. model. <blank>- Standard continuous process BATCH- Batch process Shell Material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. (Cladding is defined below.) Default: *A285C*. Liquid Volume: Enter either Capacity or Diameter and Height. Vessel Diameter: Enter either Capacity or Diameter and Height. Vessel Tangent to Tangent Height: Enter either Capacity or Diameter and Height. Design Gauge Pressure: Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA] If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: Pressure. Vacuum Design Gauge Pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: Pressure. Design Temperature: Ferrous matl: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C]; Other matl: 250 DEG F [120 DEG C]. Operating Temperature: Default: Design temperature. Jacket Design Gauge Pressure: *90* PSIG [*620* KPA] Jacket Type: Default: *FULL* FULL- Full jacket PIPE- Half-pipe jacket Type REACTOR

- Continued on next page -

2-14

2 Agitators (G6)

Agitated Tanks (AT) - continued


Description REACTOR - continued Jacket Material: Default: *CS* CS - Carbon steel A 515 - A 515 A 204C - C - .5Mo A 387B - 1Cr - .5Mo A 387D - 2.25Cr - 1Mo SS304 - SS304 SS316 - SS316 SS321 - SS321 SS347 - SS347 SS410 - SS410 SS430 - SS430 304L - 304L 316L - 316L NI - Nickel INCNL - Inconel MONEL - Monel HAST - Hastelloy SEE CARBON STEEL - Select from types of Carbon Steel SEE HEAT-TREATED STEEL - Select from types of Heat Treated Steel SEE LOW ALLOY STEEL - Select from types of Low Alloy Steel SEE HIGH ALLOY STEEL - Select from types of High Alloy Steel SEE NON-FERROUS - Select from types of Non-Ferrous Steel Driver Type: Default: *STD* STD - Standard motor VFD - Variable frequency drive Cladding Material: Default: None. Skirt or Leg Height: Enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure, legs provided if capacity < 10,000 GAL [37 M3]. Manhole Diameter: If no value is specified, a value is calculated as a function of vessel diameter and height with a maximum manhole diameter of 48 INCHES [1200 MM]. Type

- Continued on next page -

2 Agitators (G6)

2-15

Agitated Tanks (AT) - continued


Description REACTOR - continued Base Material Thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion Allowance: For CS alloys, the default is 0.125 INCHES [3 MM]; 0.0 for all other materials. Weld Efficiency: 5 - 100 (For ASME and JIS codes only). Stress Relief: CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding Thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise 0.0. Fluid Depth: Maximum fluid depth: vessel height less 12 INCHES [300 MM] Fluid Density: *62.4* PCF [*1,000* KG/M3] Fluid Viscosity: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Impeller Type: See Impeller Types table later in this chapter. Stiffening Ring Spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Number of Body Flange Sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Diameter Option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD. Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside Diameter ID- Inside Diameter Type

2-16

2 Agitators (G6)

Agitated Tanks (AT) - continued


Description Type Pulpers are used for pulping the waste generated by MACH PULP mill operation or in a paper recycling process. Hence OFF MACH the two types: on-machine and off-machine pulpers. Both include a pulping tank with support legs, nozzles (feed, drain and level control). The pulper itself consists of an extraction plate, extraction chamber with flanged outlet, rotor blade, hub, shaft with gear or V-belt drive, drive motor, motor coupling and an adapter plate. Multiple rotors can be selected. MACH PUMP

Application Symbol: Default: *BATCH*


BATCH - Batch pulper CONT- Continuous pulper Tank or Vat Material: CS, SS304, *SS316*, SS321, SS347, 304L, 316L, NI, INCNL, MONEL, HAST, TI Configuration: Default: *RECT* CYLIN- Cylindrical tank RECT- Rectangular tank Hydraulic Volume: Enter pulping rate or hydraulic capacity. Pulping Rate Air Dried: Enter pulping rate or hydraulic capacity. Tank Length or Diameter: Enter length for rectangular tank or diameter for cylindrical tank. Vessel Width: Rectangular tanks only. Number of Rotors or Drives: 1-2; Default: *1*. Consistency Air Dried: Max: 18; Default: *4.00* Impeller Type: Default: *STD* STD - Standard rotor shaft length EXTD - Extended rotor shaft length

- Continued on next page -

2 Agitators (G6)

2-17

Description MACH PULP - continued Impeller Material: CS, SS304, *SS316*, SS321, SS347, 304L, 316L, NI, INCNL, MONEL, HAST, TI Driver Type: Default: *GEAR* BELT - Belt driven speed reduction GEAR - Gear drive speed reduction Design Temperature: *68.0* DEG F [*20.0* DEG C] Seal for Shaft: Default: *PACK* PACK - Packing MECH - Mechanical seal Corrosion Allowance: For CS alloys, the default is 0.125 INCHES [3 MM]; 0.0 for all other materials. Driver Speed: Max: 3,000 RPM [2,600 RPM]; Default: *1,500* RPM [*1,800 RPM] Vessel Leg Height: *10.0* FEET [*3.00* M] Number of Manholes: Default: *1*. Manhole Diameter: If no value is specified, a value is calculated as a function of vessel diameter and height with a maximum manhole diameter of 48 INCHES [1200 MM]. Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]

Type

Application Symbol: Default: *BATCH* OFF MACH BATCH - Batch pulper CONT - Continuous pulper Tank or Vat Material: CS, SS304, *SS316*, SS321, SS347, 304L, S16L, NI, INCNL, MONEL, HAST, TI. Configuration: Default: *CYLIN* CYLIN - Cylindrical tank RECT - Rectangular tank Hydraulic Volume: Enter tank capacity or tank dimensions. Tank Length or Diameter: Enter tank capacity or dimensions, diameter for cylindrical, length for rectangular. Vessel Height: Enter tank capacity or tank dimensions. - Continued on next page -

2-18

2 Agitators (G6)

Agitated Tanks (AT) - continued


Description OFF MATCH - continued Vessel Width: Enter tank capacity or dimensions, width is for rectangular tanks only. Number of Rotors or Drives: 1-2, Default: *1*. Consistency Air Dried: Max: 18; Default: *4.0*. Impeller Type: Default: *EXTD*. <blank> - Standard rotor shaft length EXTD - Extended rotor shaft length Impeller Material: CS, SS304, *SS316*, SS321, SS347, 304L, S16L, NI, INCNL, MONEL, HAST, TI Driver Type: Default: *GEAR* BELT - Belt driven speed reduction GEAR - Gear drive speed reduction Design Temperature: Default: *68.0* DEG F [*20.0* DEG C]. Seal for Shaft: Default: *PACK*. PACK - Packing MECH - Mechanical seal Corrosion Allowance: For CS alloys, the default is 0.125 INCHES [3.0 MM]; 0.0 for all other materials. Driver Speed: Max: 3,000 RPM [2,600 RPM]; Default: *1,500 RPM [*1,800* RPM]. Vessel +Leg Height: Default *10* FEET [*3.0* M]. Number of Manholes: Default: *1*. Manhole Diameter: If no values is specified, a value is calculated as a function of vessel diameter and height with a maximum diameter of 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]. Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]. Type

2 Agitators (G6)

2-19

Agitated Tanks (AT) - continued


Description Conditioning cell for floatation machine. Material: Default: *CS* Cell Volume: 10.0 - 1,500.0 CF [0.3 - 40 M3] Floatation machine, minerals separation, multi-cell. FLOAT CELL Type COND CELL

Floatation machine for selectively separating minerals by agitation, air dissemination and chemical adhesion. Includes one row of cells connected in series with one feed box, one discharge box and one connection box for each group of four cells.
Material: Default: *CS* Volume Per Cell: 10 - 1,500 CF [0.3 - 40 M3] Number of Cells: Refers to number per row connected in series. Number of Cells Per Motor: 1 - 2; Default: *1*

2-20

2 Agitators (G6)

Description of Agitated Tanks


1 2 3 4 Reynolds Number (RN), dimensionless: RN = (D2N) (FD/FV) Froude Number (FN), dimensionless: FN = g/N2D Power Number (PN), dimensionless: PN = (Pgc/FD) (N3D5) Power Function (PF), dimensionless: For RN > 300 and for unbaffled tanks, log PF = log PN - (a-log RN) (log FN) /b For RN < or = 300 for tanks with or without baffles, FP = PN 5 Relationships between PF, PN, FN, RN for each impeller listed in the Impeller Types table are contained in the AT agitated tank model. Power is derived from PN. General Nomenclature
Description impeller contant impeller contant impeller diameter Froude Number local acceleration due to gravity gravitational constant rotational speed of impeller power to shaft of impeller Power number Reynolds number fluid density fluid viscosity See Chapter 29: Units of Measure Value See Impeller Types table See Impeller Types table

6
a b D FN g gc N P PN RN FD FV

Variable

2 Agitators (G6)

2-21

Impeller Types - General Range of Basic Data**


Impeller No. 1 Type Symbol T6FB Type Reynolds Number D/d L/d 2.7-3.9 E/d 0.75-1.3 Low High 1-10
6

Baffles No. 4 B/D 0.17 Ref 1

Turbine with 3 six flat blades. B=0.25d; Blade Height = 0.2d Same as No.1 Same as No.1 Same as No.1;a=1, b=40 Turbine with six curved blades. Blade sizes same as No.1 Turbine with six arrowhead blades. Blade size same as No.1 3 3 3

2 3 4*

T6FB2 T6FB3 T6FB4

2.7-3.9 2.7-3.9 2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3 0.75-1.3 0.75-1.3

1-106 1-106 1-106

4 4 0

0.10 0.04 -

1 1 1

T6CB

2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3

1.8-106 4

0.10

T6AB

2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3

3-106

0.10

STDR

Shrouded 2.4 turbine with six blades. 20 blade deflector ring. Similar to No.7, 3 but not identical. Same as No.8, 3 but no deflector ring. Axial turbine with eight blades at a 45 degree angle. See No.11. Axial turbine with four blades at a 60 degree angle. B=0.25d. 3

0.74

0.9

20,000- 0 90,000

STDR2

2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3

2.5-106 0

ST

2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3

10-106 4

0.10

10

AT8B45

2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3

1.8-106 4

0.10

11

AT4B60

0.50

1560,000

2-22

2 Agitators (G6)

Impeller Types - General Range of Basic Data** - continued


Impeller No. 12 Type Symbol Type AT4B45 Axial turbine with four blades at a 45 degree angle. See No. 11 Paddle with four blades. Reynolds Number D/d L/d 5.2 5.2 E/d 0.87 Low High 60040,000 Baffles No. B/D 0 Ref 3

13 14

P4B P2B3

3 2.7-3.9

0.50 0.70-1.3

200 70,000 2-106

0 4

0.10

3 1

Paddle with two 3 blades. See No.13. Marine propeller with three blades. Pitch-2d; a=1.7; b=18. Same as No.15, but pitch=1.05d; a-2.3; b=18. Same as No.15, but pitch=1.04d; a=0; b=18. Same as No.15, but pitch=d Same as No.15, but pitch=d; a=2.1; b=18. Same as No.15, but pitch=d Helical ribbon. Ribbon width=d/ 8.5;helical screw=D/30. 3.3

15

MP3B2

2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3

2.5-106 0

16

MP3B5

4.5

2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3

2.5-106 0

17*

MP3B6

4.5

2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3

2.5-106 0

18

MP3B7

2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3

2.3-106 4

0.10

19*

MP3B8

2.7-3.9

0.75-1.3

2.5-106 0

20

MP3B9

3.8

3.5

1.0

3000 500,000 0.7-23 0

21

HRA

1.05 1.5

* Surface effects are important. Froude number is included for Reynolds Numbers great than 300. **System will permit extension beyond these ranges. Please check your results.

2 Agitators (G6)

2-23

Impeller Materials
If Component CLAD GLSCS Other Impeller Material Match cladding SS316 blades/shaft Match steel

Impeller Type References


Ref 1 2 3 4 5 Reference for Impeller Type Rushton, J. H., E. Costich, and H. J. Everett, Presented at Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Detroit, 1947. Olney, R. B., and G. J. Carlson, Chemical Engineering Progress, 43, 473, 1947. Hixson, S. Q., and S. J. Baum, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 34, 194, 1942. Stoops, C. E., and C. L. Lovell, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 35, 845, 1943. Gray, J. B., Chemical Engineering Progress, 59, 55, 1963.

Legend for Impellers B - Baffle width D - Tank diameter d - Impeller diameter E - Impeller elevation above tank bottom. H - Tangent-to-tangent height of tank. L - Liquid level in tank.
Motor/Reducer

12 INCH Min.

d B D

2-24

2 Agitators (G6)

Blenders (BL)
Rotary, batch, dry or semi-dry solids, motor and speed reducer.
Description Rotary drum. For batch blending of dry or semi-dry solids. Includes motor and drive. Material: *CS*, SS Blender Volume: 1 - 450 CF [0.03 - 12 M3] Product Density: MAX: 200 PCF [3,200 KG/M3]; Default: *50* PCF [*800* KG/M3] Driver Speed: Default: *1,800* RPM Rotary double-cone. For batch blending of dry solids. Includes motor and drive. Material: *CS*, SS316 Blender Volume: 5 - 350 CF [0.02 - 9 M3] Driver Speed: 30 x Hz RPM Material: GSLCS Blender Volume: 2 - 165 CF [0.06 - 2.5 M3] Driver Speed: 30 x Hz RPM Sanitary kettle blender without agitator. Used for gentle blending or folding of viscous mixtures. Add agitator separately. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. Liquid Volume: MIN: 50 GALLONS [0.19 M3], MAX: 600 GALLONS [0.19 M3] - Continued on next page KETTLE .ROTARY Type BLENDER

2 Agitators (G6)

2-25

Blenders (BL) - continued


Description KETTLE - continued Operating Temperature: *68 DEG F [20 DEG C] Cover Type: *LFTHG*- Lift-off or hinged cover NONE- No cover required Lift off cover to 80 GAL [0.3 M3], else hinged cover. Jacket option: *NO*- Jacket not required YES- Jacket is required Mounting type: *RIM*- Rim mounting LEGS- Leg type mounting Sanitary rotary bowl blender. ROTARYBOWL Type

Consists of a stainless steel drum with motor drive mounted on a frame. Used for wet or dry mixtures. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added.
Material: SS304, *SS316* Liquid Volume: MIN: 25 GALLONS [0.1 M3], MAX: 160 GALLONS [0.6 M3]

Mounting type: *FIXD*- Fixed type blender PORT- Portable type blender on casters

2-26

2 Agitators (G6)

Blenders (BL) - continued


Description Sanitary, multi-shell, staggered blender Continuous, zig-zag type blender combines the action of a rotating, eccentric drum with multiple recycling. Used for either uniform solids-solids blending (e.g., blending vitamins into cereals) or, if SOL-LIQ is selected in the Application field, solidsliquids blending (e.g., coating food particles with sweeteners). Solids are fed through an inlet chute. If SOL-LIQ is selected, a dispersion head is included for liquid injection. Although not included on the inputs, this piece of equipment either operates at 50% (recommended) or at 100% of its capacity. When the capacity is specified, the system selects a model that can provide the capacity while operating at 50% of the model's rated capacity. However, if a diameter is specified, the system provides the rated capacity in the results. Type MSHELSTAG

If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added.


Material: SS304, *SS316* Flow rate: MIN: 250.0 LB/H [115.0 KG/H], MAX: 500,000.0 LB/H [227,000.0 KG/H]. Enter diameter or capacity. Capacity limits are at default density and residence time. Blender diameter: MIN: 8 INCHES [200 MM], 40 INCHES [1,000 MM]. Blender type: *SOL-SOL*- Solids-solids blending SOL-LIQ- Solids-liquids blending Driver type: *WVRDC*- Washdown, VFD rated, direct drive, CS WVCDC- Washdown, VFD controlled, direct drive, CS Product residence time: MIN: 1.00 MINUTES, MAX: 3.00 MINUTES, Default: *1.50 MINUTES* Product density: MIN: 30.0 PCF [480.0 KG/M3], MAX: 300.0 PCF [4,800.0 KG/M3}; Default: *40 PCF [640 KG/M3].*

2 Agitators (G6)

2-27

Kneaders (K)
Jacket, motor, motor reducer, cover, nozzles and agitator.
Description Stationary, upright double-arm. STATIONARY Material: *CS*, SS304, SS316, MONEL Liquid Volume: 100 - 750 GALLONS [0.4 to 2.8 M3] Tilting, double-arm. Material: *CS*, SS304, SS316, MONEL Liquid Volume: 10 - 500 GALLONS [0.5 to 1.8 M3] Vacuum, tilting, double-arm. Material: *CS*, SS304, SS316, MONEL Liquid Volume: 10 - 500 GALLONS [0.5 to 1.8 M3] VAC TILTNG TILTING Type

2-28

2 Agitators (G6)

Mixers (MX)
Typically used for keeping solids in suspension, for dissolving solids and for mixing and/or reacting two or more feed streams.
Description Cylinder type extruder with variable drive. Material: *CS* Driver power: 5 - 40 HP [4 - 30 KW] Driver speed: Max: 60 x HZ; Default: *30 x HZ* Extruder muller type with open motor. Material: *CS* Driver Power: 3 - 75 HP [2.22 - 55 KW] Driver Speed: Max: 60 x HZ; Default: *30 x HZ* Pan includes motor and drive. Material: *CS* Mixer Volume: 4 - 40 CF [0.2 - 1.1 M3] Driver speed: Max: 60 x HZ; Default: *30 x HZ* Portable propeller mixer with motor to 7.5 HP [5.5 KW]. Includes motor driver. Material: *CS*, SS Driver power: 0.33 - 7.5 HP [0.75 - 5.5 KW] Fixed propeller mixer with motor and gear drive to 100 FIXED PROP HP [75 KW]. This item is a top entering mixer including a gear drive, TEFC motor, shaft and impeller. Material: *CS*, SS Driver power: 2 - 100 HP [1.5 - 75 KW] PORT PROP PAN MULLER EXT Type EXTRUDER

2 Agitators (G6)

2-29

Mixers (MX) - continued


Description Type Sigma double-arm non-vacuum mixer with motor and SIGMA drive. Material: *CS* Driver power: 2 - 100 HP [2.22 - 6.0 KW] Mixer Volume: 1 - 70 CF [0.05 - 1.9 M3] Driver speed: Max: 60 x HZ; Default: *30 x HZ* Spiral ribbon includes motor and drive. Material: *CS* Driver power: 5 - 50 HP [4 - 37.5 KW] Mixer Volume: 10 - 395 CF [0.3 - 11 M3] Driver speed: Max: 60 x HZ; Default: *30 x HZ* SPIRAL RIB

Static mixer used for instantaneous mixing of two fluid streams. The unit includes the main pipe housing, the mixer elements and the flanges at both ends.
Pipe material: A 53, A 106, *304P*, 304LP, 316P, 316LP, 316PS (SS316 sanitary pipe, MAX: 8 INCHES [200 MM]), 321P, NI, MONEL, INCNL, TI Flow type: *TRNS*, TURB, LAMN, PLUG (default for sanitary material) Pipe diameter: 0.5 - 12.0 IN DIAM [12 - 300 MM DIAM]

STATIC

- Continued on next page -

2-30

2 Agitators (G6)

Mixers (MX) - continued


Description Type

STATIC - continued Note: For non-sanitary material, use any pipe diameter in the above range; for sanitary material, use only the following: INCHES 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 4.00 MM 15 20 25 40 50 65 80 100

Enter liquid flow rate or diameter and length. Number of elements: Default varies with flow type. Element material: CS, SS, NI, MONEL, TI, HAST, HASTC, PD; Default: *SS304* Design temperature Inlet: *68.0* DEG F [*20.0* DEG C] Fluid density: *62.4* PCF [*300* KG/M3] Fluid viscosity: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Design gauge pressure Inlet: 15.0 PSIG [100 KPA]

2 Agitators (G6)

2-31

Mixers (MX) - continued


Description Two roll includes motor and drive. Material: *CS* Driver power: 50 - 300 HP [37.5 - 224 KW] Driver speed: Max: 60 x HZ; Default: *30 x HZ* Type TWO ROLL

Sanitary high-speed Norman-type mixer HIGH SPEED For dissolving solids or semi-solids. Pulls product from the top center of the square tank (shape ensures complete hydration) down to the high-speed impeller, which forces it out to the side of the tank and back up to the surface. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. Material: SS304, *SS316* Liquid Volume: MIN: 50 GALLONS [0.19 M3], MAX: 300 GALLONS [1.13 M3] Impeller type: FRZN- Frozen food mixing *NFRZ*- Non-frozen food mixing Driver type: *WXXBC*- Washdown, belt drive, CS WVRBC- Washdown, VFD rated, belt drive, CS WVCBC- Washdown, VFD controlled, belt drive, CS Sanitary ribbon blender RIBBON

Provides means for mixing, homogenizing, and drying a wide variety of products. Includes base unit, direct drive motor, jacket, and stainless steel legs. Cover has four safety interlock sensors, as well as a manual control ball valve for air supply. For sanitary reasons, material of construction is stainless steel (carbon steel may be specified for legs).
If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. - Continued on next page -

2-32

2 Agitators (G6)

Mixers (MX) - continued


Description RIBBON - continued Material: SS304, *SS316* Blender type: *1SHAFT* - Single shaft blender 2SHAFT - Twin shaft blender (available only for capacities of 500 - 750 GALLONS [1.9 - 2.85 M3] Liquid volume: MIN: 10 GALLONS [0.038 M3], MAX: 3,800 GALLONS [14.3 M3] Driver power per shaft: MIN: 1 HP [0.75 KW], MAX: 150 HP [112 KW] For twin shaft type, this is the driver power for each shaft. Driver type: *WXXDC*- Washdown, direct drive, CS WVCDC- Washdown, VFD controlled, direct drive, CS WXXIC- Washdown, indirect drive, CS WVCIC- Washdown, VFD control, indirect drive, CS HXXCZ- Hydraulic drive with hydraulic system (available for twin shaft only) No indirect drivers < 180 GALLONS [0.68 M3] or < 7.5 HP [5.5KW] Cover type: NONE- Cover not required STD- Standard cover is required LCHTS- Load chute for twin shaft blender only Default: STD for twin shaft, NONE for single shaft Jacket option: NO- Jacket not required *YES* - Jacket required Not applicable for twin shaft blender type. Leg material: CS- Carbon steel *SS*- Stainless steel Not applicable for twin shaft blender type. Seal for shaft: *STD*- Standard shaft seal MECO- Clean-In-Place steam proof seal Applicable for twin shaft only Type

2 Agitators (G6)

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Mixers (MX) - continued


Description RIBBON - continued Operating temperature: MIN: 68 DEG F [20 DEG C] Sanitary piston-type homogenizer PISTON HOM Type

Homogenizing valve employs cavitation, shear, and impingement forces to reduce gobule/ particle size as the product passes through it. Material is SS316 for sanitary reasons. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added.
Liquid flow rate per hour: MIN: 15 GPH [0.057 M3/H], MAX: 9,900 GPH [37.4 M3/H] @ 2000 PSIG [13800 KPA], 2000 GPH (7.5 M3/H) @ 10, 000 PSIG [68,900 KPA] Driver power: MIN: 3 HP [2.22 KW], MAX: 250 HP [180 KW] Plunger diameter: MIN: 0.625 INCHES [16 MM], MAX: 3.5 INCHES [90 KW]. Maximum is influenced by capacity and gauge pressure (see table below). Required: enter either plunger diameter or gauge pressure.

Plunger Diameter @ 2000 PSIG [13800 KPA] Gauge Pressure 0.625 ---3.52 3.1253 16 ---902 803 @ 10000 PSIG [68900 KPA] Gauge Pressure INCHES MM 0.625 1.5
1

Capacity GPH 15 2000 6000 9000 .057 7.5 22.7 37.4

M3/H INCHES MM

16 401 -------

-------

1 Maximum capacity at highest maximum operating pressure 2


Maximum diameter

3 Maximum capacity at lowest maximum operating pressure

Operating gauge pressure: MIN: 2,000 PSIG [13,800 KPA], 10,000 PSIG [68,900 KPA]

Required: enter either plunger diameter or gauge pressure.

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2 Agitators (G6)

Mixers (MX) - continued


Description Sanitary shear pump homogenizer. Item SHEAR HOM

For continuous, in-line and controlled batch course processing. Material of construction is SS316 for sanitary reasons.
Liquid flow rate: MIN: 10 GPM [0.64 L/S], MAX: 575 GPM [36.0 L/S] Cooler option: *NONE*- No cooler is required COOL- Cooler is required Driver power: MIN: 5.5 HP [4.0 KW], MAX: 100 HP [75 KW] Driver type: TVRZC- TEFC, VFD rated, CS *TVCZC*- TEFC, VFD controlled, CS Number of stages: *1*, MIN: 1, MAX: 3 The shear pump homogenizer is provided with 3 stages; however, if only 1 or 2 stages are required, then the other stages are blocked.

2 Agitators (G6)

2-35

2-36

2 Agitators (G6)

3 Compressors

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Air Compressors (AC) Gas Compressors (GC) Fans, Blowers (FN)

3 Compressors (G6)

3-1

Air Compressors (AC)


For plant or instrument air. For all air compressors, capacity is at inlet temperature and pressure.
Description Packaged unit including motor driver. Includes inlet air filter, inlet throttle valve, bypass throttle valve, bypass silencer, compressor*, intercoolers**, aftercooler, automatic condensate removal system with condensate bypass valve, lube oil system, continuous baseplate, spacer coupling and guard, induction motor, vibration shutdown system, protection and regulation system, compressor mechanical test run and check valve. *The nominal 110 PSIG discharge machines have four stages of compression. The nominal 325 PSIG discharge machines have five stages of compression. **The four stage machines have three intercoolers. The five stage machines have four intercoolers. Material: *CS*, CI (Cast iron) Actual gas flow rate: 1,000 - 25,000 CFM [1,700 - 42,400 M3/H] Design gauge pressure Outlet: 15 - 325 PSIG [104 - 2,258 KPA] - Continued on next page Type CENTRIF M

3-2

3 Compressors (G6)

Air Compressors (AC) - continued Description CENTRIF M - continued Design temperature Inlet: -50 - 200 DEG F [-45 - 90 DEG C]; Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Design gauge pressure Inlet: Default: *0* PSIG [*0* KPA] Type

Packaged unit including turbine driver. Includes the same items as CENTRIF M except the compressor driver is a steam turbine instead of AC induction motor.
Material: *CS*, CI (Cast iron) Actual gas flow rate: 1000 - 25000 CFM [1,700 - 42,400 M3/H] Design gauge pressure Outlet: 15 - 325 PSIG [105 - 2,240 KPA] Design temperature Inlet: -50 - 200 DEG F [-45 - 90 DEG C]; Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Design gauge pressure Inlet: Default: *0* PSIG [*0* KPA]

CENTRIF T

Integral gasoline engine driver, base plate, coupling, RECIP GAS reciprocating gas compressor for compression of large volumes of air to high pressure, less coolers, filters, condensate removal (not a packaged unit). Material: *CS* Design gauge pressure Outlet: Max: 6,000 PSIG [41,300 KPA] Driver power: 100 - 10000 HP [75 - 7100 KW] Design temperature Inlet: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Design gauge pressure Inlet: Default: *0* PSIG [*0* KPA]

3 Compressors (G6)

3-3

Air Compressors (AC) - continued Description Type RECIP MOTR

Motor driven reciprocating gas compressor, with speed reducer, pulsation dampers for compression of large volumes of air to high pressure, less coolers, filters, condensate removal (not a packaged unit).
Material: *CS* Design gauge Pressure outlet: Max: 6,000 PSIG [41,300 KPA] Design gauge pressure Inlet: Default: *68* PSIG [*20* KPA] Driver Power: Max: 15,000 HP [11,000 KW] Design temperature Inlet: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]

SINGLE 1 S Single stage, non-lubricated, packaged reciprocating compressor for oil-free air; includes motor and drive, coupling, base plate, cooler. Material: *CS* Actual gas flow rate: 75 - 1,100 CFM [130 - 1,850 M3/H] Design gauge pressure Outlet: 90 - 150 PSIG [620 - 1,000 KPA] Design temperature Inlet: -50 - 200 DEG F [-45 - 90 DEG C]; Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Design gauge pressure Inlet: Default:*0* PSIG [*0* KPA]

Two stage, non-lubricated, packaged reciprocating air compressor for oil-free air; includes motor and drive, coupling, base plate, and cooler.
Material: *CS* Actual gas flow rate: 80 - 700 CFM [140 - 1,150 M3/H] Design gauge pressure Outlet: 150 - 500 PSIG [1,040 - 3,400 KPA] Design temperature Inlet: -50 - 200 DEC F [-45 - 90 DEG C]; Default: *68* DEG F [*20* KPA] Design gauge pressure Inlet: Default: *0* PSIG [*0* KPA]

SINGLE 2 S

3-4

3 Compressors (G6)

Gas Compressors (GC)


For process gas streams: Centrifugal (motor, turbine, gasoline engine, no driver) Reciprocating (motor, turbine, no driver) - with gear reducer, couplings, guards, base plate, compressor unit, fittings, interconnecting piping, vendo-supplied instruments, lube/seal system; less intercoolers and interstage knock-out drums.

For all gas compressors, capacity is at inlet temperature and pressure.


Description Axial (inline) centrifugal gas compressor with driver (motor, turbine or gasoline driven engine); excluding intercoolers and knock-out drums. Casing material: See Casting Materials in Chapter 28 for a complete list of materials. Default: *CS*. Actual gas flow rate Inlet: 500 - 200000 CFM [850 - 339000 M3/H] Design temperature Inlet: -200 - 200 DEG F [-125 - 90 DEG C]; Default - *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Design gauge pressure Outlet: Max: 2000 PSIG [13750 KPA] Molecular weight: Default: *29* Specific heat ratio: Default: *1.4* Compressibility factor Inlet: Default: *1* Compressibility factor Outlet: Default: *1* Maximum interstage temperature: Specify the maximum temperature reached during compression before inter-cooling. Max: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C]; Default: *350* DEG F [*175* DEG C] Intercooler outlet Temperature: Specify the interstage inlet temperature after cooling. -50 - 150 DEG F [-45 - 65 DEG C]; Default: *90* DEG F [*30* DEG C] Type CENTRIF

- Continued on next page -

3 Compressors (G6)

3-5

Gas Compressors (GC) - continued


Description CENTRIF - continued Driver type: Default: *MOTOR* NONE - No driver GAS ENGINE - Gas engine driver MOTOR - Motor driver TURBINE - Turbine driver Turbine gauge pressure: Max: 1,600 PSIG [11,000 KPA]; Default: *300* PSIG [*2050 KPA] Gear reducer type: Default: gear reducer included if driver type specified; otherwise none. YES - Gear reducer required NO - No gear reducer Lube oil system: Default: *YES* YES - Lube system required NO - No lube oil system CENTRIF IG Integral gear centrifugal gas compressor with driver (motor, turbine or gasoline engine), scrolls (inter-stage piping), bull gear, coupling, guard; may include lube oil system, intercoolers, aftercooler: excludes filter and silencers. Casing material: See Casting Materials in Chapter 28 for a complete list of materials. Default: *CS*. Actual gas flow rate Inlet: 500 - 70,000 CFM [850 - 118,900 M3/H] Design gauge pressure Inlet: -0.4 -100 PSIG [-2.7 - 689 KPA]; Default: *0.0* PSIG [*0.0* KPA] Design temperature Inlet: 32 - 200 DEG F [0 - 90 DEG C]; Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Design gauge pressure Outlet: Max: 700 PSIG [4825 KPA] Design temperature Outlet: -200 - 200 DEG F [-125 - 90 DEG C] Number of impellers: 2-4 - Continued on next page Type

3-6

3 Compressors (G6)

Gas Compressors (GC) - continued


Description CENTRIF IG - continued Gas type option: Sets default gas properties and makes adjustments for explosive gases. Default: *AIR*. AIR - Air O2GAS - Oxygen N2GAS - Nitrogen ARGAS - Argon FLGAS - Flammable gas NONFL - Non-flammable gas Molecular weight: Default based on chosen gas type. Specific heat ratio: Default based on chosen gas type. Compressibility factor Inlet: Default: *1.0*. Compressibility factor Outlet: Default: *1.0*. Intercooler required: Default: *YES* YES - Cooler required NO - None required After cooler Required: Default: *NO*. YES - Cooler required NO - None required Maximum interstage temperature: Specify the maximum temperature reached during compression before inter-cooling. Max: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C]. Intercooler outlet temperature: The interstage inlet temperature after intercooling. - 5- - 150 DEG F [-45 - 65 DEG C]; Default: *90* DEG F [*30* DEG C]. Driver type: Default: *MOTOR* NONE - No driver GAS ENGINE - Gas engine driver MOTOR- Motor driver TURBINE- Turbine driver Type

- Continued on next page -

3 Compressors (G6)

3-7

Gas Compressors (GC) - continued


Description CENTRIF IG - continued Turbine gauge pressure: Max: 1,600 PSIG [11,000 KPA]; Default: *300* PSIG [*2,050* KPA]. Lube oil system: Default: *YES* YES- Lube system required NO- No lube oil system Shop assembly option: Partial assembly denotes multiple skids field connected wither intercoolers. Default: *FULL*. FULL- Full shop assembly PART- Part shop assembly NONE- No shop assembly Motor or turbine-driven reciprocating process gas compressor. Includes motor, gear reducer and pulsation dampers. Does not include intercoolers or aftercoolers. Actual gas flow rate Inlet: Max: 200,000 CFM [339,000 M3/H] Inlet Temperature: -200 - 200 DEG F [-125 - 90 DEG C]; Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Design gauge pressure Outlet: Max: 6,000 PSIG [41,000 KPA] Molecular weight: Default: *30* Specific heat ratio: Default: *1.22* Maximum interstage temperature: Specify the maximum temperature reached during compression before inter-cooling. Max: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C]; Default: *270* DEG F [135 DEG C]. - Continued on next page RECIP MOTR Item

3-8

3 Compressors (G6)

Gas Compressors (GC) - continued


Description RECIP MOTR - continued Intercooler outlet temperature: The interstage inlet temperature after intercooling. -50 - 150 DEG F [-45 - 65 DEG C]; Default: *95* DEG F [*35* DEG C]. Driver Type: Default: *MOTOR* NONE- No driver MOTOR- Motor driver TURBINE- Turbine driver Turbine Press. - Gauge: Max: 1,600 PSIG [11,000 KPA]; Default: *300* PSIG [*2,050* KPA] Gear Reducer Symbol: Default: gear reducer included if driver type specified, otherwise none. YES- Gear reducer required NO- No gear reducer Lube Oil System: Default: *YES* YES- Lube system required NO- No lube oil system Reciprocating gasoline engine drive includes integral gas engine driver, gear reducer, baseplate, coupling, interstage pots and coolers. Material: *CS* Design gauge pressure Outlet: Max: 6,000 PSIG [4,100 KPA] Driver power: Min: 100 HP; Max: 10,000 HP Design temperature inlet: Default: *68* DEC F [*20* DEG C] RECIP GAS Type

3 Compressors (G6)

3-9

Fans, Blowers (FN)


The distinction between the terms fan, blower and compressor is confusing; however, a distinction may be made based upon the mechanical construction of the machine and the pressure rise from inlet to outlet produced by the machine. The Air Moving and Conditioning Association, Incorporated (AMCA) has made 12.25 INCHES of water pressure rise the cut-off between fans and blowers. Assuming an inlet pressure of 0 PSIG, a 12.25 INCHES of water pressure rise corresponds to a compression ratio of 1.3. Machinery used for compression ratios greater than 1.03 are called blowers or compressors. A pressure of 12.25 INCHES of water corresponds to 0.44 PSIG. It is common practice, however, to call any centrifugal gas-moving machine a fan if its construction is of sheet metal and the rotating element is wheel rather than an impeller. Single-stage fans are made with pressure rises of 50 INCHES of water, and two-stage fans with pressure rises up to 100 INCHES of water. Centrifugal blowers (or turbo-blowers) are primarily of cast iron construction and the rotating element is an impeller. Centrifugal blowers normally produce pressure rises in the range of 1 to 40 PSI. Centrifugal blowers may be single- (one impeller) or multi-stage (two or more impellers). A gas-moving machine that produces a pressure rise of more than 40 PSI is called a compressor. Another difference between compressors and blowers is that the design pressure of a blower is never more than 100 PSIG, while compressors are frequently designed for more than 100 PSIG. It should be noted, however, that in the range of 1 to 40 PSI pressure rise with a design pressure less than 100 PSIG, the terms are used interchangeably. With driver, listed in ascending capacity.
Description Type CENT TURBO

Single or multi-stage centrifugal turbo blower. Heavy duty, low noise blower. For moving up to 150,000 CFM of air or other gas through a system with a pressure drop from 1 to 10 PSI. Typical applications include: supplying air to wastewater treatment plant aeration basins; supplying air to blast furnaces, cupolas and converters; pneumatic conveying and supplying combustion air. This item is a centrifugal turbo blower.
Material: *CS* Actual gas flow rate: 100 - 40,000 CFM [170 - 67,950 M3/H] Design gauge pressure Outlet: 0.5 - 30.0 PSIG [3.5 - 205 KPA] Speed: 900 - 3,600 RPM

3-10

3 Compressors (G6)

Fans, Blowers (FN) - continued


Description Centrifugal fan. Applications include: pulling a gas stream through a baghouse, supplying combustion air to boilers and furnaces, boosting the pressure of the combustion gases from a boiler to push the gasses up the boiler stack, pneumatic conveying, solids drying and classifying and ventilation. Centrifugal fans are used to move gas through a low pressure drop system. The maximum pressure rise across a centrifugal fan is about 2 PSI. The most typical materials of construction are carbon steel sheet or plate casing, aluminum or carbon steel wheel (or impeller) and carbon steel shaft. Fans may be fabricated from a variety of other materials such as stainless steel and FRP. Centrifugal fans are classified according to the design of the wheel. The different wheels are: radial blade type, forward-curved, backward-curved, backward-inclined and airfoil. Centrifugal fans are manufactured in sizes that range from less than 100 CFM to 1,000,000 CFM. Material: *CS* Actual gas flow rate: 700 - 150,000 CFM [1,200 - 254,800 M3/H] Fan outlet gauge pressure: 0 - 15 IN H2O [0 - 3,700 PA]; Default: *6* IN H2O [*1,500* PA] Propeller fan. Material: *CS* Actual gas flow rate: 1,000 - 15,000 CFM [1,700 - 25,400 M3/H] PROPELLER Type CENTRIF

3 Compressors (G6)

3-11

Fans, Blowers (FN) - continued


Description Rotary blower. This general purpose blower includes inlet and discharge silencers. Applications include: pneumatic conveying, combustion air, exhausting vapors, instrument air and aeration of fluids. A rotary blower is a positive displacement machine. That is, a constant volume of inlet air (or other gas) is compressed regardless of any changes in the discharge pressure required by the system. The rotary blower moves air in the following manner. Two figure eight shaped impellers are mounted on parallel shafts inside a casing and rotate in opposite directions. As each impeller passes the blower inlet a volume of gas is trapped, carried through to the blower discharge and expelled against the discharge pressure. The casing of the rotary blower is cast iron and the impellers are ductile iron. Rotary blowers are manufactured in standard sizes. Material: *CS* Actual gas flow rate: 100 - 4,000 CFM [170 - 6,700 M3/H] Design gauge pressure Outlet: 2 - 15 PSIG [15 - 100 KPA]; Default: *8* PSIG [*55* KPA] Speed: 900 - 3,600 RPM Vaneaxial fan. Material: *CS* Actual gas flow rate: 2,300 - 40,000 CFM [3.950 - 67,900 M3/H] VANEAXIAL Type ROT BLOWER

3-12

3 Compressors (G6)

4 Drivers

(G11)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Electrical Motors (MOT) Power Level Standard Motor Sizes Synchronous Motor Speeds (RPM) Turbines (TUR)

4 Drivers (G11)

4-1

Electrical Motors (MOT)


Electrical motors serve as the primary means of driving the rotating equipment, for example, pumps, compressors and fans. Motors are built in a wide range of enclosure types, rotating speeds and horsepowers. Selection of a particular motor warrants careful consideration of the motors application. The considerations at the site (temperature, air-borne particles, moisture, oil vapor, dust, abrasive or conducting particles, corrosive fumes or explosive gases), and the specific use of a motor (e.g., pump, compressor or crusher driver) determine the hazards involved and the protective measures required for safe operation. These considerations led to motor classification by enclosure types.
Description Standard open drip-proof motors with vent openings for indoor service: Driver Power: 0.75 - 50,000 HP [0.75 - 37,000 KW] Enclosure Type: Default: *STD* STD- Standard indoor service (open drip- proof with vent openings) WPI- Normal outdoor service (weatherprotected (rain, snow, air-borne particles) WPII- Severe outdoor service (outside weather-protected service) Type OPEN

- Continued on next page -

4-2

4 Drivers (G11)

Electrical Motors (MOT) - continued


Description OPEN - continued Driver Type: Default: *STD* STD- Standard motor VFD- Variable frequency drive Speed: Range: (15 x HZ) - (60 x HZ) RPM; Default: * (30 x HZ)* RPM Synchronous motors with high efficiency at low speed for large HP [KW] requirements, reciprocating SYNCHRON Type

compressors, pump compressors, pumps, crushers and mixers.

Driver Power: 200 - 20,000 HP [150 - 15,000 KW] Enclosure Type: Default: Water cooled if greater than 8,000 HP [6,000], else standard. STD- Standard outdoor service WPI- Normal outdoor service WPII- Severe outdoor service TEWAC- Water cooled Speed: Range: (3.7 x HZ) - (30 x HZ) RPM; Default: * (30 x HZ)* RPM Totally-enclosed fan-cooled motors (TEFC) The TEFC motor is especially suitable for outdoor use involving severe environmental conditions. It can also withstand severe operating conditions (heat, lint and dirt) when used indoors. The TEFC is a totally enclosed machine constructed to prohibit the exchange of air between the inside and outside of the casing. It is cooled by means of a fan integral with the machine but external to the electric parts. TEFC motors are available from 1 - 500 HP. For severe service conditions requiring up to 200 HP, TEFC motors are less costly and provide better protection than weather-protected motors. Except for some specially designed enclosures, the TEFC motor provides the best protection against moisture, corrosive vapors, dust and dirt. ENCLOSED

- Continued on next page -

4 Drivers (G11)

4-3

Electrical Motors (MOT) - continued


Description ENCLOSED - continued Driver Power: 0.75 - 10,000 HP [0.75 - 7,100 KW] Driver Type: Default: Water cooled (TEWAC) if greater than 300 HP [224 KW], else fan cooled (TEFC). STD- Standard motor VFD- Variable frequency drive Speed: Range: (20 x HZ) - (60 x HZ) RPM; Default: *(30 x HZ)* RPM. Explosion-proof motors for Class I Division 1 hazardous use. Explosion-proof motors are required when the location of the motor is classified according to the NEC (National Electrical Code) as a Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Area. Class I represents an area containing flammable gases or vapors and Division 1 specifies that hazardous atmospheres can occur under normal operation conditions. The source of a hazardous atmosphere is generally leakage from process equipment (e.g., pumps or compressors) handling combustible volatile liquids or combustible gases. An explosion-proof motor is basically a TEFC motor with heavier construction and more careful machining. An explosion-proof motor has an enclosure designed to withstand the explosion of a gas or vapor occurring within it and to prevent the ignition of the atmosphere surrounding the machine by sparks, flashes or explosions from within. Explosion proof motors are available up to 3,000 HP at 3,600 RPM. Driver Power: 0.75 - 4,000 HP [0.75 - 2,800 KW] Driver Type: Default: *STD* STD- Standard motor VFD- Variable frequency drive Speed: Range: (20 x HZ) - (30 x HZ) RPM; Default: *(30 x HZ)* RPM. EXP PROOF Type

4-4

4 Drivers (G11)

Electrical Motors (MOT) - continued


Description TEFC motor integral with variable speed drive. Includes handwheel control of sheaves with a built-in indicator and TEFC motor as an integral part of the unit. This component is used when there is an optimum speed at which to run a process machine (e.g., pumps, fans, mixers, dryers and crushers). A mechanical speed drive permits the adjustment of output speed by mechanical means (manually adjusted). The motor speed (input speed) is geared down by a system of pulleys to supply lower shaft speeds (output speed) to process equipment. Available output speeds range from approximately 5 - 4,000 RPM. Pulley ratios of input to output speeds range from 2:1 through 10:1. Mechanical variable speed Type VARY SPEED

drives typically range from 0.5 to 50 HP. Speed adjustment can be either manual, by turning a handle, or automatic. Although the mechanical variable speed motor provides high efficiency over the entire speed range, it does not supply a high degree of accuracy in speed regulation.

(Variable frequency driver available with OPEN, ENCLOSED, EXP PROOF.) Low Speed: (.09 x HZ) - (9.6 x HZ) RPM High Speed: (1.4 x HZ) - (58 x HZ) RPM Driver Power: 0.5 - 400 HP [0.75 - 300 KW]

4 Drivers (G11)

4-5

Power Level
Power is supplied to a motor at a voltage level as follows.
Voltage Level (3 Phase Service) Motor Size Less than 1 HP [0.75 KW] 1 HP to under MDP (*200* HP) [.75 KW to under MDP (*150* KW)] MDP (*200* HP) to 4,000 HP [MDP (*150* KW) to 3,000 KW] Greater than 4,000 HP [3,000 KW] Frequency US Country Base UK Country Base 110 V Low Voltage *230/480* V 4,160 V 240v Low Voltage *415* V 3,300 V

13,800 V 60 Hertz

11,000 V 50 Hertz

10000 - 37000 KW: Increments of 1000 KW

4-6

4 Drivers (G11)

Standard Motor Sizes


HP 0.125 0.25 0.333 0.5 0.75 1 1.5 2 3 5 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 200 - 500 HP:increments of 50 500 - 1000 HP:increments of 100 1000 - 2500 HP:increments of 250 2500 - 6000 HP:increments of 500 6000 - 20000 HP:increments of 1000 20000 - 40000 HP:increments of 2500 40000 - 50000 HP:increments of 5000 0.75 1.11 1.50 2.22 3.0 4.0 5.5 7.5 11.0 15.0 18.5 22.0 30.0 37.5 45.0 55.0 75.0 80 80 85 95 100 106 112 118 125 132 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 212 224 236 250 265 280 300 315 335 375 400 425 450 475 KW 500 530 560 560 600 630 670 710 750 800 900 1000 1120 1250 1400 1600 1800 2000 2240 2500 2500 2800 3150 3550 4000 4500 5000 5600 6300 7100 8000 9000 10000

4 Drivers (G11)

4-7

Synchronous Motor Speeds (RPM)


60 Hertz Service 1800 1200 900 720 600 514 450 400 360 327 300 277 257 240 225 1500 1000 750 600 500 428 375 333 300 272 250 231 214 200 187 50 Hertz Service

4-8

4 Drivers (G11)

Turbines (TUR)
Description Steam turbine driver includes condenser and accessories. Material: Default: *CS* Power Output: 10 - 30,000 HP [8 - 22,300 KW] Steam Gauge Pressure: Max: 1,600 PSIG [11,000 KPA]; Default: *400* PSIG [*2,700* KPA] Speed: Max: 3,600 RPM; Default: *3,600* RPM Non-condensing type steam turbine driver includes accessories. Material: Default: *CS* Power Output: 10 - 30,000 HP [8 - 22,300 KW] Steam Gauge Pressure: Max: 1,600 PSIG [11,000 KPA]; Default: *400* PSIG [*2,700* KPA] Speed: Max: 3,600 RPM; Default: *3,600* RPM NON COND Type CONDENSING

4 Drivers (G11)

4-9

Description

Type

Gas turbine includes fuel gas combustion chamber and GAS multi-stage turbine expander. Material: Default: *CS* Power Output: 1,000 - 370,000 HP [750 - 276,000 KW Turbo expander includes only the expander (turbine) part and any spare cartridges. It does not include compressor (booster) part. So, all input/output variables in the model refer to an expansion process, and the resulting cost and weight data belong only to the expander part. Actual gas flow rate Inlet: Range: 5 - 200,000 CFM [8.5 - 339,800 m3/hr] Required field Design gauge pressure Inlet: Range: (>0) - 3000 PSIG [(>0) - 20,684 kPag] Required field Design temperature Inlet: Range: -450 to 600 DEG F [-267 to 315 DEG C] Default: *70* DEG F [*21* DEG C] Design gauge pressure Outlet: Range: 0 - 1 ,000 PSIG [0 - 6,894 kPag] Required field Power output: Range: (>0) - 2,000 HP [(>0) - 1,500 kW] Molecular weight: Range: 1 - 500 Default: *29* Default molecular weight is that of air Specific heat ratio: Range: 1.04 - 2 Default: *1.4* Default specific heat ratio is that of air Compressibility factor Inlet: Range: 0.05 - 3 Default: *1* Default compressibility factor assumes an ideal gas Isentropic efficiency: Range: 30 - 100 PERCENT Default: *85* PERCENT Number of spare cartridges: Min: 0 Default: *0* TURBOEXP

4-10

4 Drivers (G11)

5 Heat Transfer

(G10)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Heat Exchangers (HE) Reboilers (RB) Furnaces, Process Heaters (FU) TEMA Exchanger Construction Nomenclature Icarus Supported TEMA Types

5 Heat Transfer (G10)

5-1

Heat Exchangers (HE)


Heat exchangers are used to transfer heat from one fluid to another fluid. In the terminology of chemical engineering, a fluid may be either a gas or a liquid. Therefore, when we say we are transferring heat from one fluid to another, we can mean either a gas-gas exchanger, a liquid-liquid exchanger or a gas-liquid exchanger. Heat exchangers may be called by other names depending upon their specific purpose. If a process fluid is being cooled with water, the term cooler is often used. If a gaseous process fluid is cooled with water until it becomes a liquid, the term condenser is used. If a liquid process fluid is heated (usually with steam) until it turns into a gas, the term vaporizer is used. If a process fluid is heated (usually with steam) the term economizer is used. If two process fluids exchange heat, the term heat exchanger is used. The most common type of heat exchanger, and therefore, the kind described here, is the shell and tube heat exchanger. The shell and tube heat exchanger consists of a bundle of tubes. Each tube is usually 3/4 or INCH in outside diameter and 20 to 40 FEET long. The tube bundle is held in a cylindrical shape by plates at either end called tube sheets. The tube bundle is placed inside a cylindrical shell. The design of the shell and tube heat exchanger is such that one fluid flows inside the tubes, while the other fluid flows over the outside of the tubes. Heat is transferred through the tube walls. The size of a heat exchanger is defined as the total outside surface area of the tube bundle. Wide variety of materials: floating head, fixed tube sheet, U-tube exchangers, multiple shells/passes, TEMA Class B and other types.

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description Air cooler with variety of plenum chambers, louver arrangements, fin types (or bare tubes), sizes, materials, freestanding or rack- mounted, multiple bays and multiple services within a single bay. Bare tube area 1st service: Primary or single service. Total bare tube surface area for primary service. If the exchanger is a single service, then this is the total bare tube surface area. The surface area is for all bays. Tube material 1st service: Primary or single service; Default: *A 179*. See Chapter 28 for tube materials. Design gauge pressure 1st serv.: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Inlet temperature 1st service: Default: *300* DEG F [*150* DEG C] Tube outside diameter 1st serv.: Default: *1.0* INCHES [*25.0* MM] Tube wall thickness 1st service: The wall thickness of tubing used for primary or single services, in inches or BWG rating. For grooved tubes, specify the thickness under the groove. Thickness may be entered as a positive signed value in decimal INCHES [MM] or as a negative signed integer value of BWG (-1 to -24 BWG). If no value is specified, the system calculates a value based on tube material, temperature and pressure of service, with minimum of 0.1080 INCHES [2.74 MM] per API 661 code. Corrosion allowance 1st service: Default: 0.0, except CS: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] Tube length: Range: 4 - 60 FEET [1.25 - 18.0 M] Bay width: Max: 30.0 [9.0 M] Height: This is the leg height for air coolers at grade. Default: *0.0* (rack mounted) Number of walkways: Default: *2*. Does not apply to Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator. Plenum type symbol: Default: *TRNS* PANL- Panel shaped plenum TRNS- Transition shaped NONE- No plenum - Continued on next page Type AIR COOLER

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description AIR COOLER - continued Louver type symbol: Default: *FACE* FACE- Face louvers only SIDE- Side louvers only BOTH- Face + side louvers NONE- No louvers Fin type symbol: Default: L-footed if temperature below 400 DEG F [205 DEG C], esle embedded. E - Embedded L - L-foot tension wound W - Wheel X - Extracted NONE - Bare tubes Fin pitch: Number of fin tubes per INCH [per 25 MM], ignore if bar tube specified. Range: 6.0 - 20.0; Default: *10.0* Fin material symbol: Ignore this field for bare tubes. Default: *AL*. AL - Aluminum fins CS - Carbon steel fins CU - Copper fins SS - Stainless steel fins Tube fin height: Ignore this field for bare tubes; Range: 0.250 - 2.50 INCHES [10.0 - 65.0 MM]; Default: *0.625* INCHES [*15* MM] Number of tube rows: Max: 13 Tube pitch: Default: *2.25* INCHES [55.0 MM] Number of fans per bay: Range: 1-3 Fixed tube sheet shell and tube exchangers. TEMA type BEM fixed tube sheet The fixed tube sheet shell and tube heat exchanger is applicable to trim cooler and other low temperature applications, as well as services where the shell side fluid is non-fouling, such as steam, dowtherm and gasses. A fixed tube sheet heat exchanger has its tube sheets fixed to both ends of the shell, with or without a shell expansion joint. - Continued on next page FIXED T S Type

5-4

5 Heat Transfer (G10)

Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description FIXED T S - continued Fixed tube sheet heat exchangers are more economical to fabricate than floating head heat exchangers, but unless an expansion joint is placed in the shell the difference in temperature between the shell and tubes must be small or the unequal thermal expansion of the shell and tube bundle will cause unacceptable mechanical stresses. The fixed tube sheet design also does not allow the tube bundle to be removed. Therefore, fixed tube sheet heat exchangers are limited to clean services and services where the dirt and scale on the outside surface of the tubes is easily cleaned by chemical means. Heat transfer area: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Number of shells: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Tube material: Default: A 214 to 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], 304S for higher temperatures. See Chapter 28 for tube materials. Tube design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Tube design temperature: Default: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C] for copper alloys; other material: 640 DEG F [340 DEG C] Tube operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube outside diameter: 0.25 - 6.0 INCHES [6 - 150 MM]; Default: *1.0* INCHES [*25* MM] Shell material: Default: A285C to 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], SS304 for higher temperatures. See Chapter 28 for materials. Shell design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Shell design temperature: Default: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C] for copper alloys; *650* DEG F [*340* DEG C] for other materials. Type

- Continued on next page -

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description FIXED T S - continued Shell operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube side pipe material: See Chapter 18 for pipe materials. Shell side pipe material: See Chapter 18 for pipe materials. Number of tubes per shell: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Tube length extended: 8 - 60 FEET [2.5 - 18 M]; Default: *20* FEET [*6* M] Tube gauge: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance; 1 - 24 BWG Tube wall thickness: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance; 0.02 - 0.34 INCHES [0.6 - 8.6 MM] Tube corrosion allowance: Default: 0.0025 INCHES [0.06 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials Tube seal type: Default: *SEALW* EXPND- Expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints SEALW- Seal welded tube joints STRNW- Strength welded tube joints Tube pitch: 1.25 x tube outside diameter Tube pitch symbol: Default: *TRIANGLE* DIAMOND- Diamond tube pitch SQUARE- Square tube pitch TRIANGULAR- Triangular tube pitch Shell diameter: Max: 192.0 INCHES [4,875.0 MM] Shell wall thickness: Shell thickness including corrosion allowance. Shell corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Type

- Continued on next page -

5-6

5 Heat Transfer (G10)

Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description FIXED T S - continued Expansion joint: Default: *NO* NO- No expansion joint in shell YES- Expansion joint required in shell Tube sheet material: See Chapter 28 for tube materials. Tube sheet corrosion allowance: Default: lesser of 50 x tube corrosion allowance or 0.25 INCHES [6 MM]. Channel material: Default: tubesheet material. See Chapter 28 for materials. Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material specified, otherwise 0.0. Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for material selection. Cladding location: Default: *SHELL* SHELL- Cladding on shell side only TUBE- Cladding on tube side only BOTH- Cladding on both shell and tube sides Number of tube passes: Default: *1* Number of shell passes: Default: *1* Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE - Provide stress relief if code requires YES - Provide stress relief NO - No stress relief required Weld X-ray: Max: 100; Default: *20* TEMA type: Default: BEM for 1 shell pass, BFM for 2 shell passes. Vendor grade: Default: *HIGH* STAND - Standard vender HIGH - Specialty vender - high grade/custom work Regulation type: Japanese country base only. Required government regulation and testing; Default: *NONE* NONE - No special regulations PV - Pressure vessel regulations HPG - High pressure gas regulations Type

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description Type Floating head shell of 48 INCHES [1200 MM] FLOAT HEAD maximum and exchanger. Applicable to any heat exchange application, but not normally used for clean and/or low temperature services where the fixed tube sheet exchanger is usually the more economic choice. The floating head heat exchanger accommodates the differential thermal expansion of tube bundle and shell, and also allows the tube bundle to be completely removed from the shell. The floating head heat exchanger is consequentially specified for services where the shell size of the tube bundle is subject to fouling and services which involve large temperature differentials between shell side and tube side fluids. Heat transfer area: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Number of shells: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tube/shell and tube data. Tube material: Default: A 214 to 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], 304S for higher temperatures. See chapter 28 for tube materials. Tube design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Tube design temperature: Default: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C] for copper alloys; 650 DEG F [340 DEG C] other material Tube operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube outside diameter: 0.25 - 6.0 INCHES [6 - 150 MM]; Default: *1.0* INCHES [*25* MM] Shell material: Default: A285C to 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], SS304 for higher temperatures Shell design gauge pressure: Default: 150 PSIG [1,000 KPA]

- Continued on next page -

5-8

5 Heat Transfer (G10)

Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description FLOAT HEAD - continued Shell design temperature: Default: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C] for cooper alloys; 650 DEG F [340 DEG C] for other material Shell operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube side pipe material: See Pipe Materials in Chapter 18. Shell side pipe material: See Pipe Materials in Chapter 18. Number of tubes per shell: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Tube length extended: 8 - 60 FEET [2.5 - 18 M]; Default: *20* FEET [*6* M] Tube gauge: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance; 1-24 BWG Tube wall thickness: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance; 0.02 - 0.34 INCHES [0.6 - 8.6 MM] Tube corrosion allowance: Default: 0.0025 INCHES [0.06 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials Tube seal type: Default: *SEALW* EXPND- Expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints SEALW- Seal welded tube joints STRNW- Strength welded tube joints Tube pitch: Default: 1.25 x tube outside diameter Tube pitch symbol: Default: *TRIANGULAR* DIAMOND- Diamond tube pitch SQUARE- Square tube pitch TRIANGLE- Triangular tube pitch Shell diameter: Max: 192.0 INCHES [4,875.0 MM] Shell wall thickness: Shell thickness including corrosion allowance. Shell corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. - Continued on next page Type

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description FLOAT HEAD - continued Expansion joint: Default: *NO* NO - No expansion joint in shell YES - Expansion required in shell Tube sheet material: See Tube Materials in Chapter 28. Tube sheet corrosion allowance: Default: Lesser of 50 x tube corrosion allowance, or 0.25 INCHES [6 MM]. Channel material: Default: tubesheet material. See Tube Materials in Chapter 28. Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material specified, otherwise 0.0. Cladding material: See cladding material in Chapter 28. Cladding location: Default: *SHELL* SHELL - Cladding on shell side only TUBE - Cladding on tube side only BOTH - Cladding on both shell and tube sides Number of tube passes: Default: *2* Number of shell passes: Default: *1* Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE - Provide stress relief if code required YES - Provide stress relief NO - No stress relief required Weld X-ray: Max 100; Default: *20* TEMA type: Default: BES for 1 shell pass, BFS for 2 shell passes. Vendor grade: Default: *HIGH* STAND - Standard vendor HIGH - Specialty vendor - high grade/custom work Regulation type: For Japanese country base only. Required government regulation and testing. Default: *NONE* NONE - No special regulations PV - Pressure vessel regulations HPG - High pressure gas regulations Type

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description Type U-tube shell and tube exchangers. TEMA type BEU U- U TUBE Tube. U-tube shell and tube exchangers are normally used in those services where the tubeside fluid is non-fouling or where the deposits formed are easily removed with chemical cleaning. Since the tube bundle is removable, the fluid in the shell side can be fouling. Since the U-tube design eliminates one tube sheet, these exchangers are often used for high pressure applications. As the name indicates, all the tubes are U-shaped. Consequentially, there is only one tube sheet. The tube side fluid enters one leg of the U-tube and exits from the other leg. The U-tubes are free to expand inside the exchanger shell; thus, a large temperature differences between shell side and tube side fluids can be handled. The U-tube bundle is usually removable for inspection and cleaning. The inside of the U-tubes are hard to clean because of the U-bend. U-tube heat exchangers are unsuitable for handling erosive fluids because the U-bends rapidly wear out. Heat transfer area: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Number of shells: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Tube material: Default: *A 214* to 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], *304S* for higher temperatures. See Chapter 28 for tube data. Tube design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Tube design temperature: Default: *400* DEG F [*200* DEG C] for copper alloys; other material: *650* DEG F [*340* DEG C] Tube operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube outside diameter: Range: 0.25 - 6.0 INCHES [6 - 150 MM]; Default: *1.0* INCHES [*25* MM] Shell material: Default: *A285C* to 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], SS304 for higher temperatures - Continued on next page -

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description U TUBE - continued Shell design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Shell design temperature: Default: *400* DEG F [*200* DEG C] for copper alloys; *650* DEG F [*340* DEG C] other materials Shell operating temperature: Default: design temperature Number of tubes per shell: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Tube length extended: Range: 8 - 12 FEET [2.5 - 36 M]; Default: *40*Feet [*12* M] Tube gauge: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance. Range: 1-24 BWG Tube wall thickness: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance. Range:0.02 - 0.34 INCHES [0.6 - 8.6 MM] Tube corrosion allowance: Default: *0.0025* INCHES [*0.06* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials. Tube seal type: Default: *SEALW* EXPD - Expanded tube-to tubesheet joints SEALW - Seal welded tube joints STRNW - Strength welded tube joints Tube pitch: Default: 1.25 x tube outside diameter Tube pitch symbol: Default: *TRIANGULAR* DIAMOND- Diamond tube pitch SQUARE- Square tube pitch TRIANGULAR- Triangular tube pitch Shell diameter: Max: 192 INCHES [4,875 MM] Shell wall thickness: Shell thickness including corrosion allowance. Shell corrosion allowance: Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials - Continued on next page Type

5-12

5 Heat Transfer (G10)

Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description U TUBE - continued Expansion joint: Default: *NO* NO - No expansion joint in shell YES - Expansion joint required in shell Tube sheet material: See Chapter 28 for tube materials. Tube sheet corrosion allowance: Default: Lesser of 50 x tube corrosion allowance, or *0.25* INCHES [*6* MM] Channel material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Cladding thickness: Default: *0.125* INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise *0.0* Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Cladding location: Default: *SHELL* SHELL - Cladding on shell side only TUBE - Cladding on tube side only BOTH - Cladding on both shell and tube sides Number of tube passes: Default: *2* Number of shell passes: Default: *1* Stress relief: Default: See Project Design Basis. CODE - Provide stress relief if code requires YES - Provide stress relief NO - No stress relief required Weld X-ray: Max: 100; Default: *20* TEMA type: *BEU* for 1 shell pass, *BFU* for 2 shell passes. Vendor grade: Default: *HIGH* STAND - Standard vendor HIGH - Specialty vendor - high grade/custom work Regulation type: Japanese country base only. Required government regulations and testing. Default: *NONE*. NONE - No special regulations PV- Pressure vessel regulations HPG- High pressure gas regulations Type

5 Heat Transfer (G10)

5-13

Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description Fixed tube, float. head, u-tube exchanger This model merges the three TEMA heat exchangers, which are retained for compatibility purposes (in earlier system versions, changing the type of TEMA heat exchanger required that one delete the entry and specify another heat exchanger). Heat transfer area: Enter either heat transfer area or no. of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Number of shells: Enter either heat transfer area or no. of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Front end head type: Use front head type, shell type and rear head type to construct TEMA type symbol. Front head type options: A- Channel and removable cover B- Bonnet integral cover C- Tubesheet channel integral, remov. cover N- Tubesheet channel integral, remov. cover Shell TEMA symbol: Use front head type, shell type and rear head type to construct TEMA type symbol. Shell type options: E- One pass shell F- Two pass shell with longitudinal baffle G- Split flow H- Double split flow J- Divided flow X- Cross flow Rear end head type: Use front head type, shell type and rear head type to construct TEMA type symbol. Rear head type options: L - Fixed tubesheet, channel removable cover M - Fixed tubesheet, bonnet integral cover N - Fixed tubesheet, channel integral, remov. P - Outside packed floating head S - Floating head with backing device T- Pull through floating head U - U-tube bundle W - Externally sealed floating tubesheet Heat exchanger design option: *<BLANK>*- Standard exchanger design TBWNB- Tube bundle design only, w/o system bulks Design/cost option for TBWNB only - Continued on next page Type TEMA EXCH

5-14

5 Heat Transfer (G10)

Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description TEMA EXCH - continued Tube material: Default: CS to 900 DEGF [482 DEGC], or else SS; see Proj Basis spec for welded/smls. CS- Carbon steel A 179- Seamless CS A 214- Welded carbon steel A 209- C - .5Mo A213C- 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si A213F- 5Cr - .5Mo 304LW- 304L welded 316LW- 316L welded 321S- SS321 seamless 347S- SS347 seamless C 20- Carpenter 20 TI50A- Titanium NI200- Nickel INCNL- Inconel MONEL- Monel Tube design gauge pressure: *150 PSIG [1,000 KPA]* Tube design temperature: Default: 400 DEGF [200 DEGC] for copper alloys; other matl: 650 DEGF [340 DEGC Tube operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube outside diameter: *1.0 INCHES [25 MM]*, MIN: 0.25 INCHES [6 MM], MAX: 6.0 INCHES [150 MM] Shell material: Default: A285C to 900 DEGF [482 DEGC], SS304 for higher temperatures. CS- Carbon steel A 515- A 515 A204C- C - .5Mo A387B- 1Cr - .5Mo A387D- 2.25Cr - 1Mo SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 SS321- SS321 SS347- SS347 SS410- SS410 SS430- SS430 304L- 304L 316L- 316L NI- Nickel - Continued on next page Type

5 Heat Transfer (G10)

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description TEMA EXCH - continued INCNL- Inconel Shell design gauge pressure: *150 PSIG [1,000 KPA]* Shell design temperature: Default: 400 DEGF [200 DEGC] for copper alloys; 650 DEGF [340 DEGC] other matl Shell operating temperature: Default: design temperature Type

Tube side pipe material:


A 53- A 53 A 106- A 106 A333C- 3.5Ni A335C- A.25Cr - .5Mo - Si 304P- SS304 304LP- 304L 316P- SS316 316LP- 316L 321P- SS321 AL- Aluminum NI- Nickel MONEL- Monel INCNL- Inconel TI- Titanium HAST- Hastelloy Shell side pipe material: See materials listed above for Tube side pipe material Number of tubes per shell: Enter either heat transfer area or no. of shells, tubes/ shell and tube data. Tube length extended: For U-tube: MIN: 8 FEET [2.5M], MAX: 120 FEET [36M], else MIN: 4 FEET [1.25M], MAX: 60 FEET [18M] Tube gage: MIN: 1 BWG, MAX: 24 BWG Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance. Tube wall thickness: MIN: 0.02 INCHES [0.6 MM], MAX 0.34 INCHES [8.6 MM] Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance. - Continued on next page -

5-16

5 Heat Transfer (G10)

Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description TEMA EXCH - continued Tube corrosion allowance: Default: 0.0025 INCHES [0.06 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Tube seal type: EXPND- Expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints *SEALW*- Seal welded tube joints STRNW- Strength welded tube joints Tube pitch: Default: 1.25 x tube outside diameter. Tube pitch symbol: DIAMOND- Diamond tube pitch SQUARE- Square tube pitch TRIANGULAR- Triangular tube pitch Shell diameter: MAX: 192 INCHES [4,875 MM] Shell wall thickness: Shell thickness including corrosion all. Shell corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Expansion joint: *NO*- No expansion joint in shell YES- Expansion joint required in shell Tube sheet material: CS- Carbon steel A 515- A 515 A204C- C - .5Mo A387B- 1Cr - .5Mo A387D- 2.25Cr - 1Mo SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 SS321- SS321 SS347- SS347 SS410- SS410 SS430- SS430 304L- 304L 316L- 316L NI- Nickel INCNL- Inconel Tube sheet corrosion allowance: Default: lesser of 50 x tube corr. all., or 0.25 INCHES [6 MM]. Channel material: Default: tubesheet material - Continued on next page Type

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description TEMA EXCH - continued Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: 0.0 Cladding material: SS304- SS304 SS316- SS321 SS347- SS347 SS410- SS410 SS430- SS430 304L- 304L 316L- 316L NI200- Ni 200 NI201- Ni 201 MONEL- Monel INCNL- Inconel I800- Ni-Fe-Cr I825- Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu C 20- Carpenter 20 TI- Titanium HASTB- Hastelloy B HASTC- Hastelloy C Cladding location: *SHELL*- Cladding on shell side only TUBE- Cladding on tube side only BOTH- Cladding on both shell and tube sides Number of tube passes: * 1* Number of shell passes: * 1* Stress relief: Default: see Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Weld X-ray: * 20*, MAX: 100 Vendor grade: STAND- Standard vendor *HIGH*- Specialty vendor for high grade or custom work Regulation type: only for Japanese country base, which requires government regulation and testing. *NONE*- No special regulations PV- Pressure vessel regulations (Japan) HPG- High pressure gas regulations (Japan) - Continued next page Type

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description Type The following three options can be found under "Heat exchanger design option". Blank Standard exchanger design TBWNB Tube bundle design only, w/o system bulks STABN Stabbed-in tube bundle design only, w/o system bulks

The third option (STABN) is available in the 2004 release. The "Standard exchanger design" option would cost a regular heat exchanger (shell, tubes, baffles, etc.) and its bulks, while TBWNB would cost a "tube bundle design only without any system bulks." TBWNB would not generate any shell and heads, but it will include tubes, internals/ baffles, and tube sheet. The STABN option is a variation of TBWNB with the following major differences from TBWNB. In STABN: The tube bundle is horizontally installed (stabbed) into the vertical vessel (tower), in a way that the tube-side flow inlet/outlet headers stay outside the vessel beyond the tubesheet. The front head is also included to act as a cap of the inlet/outlet headers for the tube-side flow. STABN also costs a reboiler tub and support arrangement for the tube bundle. The reboiler tub inside the vessel is designed to bear the liquid held-up in the tub around the tube bundle to avoid the dry-out. The tub is designed to contain and bear the hydrostatic load of the liquid held-up. The overall hydrostatic load on the tub bottom is eventually supported by an I-beam design running in the middle of the vessel along its diameter.

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Description Type Pre-engineered (standard) U-tube exchanger for use PRE ENGR as a sample cooler or other miscellaneous application. Heat transfer area: Enter either heat transfer area or number of tubes and tube data. Range: 3.50 - 120.0 SF [0.33 - 11.0 M2] Tube material: Default: *CA443* A 179- Seamless CS 304LW- 304L welded A 192- Seamless CS 316W- 316 welded A 214- Welded carbon 316LW- 316L welded steel CA122- Cu seamless 304S- 304 seamless CA706- Cu-Ni seamless 304LS- 304L seamless CA715- Cu-Ni seamless 316S- 316 seamless CA443- Admiralty brass 316LS- 316L seamless CA444- Admiralty brass 304W- 304 welded CA445- Admiralty brass Tube design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Tube design temperature: Default: *250* DEG F [*120* DEG C] Tube operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube outside diameter: Range: 0.5 - 1.5 INCHES [12.0 - 38.0 MM]; Default: *0.75* INCHES [*19* MM] Shell material: Default: *A285C* A285C- Carbon steel A 516- A-516 SS304- SS304 304L- 304L SS316- SS316 316L- 316L - Continued on next page -

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Description PRE ENGR - continued Shell design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Shell design temperature: Default: *250* DEG F [*120* DEG C] Shell operating temperature: Default: design temperature Number of tubes: Enter either heat transfer area or number of tubes and tube data. Tube length extended: Enter either heat transfer area or number of tubes and tube data. Range: 4.00 - 16.0 FEET [1.20 - 4.80 M] Tube gage: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance. Range: 16 - 20 BWG Tube wall thickness: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance; Range: 0.035 - 0.065 INCHES [0.900 - 1.65 MM] Tube corrosion allowance: Default: *0.0025* INCHES [*0.06* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials Tube pitch: Default: *.25 x tube outside diameter* Tube pitch symbol: Default: *TRIANGULAR* DIAMOND- Diamond tube pitch SQUARE- Square tube pitch TRIANGULAR- Triangular tube pitch Shell diameter: Range: 4.00 - 10.00 INCHES [102.0 - 254.0 MM] Shell wall thickness: Shell thickness including corrosion allowance. Shell corrosion allowance: Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials Type

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Description Electric immersion tank heater. Material: Default: *CU* CU- Copper SS304- SS304 Power output: Range: 6 -200 KW Heating/cooling coil with spiral or serpentine coil of HEATER STM bare pipe, use as tank heater or column tray cooler to keep the contents of a tank from solidifying or becoming too viscous to pump. This item is a steam coil. A steam coil is a long length of pipe that covers the bottom of a tank usually in a spiral or serpentine pattern. Steam is passed through the coil to heat the contents of the tank. If cooling water was passed through the coil instead of steam, this item would be a cooling coil. This is normally a field fabricated item. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel316LP- 316L SS- Stainless steel321P- SS321 A333C- 3.5 NiCU- Copper A335C- 1.25 Cr - .5 Mo - SiNI- Nickel A335F- 5 Cr - .5 MoMONEL- Monel 304LP- 304LINCNL- Inconel 316P- SS316 Heat transfer area: Range: 1 - 25,000 SF [0.1 - 2,300 M2] Pipe diameter: Range: 1 - 6 IN DIAM [25 - 150 MM DIAM] Bare-tube double-pipe heat exchanger. Applicable to any heat transfer application where only a small amount of heat transfer surface area is required. This item is a hairpin heat exchanger. One or more finned or bare U-shaped tubes are supported concentrically inside a U-shaped shell. JACKETED Type HEATER ELC

- Continued on next page -

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Description JACKETED - continued Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Heat transfer area: 10 - 1,000 SF [1 - 90 M2] Tube length: Range: 8 - 25 FEET [2.5 - 7.5 M]; Default: *20* FEET [*6* M] Number of tubes per shell: Default: *1* 1- 1 tube per shell 7- 7 tubes per shell Design gauge pressure: Max: 6,000 PSIG [40,000 KPA] Design temperature: Max: 1,200 DEG F [645 DEG C] Longitudinal finned double-pipe heat exchanger. Hairpin sections are connected in series or parallel. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Heat transfer area: Enter total heat transfer area (i.e., total extended surface or finned tubes). Range: 70 - 10,000 SF [7 - 920 M2] Tube length: Range: 8 - 25 FEET [2.5 - 7.5 M]; Default: *20* FEET [*6* M] Number of fins: Range: 12 - 48; Default: *24* Design gauge pressure: Max: 6,000 PSIG [40,000 KPA] Number of tubes per shell: Default: *1* 1- 1 tube per shell 7- 7 tubes per shell FIN TUBE Type

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Description All-graphite heat exchanger. Material: Default: *GRAPH* Heat transfer area: Range: 8 - 150 SF [1.0 - 13.5 M2] Type CROSS BORE

Rietz type thermascrew conveyor with motor and drive.


Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS304- SS304 Heat transfer area: 10 - 400 SF [1 - 37 M2] Twin screw thermascrew conveyor with motor and drive. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS304- SS304 Heat transfer area: 10 - 400 SF [1 - 37 M2] Graphite tube with carbon steel shell exchanger. Heat transfer area: Range: 80 - 9,730 SF [7.5 - 870 M2] Tube length: Range: 6 - 20 FEET [2 - 6 M]

ONE SCREW

TWO SCREW

SHELL TUBE

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Description Spiral plate heat exchanger. Material: Default:*SS304* SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 TI- Titanium HAST- Hastelloy Heat transfer area: Range: 40 - 1,330 SF [4 - 123 M2] Tube design gauge pressure: Range: 150 - 300 PSIG [1,000 - 2,000 KPA]; Default: 150 PSIG [1,000 KPA] Tank suction heater without tank. Material: Default: *CS* Heat transfer area: Range: 135 - 4,000 SF [13 - 370 M2] Waste heat boiler for generation of steam, hot WASTE HEAT gas or liquid heating medium. A waste heat boiler is used to generate steam from heat that would otherwise be wasted. A waste heat boiler is essentially the convection section only of a normal water-tube gas or liquid boiler. The heating medium is a hot gas or liquid produced by exothermic chemical reactions, regeneration of cracking catalyst, etc. The flow rate is used only to calculate piping diameters for the P&ID. A steam production rate can be entered in this field. If other flow types are needed, piping diameters may need to be revised. The equipment cost is determined solely by the heat transfer area. Material: Default: *CS* Flow Rate: Steam production rate (lb/hr or kg/hr) Heat transfer area: Range: 1,300 - 10,000 SF [125 - 925 M2] SUC HEATER Type SPIRAL PLT

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Description Plate and frame heat exchanger. Plate material: Default: *SS304* SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 S04L- 304L S16L- 316L HAST- Hastelloy Heat transfer area: Range: 10 - 2,000 SF [1.0 - 185 M2] Number of plates: Max: 500 Design gauge pressure: Max: 350 PSIG [2,410 KPA]; Default: *200* PSIG [*1,380* KPA] Design temperature: Max: 400 DEG F [204 DEG C]; Default: *200* DEG F [*93* DEG C] Sanitary corrugated double pipe exchanger Used to heat, cool, and pasteurize a variety of food products, like concentrates and dairy by-products. Tube material: *SS316*- SS316 AL6XN- High Cr, Mo+Ni. Super-austentic stainless steel. Double pipe size: Inch-Pound Symbol 3x20 4x25 4x30 5x30 6x40 Outer Tube 3 Inches 4 Inches 5 Inches 6 Inches Inner Tube 2 Inches 3 Inches Metric Outer Tube 75 MM 100MM Inner Tube 50 MM 60 MM 75 MM 75 MM (Close-up of piping) CORRUGATED Type PLAT FRAM

4 Inches 2.5 Inches 100 MM 3 Inches 125 MM

4 Inches 150 MM 100 MM

Total tube area: Required: any two must be entered: total area, tube length/pass, number of passes. Tube length per pass: Any two must be entered: total area, tube length/ pass, number of passes. - Continued on next page -

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Description CORRUGATED - continued Number of tube passes: Any two must be entered: total area, tube length/ pass, number of passes. Frame option: *INCL*- Frame is included HUNG- Frame is not included Water heater (shell+tube - hot water set) HOT WATER Type

Used mainly with a plate heat exchanger to provide hot water for heating various process liquids. Steam is supplied to the shell side. Since this is a sanitary item, material of construction is SS316.
Water flow rate: MAX: 400 GPM [25 L/S] Temperature rise: MAX: 50 DEG F [27 DEG C] SS skid water pipe required: *NONE*- Not included INCL- Included Expansion tank: *NONE*- Not included INCL- Included Condensate return pump: *NONE*- Not included INCL- Included Sanitary multi-zone plate+frame exchanger Plates are of the vertical flow type. Alternate plates can be inverted to obtain desired flow arrangement. Frame consists of a head and end support connected by a top carrying bar and a bottom guide bar to form a rigid unit supporting the plates. Plate material: *SS*- SS304 TI- Titanium - Continued on next page MULTI P F

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Heat Exchangers (HE) - continued


Description MULTI P F - continued Frame material: Default: SS for plate areas equal to or less than 1.87 SF [0.174 M2], else SSCLD. SS- Stainless steel. Only available for plate areas equal to or less than 1.87 SF [0.174 M2] SSCLD- SS clad carbon steel. Only available for plate areas greater than 1.87 SF [0.1737 M2]. CS- Carbon steel. Available for all plate areas. Area per plate: MIN: 0.27 SF [0.025 M2], MAX: 6.0 SF [0.557 M2]. The maximum number of plates will depend upon the area per plate. There are seven standard plate areas: Type

Plate Area SF M2 0.27 0.92 1.81 1.87 3.75 5.6 6.0 0.025 0.085 0.168 0.173 0.348 0.520 0.557

Max. No. of Plates In All Zones 152 200 150 200 420 600 550

Plate area Zone 1: Required: enter the total area or no. of plates for zone 1, other zones optional. Number of plates Zone 1: Required: enter the total area or no. of plates for zone 1, other zones optional. Plate area Zone 2: Enter either total area or no. of plates for Zone 2. Number of plates Zone 2: Enter either total area or no. of plates for Zone 2. Plate area Zone 3: Enter either total area or no. of plates for Zone 3. Number of plates Zone 3: Enter either total area or no. of plates for Zone 3.

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Description Sanitary direct steam heat module Type STM HE MOD

A custom-built skid that injects steam directly into a product. The skid includes a steam filter and separator, as well as instrumentation for temperature and flow control. Local temperature and pressure indication is provided. The module also includes a regulator for the steam pressure, automatic isolation values, and piping on the skid.
Material of construction is SS316. Liquid flow rate: Input required. GPM [L/S]. Temperature rise: Input required. DEG F [DEG C]. Specific heat: Default: *0.85* BTU/LB/F [*3.56* KJ/KG/K]

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Reboilers (RB)
Reboilers are a special kind of shell and tube heat exchanger specifically designed to add heat to distillation columns. Liquid from the bottom of the distillation column flows over the reboiler tubes picking up heat from a hot fluid, such as steam, which is flowing inside the reboiler tubes. The liquid from the column is vaporized and returned to the column. These are similar to the shell and tube heat exchanger, except that the shell is considerably larger than the tube inside. The design provides space for vaporliquid disengagement so that only vapor is returned to the distillation column, not a vapor-liquid mixture.
Description Kettle reboilers with floating head. Kettle reboilers are used when the hydrostatic head above the reboiler varies, when the operating pressure is in the high vacuum range or when there is a low percentage of volatiles (e.g., less than 5%) in the feed to the reboiler. A Kettle reboiler is a shell and tube heat exchanger used to supply heat to a distillation column. Liquid from the bottom of the column enters the shell of the reboiler through nozzles in the underside of the shell. In order for liquid entering the shell side of the reboiler to get out it must overflow a weir at the end of the tube bundle. The weir is slightly taller than the tube bundle, thus, the reboiler tubes are always submerged. Part of the tower bottoms entering the reboiler vaporizes and returns to the tower via a vapor line called the riser. A large vapor space is provided above the tube bundle to allow for vapor liquid disengagement. The portion of entering liquid which is not vaporized overflows the weir and is removed from the reboiler. The Kettle reboiler is a floating head type exchanger. Heat transfer area: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Number of shells: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Tube material: See Chapter 28 for tube materials. Default: *A 214* to 800 DEG F [482 DEG C], *304S* for higher temperatures - Continued on next page Type KETTLE

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Description KETTLE - continued Heat exchanger design option: *<BLANK>*- Standard exchanger design TBWNB- Tube bundle design only, w/o system bulks Design/cost option for TBWNB only Tube design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Tube design temperature: Default: *400* DEG F [*200 DEG C] for copper alloys; other material: *650* DEG F [*340* DEG C] Tube operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube outside diameter: Default: 0.25 - 6.0 INCHES [6 - 150 MM]; Default: *1.0* INCHES [*25* MM] Shell material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A285C* to 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], *SS304* for higher temperatures Shell design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Shell design temperature: Default: *400* DEG F [*200* DEG C] for copper alloys; *650* DEG F [*340* DEG C] other material Shell operating temperature: Default: design temperature Number of tubes per shell: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Tube length extended: Range: 8 - 60 FEET [2.5 - 18 M]; Default: *20* FEET [*6* M] Tube gage: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance. Range: 1 - 24 BWG Tube wall thickness: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance. Range: 0.02 - 0.34 INCHES [0.6 - 8.6 MM] Tube corrosion allowance: Default: *0.0025* INCHES [0.06 MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials - Continued on next page Type

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Reboilers (RB) - continued


Description KETTLE - continued Tube pitch: Default: 1.25 x tube outside diameter Tube pitch symbol: Default: *TRIANGULAR* DIAMOND- Diamond tube pitch SQUARE- Square tube pitch TRIANGULAR- Triangular tube pitch Shell diameter: Max: 192 INCHES [4,875 MM]; Default: *1.5 x port diameter* Shell wall thickness: Shell wall thickness including corrosion allowance. Shell corrosion allowance: Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials. Tube sheet material: See Chapter 28 for tube materials. Tube sheet corrosion allowance: Default: Lessor of 50 x tube corrosion allowance or 0.25 INCHES [6 MM]. Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise 0.0. Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Cladding location: Default: *SHELL* SHELL- Cladding on shell side only TUBE- Cladding on tube side only BOTH- Cladding on both shell and tube sides Number of tube passes: Default: *2* Duty: Default: 0.004 x surface area (SF); 0.01262 x surface area (M2). Vaporization: Max: 100; Default: *90* Specific gravity tower bottoms: Default: *0.50* Molecular weight bottoms: Default: *100* Heat of vaporization: Default: *150* BTU/LB [*350* KJ/KG] - Continued on next page Type

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Description KETTLE - continued Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required TEMA type: Default: *BKT*

Type

Horizontal or vertical thermosiphon reboilers. THERMOSIPH If a shell diameter is not specified, a value is calculated from the surface area, number of shells, tubes per shell, tube diameter, tube pitch, etc. The thermosiphon reboiler is the most common reboiler used. However, the thermosiphon reboiler can not be used when the hydrostatic head above the reboiler varies, when the operating pressure is in the high vacuum range or when there is a low percentage of volatiles (for example, less than 5%) in the feed to the reboiler. The vertical thermosiphon reboiler, like the kettle reboiler, is a shell and tube heat exchanger used to supply heat to a distillation column. The thermosiphon reboiler operates in the following manner. Liquid from the bottom of the column or from a trapout tray flows into the bottom of the reboiler through a pipe called the downcomer. The column bottoms are partially vaporized in the reboiler and a two phase mixture is returned to the column through a pipe called the riser. The difference in density between the liquid in the downcomer and the two phase mixture in the reboiler and riser causes the tower bottoms to flow through the reboiler by natural circulation. Usually about 25% of the tower bottoms are vaporized in the thermosiphon reboiler. Thermosiphon reboilers are classified as either vertical or horizontal according to their erected position. The tower bottom enter the bottom head of the vertical thermosiphon, flow upward through the tubes and leave the top head. The heating fluid, usually steam, passes through the shell side. Vertical thermosiphons are available only as fixed tube-sheet exchangers. The horizontal, fixed tube-sheet, thermosiphon reboiler differs from the vertical thermosiphon in that it is erected horizontally and the bottoms liquid from the distillation column flows through the shell side of the reboiler and the heat transfer fluid flows through the tubes. Thermosiphon type: Default: *V-FXD* H-FLOT - Horizontal: float head H-FXD - Horizontal: fixed tubesheet H-UTUB - Horizontal: u-tube V-FXD - Vertical: fixed tubesheet - Continued on next page -

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Reboilers (RB) - continued


Description Thermosiphon - continued V-COLM a tube bundle that is designed to be installed into a Column (Tower) to hold catalyst or function as an exchanger within a Column. There are no bulks associated with this item. If fluid is desired on the shell side of the tubes, then the additional piping lines must be added via Pipe-Item Details entries. Heat transfer area: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Number of shells: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Tube material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 214* to 900 DEG F [*482* DEG C], *304S* for higher temperatures Heat exchanger design option: *<BLANK>* - Standard exchanger design TBWNB - Tube bundle design only, w/o system bulks Design/cost option for TBWNB only Tube design temperature: Default: *400* DEG F [*200* DEG C] for copper alloys; other material: *650* DEG F [*350* DEG C]. Tube operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube outside diameter: Range: 0.25 - 6.0 INCHES [6 - 150 MM]; Default: *1.0* INCHES [*25* MM] Shell material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A285C* to 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], *SS304* for higher temperature Shell design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Shell design temperature: Default: *400* DEG F [*200* DEG C] for copper alloys; *650* DEG F [*340* DEG C] other material. Shell operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube side pipe material: See Chapter 18 for pipe materials. Shell side pipe material: See Chapter 18 for pipe materials. - Continued on next page Type

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Description Thermosiphon - continued Tube Wall Thickness: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance. Range: 0.02 to 0.34 INCHES [0.6 - 8.6 MM]. Tube corrosion allowance: Default: 0.0025 INCHES [0.06 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Tube pitch: Default: *1.25 x tube outside diameter* Tube pitch symbol: Default: *TRIANGULAR* DIAMOND - Diamond tube pitch SQUARE - Square tube pitch TRIANGULAR - Triangular tube pitch Shell diameter: Max: 192.0 INCHES [4,875.0 MM] Shell wall thickness: Shell thickness including corrosion allowance. Shell corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Tube sheet material: See Chapter 28 for tube materials. Tube sheet corrosion allowance: Default: Lesser of 50 x tube corrosion allowance, or 0.25 INCHES [6 MM]. Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise 0.0 Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Cladding location: Default: *SHELL* SHELL - Cladding on shell side only TUBE - Cladding on tube side only BOTH - Cladding on both shell and tube sides Number of tube passes: Default: 1 pass per vertical fixed tube sheet type, 2 passes for all others. Duty: Default: 0.004 x surface area (SF); 0.01262 x surface area (M2). Vaporization: Max: 100; Default: *20* Specific gravity tower bottoms: Default: *0.50* Molecular weight bottoms: Default: *100* Heat of vaporization: Default: *150* Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis CODE - Provide stress relief if code requires YES - Provide stress relief NO - No stress relief required TEMA type: Default: Based on the specified thermosiphon design symbol. Type

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Reboilers - continued
Description Type U TUBE

The u-tube reboiler is identical to the kettle type reboiler except that there is a U-tube bundle in it instead of a floating head type tube bundle. The term kettle reboiler is derived from the fact that the bottoms from the distillation column accumulate in a pool (the height of the weir) in the reboiler and boil like liquid in a kettle. Therefore, both the .utube. and .kettle. reboilers are kettle type reboilers in the nomenclature of the chemical process industry.
Heat transfer area: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Number of shells: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. Tube material: Default: *A 214* to 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], *304S* for higher temperatures. See Chapter 28 for tube data. Tube design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Tube design temperature: Default: *400* DEG F [*200* DEG C] for copper alloys; other material: *650* DEG F [*340* DEG C] Tube operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube outside diameter: Range: 0.25 - 6.0 INCHES [6 - 150 MM]; Default: *1.0* INCHES [*25* MM] Shell material: Default: *A285C* to 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], SS304 for higher temperatures Shell design gauge pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Shell design temperature: Default: *400* DEG F [*200* DEG C] for copper alloys; *650* DEG F [*340* DEG C] other material. Shell operating temperature: Default: design temperature Tube side pipe material: See Chapter 18 for pipe materials. Shell side pipe material: See Chapter 18 for pipe materials. Number of tubes per shell: Enter either heat transfer area or number of shells, tubes/shell and tube data. - Continued on next page -

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U Tube continued Description Type Tube length extended: Range: 8 - 120 FEET [2.5 - U TUBE 36 M]; Default: *40* FEET [*12 M] Tube gage: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance. Range: 1 - 24 BWG Tube wall thickness: Enter tube gauge or thickness, not both, including corrosion allowance. Range: 0.02 0.34 INCHES [0.6 - 8.6 MM]. Tube corrosion allowance: Default: *0.0025* INCHES [*0.06* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials. Tube pitch: Default: *1.25 x tube outside diameter* Tube pitch symbol: Default: *TRIANGULAR* DIAMOND - Diamond tube pitch SQUARE - Square tube pitch TRIANGULAR - Triangular tube pitch Shell diameter: Max: 192 INCHES [4,875 MM]; Default: *1.5 x port diameter* Shell wall thickness: Shell thickness including corrosion allowance. Shell corrosion allowance: Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials. Tube sheet corrosion allowance: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: Lesser of 50 x tube corrosion allowance, or 0.25 INCHES [6 MM]. Cladding thickness: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: *0.0* Cladding location: Default: *SHELL* SHELL - Cladding on shell side only TUBE - Cladding on tube side only BOTH - Cladding on both shell and tube sides Number of tube passes: *2* Duty: Default: 0.004 x surface area (SF) [0.01262 x surface are (M2)] Vaporization: Max: 100; Default: *90* Specific gravity tower bottoms: *0.5* Molecular weight bottoms: *100* Heat of vaporization: *150* BTU/LB [*350* KJ/KG] Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis CODE - Provide stress relief if code requires YES - Provide stress relief NO - No stress relief required TEMA type: Default: *BKU*

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Furnaces, Process Heaters (FU)


Furnaces are commonly used to heat a process fluid to a high temperature (600 - 1200 DEG F). Furnaces are also called fired heaters or direct fired heaters because the source of heat is oil or gas fueled burners. Furnaces are usually cylindrical (vertical heater) or rectangular (box heater) in shape. The burners may be located in the sides or floor of the furnace. The walls of the furnace are refractory (an insulating heat resistant material) lined. The furnace will have one or more smoke stacks. The process fluid being heated flows through horizontal tubes in a box furnace or vertical tubes in a box furnace or vertical tubes in a vertical furnace. The amount of heat absorbed by the process fluid defines the size of the furnace. Use absorbed duty for calculations.
Description Type Gas or oil fired for preheating, cracking; bridge walls BOX separate radiant and convection sections; horizontal burners Box furnaces are the choice when a large amount of heat must be transferred to a process stream. Some specific applications are: Pre-heating crude before it goes to the atmospheric or vacuum topping units Heating for catalytic cracking Providing heat for hydrocarbon cracking for ethylene Providing heat for viscosity breaking. A box furnace is so named because the combustion chamber is box shaped. The radiant and convection sections of the box type furnace are separated by one or more walls called bridge walls. The box furnace is normally fired from end wall mounted burners; that is, the burners are mounted parallel to the floor and perpendicular to the tubes of the furnace. Box type furnaces are usually designed for large heat duty, typically above 170 MMBTU/HR. The burners may be fired with oil or gas. The box furnace can be used to provide heat input to several different process streams simultaneously. Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Duty: Max: 500 MMBTU/H [145 MEGAW] Standard gas flow rate: Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer only. For liquid process fluid, enter liquid flow in GPM [L/S] in place of gas flow. Process type: GAS- Gas process fluid LIQ- Liquid process fluid - Continued on next page -

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Furnaces, Process Heaters (FU) - continued Description BOX - continued Design gauge pressure: Max: 6,000 PSIG [41,000 KPA]; Default: *500* PSIG [*3,500* KPA] Design temperature: Max: 1,500 DEG F [815 DEG C]; Default: *750* DEG F [*400* DEG C] A-frame process heater with sloping walls, radiant section along sides and roof of cabin, convection section in duct above roof of radiant section and vertical floor-mounted burners. For use as hot oil heater, pre-heater or cracking. Includes integral stacks. Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Duty: Max: 500 MMBTU/H [145 MEGAW] Standard gas flow rate: Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer only. For liquid process fluid, enter liquid flow GPM [L/S] in place of gas flow. Process type: GAS- Gas process fluid LIQ- Liquid process fluid Design gauge pressure: Max: 6,000 PSIG [41,000 KPA]; Default: *500* PSIG [*3,500* KPA] Design temperature: Max: 1,500 DEG F [815 DEG C]; Default: *750* DEG F [*400* DEG C] Pyrolysis. Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Duty: Max: 500 MMBTU/H [145 MEGAW] Standard gas flow rate: Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer only. For liquid process fluid, enter liquid flow in GPM [L/S] in place of gas flow. Process type: GAS- Gas process fluid LIQ- Liquid process fluid - Continued on next page PYROLYSIS HEATER Type

5 Heat Transfer (G10)

5-40

Furnaces, Process Heaters (FU) - continued Description PYROLYSIS - continued Design gauge pressure: Max: 6,000 PSIG [41,000 KPA]; Default: *500* PSIG [*3,500* KPA] Design temperature: Max: 1,500 DEG F [815 DEG C]; Default: *750* DEG F [*400* DEG C] Box-type reformer without catalyst. Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Duty: Max: 500 MMBTU/H [145 MEGAW] Standard gas flow rate: Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer only. For liquid process fluid, enter liquid flow in GPM [L/S] in place of gas flow. Process type: GAS- Gas process fluid LIQ- Liquid process fluid Design gauge pressure: Max: 6,000 PSIG [41,000 KPA]; Default: *500* PSIG [*3,500* KPA] Design temperature: Max: 1,500 DEG F [815 DEG C]; Default: *750* DEG F [*400* DEG C] Gas or oil fired vertical cylindrical type for low heat duty range moderate temperature with long contact time. Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Duty: Max: 500 MMBTU/H [145 MEGAW] Standard gas flow rate: For liquid process fluid, enter liquid flow in GPM [L/S] in place of gas flow. Process type: GAS- Gas process fluid LIQ- Liquid process fluid Design gauge pressure: Max: 6,000 PSIG [41,000 KPA]; Default: *500* PSIG [*3,500* KPA] Design temperature: Max: 1,500 DEG F [815 DEG C]; Default: *750* DEG F [*400* DEG C] VERTICAL REFORMER Type

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5-41

TEMA Exchanger Construction Nomenclature

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5 Heat Transfer (G10)

Icarus Supported TEMA Types


Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers U - TUBE Front End Stationary Head Types Shell Types Rear End Head Types A, B, C E, F, G, H, J, X FLOAT HEAD A, B, C E, F, G, H, J, X FIXED-T-S A, B, N E, F, G, H, J, X

P, S, T, W

L, M, N

Reboilers Front End Stationary U-TUBE Head Types


Front End Stationary Head Types Shell Types K, Rear End Head Types U E**, J* L, M, N, P*, S*, T*, U* K T

THERMOSIPH

KETTLE

A, B, C

A, B, C, N

A, B, N

TEMA CLASS B: Equipment cost includes shell, tube bundle, nozzles and saddles. * Horizontal only **Vertical only

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5 Heat Transfer (G10)

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5 Heat Transfer (G10)

6 Packing, Linings

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction to Packing Introduction to Lining Packing, Linings (PAK, LIN) Acid Brick Castable Refractories and Gunning Mixes Fluorocarbon Linings Glass Linings Refractory Brick Resin Linings Rubber Linings Lead Linings Zinc Linings Suggested Lining Difficulty Adjustments

6 Packing, Linings (G6)

6-1

Introduction to Packing
There are two types of packing used in packed tower:
Packing that is chemically suitable to perform a mass transfer operation (e.g., activated alumina for desulfurization or desiccation. Packing constructed of inert material to provide surface area for mass transfer.

Inert packing is most commonly used since it can be utilized repeatedly without significant deterioration. The majority of inert packings used are of the ring or saddle type. Ring packings are commonly made of metal or plastic except for Raschig rings, which are generally ceramic. Ring packings are used mostly in distillation because of their excellent turndown properties and availability in press-formed metals of all types. Usually ring-type packings are used in handling organic materials when there are no major corrosion problems. Unfortunately rings do not promote most redistribution of liquids, and the Raschig ring occasionally promote liquid maldistribution. Saddle type packings are commonly made from ceramic or plastic, seldom from metal. Saddles are used largely in absorption and regeneration operations because they provide good liquid redistribution and are available in ceramic and plastic, which yield good corrosion resistance at very low cost. Saddles are usually used for aqueous systems when corrosion is a major factor.

Qualities that are desirable in the selection of tower packings are: High percentage of void space. Irregularity of shape to prevent pattern packing. Low resistance to material flow (low pressure drop). Large active surface exposed per unit volume (high surface area per cubic foot/meter). Complete utilization of surface for mass transfer. Suitably shaped to produce turbulent contact between phases. Large number of interstitial transfer points per unit volume. Good internal liquid distribution characteristics. Wide operating range with little efficiency variation. Mechanically strong to withstand normal loads in service and physical handling. Minimum weight and low side thrust on the tower shell. Available in a wide variety of materials. Minimum investment per year of service life. Clean design to minimize stagnant area and fouling. Capable of easy removal from tower and cleaning.

The packing factor, F, is a standard parameter that provides a capacity rating for packings, by correlation of pressure drop versus gas flow rate through the packing. It represents a ratio of a specific packing surface to the bed voidage space in the packed bed. Low packing factors are desirable. Size 3:1.0CPR, 0.5PPR, 1.0PPR, 1.5PPR, 2.0PPR

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0.5SPR, 1.0SPR, 1.5SPR, 2.0SPR The Pall ring is especially useful for distillation operations at any pressure. The Pall ring is also used in absorption and stripping operations, particularly in high pressure absorbers with small diameter shells where the ability to handle high liquid and gas rates allow for major cost savings. Pall rings are Raschig rings that have their wall opened with the projections bent inward, permitting complete access to the interior for both gas and liquid flow. This design makes possible greater capacity, lower pressure drop, high gas and liquid rates, greater efficiency, better maintenance of distribution, lower liquid hold-up and less entrainment than the conventional Raschig ring. Pall rings are available in carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum alloys, copper, monel, nickel and inconel. Plastic Pall rings are available in polypropylene, glass reinforced polypropylene and halar. Diameter sizes range from 0.5 to 2.0 INCHES. Size 3:1.0CRR, 1.5CRR, 2.0CRR, 3.0CRR 1.0PRR, 1.5PRR, 2.0PRR, 3,0PRR 1.0SRR, 1.5SRR, 2.0SRR, 3.0SRR 1.0KRR, 1.5KRR, 2.0KRR, 2.0KRR
Raschig rings, perhaps the most commonly used packing, are useful in distillation, absorption and stripping operations. They provide increasing efficiency as loading increases to the point of incipient flooding, beyond which their operation becomes unstable. They are not suggested for use when high efficiencies are required or when liquid loading approaches flooding.

Raschig rings are small hallow cylinders. They are the least efficient inert packing available because their construction does not promote much liquid distribution, occasionally may promote liquid maldistribution, lends itself to pattern packing, and does not provide much turbulent contact between phases. They are available in carbon steel, stainless steels, stoneware, porcelain, karbate and plastics. Diameter sizes range from 1.0 to 3.0 INCHES. Size 3:0.5CIS, 1.0CIS, 1.5CIS, 2.0CIS 0.5PIS, 1.0PIS, 1.5PIS, 2.0PIS
There are widely used in the manufacturing of sulfuric acid, CO2 absorption in the pulp and paper industry, cooling and drying of chlorine and removal of noxious fumes in may industries.

The Intalox saddle is a packing that offers large total surface area per cubic foot, minimum resistance to liquid and gas flow, high percentage of void space, a low packing factor, excellent liquid distribution, maximum randomness and high efficiency with a large capacity in mass transfer operations. These qualities make Intalox saddles especially effective in distribution and absorption operations. Saddles are available in ceramics and plastics. Ceramics are chemical stoneware and chemical porcelain, of which chemical porcelain is preferred since it is mechanically stronger, non-porous, iron-free and inert to chemical attack. Plastic saddles are available in polypropylene, linear polyethylene, rigid PVC, CPVC, glass reinforced polypropylene, kynar and halar. Diameter sizes range from 0.25 to 3.0 INCHES. Size 3:0.5CBS,.75CBS, 1.0CBS, 1.5CBS 0.5PBS,.75PBS, 1.0PBS, 1.5PBS

6 Packing, Linings (G6)

6-3

0.5FBS,.75FBS, 1.0FBS, 1.5FBS 0.5SBS,.75SBS, 1.0SBS, 1.5SBS 0.5KBS,.75KBS, 1.0KBS, 1.5KBS These items are used with slightly less efficiency than Intalox saddles for distillation, stripping and absorption operations. A Berl saddle is a negatively warped surface resembling a saddle. Berl saddles have one shortcoming. Their efficiency changes with changes in loading. As loading approaches flooding, mass transfer becomes unstable and unpredictable. However, they do promote good liquid distribution, have a high percentage of void space and provide a large surface area for mass transfer. They are available in stoneware, porcelain, ceramics, plastics, stainless steel, carbon steel and in karbate. Diameter sizes range from 0.5 to 1.5 INCHES. Size 3:ALMNA
Activated aluminas are used for desiccation of liquids and gasses, desulfurization, catalytic applications and as scavengers for various contaminants such as fluorides.

Activated aluminas are manufactured in granular and ball forms as crystals and gels. They are highly porous and inert. Size 3:ACT-C Activated carbon is effectively and economically utilized in decolorization, odor removal, solvent recovery, refining gasses and liquids, catalysts and adsorption. Its major uses are in solution purification, such as the clean-up of cane, beet and corn sugar solutions, and for the removal of tastes and odors from water supplies, vegetable and animal fats and oils, alcoholic beverages, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Also commonly used in the recovery of gasoline from natural gas, recovery of benzol from manufactured gas and the recovery of solvents vaporized in industrial processes such as the manufacture of rayon, rubber products, film and plastics. Other common uses are removing impurities from gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, helium, ammonia, and CO2 and removing organic sulfur compounds, H2S, and other impurities (Fe, Cu) from manufactured and synthesis gases. Activated carbons can be divided into two main classes:
Those used for adsorption of gases and vapors, for which a granular material, providing great surface area and pore volume is generally employed. Those used in purification of liquid, for which a powdered material is desired.

Many carbonaceous materials treated with oxidizing gases (e.g., coal, lignite, sawdust) may be used for the manufacture of activated carbon depending on its desired application. Activation is a physical change where the surface of the carbon is greatly increased by the removal of hydrocarbons. Size 3: M107YA, M107YB, M107YC, M76YA, M76YB, M76YC, M76XA, M76XB, M76XC, M62YA, M62YB, M62YC, M35YA, M35YB, M35YC, M35XA, M35XB, M35XC Structured packing consists of layers of corrugated (crimped) steel sheets stacked parallel to each other in sections that are typically 8 to 12 inches high. The sheets are typically grooved and perforated and are arranged at a fixed angle with respect to the vertical axis. For a given packing type, changing this angle of orientation will alter the packing factor while maintaining the surface area per unit volume and weight per unit volume. When installed in a column,

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6 Packing, Linings (G6)

these sections, or "elements", are placed at a predetermined angle to each other (horizontal rotation). This angle is typically 90. At low liquid rates, structured packing is typically more efficient than random packing due to greater surface area per unit volume. Although the actual packing cost is significantly greater for structured packing, the increased efficiency allows for a smaller, less expensive column. Structured packing is also more desirable because it is less prone to distribution problems and it gives a lower pressure drop per theoretical stage. As the liquid rate increases (beyond 20 gpm/ft2), the advantage of structured packing diminishes significantly.

Introduction to Lining
A lining is material that lines the inside surface of a tank, tower, furnace, or other piece of process equipment and protects that piece of equipment from destruction by high temperature, corrosion or abrasion. Some of the common lining types follow.

Acid Brick
These linings are used in Acid Service (pH less than 4.5) to protect a membrane coating from deterioration due to abrasion or high temperature (T greater than 150 DEG F). Red Shale Brick (RSB) is the cheapest and can be used in low temperature service. When a more refractory material is desired, acid resistant fireclay (30% alumina) is used. Acid brick can be installed with two different mortars. Silica mortar is more economical but can not be used in all applications. Furfural based mortar is more expensive but is resistant to a wider range of materials.

Castable Refractories and Gunning Mixes


These materials can be installed in varying thicknesses. For thicknesses greater than 4 INCHES, it is necessary to use anchors to hold the refractory to the metal surface. Gunning mixes have higher material costs and lower labor cost than castables; thus, installed costs of the two are approximately equal. Fifty percent alumina gunning mix is useful in services involving severe abrasion, reducing atmospheres and moderate temperatures. Typical applications are cyclones, fluid catalytic cracking, naphtha reforming and coking. Ninety percent alumina castable and 90% alumina gunning mix are useful for applications with temperatures higher than 50% alumina gunning mixes.

Fluorocarbon Linings
Fluorocarbon linings are resistant to a wide variety of corrosive chemicals at temperatures up to 180 DEG F. The most common fluorocarbon linings are TeflonTM and KynarTM.

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6-5

Glass Linings
Glass linings are shop installed and are all satisfactory for a wide range of corrosive services at temperatures up to 450 DEG F.

Refractory Brick
These linings are used in high temperature service. Selection of the type brick to be used is a function of the process temperature, expected degree of chemical attack and expected degree of abrasion. Insulating firebrick has lower thermal conductivity and heat capacity than refractory firebrick. It is generally used as a backing for refractory firebrick. Since it is relatively non-resistant to chemical attack and abrasion, it is used as the inner lining only when no erosion or abrasion is expected. Insulating firebrick is ASTM Group 26 material (good to 2,600 DEG F). Sixty percent alumina firebrick is a high alumina refractory useful for operating conditions involving thermal cycling and chemical attack. Sulfuric acid processing and spent acid regeneration are two applications for this material. Ninety percent alumina firebrick is a high alumina refractory useful in operating conditions involving thermal shock, slagging, corrosion and high temperatures. Typical applications for this material are hydrotreating and sulfur burners.

Resin Linings
Resin linings are used in a variety of corrosive services at operating temperatures up to 250 DEG F. These linings offer good solvent resistance. Some common resis linings are asphaltic resin, epoxy resin and phenolic resin. Resin linings may be applied by spray gun, brush or roller.

Rubber Linings
These linings are satisfactory in a wide range of corrosive services at temperatures less than 150 DEG F. Rubber linings are almost always applied in the vendors shop. The most common rubber linings are butyl rubber, natural rubber and neoprene.

Lead Linings
Lead sheet was used extensively in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. Today, new process technology has nearly eliminated the use of lead as a lining material.

Zinc Linings
Zinc is frequently applied to water tanks for cathodic protection. The zinc can be flame sprayed (also called metallizing) or painted onto the carbon steel base material. Flame spraying is the process whereby metallic zinc is vaporized in a flame and sprayed onto the steel base material. The hot zinc does not merely coat the carbon steel, it forms an alloy with the steel several mils deep.

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6 Packing, Linings (G6)

Zinc can also be supported in an epoxy base paint and brushed, rolled or sprayed onto the steel.

Packing, Linings (PAK, LIN)


See Material Selections chapter for a complete list.
Description Variety of vessel packing materials including rings, saddles and other formed shapes, crushed materials, adsorbents, resins, etc. Packing type: See Chapter 28 for packing materials. Type PACKING

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6-7

Description Brick and mortar for acid service applied to protect a membrane coating from deterioration under

Type ACID BRICK

abrasive or high pressure service.

Lining material: Default: *25RSB* 25RSB- 2.5 INCHES [62 MM] red shale 45RSB- 4.5 FINCHES [112 MM] red shale 80RSB- 8.0 INCHES [200 MM] red shale 25AFC- 2.5 INCHES [62 MM] Al f-clay 45AFC- 4.5 INCHES [112 MM] Al fclay 90AFC- 9.0 INCHES [225 MM] Al fclay Mortar type: Default: *FUR* FUR- Furfural base motar SIL- Silicone base motar Lining adjustment: See Suggested Lining Difficulty Adjustment. Range: 1 - 10; Default: *4* Castable refractory or gunned mixes. Lining material: Default: *GUNIT* GUNIT- Gunite on wire mesh GUNA5- Gunn. 50% Al anchored GUNA9- Gunn. 90% Al anchored CASA9- Cast. 90% Al anchored GUN50- Gunn. 50% Al no anchor GUN90- Gunn. 90% Al no anchor CAS90- Cast. 90% Al no anchor Lining thickness: Max: 9 INCHES [225 MM]; Default: 4 INCHES [100 MM] - Continued on next page MONOLITHIC

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6 Packing, Linings (G6)

Packing, Linings (PAK, LIN) - continued


Description MONOLITHIC - continued Lining adjustment: See Suggested Lining Difficulty Adjustment. Range: 1 - 10; Default: *4* Brick: 60%, 90% alumina firebrick, insulating firebrick; abrasion resistant, replaceable linings: ceramic, rubber, steel, alloy; coatings: organic, glass and metallic. Lining material: See Chapter 28 for lining materials. Default: *EPLCS* Lining adjustment: See Suggested Lining Difficulty Adjustment. Range: 1 - 10; Default: *4* OTHER Item

Suggested Lining Difficulty Adjustments


Work Item Lining a straight tank Typical lining Lining a large horizontal vessel (<5000 GALLON [19 M3] capacity) Lining a small horizontal vessel (<5000 GALLON [19 M3] capacity) Small, obstructed area Difficulty Adjustment 1 4 6 8 10

6 Packing, Linings (G6)

6-9

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6 Packing, Linings (G6)

7 Pumps

(G10)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Centrifugal Pumps (CP) Gear Pumps (GP) Piston, Other Positive Displacement Pumps (P) Pump Efficiencies

7 Pumps (G10)

7-1

Centrifugal Pumps (CP)


Includes pump, baseplate, driver; general types:
API-610 type: ANSI type: High (60xHZ), low (30xHZ) speed. ANSI B123.1 or American Voluntary Standard, single stage centrifugal, process and general service; horizontal, end suction, centerline discharge; high (60xHZ), medium (30xHZ), low (20xHZ) speed. Single and multiple stage centrifugal pumps, horizontal, split casing (not barrel or cartridge type), for process or general service when flow, head and pressure conditions exceed general service; electric, turbine, gasoline engine drives. Cast iron pumps for general service; high (60xHZ), medium (30xHZ) speed. Mounted for service on the line; high (60xHZ), medium (30xHZ), low speed (20xHZ).

CENTRIF type:

General Service: IN LINE type:

Description

Type

Available in a wide variety of alloys and exotic ANSI materials including carbon steel casings with stainless steel impellers (SF = stainless fitted) for flows to 2000 GPM [125 L/S], and additionally in FRP for flows to 500 GPM [31 L/S]. Casing material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Liquid flow rate: MAX: 2,000 GPM [125 L/S] - Continued on next page -

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7 Pumps (G10)

Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description ANSI - continued Fluid head: MAX: 75 FEET [25 M] at 20 x HZ; 200 FEET [60 M] at 30 x HZ; 575 FEET [175 M] at 60 x HZ. Default: *75* FEET [*25* M] Speed: Range: 1,200 - 3,600 RPM; Default: *1,800* RPM. Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default *1.0* Driver type: NONE- No driver *MOTOR*- Standard motor driver VFD- Variable frequency motor driver TURBINE, - Turbine driver GAS ENGINE- Gas engine driver Seal type: PACK- Packing *SNGL*- Single mechanical seal TNDM- Tandem mechanical seal DBLE- Double mechanical seal Design temperature: MAX: 500 DEG F [260 DEG C]; Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Fluid viscosity: Default: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100 Steam gauge pressure: Steam pressure for turbine drivers only. Default: *400* PSIG [*2,800* KPA]. Primary seal pipe plan: *11*- API primary seal piping plan number 11 12- API primary seal piping plan number 12 13- API primary seal piping plan number 13 21- API primary seal piping plan number 21 22- API primary seal piping plan number 22 23- API primary seal piping plan number 23 31- API primary seal piping plan number 31 32- API primary seal piping plan number 32 41- API primary seal piping plan number 41 2- API primary seal piping plan number 2 - Continued on next page Type

7 Pumps (G10)

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Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description ANSI - continued Secondary seal pipe plan: Default: *NONE* 51- API secondary seal piping plan number 52- API secondary seal piping plan number 53- API secondary seal piping plan number 54- API secondary seal piping plan number 61- API secondary seal piping plan number 62- API secondary seal piping plan number Cooling water pipe plan: Default: *NONE* A- API cooling water piping plan A B- API cooling water piping plan B C- API cooling water piping plan C D- API cooling water piping plan D E- API cooling water piping plan E F- API cooling water piping plan F G- API cooling water piping plan G H- API cooling water piping plan H J- API cooling water piping plan J K- API cooling water piping plan K L- API cooling water piping plan L Pipe plan pipe type: Default: *WELD* TUBE- Tubing THRD- Threaded pipe/fittings *WELD*- Welded pipe/fittings WFLG- Welded/flanged pipe fittings Pipe plan material type: Default: Based on casing material. A 106- A 106 304P- SS304 316P- SS316 Plastic ANSI single stage pump. Liquid flow rate: Capacity limit: 250 GPM [15 L/S] at 30 x HZ; 500 GPM [31 L/S] at 60 x HZ. Fluid head: MAX: 90 FEET [27 M] at 30 x HZ, 350 FEET [105 M] at 60 x HZ]; Default: *75* FEET [*25* M] Speed: Range: 1,800 - 3,600 RPM; Default: *1,800* RPM Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 50; Default: 1.0 - Continued on next page Type

51 52 53 54 61 62

ANSI PLAST

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7 Pumps (G10)

Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description ANSI PLAST - continued Driver type: Default: *MOTOR* NONE- No driver MOTOR- Standard motor driver VFD- Variable frequency motor driver TURBINE, - Turbine driver GAS ENGINE- Gas engine driver Seal type: Default: *SNGL* PACK- Packing SNGL- Single mechanical seal TNDM- Tandem mechanical seal DBLE- Double mechanical seal Design temperature: MAX: 250 DEG F [107 DEG C]; Default *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Fluid viscosity: Default: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Pump efficiency: Range: 1 - 100 Steam gauge pressure: Steam pressure for turbine drivers only. Default: *400* PSIG [2,800 KPA]. API 610 type available in a variety of casing materials. API 610 Casing material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Fluid head: MAX: 200 FEET [60 M] at 30 x HZ; 700 FEET [210 M] at 60 x HZ RPM. Default: *225* FEET [*25* M] RPM Speed: Range: 1,800 - 3,600 RPM; Default: *1,800* Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Driver power: MIN: >0 If you specify a driver power greater than 300 HP with a MOTOR driver type, Icarus generates a Totally Enclosed Water Cooled (TEWAC) motor. In Aspen Process Economic Analyzer and Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, Icarus also generates additional piping lines for cooling water and an additional temperature control loop. - Continued on next page Type

7 Pumps (G10)

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Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description API 610 - continued Driver type: Default: MOTOR NONE- No driver *MOTOR*- Standard motor driver VFD- Variable frequency motor driver TURBINE, - Turbine driver GAS ENGINE- Gas engine driver Seal type: Default: *SNGL* PACK- Packing *SNGL*- Single mechanical seal TNDM- Tandem mechanical seal DBLE- Double mechanical seal Design temperature: MAX: 850 DEG F [450 DEG C]; Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Fluid viscosity: Default: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100 Steam gauge pressure: Steam pressure for tubine drivers only. Default: *400* PSIG [*2,800* KPA]. Primary seal pipe plan: *11*- API primary seal piping plan number 11 12- API primary seal piping plan number 12 13- API primary seal piping plan number 13 21- API primary seal piping plan number 21 22- API primary seal piping plan number 22 23- API primary seal piping plan number 23 31- API primary seal piping plan number 31 32- API primary seal piping plan number 32 41- API primary seal piping plan number 41 2- API primary seal piping plan number 2 Secondary seal pipe plan: Default: *NONE* 51- API secondary seal piping plan number 51 52- API secondary seal piping plan number 52 53- API secondary seal piping plan number 53 54- API secondary seal piping plan number 54 61- API secondary seal piping plan number 61 62- API secondary seal piping plan number 62 - Continued on next page Type

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7 Pumps (G10)

Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description API 610 - continued Cooling water pipe plan: Default: *NONE* A- API cooling water piping plan A B- API cooling water piping plan B C- API cooling water piping plan C D- API cooling water piping plan D E- API cooling water piping plan E F- API cooling water piping plan F G- API cooling water piping plan G H- API cooling water piping plan H J- API cooling water piping plan J K- API cooling water piping plan K L- API cooling water piping plan L Pipe plan pipe type: Default: *WELD* TUBE- Tubing THRD- Threaded pipe/fittings *WELD*- Welded pipe/fittings WFLG- Welded/flanged pipe fittings Pipe plan material Type: Default: Based on casing material. A 106- A 106 304P- SS304 316P- SS316 API 610 in-line pump Casing material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Liquid flow rate: MAX: 450 GPM [38 M] at 30 x HZ, 900 GPM [56 L/S] at 60 x HZ. Fluid head: MAX: 125 FEET [38 M] at 30 x HZ, 500 FEET [152 M] at 60 x HZ; Default: *225* FEET [*25* M] Speed: Range: 1,800 - 3,600 RPM; Default: *1,800* RPM. Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Driver type: *STD*- Standard motor VFD- Variable frequency drive NONE- No driver - Continued on next page API 610 IL Type

7 Pumps (G10)

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Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description API 610 IL - continued Seal type: PACK- Packing *SNGL*- Single mechanical seal TNDM- Tandem mechanical seal DBLE- Double mechanical seal Design temperature: MAX: 850 DEG F [450 DEG C]; Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C]. Fluid viscosity: Default: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S]. Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100 Primary seal pipe plan: Default: *11* 11- API primary seal piping plan number 11 12- API primary seal piping plan number 12 13- API primary seal piping plan number 13 21- API primary seal piping plan number 21 22- API primary seal piping plan number 22 23- API primary seal piping plan number 23 31- API primary seal piping plan number 31 32- API primary seal piping plan number 32 41- API primary seal piping plan number 41 2- No primary seal piping plan Secondary seal pipe plan: Default: *NONE* 51- API second seal piping plan number 51 52- API second seal piping plan number 52 53- API second seal piping plan number 53 54- API second seal piping plan number 54 61- API second seal piping plan number 61 62- API second seal piping plan number 62 Cooling water pipe plan: Default: *NONE* A- API cooling water piping plan A B- API cooling water piping plan B C- API cooling water piping plan C D- API cooling water piping plan D E- API cooling water piping plan E F- API cooling water piping plan F G- API cooling water piping plan G H- API cooling water piping plan H J- API cooling water piping plan J K- API cooling water piping plan K L- API cooling water piping plan L Type

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Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description Type High speed vertical in-line API 610 centrifugal pump HIGH SPEED with a single impeller stage, integral speed-increasing gearbox, with a vertical motor mount, for use in high head/low flow applications. Casing material: Default: *CS* See Chapter 28 of the Icarus Reference Guide for materials. Fluid head: MAX: 2,000 FEET [600 M] MIN: 500 FEET [150 M] Default: *500* FEET [*150* M] Speed: Range: 1,800 - 3,600 RPM; Default: *1,800* Note: Applies to motor speed, not impeller speed. Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Driver power: MIN: >0 Note: If you specify a driver power greater than 300 HP with a MOTOR driver type, Aspen Economic Evaluation generates a Totally Enclosed Water Cooled (TEWAC) motor. In Aspen Process Economic Analyzer and Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, Aspen Economic Evaluation also generates additional piping lines for cooling water and an additional temperature control loop. Driver type: Default: MOTOR NONE - No driver *MOTOR* - Standard motor driver VFD - Variable frequency motor driver TURBINE, - Turbine driver GAS ENGINE - Gas engine driver Seal type: Default: *SNGL* PACK - Packing *SNGL* - Single mechanical seal TNDM - Tandem mechanical seal DBLE - Double mechanical seal Design temperature: MAX: 850 DEG F [450 DEG C] Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Fluid viscosity: Default: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100 - Continued on next page -

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7-9

Description Steam gauge pressure: Steam pressure for turbine drivers only. Default: *400* PSIG [*2,800* KPA]. Primary seal pipe plan: *11* - API primary seal piping plan number 11 12 - API primary seal piping plan number 12 13 - API primary seal piping plan number 13 21 - API primary seal piping plan number 21 22 - API primary seal piping plan number 22 23 - API primary seal piping plan number 23 31 - API primary seal piping plan number 31 32 - API primary seal piping plan number 32 41 - API primary seal piping plan number 41 2 - API primary seal piping plan number 2 Secondary seal pipe plan: Default: *NONE* 51 - API secondary seal piping plan number 51 52 - API secondary seal piping plan number 52 53 - API secondary seal piping plan number 53 54 - API secondary seal piping plan number 54 61 - API secondary seal piping plan number 61 62 - API secondary seal piping plan number 62 Cooling water pipe plan: Default: *NONE* A - API cooling water piping plan A B - API cooling water piping plan B C - API cooling water piping plan C D - API cooling water piping plan D E - API cooling water piping plan E F - API cooling water piping plan F G - API cooling water piping plan G H - API cooling water piping plan H J - API cooling water piping plan J K - API cooling water piping plan K L - API cooling water piping plan L Pipe plan pipe type: Default: *WELD* TUBE - Tubing THRD - Threaded pipe/fittings *WELD* - Welded pipe/fittings WFLG - Welded/flanged pipe fittings Pipe plan material type: Default: Based on casing material. A 106 - A 106 304P - SS304 316P - SS316 - Continued on next page -

Type

7-10

7 Pumps (G10)

Description

Type AXIAL FLOW

Vertical axial flow pump for flows greater than 1600 GPM [100 L/S]. Includes pumping unit and motor driver.
Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Liquid flow rate: Max GPM <1,300,000/head [FT], Max L/S <25,000/head [M]. Fluid head: MAX: 75 FEET [25 M]; Default: *75* FEET [*25* M] Temperature: MAX: 500 DEG F [260 DEG C]; Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0*

Horizontal pump with canned motor.


Casing material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Liquid flow rate: MAX: 400 GPM [25 L/S] Fluid head: MAX: 200 FEET [60 M]; Default: *75* FEET [*25* M] Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Design temperature: MAX: 850 DEG F [450 DEG C]; Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Fluid viscosity: Default: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100

CANNED

Single and multistage centrifugal pumps available in a CENTRIF variety of casing materials. For process or general service when flow/head conditions exceed general service; horizontally split casing not a cartridge or barrel pump. Casing material: Default: *CS* Fluid head: Default: *75* FEET [*25* M]

- Continued on next page -

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Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description CENTRIF - continued Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: 1.0 Driver type: Default: MOTOR NONE- No driver *MOTOR*- Standard motor driver VFD- Variable frequency motor driver TURBINE, - Turbine driver GAS ENGINE- Gas engine driver Seal type: PACK- Packing *SNGL*- Single mechanical seal TNDM- Tandem mechanical seal DBLE- Double mechanical seal Design temperature: Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Fluid viscosity: Default: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100 Steam gauge pressure: Steam pressure for turbine drivers only. Default: *400* PSIG [*2,800* KPA]. Type

General service, cast iron for flows to 2000 GPM GEN SERV [125 L/S].
Casing material: Default: *CI* Liquid flow rate: MAX: 2,000 GPM [125 L/S] Fluid head: MAX: 200 FEET [60 M] at 30 x HZ, 275 FEET [80 M] at 60 x HZ; Default: *75* FEET [*25* M] Speed: Range: 1,800 - 3,600 RPM; Default: *1,800* RPM. Fluid specific gravity: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *5.0* Driver type: NONE- No driver *MOTOR*- Standard motor driver VFD- Variable frequency motor driver TURBINE, - Turbine driver GAS ENGINE- Gas engine driver - Continued on next page -

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7 Pumps (G10)

Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description GEN SERV - continued Seal type: PACK- Packing *SNGL*- Single mechanical seal TNDM- Tandem mechanical seal DBLE- Double mechanical seal Design temperature: MAX: 250 DEG F [120 DEG C]; Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Fluid viscosity: Default: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100 Steam gauge pressure: Steam pressure for turbine drivers only. Default: *400* PSIG [*2,800* KPA]. Type

General service in-line pump. Includes pump and motor driver.


Casing material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Liquid flow rate: MAX: GPM x head [FEET] < 43,000, L/S x head [M] < 825. Fluid head: Default: *75* FEET [*25* M] Speed: Range: 1,200 - 3,600 RPM; Default: *1,800* RPM. Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Driver type: *STD*- Standard motor VFD- Variable frequency drive NONE- No driver Seal type: PACK- Packing *SNGL*- Single mechanical seal TNDM- Tandem mechanical seal DBLE- Double mechanical seal Design temperature: MAX: 500 DEG F [260 DEG C]; Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Fluid viscosity: Default: *1.0* CPOISE [*1.0* MPA-S] Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100

IN LINE

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Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description Type

Vertical motor with turbine impeller for wet pits, TURBINE tanks and sumps. Includes pumping unit and motor driver.
Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Liquid flow rate: MAX: Flow (GPM) x Head (FT) < 430,000 [Flow (L/S) x Head (M) < 8250] Fluid head: Default: *75* FEET [*25* M]; MAX: Flow (GPM) x Head (FT) < 430,000 [Flow (L/S) x Head (M) < 8250] Temperature: Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C]; MAX: 500 DEG F [260 DEG C] Fluid Specific Gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Low consistency stock pump. Casing material: *CI*- Cast iron SS316- SS316 Liquid flow rate: Range: 100 - 28,000 GPM [6.4 - 1,765 L/S] Fluid Head: Range: 15 - 350 FEET [4.6 - 106 M] Speed: Default: *1,800* RPM Fluid specific gravity.: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: 1.0 Driver type: NONE- No driver *MOTOR*- Standard motor driver VFD- Variable frequency driver TURBINE- Turbine driver GAS ENGINE- Gas engine driver Design temperature: Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Consistency Air Dried: Percent by weight of air dried (AD) solids in fluid. Range: 0.0 - 6.0; Default: *1.0* Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100 Steam gauge pressure: Steam pressure for turbine drivers only. Default: *400*PSGI [*2,800 KPA]. PULP STOCK

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Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description Type MAG DRIVE

Standard ANSI magnetic drive pump.


Casing material: *SS*- Stainless steel C 20- Carpenter 20 HASTC- Hasteloy C Liquid flow rate: MAX: 300 GPM [18.9 L/S] at 30 x HZ, 600 GPM [37.8 L/S] at 60 x HZ Fluid head: MAX: 200 FEET [60 M] at 30 x HZ, 400 FEET [120 M] at 60 x HZ; Default: *75* FEET [*25* M] Speed: Range: 1,800 - 3,600 RPM; Default: *3,600* RPM Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1* Driver type: *MOTOR*- Standard motor driver VFD- Variable frequency driver NONE- No driver Design gauge pressure: MAX: 275 PSIG [1,895 KPA] Design temperature: MAX: 450 DEG F [230 DEG C]; Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Fluid viscosity: Default: *1* CPOISE [*1* MPA-S] Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100 Sanitary centrifugal pump

SAN PUMP

For use as a product mover in a wide range of sanitary and industrial applications. Material of construction is SS316. Pump size selection:
Symbol InchPound 25x20 30x20 30X25 40X30 40X40 2.5 INCHES 3 INCHES 3 INCHES 4 INCHES 4 INCHES Inlet Metric 65 MM 75 MM 75 MM 100 MM Outlet InchPound 2 INCHES 2 INCHES Metric 50 MM 50 MM 75 MM 100 MM

2.5 INCHES 65 MM 4 INCHES

100 MM 3 INCHES

- Continued on next page -

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Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description Type SAN PUMP - continued SAN PUMP Required: select pump size or enter capacity and head. Fluid head: MAX: 365 FEET [109 M] (at maximum speed)

Speed *30xHZ* 60XHZ

Maximum Head Inch- Pound Metric 92 FEET 365 FEET 28 M 63 M

Required: enter capacity and head or select pump size. Liquid flow rate: MAX: 1,000 GPM [62.5 GPM] (at maximum speed)

Speed *30xHZ* 60XHZ

Maximum Head Inch- Pound Metric 610 GPM 1,000 GPM 38.4 L/S 63 L/S

Required: enter capacity and head or select pump size. Speed Inch- Pound Default MIN: MAX: 1,800 RPM 1,800 RPM 3,600 RPM Metric 1,500RPM 1,500RPM 3,000 RPM

Design gauge pressure: *45 PSIG [310 KPA]*, MAX: 45 PSIG [310 KPA] Design temperature: *68 DEG F [20 DEG C]*, MAX: 120 DEG F [50 DEG C] Fluid specific gravity: *1.0*, MIN: 0.25, MAX: 5.0 Pump efficiency: MIN: 10, MAX: 100 Driver type: *TXXDC*- Standard TEFC motor WXXDC- Washdown TEFC motor WVRDC- VFD rated motor only (no controller) WVCDC- VFD rated motor with controller Seal type: *SNGL*- Single mechanical seal SNGW- Single mechanical seal w/ water cooling DBLW- Double mechanical seal w/ water cooling

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Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued


Description Sanitary fluming pump with feeder hopper Type FLUME PUMP

For transferring delicate food products, like mushrooms and cranberries. Uses water as a protective cushion. Material of construction is SS304. Liquid flow rate: MAX: 4,150 GPM [260 L/S]. Includes water and product. Required: enter either diameter; head and capacity; or head and product rate. Maximum head decreases as capacity increases. At the maximum capacity of 4,150 GPM [260 L/ S], the maximum head is 45 FEET [13.7 M].
Product rate:

MAX: based on maximum capacity (4,150 GPM [260 L/S]), specific gravity, and H20/product ratio. Required: enter either diameter; head and capacity; or head and product rate.
Inlet and outlet diameter: MIN: 4 INCHES [100 MM], MAX: 10 INCHES [250 MM] Fluid head: *35* FEET [*10.7* M], MAX: 110 FEET [33.5 M]

Maximum head decreases as capacity increases. The pump is dead-headed at 110 FEET [35.5 M]. At the maximum capacity of 4,150 GPM [260 L/ S], the maximum head is 45 FEET [13.7 M]. Water to product weight ratio: *10* Design pressure gauge: *45 PSIG [310 KPA]*, MAX: 45 PSIG [310 KPA] Design temperature: *68 DEG F [20 DEG C]*, MAX: 120 DEG F [50 DEG C]
Fluid specific gravity: *1.0*, MIN: 0.2, MAX: 5.0 (of water-product mixture). Pump efficiency: MIN: 10, MAX: 100

- Continued on next page -

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Centrifugal Pumps (CP) - continued.


Description FLUME PUMP - continued. Hopper length: Minimum hopper length depends on diameter: Diameter 4 INCHES [100 MM] 6 INCHES [150 MM] 8 INCHES [200 MM] 10 INCHES [250 MM] Enclosure type: OPEN- Closed frame unit *CLOSE*- Open frame unit Minimum Hopper Length 2.0 FEET [0.610 M] 3.5 FEET [1.067 MM] 5.0 FEET [1.524 M] 6.0 FEET [1.829 M] Type

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7 Pumps (G10)

Gear Pumps (GP)


For the pumping of viscous fluids, such as polymers and resins. Standard rotary pumps can pump fluids with viscosities as great as 250,000 CP and special designs are available to handle viscosities up to 1,000,000 CP. The principal of operation is that as two rotors rotate, projections on the rotors mesh and unmesh. They unmesh on the suction side of the pump creating a cavity which is filled with liquid. As the rotors continue to turn, the liquid is trapped between the projections of the rotors and the pump casing. The liquid is carried to the discharge side of the pump in these pockets. At the discharge side, the rotors mesh and the liquid is squeezed out of the pump. Includes pump, baseplate, driver (optional).
Description Type GEAR

Standard external gear rotary pump For pumping of viscous fluids to 300 GPM [18 L/ S], such as polymers and resins; standard type external gear rotary pump. Includes motor driver.
Material: *CS*- Carbon steel CI- Cast iron SS- Stainless steel BRONZ- Bronz Liquid flow rate: MAX: 300 GPM [18 L/S]. Viscosity: MAX: 30,000 CSTOKE [30,000 MM2/S]; Default: *32* CSTOKE [*32* MM2/S]. Speed: MAX: 600 RPM; Default: *90* RPM. Canned rotor gear pump Explosion-proof motor, to 570 GPM [35 L/S]. Material: *SS316* Liquid flow rate: 40 - 570 GPM [3 - 35 L/S] Speed: MAX: 1,800 RPM; Default: *1,800* RPM Viscosity: Default: *32* CSTOKE [*32* MM2/S]

CANNED RTR

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Gear Pumps (GP) - continued


Description Mechanical seal gear pump With mechanical seal, to 480 GPM [30 L/S]. Includes motor driver. Material: *GSLCS* (Glass-lined CS) Liquid flow rate: Range: 35 - 480 GPM [3 - 30 L/S]. Speed: MAX: 1,800 RPM; Default: *1,800* RPM. Type MECH SEAL

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7 Pumps (G10)

Piston, Other Positive Displacement Pumps (P)


Description Reciprocating simplex with steam driver. Material: Default: *CS* Liquid flow rate: Range: 5.5 - 910 GPM [0.4 - 56 L/S] Fluid head: MAX: 1,000 FEET [300 M] Temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Driver power: Range: 3 - 10 HP [2.22 - 7.5 KW] Reciprocating duplex with steam driver. Material: Default: *CS* Liquid flow rate: MAX: 1,000 GPM [62 L/S] Fluid head: MAX: 1,000 FEET [300 M] Temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Driver power: Range: 2 - 100 HP [1.5 - 7.5 KW] Triplex (plunger) with pump-motor driver. Material: Default: *CS* Liquid flow rate: MAX: 1,000 GPM [62 L/S] Fluid head: MAX: 1,000 FEET [300 M] Temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default *1.0* Driver power: Range: 2 -100 HP [1.5 - 75 KW] TRIPLEX DUPLEX Type SIMPLEX

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Piston, Other Positive Displacement Pumps (P) - continued


Description Type DIAPHRAGM Diaphragm pump - TFE type. Includes motor driver. For the low capacity pumping of hazardous, toxic or abrasive liquids. Although diaphragm pumps are made with capacities of 100 GPM, generally they handle 25 GPM or less. Diaphragm pumps are also frequently used as metering pumps.

A diaphragm pump is a type of reciprocating pump. A reciprocating rod flexes a diaphragm fabricated of metal, rubber or plastic. The flexing of the diaphragm produces the pumping action. The advantage of the diaphragm pump is that no packing or seals are exposed to the liquid being pumped.
Material: *CS*- Carbon steel SS316- SS316 Liquid flow rate: Range: 0.012 - 600 GPM [1.3 - 37.5 L/S] Temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Slurry pump. Material: Default: *SS316* Liquid flow rate: Range: 1.5 - 25 GPM [0.1 - 1.5 L/S] Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] SLURRY

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7 Pumps (G10)

Piston, Other Positive Displacement Pumps (P) - continued


Description Rotary (sliding vanes) pump. Includes motor driver. Material: Defaults* Liquid flow rate: Range: 10 - 750 GPM [0.7 - 47 L/S] Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Material: BRONZ Liquid flow rate: Range: 25 - 450 GPM [1.6 - 28 L/S] Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1* Temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Reciprocating plunger pump. Includes motor driver. Plunger pumps are used for pumping hydraulic fluid, hydraulic de-scaling of steel, water flooding of oil fields, salt water disposal, pumping of propane, butane and other volatile liquids, and for process pumping requiring high pressures. This item is an electric motor driven plunger, power pump. A power pump is a reciprocating pump driven through a crankshaft. Although the RECIP-MOTR pump is driven by an electric motor, a power pump may be driven by a steam or gas turbine, a gas engine, or a diesel engine as well. A plunger pump is a reciprocating pump that displaces liquid from a cylinder by the reciprocating motion of a long, slender, solid rod called a plunger. On the back-stroke of the plunger, the cylinder fills with liquid and on the forward-stroke, the liquid is expelled. The capacity of a plunger pump is determined by the diameter, stroke and number of plungers. Plunger pumps are made from two to nine plungers and in two basic configurations, horizontal and vertical depending on whether the plungers are arranged horizontally or vertically in the machine. Typically, discharge pressures of plunger pumps fall in the range from 1,500 to 6,000 PSIG, although pressure as high as 20,000 PSIG can be handled in some. - Continued on next page RECIP MOTR Type ROTARY

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7-23

Piston, Other Positive Displacement Pumps (P) - continued


Description RECIP MOTR - continued Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS* Liquid flow rate: Min: 0.01 GPM [0.4 L/S] Temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0* Driver power: MAX: 1,000 HP [750 KW] High density stock pump with twin intermeshing screws. Casing material: *SS316*, SS317 Stock flow rate air dried: Flow rate of air dried (AD) solids in pumped fluid. MAX: 1,500 TPD [56 TON/H] Design gauge pressure Outlet: MAX: 160 PSIG [1,100 KPA] to 550 TPD [20 TON/H], else 100 PSIG [688 KPA]. Design temperature: Default: *120* DEG F [*50* DEG C] Consistency air dried: Percent by weight of air dried (AD) solids in fluid. Range: 10 - 20; Default: *10* Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1* Pump efficiency: Range: 10 - 100 Driver type: NONE- No driver *MOTOR*- Standard motor driver VFD- Variable frequency motor driver TURBINE, - Turbine driver GAS ENGINE- Gas engine driver Speed: Default: *1,800* RPM [*1,500* RPM] Steam gauge pressure: Steam pressure for turbine drivers only. Default: *400* PSIG [*2,800* KPA]. HD STOCK Type

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7 Pumps (G10)

Piston, Other Positive Displacement Pumps (P) - continued


Description Sanitary rotary lobe pump Used for a wide range of fluids (low or high viscosity, non-lubricating or abrasive), this pump forwards fluids, yet has a low impact on solids and a relatively constant discharge pressure. Pump size selection: Symbol 06- 15 15 - 15 18 - 15 30 - 15 60 - 25 130 - 3 220 - 4 320 - 6 420 - 8 520 - 8 Nominal Flow Rate / Diameter GPM/INCHES L/S MM 6 / 1.5 15 / 1.5 18 / 1.5 30 / 1.5 60 / 2.5 130 / 3 220 / 4 320 / 6 420 / 8 520 / 8 0.37 / 40 0.9 / 40 1.1 / 40 1.8 / 40 3.7 / 65 8.2 / 80 13.8 / 100 20.2 / 150 26.5 / 200 32.8 / 200 Type ROTARYLOBE

Required: select pump size or enter capacity and exit pressure. Liquid flow rate: MAX: 520 GPM [32.8 L/S] Required: select pump size or enter capacity and exit pressure. Design gauge pressure Outlet: MAX: 200 PSIG [1,375 KPA] Required: select pump size or enter capacity and exit pressure. Impeller speed: MAX: 10 x Hz RPM Fluid specific gravity: *1.0*, MIN: 0.2, MAX: 5.0 Fluid viscosity: *1.0 CPOISE [1.0 MPA-S]* Design temperature: *68 DEG F [20 DEG C]* Seal type: *MECH*- Single mechanical seal ORNG- O-ring seal DBLE- Double mechanical seal Relief cover type: *STD*- Standard cover MAN- Manual relief cover

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Piston, Other Positive Displacement Pumps (P) - continued.


Description Sanitary air diaphragm pump Material of construction is SS316. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. Inlet and outlet diameter: MIN: 1 INCHES [25 MM DIAM], MAX: 3 INCHES DIAM [75 MM DIAM] Enter either inlet/outlet diameter or capacity and head. Liquid flow rate: MAX: 220 GPM [13.7 L/S] at 20 FEET [6 M] Enter either inlet/outlet diameter or capacity and head. Fluid head: MAX: 210 FEET [64 M] at 60 GPM [3.7 L/S] Design gauge pressure: MAX: 110 PSIG [750 KPA] Design temperature: MIN: 68 DEG F [20 DEG C], MAX: 300 DEG F [148 DEG C] Fluid specific gravity: *1.0*, MIN: 0.2, MAX: 5.0 Type AIR DIAPH

Pump Efficiencies
Pump Type Default Efficiency

Centrifugal Pumps All Other Pumps Hi-Density Stock Pump

< 50 GPM = 60% 82% Calculated using an empirical correlation.

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7 Pumps (G10)

8 Towers, Columns

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction to Towers and Columns Tower/Column Applications Tower/Column Internals Description of Towers/Columns Materials of Construction Shell and Head Design Double Diameter Towers (DDT) Single Diameter Towers (TW)

8 Towers, Columns (G6)

8-1

Introduction to Towers and Columns


Towers are classified according to the type of internals in the tower, and according to the function performed by the tower.

Towers may contain trays. If the tower contains trays, the vessel is called a tray tower, or, synonymously, a tray column.
Tower may contain packing. If the tower contains a packing, the vessel is called a packed tower, or packed column. If the feed to the tower is a hydrocarbon mixture and the tower separates this mixture into two factions or streams, one stream containing the more volatile components of the feed and the other stream the less volatile components of the feed, the tower is called a fractionation tower. Other names for a fractionation tower are: fractionation column, fractionator, distillation tower and distillation column. If the feed to the tower is liquid, and the tower removes an undesirable gas which is dissolved in the feed, the tower is called a stripping tower. Other names for a stripping tower are stripping column and stripper. If the feed to the tower is a gas mixture containing one or more undesirable components which are removed within the tower by absorbing them with a suitable solvent, the tower is called an absorption tower. Other names for an absorption tower are: absorption column and absorber. If the feed to the tower is a gas or liquid mixture containing one or more undesirable components, which are removed within the tower by adsorbing them onto solid catalyst pellets, the tower is called an adsorption tower. Other names for an adsorption tower are: adsorption column and adsorber. If the feed to the tower is a liquid mixture containing one or more undesirable components which are removed by absorbing them with another liquid, the tower is called an extraction tower or extraction column.

Towers are similar to vertical process vessels in that they are erected vertically and they are cylindrical in shape with heads at each end of the cylinder. Towers are, however, normally much taller then vertical process vessels. Typically the length to diameter ratio of a tower ranges from 3:1 to 20:1. Towers typically range in diameter from 3 to 20 FEET and in height from 20 to 150 FEET.

Tower/Column Applications
Towers are commonly used for the following purposes:
Distillation Stripping Absorption Adsorption Extraction.

A description of these items follows. Distillation a process which separates a mixture of materials into two or more desired parts. The device which performs this operation may be called a

8-2

8 Towers, Columns (G6)

distillation tower, distillation column or fractionator. The operation of a distillation column depends on the fact that different materials boil at different temperatures. For example, water boils at 212 DEG F and ethyl alcohol (the active ingredient in liquor) boils at 173 DEG F. Distillation is not a new concept. The material which boils at the lower temperature is called the light or more volatile component. The material with the higher boiling point is called the heavy or less volatile component. In the case of ethyl alcohol and water, we are dealing with a two component or binary mixture. This is not the usual case. More commonly, the feed to a distillation column is a multi-component mixture. For example, crude oil contains hundreds of different components. The purpose of distilling crude oil is to separate it into what are called fractions or cuts. Each fraction or cut is not a pure component, but a mixture of components which may be used as is or refined further. Crude distillation normally is used to produce these fractions: raw gasoline, raw kerosene, gas oil and reduced crude. Stripping The process of extracting a material dissolved in a liquid phase and transferring it into a gas phase is called stripping or desorption. The stripping process is carried out in a device called a stripping tower or stripping column. The removal of ammonia from water is an example of the stripping process. Water with ammonia dissolved in it passes down the stripping tower. Air passing upward through the tower strips the ammonia from the water and the ammonia - air mixture exits from the top of the tower. Absorption The process of transferring a material from the gas phase to the liquid phase is called absorption. The liquid into which the gaseous component dissolves is called the absorbent. The device in which the absorption process takes place is called an absorption tower, absorption column or absorber. The removal of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from the natural gas with deithanolamine (DEA) is an example of the absorption process. Natural gas, CO2 and H2S pass upward through the tower. DEA passing downwards absorbs the CO2 and H2S. Adsorption The process of transferring a material from either the gas or liquid phase to the solid phase is called adsorption. The solid to which the liquid or gaseous component attached itself is called the adsorbent. The device in which the adsorption process takes place is usually called an adsorption tower, adsorption column or adsorber. If the purpose of the adsorber is to remove water, the term drying tower or dryer is often used. Extraction The process of transferring material from one liquid phase to another immiscible liquid phase is called liquid - liquid extraction, solvent extraction or simply extraction. Immiscible liquids are liquids which do not dissolve in each other, for example, oil and water. If the two immiscible liquids are contacted counter currently, the contacting device is called an extraction column, extraction tower or extractor.

Tower/Column Internals
Trays May be divided into two major categories; crossflow trays and counter flow trays. Crossflow trays get their name because liquid flows across the tray to a downcomer while vapor rises through perforations in the tray deck. There are three types of crossflow trays in common use today. They are the bubble cap, sieve tray, and valve tray. The bubble cap trays were used almost exclusively until about 1950. Since then, the use of bubble cap trays has almost disappeared because their complicated construction makes them

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heavy (resulting in heavier and more expensive tray supports) and expensive to fabricate. Bubble cap trays get their name because vapor rises through holes in the tray and is collected underneath bubble caps. Each cap has slots in it through which the vapor from the tray below bubbles into the liquid on the tray. Sieve trays are the cheapest trays to fabricate because of their simple design. They consist of a perforated plate through which vapor rises from the tray below, a weir to hold a liquid level on the tray, and a downcomer which acts as a downspout to direct the liquid to the tray below. The operation of the sieve tray depends on the vapor velocity through the perforations being high enough to keep the liquid flowing across the tray and not down through the same perforations the vapor is rising through. The drawback to the sieve tray is that it has a narrow operating range compared to the bubble cap tray and the valve tray. Too low a vapor velocity and the liquid falls through the holes to the plate below - a condition called dumping. Too high a velocity and vapor doesnt bubble through the liquid on the tray. Instead, the vapor pushes the liquid away from the hole so that there is no liquid-vapor contact. This condition is called coning. Valve trays have liftable caps which operate like check valves. These caps make valve trays more expensive than sieve trays but they also increase the operating range of the tray. At low vapor velocities, the caps close and prevent dumping. The other major category of trays is the counterflow type. These trays have no downcomers. The liquid falls through the same openings in the tray that the vapor from the tray below rises through. This type of tray is not widely used. The most popular of the counterflow type tray is the Turbogrid tray. Packings The second major category of tower internals is packings. Packings serve the same purpose as trays; they bring a gas or vapor stream into intimate contact with a liquid stream. Trays accomplish this by providing a very large wetted surface area for the gas or vapor to flow by. Packed towers would normally be selected instead of tray towers in the following instances: 1 2 For columns less than 2 FEET in diameter, packing is generally cheaper. If highly corrosive fluids are being handled, packings are often advantageous because they can be made of ceramic, carbon, plastic or other highly resistant metallic or non-metallic material.
Packed towers are low pressure drop devices, therefore, they are often used for vacuum distillations.

The major disadvantages of packed towers are: 1 2 They have a narrower operating range than tray towers. A packed tower must have a larger diameter than a tray tower to handle the same feed rate.

The most common types of packings are: Raschig rings, Berl saddles, Intalox saddles and Pall rings. Adsorption towers are packed towers; however, their function is to transfer a material from the liquid or gas phase onto the surface of the solid adsorbent. Adsorbents are not packing types. Adsorbents are generally either a granular material or else spherical or cylindrical shaped pellets. Some common adsorbents are: Fullers earthes (natural clays), activated clay, alumina, activated carbon and silica gel.

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Description of Towers/Columns
Towers and columns are interchangeable name for the same device. These devices have one of two functions. One is to separate a mixture into two or more desired parts. The other function is to transfer a material from one phase to another phase. Towers are classified according to the function performed. Examples are distillation, stripping or extraction. Towers are also classified by the type of device installed inside (internals) so the tower can perform its desired function. Tower internals consist of either trays or packings. Towers are always erected vertically. They are usually tall and cylindrical in shape. Sometimes they are designed with the top of the tower one diameter and the bottom a different (usually larger) diameter. This gives the tower a Coke bottle shape and is called a double diameter tower. The cylindrically shaped body of the tower is called the shell. The shell is closed at both ends with dome-shaped covers called heads. There are three head designs in common use: Torispherical, the most common of which is the ASME flanged and dished head Ellipsoidal, also called elliptical, elliptical dished or 2:1 ellipsoidal (because the ratio of the length of the major to the minor axis of this head is 2:1) Hemispherical.

Which kind of head to use is an economic decision. The torispherical head is the cheapest to fabricate, but is the thickest for a given pressure. The ellipsoidal head is more expensive to fabricate than the torispherical, but is thinner at the same pressure. The hemispherical head is the most costly to fabricate, but is the thinnest for a given pressure. Thus, the material cost decreases from the torispherical to hemispherical because the head gets thinner, but the fabricating costs increase. At pressures below 150 PSIG the torispherical head is generally the cheapest. From 150 PSIG to 500 PSIG, the ellipsoidal is usually selected. Above 150 PSIG, the hemispherical head becomes an economically viable alternative. Openings are provided in the shell and heads of a tower so that process fluids can enter and leave. Other openings in the tower are provided for drains, purge connections and sample connections. These openings into the tower are called nozzles. Nozzles range in diameter from 1 INCH for small drains, vents and sample connections to 24 INCHES [609.6 MM] or more for large process connections. The small (1 INCH) connections are usually made with pipe couplings, not with welding necks and flanges. Workers must be able to enter the tower after it is erected to install and maintain the internals. Openings in the tower provided for this purpose are called manholes or manways. Manholes are just nozzles large enough for a man to pass through. Manholes range in diameter from 18 - 48 INCHES [1219 MM]. A tower is normally supported by a steel cylinder the same diameter as the tower called a skirt. The skirt is welded to the tower at one end and bolted to the foundation at the other.

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In addition to nozzles, manholes and skirts, other appurtenances may be attached to the tower. These other externals may include insulation clips for the support of insulation, lifting lugs which are eyelets to which rigging is attached so that the tower can be lifted and placed on its foundation, and various structural steel members for the support of platforms and ladders.

Materials of Construction
The tower shell and heads are usually fabricated out of carbon or low alloy steel plate. As the name implies, the primary alloying element in carbon steel is carbon. All the other alloying elements in carbon steel are limited to concentrations less than 0.5%. The most common materials of construction for towers are the carbon steels A515 and A516. Low alloy steel contain one or more alloying elements besides carbon in concentrations from 0.5% to 10%. Alloying elements in concentrations greater than 10% make the steel a high alloy steel. When extremely corrosive materials are to be handled, the tower may be fabricated out of a high alloy steel such as one of the stainless steels, a nonferrous metal such as titanium or monel, or a non-metal such as FRP (fiberglass reinforced polyester). However, because these materials are either very expensive or else have design limitations such as low strength, claddings and linings are commonly used for corrosion resistance. Clad plate consists of a thin layer of corrosion resistant metal permanently bonded to an inexpensive carbon or low alloy steel backing. Linings differ from claddings in that there is not a permanent continuous bond between the corrosion resistant material and the backing material, and the corrosion resistant material is usually not a metal. Common lining materials are brick, cement, rubber and glass.

Shell and Head Design


Typically, many companies normally require that tower shells and heads be designed according to the latest edition of Section VIII Division 1 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Towers manufactured in the United States will carry the ASME code stamp certifying that the vessel has been designed and fabricated to code standards. Towers manufactured outside the United States are to be designed and fabricated according to code standards as well, but need not carry the code stamp. Towers which are unusually large, or towers which are required to operate at a very high pressure may be designed according to Section VIII Division 2 of the ASME Code. Division 2 requires complete stress analysis of the process vessel. This complete analysis allows the vessel to be designed with much smaller safety factors. This results in a vessel which has a thinner shell and head and is therefore cheaper to fabricate than the same vessel designed according to the rules of Division 1. Since a Division 2 design results in a cheaper vessel, why arent all process vessels designed according to the rules of Division 2? Again it is a question of economics. A Division 2 design is so complex that the money spent in extra engineering time for the vessel can easily exceed the savings realized in the fabrication of the vessel. Only in very large or thick walled vessels is the economic advantage of a Division 2 clear-cut.

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Double Diameter Towers (DDT)


Pressure/vacuum, includes vessel shell, heads, transition section, single base material, lined or clad, nozzles, manholes (one manhole below and above tray stack or packed section and one manhole every tenth tray or 25 FEET [7.6 M] of packed height), stiffening rings if desired, base ring, lugs, skirt or legs; tray clips, tray supports (if designated), distributor piping, plates, packing (if packing designated); variety of applications for plate and packed towers: absorption, desorption, distillation or stripping (via kettle or

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thermosiphon reboiler defined separately), extraction; applications for packed towers: gas and liquid adsorption; sections can be trayed, packed, empty. Systems with automatic installation bulks (Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer ) generate platforms for towers. A tower begins with one 360 DEGREE platform for the first 25 FEET [7.6 M], or fraction thereof, of exposed height, plus one 90 DEGREE platform for every additional 25 FEET [7.6 M], or fraction thereof, of exposed height. If the tower is in a structure, the system subtracts the height of the structure from the total tower height (Bottom T-T height + Skirt height) to calculate the total exposed height. To place a tower in a structure, make the area type OPEN or EX-OPEN (see Chapter 36 for area type descriptions), or else use the Structure tag number to assign the tower to the open steel structure (OPN-STL-ST) available under steel plant bulks. (See

Single Diameter Towers for tray stacks.)


Type

Description Packed double diameter tower. Application: Defines vessel function and related pipe/instrumentation model. Default: *ABSORB* ABSORB- Absorption DESORB- Desorption DISTIL- Distillation with thermosiphon reboiler (not included) - Continued on next page -

PACKED

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Double Diameter Towers (DDT) - continued


Description PACKED - continued DIS-RB- Distillation with kettler reboiler (not included) EXTRAC- Extraction GAS-AD- Gas adsorption LIQ-AD- Liquid adsorption STRIPP- Stripping with thermosiphone reboiler (not included) STR-RB- Stripping with kettle reboiler (not included) Base material Bottom: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material (cladding is defined below). See Chapter 28 for materials. Design gauge pressure Bottom.: Default: Specified top section pressure, or 50 PSIG [350 KPA]: negative for vacuum. Design temperature Bottom: Default: Specified top section temp or 250 DEG F [120 DEG C]. Packing material Bottom: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *NONE* Packing height Bottom: Default: *0.0* FEET [*0.0* M] Cladding material Bottom: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *NONE* Skirt height: Default: 1.5 x bottom diameter; enter 0.0 if vessel hung in OPEN structure. Manhole diameter Bottom: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM] Thickness Bottom section: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance Bottom: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Cladding thickness Bottom: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: 0.0. Stiffening ring spacing Bottom: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. - Continued on next page Type

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Double Diameter Towers (DDT) - continued


Description PACKED - continued Base material Top: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material (cladding is defined below). See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515* Design gauge pressure Top: Default: Specified bottom section pressure or 50 PSIG [350 KPA]; negative for vacuum. Design temperature Top: Default: Specified bottom section temperature or 250 DEG F [120 DEG C]. Packing material Top: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *NONE* Packing height Top: Default: *0.0* FEET [*0.0* M] Cladding material Top: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *NONE* Pipe material Top: See Chapter 18 for pipe materials. Manhole diameter Top: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM] Thickness Top section: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance Top: Default 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Cladding thickness Top: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: 0.0. Stiffening ring spacing Top: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Wind or seismic design: Default: Vessel designed for wind and seismic loads defined in project basis. W+S- Wind and seismic design required WIND- Wind design only SEIS- Wind/seismic design NONE- Delete wind and seismic design - Continued on next page Type

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Double Diameter Towers (DDT) - continued


Description PACKED - continued Fluid volume: Max: 100; Default: *20*; For seismic design, fluid volume as a% of vessel volume (water assumed). Vacuum design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure. Weld efficiency: 50 - 100; ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Default: Area Design Basis. Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Molecular weight Overhead prod: Default: 50 for distillation and stripping applications; otherwise 30. Number body flange sets Bottom: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Number body flange sets Top: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter ASME design basis: Default: *D1NF*, applicable only for ASME code design. D1NF- ASME Division 1 - no fatigue analysis D1F- ASME Division 1 - with fatigue analysis D2NF- ASME Division 2 - no fatigue analysis D2F- ASME Division 2 - with fatigue analysis Type

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Double Diameter Towers (DDT) - continued


Description Trayed double diameter tower. Available tray types include: bubble cap, sieve, turbo grid, valve and clips and supports without trays. Tray type: Default: *VALVE* VALVE- Valve trays BUBBL- Bubble cap trays TURBO- Turbo grid trays SIEVE- Sieve trays NONE.- No trays Application: Defines vessel function and related pipe/ instrumentation model; Default: *DISTIL* ABSORB- Absorption DESORB- Desorption DISTIL- Distillation with thermosiphon reboiler (not included) DIS-RB- Distillation with kettle reboiler (not included) EXTRAC- Extraction GAS-AD- Gas adsorption LIQ-AD- Liquid adsorption STRIPP- Stripping with thermosiphon reboiler (not included) STR-RB.- Stripping with kettle reboiler (not included) Base material Bottom: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material (cladding is defined below). See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. Design gauge pressure Bottom: Default: Specified top section pressure, or 50 PSIG [350 KPA]; negative for vacuum. Design temperature Bottom: Default: Specified top section temperature or 250 DEG F [120 DEG C]. Bottom tray material or packing: Specify tray material for trays or packing material for packed sections. See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. No. trays/Packed height Bottom: Enter number of trays for trayed sections or packing height for packed sections. Default: *0.0* - Continued on next page Type TRAYED

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Double Diameter Towers (DDT) - continued


Description TRAYED - continued Cladding material Bottom: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *NONE*. Pipe material Bottom: See Chapter 18 for pipe materials. Skirt height: Default: 1.5 x bottom diameter; enter 0.0 if vessel hung in OPEN structure. Manhole diameter Bottom: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM] Thickness Bottom section: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance Bottom: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Cladding thickness Bottom: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: 0.0. Stiffening ring spacing Bottom: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Base material Top: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material (cladding if defined below). See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. Design gauge pressure Top: Default: specified bottom section pressure or 50 PSIG [350 KPA]; negative for vacuum. Design temperature Top: Default: specified bottom section temperature or 250 DEG F [120 DEG C]. Top Tray material or packing: Specify tray material for trays or packing material for packed section. Default: *NONE*. Number trays/Packed height Top: Enter number of trays for trayed sections or packing height for packed sections. Default: *0.0*. Cladding material Top: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *NONE*. Pipe material Top: See Chapter 18 for pipe materials. Manhole diameter Top: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM] - Continued on next page Type

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Double Diameter Towers (DDT) - continued


Description TRAYED - continued Thickness Top section: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance Top: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Cladding thickness Top: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: 0.0. Stiffening ring spacing Top: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Wind or seismic design: Default: vessel design for wind and seismic loads defined in Project Basis. W+S- Wind and seismic design required WIND- Wind design only SEIS- Seismic design only NONE- Delete wind and seismic design Fluid volume: For seismic design; fluid volume as a% of vessel volume (water assumed); Max: 100; Default: *20*. Vacuum design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure. Weld efficiency: Range: 50 - 100; ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Default: Area Basis. Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Molecular weight Overhead prod: Default: 50 for distillation and stripping applications; otherwise - 30. Number body flange sets Bottom: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Number body flange sets Top: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. - Continued on next page Type

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Double Diameter Towers (DDT) - continued


Description TRAYED - continued Diameter option: Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter ASME design basis: Applicable only for ASME code design. See following entries for fatigue data. D1NF- ASME Division 1 - no fatigue analysis D1F- ASME Division 1 - with fatigue analysis D2NF- ASME Division 2 - no fatigue analysis D2F- ASME Division 2 with fatigue analysis Start Stop cycles x 1000: ASME fatige only. Thousands of start-up cycles during the full equipment life; Min: 0.02; Default: *1.0*. Pressure cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design pressure during equipment life. Default: *0*. Pressure amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of pressure deviation as percent of design pressure. Default: *0*. Number of hydrostatic tests: ASME fatigue only. Number of hydrostatic tests during the full equipment life. Default: *20*. Temperature cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design temperature in equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of temperature deviation as a percent of design temperature. Tray thickness: Default: 0.1875 INCH [4.5 MM]. Type

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Single Diameter Towers (TW)


Pressure/vacuum includes vessel shell, heads, single base material (lined or clad), nozzles, manholes, jacket and nozzles for heating or cooling medium, base ring, lugs, skirt or legs; tray clips, tray supports (if designated), distributor piping, plates, packing (if packing designated); variety of applications for plate and packed towers: absorption, desorption, distillation or stripping (via kettle or thermosiphon reboiler defined separately), extraction; applications for packed towers: gas and liquid adsorption; trayed, packed, empty. Systems with automatic installation bulks (Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer ) generate platforms for towers. A tower begins with one 360 DEGREE platform for the first 25 FEET [7.6 M], or fraction thereof, of exposed height, plus one 90 DEGREE platform for every additional 25 FEET [7.6 M], or fraction thereof, of exposed height. If the tower is in a structure, the system subtracts the height of the structure from the total tower height (Bottom T-T height + Skirt height) to calculate the total exposed height. To place a tower in a structure, make the area type OPEN or EX-OPEN (see Chapter 36 for area type descriptions), or else use the Structure tag number to assign the tower to the open steel structure (OPNSTL-ST) available under steel plant bulks. If the number of platforms is greater than or equal to six, then the number of manholes is equal to one plus the number of platforms. If the number of platforms is less than six, the number of manholes is equal to one plus approximately one for every 18 trays (for small towers, tray spacing is about 12 INCHES, so there would be one manhole for about every 18 FEET).
Description Packed single diameter tower. If a packing type is not specified, a packed column is designed and costed with distributor and support plates for average density packing. - Continued on next page Type PACKED

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Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description PACKED - continued Application: Defines vessel function and related pipe/ instrumentation model; Default: *ABSORB* ABSORB- Absorption DESORB- Desorption DISTIL - Distillation with thermosiphon reboiler (not included) DIS-RB- Distillation with kettle reboiler (not included) EXTRAC- Extraction GAS-AD- Gas adsorption LIQ-AD- Liquid adsorption STRIPP- Stripping with thermosiphon reboiler (not included) STR-RB- Stripping with kettle reboiler (not included) Shell Material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material (cladding is defined below). See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. Design Gauge Pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure *15* PSIG [*100* KPA]. Vacuum Design Gauge Pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure. Design Temperature: Default: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C] for copper alloys; otherwise material: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C]. Packing Type: If packing type is not specified, no packing will be provided. See Chapter 28 for packing materials. Total Packing Height: Max: tangent to tangent height less 1.0 FEET [0.3 M]. Demister Thickness: Max: 12.0 INCHES [300 MM]. SS304 mist pad 12 PCF [192 KG/M3] with top and bottom support grids. - Continued on next page Type

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Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description PACKED - continued Cladding Material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Default: *NONE*. Skirt Height: Enter 0.0 skirt height if tower hung in OPEN structure; Default: 1.5 x diameter. Wind or Seismic Design: Default: Vessel designed for wind and seismic loads defined in Project Basis. W+S- Wind and seismic design required WIND- Wind design only SEIS- Seismic design only NONE- Delete wind and seismic design Fluid Volume: For seismic design; fluid volume as a% of vessel volume (water assumed). Max: 100; Default: *20*. Manhole Diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]. Base Material Thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion Allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS; 0.0 for other material. Double if jacketed. Number of Body Flange Sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Weld Efficiency: ASME/JIS Codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Default: Area Basis; Range: 50 - 100. Stress Relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding Thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise - 0.0. Stiffening Ring Spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Jacket Design Gauge Pressure: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: No jacket. Jacket Type: Default: *FULL*. FULL- Full jacket PIPE.- Half-pipe jacket - Continued on next page Type

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Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description PACKED - continued Jacket Thickness: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: No jacket. Jacket Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS*. Head Type: ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torispherical (ASME) Molecular Weight Overhead Prod: Default: 50 for distillation and stripping applications, otherwise 30. Diameter Option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter ASME Design Basis: Applicable only for ASME code design. See following entries for fatigue data. D1NF- ASME Division 1 - no fatigue analysis D1F- ASME Division 1 - with fatigue analysis D2NF- ASME Division 2 - no fatigue analysis D2F- ASME Division 2 with fatigue analysis Start Stop Cycles x 1000: ASME fatige only. Thousands of start-up cycles during the full equipment life; Min: 0.02; Default: *1.0*. Pressure Cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design pressure during equipment life. Default: *0*. Pressure Amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of pressure deviation as percent of design pressure. Default: *0*. Number of Hydrostatic Tests: ASME fatigue only. Number of hydrostatic tests during the full equipment life. Default: *20*. Temperature Cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design temperature in equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature Amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of temperature deviation as a percent of design temperature. Type

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Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description Type Trayed single diameter tower. TRAYED Available tray types include: bubble cap, sieve, turbo grid, valve and clips and supports without trays. Tray Type: Default: *VALVE* VALVE- Valve tray BUBBL- Bubble cap trays TURBO- Turbo grid trays SIEVE- Sieve trays NONE- No trays Application: Defines vessel function and related pipe/ instrumentation model; Default: *DISTIL*. ABSORB- Absorption DESORB- Desorption DISTIL- Distillation with thermosiphon reboiler (not included) DIS-RB- Distillation with kettle reboiler (not included) EXTRAC- Extraction STRIPP- Stripping with thermosiphon reboiler (not included) STR-RB- Stripping with kettle reboiler (not included) Shell Material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material (cladding is defined below). Default: *A 515*. Vessel Tangent to Tangent Height: Default: 15 FEET [4.5 M] plus tray stack height. Design Gauge Pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure *15* PSIG [*100* KPA]. Vacuum Design Gauge Pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure. Design Temperature: Default: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C] for copper alloys; otherwise material: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C]. Tray Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A285C*. Number of Trays: Min: 2 - Continued on next page -

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Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description TRAYED - continued Tray Spacing: Range: 12 - 30 INCHES [305 -760 MM]; Default: *24* INCHES [*600* MM]. Demister Thickness: Max: 12 INCHES [300 MM] Cladding Material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Default: *NONE*. Skirt Height: Enter 0.0 skirt height if tower hung in OPEN structure; Default: 1.5 x diameter. Wind or Seismic Design: Default: Vessel designed for wind and seismic loads defined in Project Basis. W+S- Wind and seismic design required WIND- Wind design only SEIS- Seismic design only NONE- Delete wind and seismic design Fluid Volume: For seismic design; fluid volume as a% of vessel volume (water assumed). Max: 100; Default: *20*. Manhole Diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]. Base Material Thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion Allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS; 0.0 for other material. Double if jacketed. Number of Body Flange Sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Weld Efficiency: ASME/JIS Codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Range: 50 - 100; Default: Area Basis. Stress Relief: CODE, YES, NO; Default: See Area Design Basis. Cladding Thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise - 0.0. Stiffening Ring Spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Jacket Design Gauge Pressure: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: No jacket. - Continued on next page Type

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Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description TRAYED - continued Jacket Type: Default: *FULL* FULL- Full jacket PIPE- Half-pipe jacket Jacket Thickness: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: No jacket. Jacket Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS*. Head Type: ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torishpherical (ASME) Molecular Weight Overhead Prod: Default: 50 for distillation and stripping applications, otherwise 30. Diameter Option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Tray Thickness: Default: *0.187* INCHES [*4.50* MM]; Max: 0.375 INCHES [9.00 MM] ASME Design Basis: Applicable only for ASME code design. See following entries for fatigue data. D1NF- ASME Division 1 - no fatigue analysis D1F- ASME Division 1 - with fatigue analysis D2NF- ASME Division 2 - no fatigue analysis D2F- ASME Division 2 with fatigue analysis Start Stop Cycles x 1000: ASME fatige only. Thousands of start-up cycles during the full equipment life; Min: 0.02; Default: *1.0*. Pressure Cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design pressure during equipment life. Default: *0*. Pressure Amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of pressure deviation as percent of design pressure. Default: *0*. Number of Hydrostatic Tests: ASME fatigue only. Number of hydrostatic tests during the full equipment life. Default: *20*. - Continued on next page Type

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Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description TRAYED - continued Temperature Cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design temperature in equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature Amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of temperature deviation as a percent of design temperature. Type

Tray stack only, for single- and double-diameter towers. Optional tray types include: bubble-cap, turbo grid, seive and valve.
Tray Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS*. Number of Trays: Min: 1. Tray Type: BUBBL- Bubble cap trays TURBO- Turbo grid trays SIEVE- Sieve trays VALVE- Valve trays Tray Thickness: Default: *0.187* INCHES [*4.50* MM]; Max: 0.375 INCHES [9.00 MM] Tray Spacing: Range: 12 - 30 INCHES [305 - 750 MM]; Default: 24 INCHES [600 MM]. Direct contact heat exchanger tower includes distributors, packing supports, nozzles; may include packing. Shell Material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material (cladding is defined below). See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. Gas Flow Rate Inlet: Range: 30,000 - 300,000 LB/H [13,610 - 136,000 KG/H]; Enter either flowrate or diameter and height. Vessel Diameter: Enter either flowrate or diameter and height. Vessel Tangent to Tangent Height: Enter either flowrate or diameter and height. - Continued on next page -

TRAY STACK

DC HE TW

8 Towers, Columns (G6)

8-23

Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description DC HE TW - continued Design Gauge Pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure 15 PSIG [100 KPA]. Vacuum Design Gauge Pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure. Design Temperature: Default: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C] for copper alloys; other material: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C]. Operating Temperature: Enter maximum gas temperature. Packing Type Section 1: Default: *68PVC*. See Chapter 28 for packing materials. Packing Height Section 1: Max: Tangent to tangent height less 1.0 FEET [0.3 M]. Packing Type Section 2: Default: None for OPEN top, else 68PVC. See Chapter 28 for packing materials. Packing Height Section 2: Max: Tangent to tangent height less height of packing No. 1. Cladding Material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Default: *NONE*. Skirt Height: Enter 0.0 skirt height if tower hung in OPEN structure; Default: 1.5 x diameter. Wind or Seismic Design: Default: Vessel designed for wind and seismic loads defined in Project Basis. W+S- Wind and seismic design required WIND- Wind display only SEIS- Seismic design only NONE- Delete wind and seismic design Fluid Volume: For seismic design, fluid volume as a% of vessel volume (water assumed). Max: 100; Default: *20*. Manhole Diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]. - Continued on next page Type

8-24

8 Towers, Columns (G6)

Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description DC HE TW - continued Base Material Thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion Allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other material, double if jacketed. Number of Body Flange Sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Weld Efficiency: ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Default: See Area Basis; Range: 50 - 100%. Stress Relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding Thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise 0.0. Stiffening Ring Spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Jacket Design Gauge Pressure: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: No jacket. Jacket Type: Default: *FULL* FULL- Full jacket PIPE- Half-pipe jacket Jacket Thickness: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: No jacket. Jacket Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS*. Head Type: ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torispherical (ASME) OPEN- Open top/TORI bottom Diameter Option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Type

8 Towers, Columns (G6)

8-25

Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description Type Temperature swing adsorption unit includes vessel TS ADSORB pair(s), distributors, packing supports, and valve skid; may include heater (steam or electric), packing. Shell Material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material (cladding is defined below). See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. Gas Flow Rate Inlet: Enter either flowrate or diameter and height; Range: 30,000 - 300,000 LB/H [13,610 - 136,000 KG/H]. Vessel Diameter: Enter either flowrate or diameter and height. Vessel Tangent to Tangent Height: Enter either flowrate or diameter and height. Number of Vessel Pairs: Number of vessel pairs in configuration, one vessel per pair absorbing at a time. Design Gauge Pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure 15 PSIG [100 KPA]. Vacuum Design Gauge Pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure. Design Temperature: Default: 400 DEG F [200 DEG C] for copper alloys; other material: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C]. Packing Type Section 1: See Chapter 28 for packing materials; Default: *13XMS*. Packing Height Section 1: Max: Tangent to tangent height less 1.0 FEET [0.3 M]. Packing Type Section 2: Default: *ALMNA* (Alumina). Packing Height Section 2: Max: Tangent to tangent height less height of packing No. 1. Cladding Material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Default: *NONE*. Skirt Height: Enter 0.0 skirt height if tower hung in OPEN structure; Default: 1.5 x diameter. - Continued on next page -

8-26

8 Towers, Columns (G6)

Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description TS ADSORB - continued Wind or Seismic Design: Default: Vessel designed for wind and seismic loads defined in Project Basis. W+S- Wind and seismic design required WIND- Wind design only` SEIS- Seismic design only NONE- Delete wind and seismic design Fluid Volume: For seismic design, fluid volume as a% of vessel volume (water assumed). Max: 100; Default: *20*. Manhole Diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]. Base Material Thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion Allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other material, double if jacketed. Number of Body Flange Sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Weld Efficiency: ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Range: 50 - 100%; Default: See Area Basis. Stress Relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding Thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise 0.0. Stiffening Ring Spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Jacket Design Gauge Pressure: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: No jacket. Jacket Type: Default: *FULL* FULL- Full jacket PIPE- Half-pipe jacket Jacket Thickness: Jacket pressure or thickness required to obtain jacket. Default: No jacket. Jacket Material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS*. - Continued on next page Type

8 Towers, Columns (G6)

8-27

Single Diameter Towers (TW) - continued


Description TS ADSORB - continued Head Type: ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torispherical (ASME) OPEN- Open top/TORI bottom Heater Type: *ELEC*- Electric heater STEAM- Steam heater NONE- No heater Steam Gauge Pressure: Default: *150* PSIG [*1,000* KPA] Applies to steam gas heater only Diameter Option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Type

8-28

8 Towers, Columns (G6)

9 Vacuum Systems

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Condensers (C) Ejectors (EJ) Vacuum Pumps (VP)

9 Vacuum Systems (G6)

9-1

Condensers (C)
Barometric condenser
Description Barometric for condensing of motive steam between ejector stages. Material: Default: *CS* Water flow rate: Range: 200 - 5,000 GPM [15 - 315 L/S] Material: CI Water flow rate: Range: 40 - 5,000 GPM [3 - 315 L/S] Material: RBLCS (rubber lined carbon steel) Water flow rate: Range: 200 - 3,000 GPM [12 - 180 L/S] Type BAROMETRIC

9-2

9 Vacuum Systems (G6)

Ejectors (EJ)
100 PSIG [690 KPA] steam
Description Type One stage of non-condensing ejection. SINGLE STG Single stage ejectors may be used to produce pressures as low as 2 INCHES Hg ABS, but are normally used in the pressure range from atmospheric to 3 INCHES Hg ABS. Ejectors are used to generate low pressure for vacuum distillation, vacuum crystallization and evaporation and to produce chilled water. Ejectors use a high pressure motivating fluid, usually steam, to produce a vacuum. The single stage ejector consists of three basic parts: nozzle, mixing chamber or suction head, and diffuser. Although ejectors can be fabricated from a variety of material, usually the nozzle is stainless steel and the mixing chamber and diffuser are cast iron or steel. Ejectors are easily recognized by the long thin hour-glass shape of the diffuser. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel HAST- Hastelloy Air ejection rate: Range: 10 - 10,000 LB/H [4.6 - 4,530 KG/H] Suction absolute pressure: Range: 20 - 400 MM HG [2,670 - 53,300 PA] .TWO STAGE Two ejection stages with barometric intercondenser Two stage ejectors are used to produce suction pressures from 4 to 0.5 INCHES Hg ABS. Two stage ejectors have the same process applications as single stage ejectors. This item is a two stage ejector with a barometric type intercondenser. A two stage ejector is simply two single stage ejectors arranged in series. Two stages can produce a higher vacuum than a single stage ejector. The first stage evacuates the equipment item to which it is attached and compresses these gases and vapors to an intermediate pressure. The motive steam and condensable vapors ejected by the first stage are condensed in the barometric condenser to reduce the load on the second stage. The second stage ejector takes the non-condensable gasses from the first stage and compresses them to atmospheric pressure so that they may be released to the atmosphere.

- Continued on next page -

9 Vacuum Systems (G6)

9-3

Ejectors (EJ) - continued


Description TWO STAGE - continued Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel HAST- Hastelloy Air ejection rate: Range: 10 - 150 LB/H [4.6 -68 KG/H] Suction absolute pressure: Range: 10 - 200 MM HG [1,340 - 26,600 PA] Non-condensing two single stage ejectors without 2 STAGE intercondenser. A two stage non-condensing ejector is less expensive than a two stage condensing ejector on an installed basis. The non-condensing ejector may be used for an application where the condensing ejector is used. Therefore, the non-condensing ejector is preferred where the lower initial capital investment out-weighs the higher operating cost due to the higher steam consumption. This item is a two stage non-condensing ejector. Two single stage ejectors are arranged in series without an intercondenser. Hence, the second stage condenser must handle the motive steam from the first stage ejector and the gases evacuated from the process vessel. This results in a larger second stage ejector and increased steam consumption over a two stage condensing unit. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel HAST- Hastelloy Air ejection rate: Range: 10 - 120 LB/H [4.6 - 50 KG/H] Suction absolute pressure: Range: 5 - 100 MM HG [670 - 13,3000 PA] Type

9-4

9 Vacuum Systems (G6)

Ejectors (EJ) - continued


Description Type Four stages of ejection with barometric condenser 4 STAGE B between third and fourth ejector. Four stage ejectors are used to produce suction pressures from 4 to 0.2 MM Hg ABS. Four stage ejectors are used to produce suction for vacuum distillation, vacuum crystallizers and vacuum evaporators. This item is a four stage ejector with one barometric condenser between the third and fourth ejectors. The condenser is used only between those stages where the condensing temperature of the steam is greater than the temperature of the cooling water available. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel HAST- Hastelloy Air ejection rate: Range: 10 - 110 LB/H [4.6 - 48 KG/H] Suction absolute pressure: Range: 0.5 - 10 MM HG [67 - 1,330 PA] Four stages of ejection with barometric condensers, between second and third and between third and fourth ejector. Four stage ejectors are used to produce suction pressure from 4 to 0.2 MM Hg ABS. Four stage ejectors are used to produce suction for vacuum distillation, vacuum crystallizers, and vacuum evaporators. This item is a four stage ejector with two barometric condensers. Four ejectors are arranged in series with one condenser between the second and third ejectors and the other between the third and four ejectors. Condensers are used only between those ejectors where the condensing temperature of the steam is greater than the temperature of the cooling water available. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel HAST- Hastelloy Air ejection rate: Range: 10 - 110 LB/H [4.6 - 48 KG/H] Suction absolute pressure: Range: 0.25 - 5.0 MM HG [33 - 660 PA] 4 STAGE

9 Vacuum Systems (G6)

9-5

Ejectors (EJ) - continued


Description Five stages of ejection with barometric condenser between fourth and fifth ejector. Five stage ejectors are used to produce suction pressures from 0.4 to 0.02 MM Hg ABS. Five stage ejectors are used to produce suction for vacuum distillation, vacuum crystallizers and vacuum evaporators. This item is a five stage ejector with one barometric condenser between the fourth and fifth ejectors. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel HAST- Hastelloy Air ejection rate: Range: 10 - 110 LB/H [4.6 - 48 KG/H] Suction absolute pressure: Range: 0.5 - 1.0 MM HG [7 - 130 PA] Type 5 STAGE B

9-6

9 Vacuum Systems (G6)

Vacuum Pumps (VP)


Includes pump, motor and drive unit.
Description Water-sealed vacuum pump. Ultimate pressure: 500 MM HG [66,660 PA]. Water-sealed 500 MM HG [PA] vacuum, explosion proof motor. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS316- SS316 Actual gas flow rate: Range: 30 - 4,000 CFM [55 - 6,750 M3/H] Mechanical oil-sealed vacuum pump. First stage: 0.01 MM HG [1.35 PA] Second stage: 0.0003 MM HG [0.04 PA]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Actual gas flow rate: Range: 30 - 700 CFM [55 - 1,150 M3/H] Number of stages: Range: 1 - 2; Default: *1* MECHANICAL Type WATER SEAL

Mechanical booster includes motor and drive. Ultimate pressure 0.0001 MM HG [0.0135 PA]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel Actual gas flow rate: Range: 120 - 2,000 CFW [205 - 3,375 M3/H]

MECH BOOST

9 Vacuum Systems (G6)

9-7

9-8

9 Vacuum Systems (G6)

10 Vessels

(G10)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Horizontal Tanks (HT) Vertical Tanks (VT)

10 Vessels (G10)

10-1

Horizontal Tanks (HT)


Horizontal vessels are commonly used as settling drums, surge tanks, reactors and distillate drums. A settling drum is used for phase separation between two immiscible liquids. The L/D ratio of a settling drum is normally four. A surge tank or surge drum is used to maintain a constant flowrate of liquid to a downstream piece of equipment when the flowrate of liquid from the upstream piece of equipment is fluctuating. The fluctuations in flow rate are absorbed by the surge drum by allowing the liquid level in this drum to rise and fall. Horizontal drums are frequently filled with catalyst and used as reactors. Placing catalyst in horizontal vessels allows shallow bed depths and large cross-sectional areas. A typical example of horizontal vessels being used as reactors is the Claus reactor. A distillate or reflux drum provides space for overhead condensables from a distillation column to separate from vapors. Surge drums and distillate drums are normally vertical. If there is settleable water in the feed to these vessels, however, the vessel is erected with a water pot. The horizontal vessel is a pressure vessel fabricated according to the rules of the specified code (i.e., Section VIII Division 1 of the ASME Code) and erected in the horizontal position. Although the horizontal vessel may be supported by lugs in an open steel structure, the more usual arrangement is for the vessel to be erected at grade and supported by a pair of saddles. Cylindrical, pressure/vacuum, code design and construction, includes heads, single wall (base material, clad/lined), saddles/lugs, nozzles and manholes.
Description Horizontal pressure/vacuum drum. Use minus pressure for vacuum design. The capacity excludes the volume of the heads. If both the vessel dimensions and capacity are specified, the system-calculated capacity must agree with the specified capacity to within plus or minus 10% to avoid an error condition. - Continued on next page Type HORIZ DRUM

10-2

10 Vessels (G10)

Horizontal Tanks (HT) - continued


Description HORIZ DRUM - continued To secure desired vessel size, specify the diameter and height directly. A value must be specified if vessel diameter and/or vessel height (or length) are not specified. If vessel diameter and height (or length) are specified, the vessel volume is calculated from these dimensions. If only vessel capacity is specified, a straight side length-to-diameter ratio is chosen by the system, considering cost and practicability. Type

(Default ratio is 2:1.)


Application: Defines vessel function and related piping/instrumentation model. Default: *blank*blankStandard continuous process vessel BATCH- Batch process vessel STORAGE- Storage vessel RECVR- Receiver KO- Knock-out drum Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. (Cladding is defined below.) See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and length. The capacity excludes the volume of the heads. If both the vessel dimensions and capacity are specified, the system-calculated capacity must agree with the specified capacity to within plus or minus 10% to avoid an error condition. To secure desired vessel size, specify the diameter and height directly. A value must be specified if vessel diameter and/or vessel height (or length) are not specified. If vessel diameter and height (or length) are specified, the vessel volume is calculated from these dimensions. If only vessel capacity is specified, a straight side length-to-diameter ratio is chosen by the system, considering cost and practicability. - Continued on next page -

10 Vessels (G10)

10-3

Horizontal Tanks (HT) - continued


Description HORIZ DRUM - continued Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and length. A value must be specified if vessel capacity is not specified. If both capacity and height (or length) are specified, the diameter is calculated from these values. Vessel tangent to tangent length: Enter either capacity or diameter and length. A value must be specified if vessel capacity is not specified. If both vessel capacity and diameter are specified, the height (or length) is calculated from these values. Design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case; Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA] pressure. Vacuum design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure. Design temperature: Default: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C] ferrous material; 250 DEG F [120 DEG C] other material. Operating temperature: Default: design temperature. The operating temperature is used in the calculation of piping and insulation thickness. Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]. Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. This value adjusts vessel weight and cost accordingly. Diameter of drip leg: Drip leg (boot) diameter and height must be specified if required. Height of drip leg: Drip leg (boot) diameter and height must be specified if required. Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. - Continued on next page Type

10-4

10 Vessels (G10)

Horizontal Tanks (HT) - continued


Description HORIZ DRUM - continued Weld efficiency: ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessel; Default: Area Basis. Range: 50 - 100. Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise: 0.0. Stiffening ring spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Head type: If no value is specified, the system selects the tori spherical type and calculates its thickness. If the head is thicker than the vessel shell, the system selects the 2:1 ellipsoidal type head thickness. If the head is still thicker than the shell, the system selects the hemispherical type head. ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torispherical (ASME) Number of body flange sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default - see Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Multi-wall design for high pressure service with total MULTI WALL wall thickness of individual, thin, heat-shrunk cylinders (maximum 2 INCHES [50 MM] thick) heat shrunk, pressure vacuum design and construction according to user-designated design code standard. This item is a horizontal process vessel, the total wall thickness of which is made up of individual cylinders. Each individual cylinder is no more than two inches thick. The composite is made as follows. A cylinder is fabricated with a diameter slightly larger than the innermost cylinder. - Continued on next page Type

10 Vessels (G10)

10-5

Horizontal Tanks (HT) - continued


Description MULTI WALL - continued This cylinder is expanded thermally, slipped over the inner cylinder and as it cools, a tight shrink fit is obtained. This procedure is repeated until the total wall thickness is built up. Application: Defines vessel function and related piping/ instrumentation model. Default: *blank*blankStandard continuous process vessel BATCH- Batch process vessel STORAGE- Storage vessel RECVR- Receiver KO- Knock-out drum Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. (Cladding is defined below.) See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and length. Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and length. Vessel tangent to tangent length: Enter either capacity or diameter and length. Design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA]. Vacuum design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure. Design temperature: Default: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C] ferrous material; 250 DEG F [120 DEG C] other material. Operating temperature: Default: design temperature. Cladding material: See Chapter 28; for cladding materials. Manhole diameter: Default: *18* INCHES [450 MM]; Max: 48 INCHES [1,200]; Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Type

Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*.
Diameter of drip leg: Drip leg (boot) diameter and length must be specified if required. - Continued on next page -

10-6

10 Vessels (G10)

Horizontal Tanks (HT) - continued


Description MULTI WALL - continued Height of drip leg: Drip leg (boot) diameter and length must be specified if required. Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other material. Weld efficiency: ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Default: Area Basis. Range: 50 - 100. Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: 0.0. Stiffening ring spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Head type: ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torispherical (ASME) Number of body flange sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Jacketed horizontal pressure/vacuum drum. Application: Defines vessel function and related piping/ instrumentation model. Default: *blank* blank- Standard continuous process vessel BATCH- Batch process vessel STORAGE- Storage vessel RECVR- Receiver KO- Knock-out drum - Continued on next page JACKETED Type

10 Vessels (G10)

10-7

Horizontal Tanks (HT) - continued


Description JACKETED - continued Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and length. Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and length. Vessel tangent to tangent length: Enter either capacity or diameter and length. Design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case; Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA]. Vacuum design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case; Default: pressure. Design temperature: Default: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C] ferrous material; 250 DEG F [120 DEG C] other materials. Operating temperature: Default: design temperature. Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Jacket design gauge pressure: Default: *90* PSIG [*620* KPA]. Jacket type: Default: *FULL* FULL- Full jacket PIPE- Half-pipe jacket Jacket material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS*. Manhole diameter: Default: *18* INCHES [450 MM]; Max: 48 INCHES [1,200]; Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. Diameter of drip leg: Drip leg (boot) diameter and length must be specified if required. Height of drip leg: Drip leg (boot) diameter and length must be specified if required. - Continued on next page Type

10-8

10 Vessels (G10)

Horizontal Tanks (HT) - continued


Description JACKETED - continued Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other material, double if jacketed. Weld efficiency: ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Default: Area Basis. Range: 50 - 100. Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: 0.0. Stiffening ring spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Head type: ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torispherical (ASME) Number of body flange sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Sanitary horizontal drum SAN TANK Type

Stainless steel material for sanitary storage. As a sanitary tank, it is built to sanitary standards, including polished stainless steel. The tank is not a pressure vessel.
Shell material: SS304,*SS316* Liquid volume: MAX: 9,000 GALLONS [34 M3] Enter either capacity or diameter and length. Vessel diameter: MAX: 10 FEET [3 M] Enter either capacity or diameter and length. - Continued on next page -

10 Vessels (G10)

10-9

Horizontal Tanks (HT) - continued


Description SAN TANK - continued Vessel length: MAX: 15 FEET [4.5 M] Enter either capacity or diameter and length. Operating temperature: *68 DEG F [20 DEG C]* Head type: *TORI*- Torispherical (ASME) CON15- 15 degree cone head Jacket type: *NONE*- No jacket DMPLE- 90 PSIG [620 KPA] dimple jacket Type

10-10

10 Vessels (G10)

Vertical Tanks (VT)


Vertical process vessels are typically used as either surge drums or knock out drums. When used as surge drums, they act like shock absorbers, maintaining a constant flowrate of liquid out of the vessel regardless of the flowrate into it. If liquid flows in faster than the constant rate it flows out, the vessel fills with liquid. If liquid flows in slower than the constant rate it is removed, then the liquid level drops. The liquid level is constantly fluctuating in order to absorb these variations in flow and maintain a constant flowrate out. When a vertical process vessel is used as a knock out drum, a mixture of gas and liquid flows into the vessel and this mixture is separated into its gas and liquid components within the vessel. The gas then flows out the top of the vessel and the liquid flows out the bottom. Vertical process vessels, as their name indicates, are erected in the vertical position. They are cylindrical in shape with each end capped by a domed cover called a head. The length to diameter ratio of a vertical vessel is typically 3:1. Typically, vertical process vessels hold less than 5000 GALLONS. Vertical tanks include: process, storage applications liquid, gas, solid processing and storage; pressure/vacuum code design for process and certain storage vessel types; includes heads, single wall, saddles, lugs, nozzles, manholes, legs or skirt, base ring, davits where applicable.
Description Pressure/Vacuum Service Cylindrical vertical pressure/vacuum vessel. Use minus pressure for vacuum design. Application: Defines vessel function and related piping/ instrumentation model. Default: *blank* blank- Standard continuous process vessel BATCH- Batch process vessel STORAGE- Storage vessel RECVR- Receiver KO- Knock-out drum Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. - Continued on next page Type CYLINDER

10 Vessels (G10)

10-11

Vertical Tanks (VT) - continued


Description CYLINDER - continued Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. The capacity excludes the volume of the heads. If both the vessel dimensions and capacity are specified, the system calculated capacity must agree with the specified capacity to within plus or minus 10% to avoid an error condition. To secure desired vessel size, specify the diameter and height directly. A value must be specified if vessel diameter and/or vessel height (or length) are not specified. If vessel diameter and height (or length) are specified, the vessel volume is calculated from these dimensions. (Default is 2:1.) If only vessel capacity is specified, a straight side length-to-diameter ratio is chosen by the system, considering cost and practicability. Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. A value must be specified if vessel capacity is not specified. If both vessel capacity and height (or length) are specified, the diameter is calculated from these values. If both vessel capacity and diameter are specified, the height (or length) is calculated from these values. Vessel tangent to tangent height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. See Diameter. Design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case; Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA]. Vacuum design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case; Default: pressure. Design temperature: Default: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C] ferrous material, 250 DEG F [120 DEG C] other material. Operating temperature: Default: design temperature. - Continued on next page Type

10-12

10 Vessels (G10)

Vertical Tanks (VT) - continued


Description CYLINDER - continued Skirt height: Skip if legs required, enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure; Default: 1.5 x diameter. If the capacity is 10,000 GALLONS [37 M3] or less, the vessel is designed with 4-feet [1.25 M] pipe legs. For a capacity greater than 10,000 GALLONS [37 M3], the vessel is designed with a skirt. The skirt height is calculated as 1.5 x vessel diameter, with minimum and maximum calculated heights of 4 - 32 FEET [1.25 - 9.5 M]. Vessel leg height: Skip if skirt required, enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure; Default: *4* FEET [1.25 M]. See Skirt Height. Wind or seismic design: Default: Vessel designed for wind and seismic loads defined in Project Basis. W+S- Wind and seismic design required WIND- Wind design only SEIS- Seismic design only NONE- Delete wind and seismic design Fluid volume: For seismic design, fluid volume as a% of vessel volume (water assumed). Max: 100; Default: *20*. Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: 18 INCHES [450 MM]. Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Default: *0.0*; Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Demister thickness: Default: *12* INCHES [*300* MM] Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Number of body flange sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Weld efficiency: ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Defaults: Area Basis. Range: 50 - 100. - Continued on next page Type

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Description CYLINDER - continued Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding material: If no cladding material is specified, the system assumes that the vessel is not clad regardless of any input for cladding thickness. See Chapter 28 for materials. Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise 0.0. See Cladding Material. Stiffening ring spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Head type: If no value is specified, the system selects the torispherical type head and calculates the thickness. If the head is thicker than the vessel shell, the system selects the 2:1 ellipsoidal type head and recalculates the head thickness. If the head is still thicker than the shell, the system selects the hemispherical type head. ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torispherical (ASME) Head thickness Top: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Head thickness Bottom: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter ASME design basis: Applicable only for ASME code design. See following entries for fatigue data. Default: *D1NF*. D1NF- ASME Division 1 - no fatigue analysis D1F- ASME Division 1 - with fatigue analysis D2NF- ASME Division 2 - no fatigue analysis D2F- ASME Division 2 - with fatigue analysis Start stop cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of start-up cycles during the full equipment life. Range: 5.00 - 0.02. - Continued on next page Type

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Description CYLINDER - continued Pressure cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design pressure during equipment life. Default: *0*. Pressure amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of process deviation as percent of design pressure. Default: *0*. Number of Hydrostatic Tests: ASME fatigue only. Number of hydrostatic tests during the full equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design temperature in equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of temperature as a percent of design temperature. Default: *0*. Multi-wall design for high pressure service. Total wall thickness of individual thin heat shrunk cylinders (maximum 2 INCH [50 MM] thick each). Application: Defines vessel function and related piping/ instrumentation model. Default: *blank* blank- Standard continuous process vessel BATCH- Batch process vessel STORAGE- Storage vessel RECVR- Receiver KO- Knock-out drum Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel tangent to tangent height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA]. Vacuum design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. - Continued on next page MULTI WALL Type

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Description MULTI WALL - continued Design temperature: Default: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C] ferrous material, 250 DEG F [120 DEG C] other material. Operating temperature: Default: design temperature. Skirt height: Skip if legs required, enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure; Default: 1.5 x diameter. Vessel leg height: Skip if skirt required, enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure; Default: *4* FEET [*1.25* M]. Wind or seismic design: Default: Vessel designed for wind and seismic loads defined in Project Basis. W+S- Wind and seismic design required WIND- Wind design only SEIS- Seismic design only NONE- Delete wind and seismic design Fluid volume: Max: 100; Default: *20*; For seismic design; fluid volume as a% of volume (water assumed). Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]. Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. Demister thickness: Default: *12* INCHES [*300* MM] Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Number of body flange sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Weld efficiency: ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Range: 50 - 100; Default: Area Basis. - Continued on next page Type

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Description MULTI WALL - continued Stress relief: Default: see Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise - 0.0. Stiffening ring spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Head type: ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torispherical (ASME) Head thickness Top: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Head thickness Bottom: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: see Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter ASME design basis: Applicable only for ASME code design. See following entries for fatigue data. Default: *D1NF*. D1NF- ASME Division 1 - no fatigue analysis D1F- ASME Division 1 - with fatigue analysis D2NF- ASME Division 2 - no fatigue analysis D2F- ASME Division 2 - with fatigue analysis Start stop cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of start-up cycles during the full equipment life. Range: 5.00 - 0.02. Pressure Cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design pressure during equipment life. Default: *0*. - Continued on next page Type

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Description MULTI WALL - continued Pressure amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of process deviation as percent of design pressure. Default: *0*. Number of hydrostatic tests: ASME fatigue only. Number of hydrostatic tests during the full equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design temperature in equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of temperature as a percent of design temperature. Default: *0*. Jacketed, cylindrical, vertical pressure/vacuum vessel. JACKETED Application: Defines vessel function and related piping/ instrumentation model. Default: *blank* blank- Standard continuous process vessel BATCH- Batch process vessel STORAGE- Storage vessel RECVR- Receiver KO- Knock-out drum Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. (Cladding is specified below.) Default: *A 515*. Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel tangent to tangent height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA]. Vacuum design gauge pressure: If pressure and vacuum entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure. Design temperature: Default: 650 DEG F [340 DEG C] ferrous material, 250 DEG F [120 DEG C] other material. Operating temperature: Default: design temperature. - Continued on next page Type

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Description JACKETED - continued Jacket design gauge pressure: Default: *90* PSIG [*620* KPA]. Jacket type: Default: *FULL* FULL- Full jacket PIPE- Half-pipe jacket Jacket material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS*. Skirt height: Skip if legs required, enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure; Default: *1.5 x diameter*. Vessel leg height: Skip if skirt required. Enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure; Default: *4* FEET [*1.25* M]. Wind or seismic design: Default: Vessel designed for wind and seismic loads defined in Project Basis. W+S- Wind and seismic design required WIND- Wind design only SEIS- Seismic design only NONE- Delete wind and seismic design Fluid volume: Max: 100; Default: *20*; For seismic design; fluid volume as a% of vessel volume (water assumed). Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]. Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. Demister thickness: Default: *12* INCHES [*300* MM] Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other material, double if jacketed. Number of body flange sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Weld efficiency: ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels; Range: 50 - 100; Default: Area Basis. - Continued on next page Type

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Description JACKETED - continued Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief required Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise - 0.0. Stiffening ring spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required. Head type: ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torispherical (ASME) Head thickness Top: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Head thickness Bottom: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: see Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter ASME design basis: Applicable only for ASME code design. See following entries for fatigue data. Default: *D1NF*. D1NF- ASME Division 1 - no fatigue analysis D1F- ASME Division 1 - with fatigue analysis D2NF- ASME Division 2 - no fatigue analysis D2F- ASME Division 2 - with fatigue analysis Start stop cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of start-up cycles during the full equipment life. Range: 5.00 - 0.02. Pressure cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design pressure during equipment life. - Continued on next page Type

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Description JACKETED - continued Default: *0*. Pressure amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of process deviation as percent of design pressure. Default: *0*. Number of hydrostatic Tests: ASME fatigue only. Number of hydrostatic tests during the full equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design temperature in equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of temperature as a percent of design temperature. Default: *0*. High Pressure Gas/Liquid Storage Sphere pressure/vacuum design to 3000 PSIG [20500 KPA]. Use minus pressure for vacuum design. This item is used by chemical, rubber, petroleum and paper industries for storing large volumes of anhydrous ammonia, betana, butane and other gases at high temperature. A spherical tank is elevated and supported by legs fabricated from structural steel columns or pipe. Sphere sizes range as high as 90 FEET in diameter and are typically constructed of high strength steel. These tanks are commonly used for high pressure storage of gases and volatile liquids, typically in the range of 5 250 PSIG. Storing volatile liquids at high pressures raises the boiling point of the liquid and therefore minimizes or eliminates that need for costly refrigeration equipment to liquify the material being stored. Uses Type 16 foundation (Individual Column Footing). Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. - Continued on next page SPHERE Type

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Description SPHERE - continued Type

Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter.


Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter. Design gauge pressure: -15 - 3,000 PSIG [-100 - 20,5000]; Default: 15 PSIG [100 KPA]. Design temperature: Max: 1,500 DEG F [815 DEG C]; Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]. Operating temperature: Default: design temperature. Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]. Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise - 0.0. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: see Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter ASME design basis: Applicable only for ASME code design. See following entries for fatigue data. Default: *D1NF*. D1NF- ASME Division 1 - no fatigue analysis D1F- ASME Division 1 - with fatigue analysis D2NF- ASME Division 2 - no fatigue analysis D2F- ASME Division 2 - with fatigue analysis - Continued on next page -

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Description SPHERE - continued Start stop cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of start-up cycles during the full equipment life. Range: 5.00 - 0.02. Pressure cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design pressure during equipment life. Default: *0*. Pressure amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of process deviation as percent of design pressure. Default: *0*. Number of hydrostatic tests: ASME fatigue only. Number of hydrostatic tests during the full equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design temperature in equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of temperature as a percent of design temperature. Default: *0*. Spheroid to 750000 GALLONS [2840 M3]. Field erected. This item is commonly used for storage of gasolines and other volatile liquids. Spheroids vary in shape and size, but generally fall into one of the following categories: Hemispheriod: Spherical segments comprising the roof and bottom of the tank are joined to a cylindrical middle section. Hemispheriods are used for pressures up to 5 PSI and capacities to 25,000 barrels. For capacities to 50,000 barrels the roof and bottom are noded. Hortonspheriod: Spherical segments are joined together in a somewhat elliptical shape. Hortonspheroids are capable of handling storage at pressure from 5 to 30 PSIG. Hortonspheroids and hemispheroids are designed to rest on a prepared grade conforming to the shape of the bottom (usually sand). - Continued on next page SPHEROID Type

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Description SPHEROID - continued Spheroidal shaped tanks are often more economical than cylindrical pressure vessels for storage at pressures greater than 0.5 PSI. Type

Uses Type 16 foundation (Individual Column Footing).


Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A 515*. Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Range: 60,000 - 750,000 GALLONS [230 - 2,840 M3]; Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Design gauge pressure: Range: 0.0 - 15 PSIG [0.0 - 100 KPA]; Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA]. Design temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]. Operating temperature: Default: design temperature. Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]. Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Default: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials.

- Continued on next page -

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Description SPHEROID - continued Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise - 0.0. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default - see Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Near-Atmospheric Liquid Storage Field erected storage tank. Note on Painting: The system assumes that once the tank is assembled in the field it will be sandblasted and primed inside and out, and a finish coat applied on the outside only. Use Bulk Adjustments to override these values. The available roof types are FLAT, FLOAT, CONE, LIFT, OPEN, INFLT, and INCN. Use minus pressure for vacuum design. Field erected. Floating roof tanks are frequently used in the storage of kerosene and jet fuels. Floating roofs may be installed inside a tank with a fixed roof or used as a tanks only cover. Typically constructed from polyurethane foam blocks or nylon cloth impregnated with rubber or plastic, floating roofs are designed to completely contact the surface of the storage products and thereby eliminate the vapor space between the product level and the fixed roof. This feature makes floating roofs desirable for the following reasons: 1. Reduction of evaporation and breathing losses. 2. Reduction of tank corrosion. 3. Increased safety from fire or explosion. - Continued on next page STORAGE Type

Flat roof tank

Floating roof tank

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Description STORAGE - continued Floating root tanks are suitable for storage of products having vapor pressures from 2 to 15 PSIA. Products that boil at temperatures under the normal range of atmospheric conditions should not be stored in floating roof tanks. Cone roof tanks are used for storage of low pressure products (e.g., oil, diesel and asphalt.) Cone roof tanks are usually field fabricated out of carbon steel. Roofs are sloped upward to the center at a slight angle. Typically, ranging from 50,000 - 1,000,000 GALLONS capacities, they are used for storage of low vapor pressure products (less than 2 PSIA) when evaporation looses and breathing losses are not considered important. Lifter roof tanks are generally field fabricated. They have a minimum capacity of 40,000 GALLONS [152 M2]. Lifter roof tanks can be specified with pressure from 0 - 0.05 PSIG [0 - 0.3 KPA] and a maximum temperature of 250 DEG F [120 DEC C]. The default temperature is *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]. Cone roof tank Type

Lifter roof tank

Open top tanks are designed and constructed according to user-generated design code standards. Open top tanks have a maximum temperature of 250 Open top tank DEG F [120 DEC C]. The default temperature is *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]. Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material (cladding is defined below). See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A285C*. Capacity units: Unit of measure for the capacity entry. Enter capacity unit symbol as entered in project specifications. If units are not changed, enter GALLONS [M3] or BARRELS [M3]. Liquid volume (gallons/barrels): Enter either capacity (see capacity unit entry for units) or diameter and height. Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Roof type: Default: *FLAT* FLAT- Flat roof tank CONE- Cone roof tank - Continued on next page -

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Description STORAGE - continued FLOAT- Floating roof tank LIFT- Lifter OPEN- Open roof tank INFLT- Internal floater with flat roof INCN- Internal floater with cone roof Bottom type: Default: *FLAT* FLAT- Single flat bottom DBL- Double bottom Design gauge pressure: 0.0 - 2.5 PSIG [0.0 - 17 KPA]; Default: *0.05* PSIG [*0.35* KPA]. Design temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]. Operating temperature: Default: design temperature. Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]. Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials. Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Cladding thickness: Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: *0.0*. Fluid specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0*. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Flame arrestor diameter: Range: 1.0 - 8.0 IN DIAM [25.0 - 200.0 MM DIAM]. Conservation vent diameter: Range: 1.0- 8.0 IN DIAM [25.0 - 200.0 MM DIAM]. Type

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Description Type Cryogenic storage tank - double wall, superinsulated. CRYOGENIC Shell material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *SS304*. Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Range: 300.0 - 60,000.0 GALLONS [1.20 - 227.00 M3]. Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel tangent to tangent height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Design gauge pressure: If both pressure and vacuum are entered, design is for worst case. Default: 250.0 PSIG [1,720 KPA]. Vacuum design gauge pressure: If both pressure and vacuum are entered, design is for worst case. Default: pressure. Design temperature: Default: -320.0 DEG F [-195 DEG C]. Operating temperature: Default: design temperature. Jacket design gauge pressure: Min: -14.70 PSIG [-100.0 KPA]; Default: -14.70 PSIG [-100.0 KPA] Jacket material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *CS*. Skirt height: Skip if legs are required. Enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure. Default: 1.5 x diameter. Vessel leg height: Skip if legs are required. Enter 0.0 if hung in OPEN structure. Default: 1.5 x diameter. Wind or seismic design: Default: Vessel designed for wind and seismic loads defined in Project Basis. W+S- Wind and seismic design required WIND- Wind design only SEIS- Seismic design only NONE- Delete wind and seismic design Fluid volume: For seismic design, fluid volume as a% of vessel volume (water assumed). Manhole diameter: Max: 48.0 INCHES [1,200.0 MM]; Default: 18.0 INCHES [450.0 MM] - Continued on next page -

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Description CRYOGENIC - continued Number of manholes: Default: *0*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel height. Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Weld efficiency: ASME/JIS codes only, where allowed for thin wall vessels. Range: 50 - 100; Default: Area Basis. Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief Stiffening ring spacing: Default stiffeners designed for vacuum only, enter 0.0 if not required.Head type: ELLIP- 2:1 ellipsoidal HEMI- Hemispherical TORI- Torispherical (ASME) Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD. Default: See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Flat bottom dome top. FRP to 30000 GALLONS [113 M3], HAVEG to 7000 GALLONS [26 M3]. Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Storage Tank: Filamentwound with a biosphere - a polyester resin (e.g., Atlac 282). Flat bottom and dome top under 2.5 PSIG [16.7 KPA], otherwise dished heads. Haveg Storage Tank. Material: Default: *FRP* FRP- FRP HAVEG- Haveg Liquid volume: Volume or diameter + height required input Range: 1,000 - 30,000 GALLONS [3.8 - 113 M3] - Continued on next page PLAST TANK Type

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Description PLAST TANK - continued Vessel diameter: Volume or diameter + height input. Max: 12.0 FEET [93.6 M]. Vessel height: Volume or diameter + height required input. Design gauge pressure: Range: 0.00 - 15.00 PSIG [0 - 100 KPA]; Default: *0.05* PSIG [*0.3* KPA]. Temperature: Max: 300 DEG F [120 DEG C]; Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]. Wooden storage tanks to 50000 GALLONS [1890 M3]. Material: Default: *CYPRS* CYPRS- Cypress REDWD- Redwood PINE- Pine FIR- Fir Liquid volume: Volume or diameter + height required input. Range: 800 - 50,000 GALLONS [3.1 - 189 M3]. Vessel diameter: Volume or diameter + height required input. Design gauge pressure: Range: 0.0 - 0.05 PSIG [0.0 - 0.3 KPA]. Default: *0.05* PSIG [*0.3* KPA]. Temperature: Max: 250 DEG F [120 DEG C]; Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]. Near-Atmospheric Gas Storage Telescoping gas holder. Low pressure gas vessel. Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A285C*. Gas volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. - Continued on next page GAS HOLDER WOOD TANK Type

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Description GAS HOLDER - continued Design gauge pressure: Range: 0.0 - 2.5 PSIG [0.0 - 17 KPA]; Default: *0.05* PSIG [*0.35* KPA]. Design temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]. Operating temperature: Default: Design temperature. Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM] Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise 0.0. Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Cladding thickness: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] if cladding material is specified, otherwise 0.0. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD. Default: - See Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Atmospheric Solid/Liquid Storage Cone bottom, flat top storage bin. Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A285C*. Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. - Continued on next page CONE BTM Type

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Description CONE BTM - continued Design gauge pressure: Min: 0.0 PSIG [0.0 KPA]; Default: 0.05 PSIG [0.35 KPA]. Design temperature: Default: 68 DEG F [20 DEG C] to 0.05 PSI [0.35 KPA]; else 650 DEG F [340 DEG C] ferrous, 250 DEG F [120 DEG C] other. Operating temperature: Default: Design temperature. Vessel leg height: Enter 0.0 if bin hung in OPEN structure; Default: *4* FEET [*1.25* M]. Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]. Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials. Number of body flange sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Cladding thickness: Default *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: *0.0*. Head thickness Top: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Head thickness Bottom: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. - Continued on next page Type

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Description CONE BTM - continued Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default - see Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter ASME design basis: Applicable only for ASME code design. See following entries for fatigue data. Default: *D1NF*. D1NF- ASME Division 1 - no fatigue analysis D1F- ASME Division 1 - with fatigue analysis D2NF- ASME Division 2 - no fatigue analysis D2F- ASME Division 2 - with fatigue analysis Start Stop cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of start-up cycles during the full equipment life. Range: 5.00 - 0.02. Pressure cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design pressure during equipment life. Default: *0*. Pressure amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of process deviation as percent of design pressure. Default: *0*. Number of hydrostatic tests: ASME fatigue only. Number of hydrostatic tests during the full equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature cycles x 1000: ASME fatigue only. Thousands of deviations from design temperature in equipment life. Default: *0*. Temperature amplitude: ASME fatigue only. Amplitude of temperature as a percent of design temperature. Default: *0*. Live bottom storage bin. Shell material: For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. See Chapter 28 for materials. Default: *A285C*. Solid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. - Continued on next page LIVE BTM Type

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Vertical Tanks (VT) - continued


Description LIVE BTM - continued Vessel diameter: MAX: 15 FEET [4.69 M] Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Design temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Operating temperature: Default: Design temperature. Vessel leg height: Enter 0.0 if bin hung in OPEN structure; Default: *4* FEET [*1.25* M]. Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]. Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials. Number of body flange sets: Number of sets (pairs) of body flanges of same diameter as vessel. Stress relief: Default: See Area Design Basis. CODE- Provide stress relief if code requires YES- Provide stress relief NO- No stress relief Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for materials. Cladding thickness: Default *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] if cladding material is specified; otherwise: *0.0*. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD; Default - see Area Design Basis. OD- Outside diameter ID- Inside diameter Type

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10 Vessels (G10)

Vertical Tanks (VT) - continued


Description Tile Chests Tile chests provide tile lined tanks for storage of liquids, suspensions or slurries. Although tile chests are used in the chemical industry, they are predominantly used in pulp and paper mills for storing fiber suspensions at various stages of processing. Chests can be rectangular or cylindrical and may be concrete or metallic. Various designs are available depending on the nature of the fluid high density, low density. Tile Chests, rectangular concrete include the following CHEST REC options: Type

Single tile chest Group of tile chests One chest in a group of chests.

Grouping option: PARTGRP is used for one chest in assemblage, WHLGRP to define an entire assemblage. Default: *PARTGRP*. SINGLE- Tile chest is a single stand-alone item PARTGRP- One chest of a multi-group assemblage WHLGRP- Entire multi-group assemblage Inside length: Enter either chest dimensions or capacity. Vessel height: Enter either chest dimensions or capacity. Inside width: Enter either chest dimensions or capacity. Chest volume: Enter either chest dimensions (length height, width) or capacity; Min: 30000 GALLONS (114M3); Max: 1300000 GALLONS (4921 M3). If Grouping Option is WHLGRP, enter capacity of entire group; otherwise enter capacity of this chest. Tile or lining type: Default: *25RSB* 25RSB- 2.5 INCHES [62 MM] red shale brick 45RSB- 4.5 INCHES [112 MM] red shale brick 80RSB- 8.0 INCHES [200 MM] red shale brick - Continued on next page -

10 Vessels (G10)

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Vertical Tanks (VT) - continued


Description CHEST REC - continued Tile or lining: Percent of chest surface to be lined, 100% = one side; 200% = inside + outside. Max: 200; Default: 100. Configuration: Default: *OPEN* OPEN- Open top chest CLOSED- Chest has a roof Installation option: Default: *GRADE* GRADE- Tile chest is constructed on grade STRUCT- Tile chest is within a structure Capacity of group: For PARTGRP chest only, capacity of entire group; Default: 4x chest capacity. Number of chests in group: For WHLGRP chest only, enter number of chests in entire assemblage. Default: *4*. Number of partitions lengthwise: Number of full length partitions parallel to length dimension (may be fraction). Number of partitions widthwise: Number of width wide partitions parallel to width dimension (may be fraction). Soil type: SOFT CLAY- Bearing: 2000 PSF [100 KN/M2] FIRM CLAY- Bearing: 4000 PSF [200 KN/M2] WET SAND- Bearing: 4000 PSF [200 KN/M2] SAND+CLAY- Bearing: 4000 PSF [200 KN/M2] DRY SAND- Bearing: 600 PSF [300 KN/M2] SAND- Bearing: 8000 PSF [400 KN/M2] GRAVEL- Bearing: 12000 PSF [600 KN/M2] SOFT ROCK- Bearing: 16000 PSF [800 KN/M2] HARDPAN- Bearing: 20000 PSF [1000 KN/M2] MED-ROCK- Bearing: 30000 PSF [1400 KN/M2] HARD ROCK.- Bearing: 80000 PSF [3800 KN/M2] Product density: Default: *62.4* PCF. Exclude excavation: Exclude portion of calculated quantity if not required or common with other items. Max: 100; Default: *0.0*. - Continued on next page Type

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10 Vessels (G10)

Vertical Tanks (VT) - continued


Description CHEST REC - continued Footings exclusion: Exclude portion of calculated quantity if not required or common with other items. Max: 100; Default: *0.0*. Floor exclusion: Exclude portion of calculated quantity if not required or common with other items. Max: 100; Default: *0.0*. Wall length exclusion: Exclude portion of calculated quantity if not required or common with other items. Max: 100; Default: *0.0*. Wall width exclusion: Exclude portion of calculated quantity if not required or common with other items. Max: 100; Default: *0.0*. Tile Chests, Cylindrical Low density tile chest with a capacity range of 3000 to 300000 GALLONS [12 to 1135 M3]. Chest is available in concrete or metallic materials of construction. If the user enters no dimensions (diameter, height, width, length), the capacity range is 3000 to 300000 GALLONS [12 to 1135 M3]. High density tile chest with a capacity range of 30000 to 1300000 GALLONS [114 to 4921 M3]. Chest is available in concrete or metallic materials of construction. Shape symbol: Default: *CYLLD* CYLLD- Cylindrical chest, low density stock CYLHD- Cylindrical chest, high density stock Inside diameter: Chest dimensions or capacity required. Vessel height: Chest dimensions or capacity required. Chest volume: Enter either dimensions (diameter, height) or capacity; Min: 3000 GALLONS [12 M3]; Max: 300000 GALLONS [1135 M3] CHEST CYL Type

- Continued on next page -

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Vertical Tanks (VT) - continued


Description CHEST CYL - continued Tile or lining type: Default: *25RSB* 25RBS- 2.5 INCH [62 MM] red shale brick 45RSB- 4.5 INCH [112 MM] red shale brick 80RSB- 8.0 INCH [200 MM] red shale brick Tile or lining: Percent of chest to be lined. 100% = one side; 200% = inside + outside. Max: 200; Default: *100*. Configuration: Default: *OPEN* OPEN- Open top chest CLOSED- Chest has a roof Installation option: Default: *GRADE* GRADE- Tile chest is constructed on grade STRUCT- Tile chest is within a structure Soil type: SOFT CLAY- Bearing: 2000 PSF [100 KN/M2] FIRM CLAY- Bearing: 4000 PSF [200 KN/M2] WET SAND- Bearing: 4000 PSF [200 KN/M2] SAND+CLAY- Bearing: 4000 PSF [200 KN/M2] DRY SAND- Bearing: 600 PSF [300 KN/M2] SAND- Bearing: 8000 PSF [400 KN/M2] GRAVEL- Bearing: 12000 PSF [600 KN/M2] SOFT ROCK- Bearing: 16000 PSF [800 KN/M2] HARDPAN- Bearing: 20000 PSF [1000 KN/M2] MED-ROCK- Bearing: 30000 PSF [1400 KN/M2] HARD ROCK.- Bearing: 80000 PSF [3800 KN/M2] Product density: Default: *62.4* PCF [1,000 KG/M3]. Exclude excavation: Exclude portion of calculated quantity if not required or common with other items. Max: 100; Default: *0.0*. Footings exclusion: Exclude portion of calculated quantity if not required or common with other items. Max: 100; Default: *0.0*. Floor exclusion: Exclude portion of calculated quantity if not required or common with other items. Max: 100; Default: *0.0*. Type

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Vertical Tanks (VT) - continued


Description Type Shell material: CHEST MTL For clad plate, specify the backing plate material. (Cladding is defined below.) Default: *A285C*. Liquid volume: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel diameter: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel height: Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Tile or lining type: Default: *25RSB* 25RSB- 2.4 INCH [62 MM] red shale brick 45RSB- 4.5 INCH [112 MM] red shale brick 80RSB- 8.0 INCH [200 MM] red shale brick Tile or lining: Percent of chest surface to be lined. 100% = one side; 200% = inside + outside. Max: 200; Default: *100*. Roof type: Default: *FLAT* FLAT- Flat roof tank CONE- Cone roof tank FLOAT- Floating roof tank LIFT- Lifter OPEN- Open top tank INFLT- Internal floater with flat roof INCN- Internal floater with cone roof Design gauge pressure: Range: 0 - 2.5 PSIG [0 - 17.0 KPA]; Default: *0.05* PSIG [*0.35* KPA]. Ignore this field for open top tanks. Design temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]. Operating temperature: Default: Design temperature. Manhole diameter: Max: 48 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [450.0 MM]. Number of manholes: Default: *1*. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic vessel weight. Default: *0.0*. Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. - Continued on next page -

10 Vessels (G10)

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Vertical Tanks (VT) - continued


Description Type Corrosion allowance: CHEST MTL Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] for CS, *0.0* for other materials. Cladding material: See Chapter 28 for cladding materials. Cladding thickness: Default: *0.125* INCHES [*3* MM] for cladding material, otherwise *0.0*. Specific gravity: Range: 0.2 - 5.0; Default: *1.0*. Diameter option: Defines desired diameter as ID or OD. Default: See Area Design Basis. Bottom type: Default: *FLAT* FLAT- Single flat bottom DBL- Double bottom Sanitary vertical cylindrical vessel Since this is a sanitary item, the tank is built to sanitary standards, including polished stainless steel. This is not a pressure vessel. Shell Material: SS304,*SS316* Application: The application symbol defines vessel function and related pipe/instrum. model. *SURGE*- Surge tank MIX- Mixing tank Liquid Volume: MAX: 5,000 GALLONS [18.9 M3] Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel Diameter: MAX: 9.25 FEET [2.8 M] Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Vessel Height: MAX: 10 FEET [3 M] Enter either capacity or diameter and height. Operating temperature: MIN: 68 DEG F [20 DEG C] Cover type: *OPEN*- Open top FLAT- Loose flat top FIXED- Fixed flat top with bridge DISH- Dished top with manway and agitator nozzle - Continued on next page SAN TANK

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10 Vessels (G10)

Vertical Tanks (VT) - continued


Description SAN TANK - continued Bottom type: WELL- Well bottom SLOPE- Sloped bottom TORI- Torispherical bottom *CON15*- 15 degree cone bottom CON30- 30 degree cone bottom CON45- 45 degree cone bottom CON60- 60 degree cone bottom Jacket type: *NONE*- No jacket DMPLE- 90 PSIG [620 KPA] dimple jacket Type

10 Vessels (G10)

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10 Vessels (G10)

11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment


(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Crushers (CR) Flakers (FL) Mills (M) Stock Treatment (ST)

11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment (G6)

11-1

Crushers (CR)
Includes motor and drive unit.
Description Type Cone crusher for secondary and fine crushing for hard CONE and medium hard materials such as limestone, stone and rock. The cone crusher is a type of gyratory crusher. A conical head is gyrated by means of an eccentric driven through gears and a countershaft. The gyratory motion causes the conical head to approach and recede from the walls of the crushing chamber. The material receives a series of rapid blows as it passes through the crushing cavity. Material: Default: *CS*. Mantle diameter: Range: 20 - 84 INCHES [510 - 2,130 MM]. Crusher type: Default: *STAND* STAND- Standard head SHORT- Short head

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11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment (G6)

Crushers (CR) - continued


Description Primary and secondary crushing of hard and medium hard materials such as limestone, stone and rock. A conical head is gyrated by means of an eccentric driven through gears and a countershaft. The gyratory motion causes the conical head to approach and recede from the walls of the crushing chamber. The material receives a series of rapid blows as it passes through the crushing cavity. Material: Default: *CS*. Mantle diameter: Range: 20 - 120 INCHES [510 - 3,045 MM]. Crusher type: Default: *PRIME* PRIME- Primary crushing SECOND- Secondary crushing Overhead eccentric jaw crusher for primary and ECCENTRIC secondary crushing of hard, tough and abrasive materials, such as quartz, rock, glass and ferroalloys. Includes hydraulic toggle, motor and motor drive sheave and V belts. A moving jaw opens and closes against a vertical or slightly inclined fixed jaw by means of a toggle to crush the feed material. In single-toggle machines the moving jaw has an almost circular motion at the upper-end of the jaw plate and an elliptical movement at the lower-end. This motion causes the jaw plates to wear faster than double-toggle machines but also assists the flow of material through the crushing chamber. The trend is towards single-toggle machines because the increased wear is usually outweighed by the lower initial cost of the single-toggle machine. Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 25 - 1,620 TPH [23 - 1,460 TON/H]. Product size: Range: 1 - 16 INCHES [25 - 400]. Type GYRATORY

11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment (G6)

11-3

Crushers (CR) - continued


Description Type Swing jaw crusher for primary and secondary JAW crushing of hard and/or abrasive materials such as quartz rock, glass and ferroalloys. A moving jaw is opened and closed by means of a pair of toggles against a vertical or slightly inclined fixed jaw crushing the feed material. (See ECCENTRIC crusher for additional information.) Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 70 - 610 TPH [65 - 550 TON/H]. Product size: Range: 2 - 8 INCHES [50 - 200 MM]. Rotary crusher for coarse, soft materials, such as gypsum, phosphate rock, pitch, mica, cocoanut shells. A toothed cone rotates inside a toothed shell. The clearance between the teeth on the cone and the teeth on the shell determines the product size. Material: Default: *CS*. Driver power: Range: 2 - 25 HP [1.5 - 18.5 KW]. Single roll crushers are manufactured in light, medium and heavy duty constructions for the primary crushing of friable materials such as coal; medium hard materials such as coal, phosphate rock and shale; and hard materials such as cement rock, iron ore and limestone. Single roll crusher for light duty primary and secondary crushing for coal and other friable materials. S ROLL LT ROTARY

Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 140 - 1,470 TPH [125 - 1,330 TON/H]. Product size: Range: 2 - 6 INCHES [50 - 150 MM].

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11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment (G6)

Crushers (CR) - continued


Description S ROLL LT - continued Single roll crusher for medium duty primary and/or secondary crushing for coal and other friable materials. S ROLL MED Type

Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 105 - 840 TPH [95 - 760 TON/H]. Product size: Range: 2 - 8 INCHES [50 - 200 MM]. Single roll crusher for heavy duty primary and/or
secondary crushing for coal and other friable materials. Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 175 - 1,000 TPH [155 - 900 TON/H]. Product size: Range: 2 - 8 INCHES [50 - 200 MM].

S ROLL HVY

Sawtooth crusher. Size reduction in tearing via SAWTOOTH toothed rollers for lumpy and friable materials, such as plastics, shale, charcoal, shells and bark. The particles are crushed between two rollers with sawtooth-like projections. Material: Default: *CS*. Driver power: Range: 5 - 40 HP [4 - 30 KW]. Reversible hammermill for secondary reduction of hard REV-HAMR and medium hard minerals, stone, rock, limestone, low-silica ores/chemicals. Tertiary reduction of friables materials in closed circuit crushing. Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 20 - 450 TPH [18 - 408 TON/H].

11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment (G6)

11-5

Crushers (CR) - continued


Description Type Non-reversible hammermill for secondary crushing of HAMMER bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, lignite, gypsum MED and some medium-hard minerals. Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 15 - 40 TPH [13 - 36 TON/H]. Non-reversible hammermill for hard materials (cement SWING HAMR rock, limestone). Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 30 - 180 TPH [27 - 160 TON/H]. Rotary breaker for simultaneous sizing and cleaning of BRADFORD run-of-mine coal. Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 450 - 1,500 TPH [400 - 1360 TON/H]. Single rotor impact breaker for primary and secondary S IMPACT breaking of non-abrasive quarry rock and similar materials. Crusher flow rate: Range: 250 - 1,000 TPH [225 - 900 TON/H].

Fine and medium crushing of soft non-abrasive materials. Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 300 - 8,500 LP/H [140 - 3,855 KW]. Driver power: Range: 3 - 75 HP [2.22 - 55].

PULVERIZER

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11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment (G6)

Crushers (CR) - continued


Description Type Ring granulator for primary and secondary crushing of ROLL RING bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, lignite, gypsum and some medium hard minerals. Heavy cast steel rings, toothed and/or plain, at the end of rotating arms crush solid material by a combination of impact breaking and rolling compression. Material: Default: *CS*. Crusher flow rate: Range: 50 - 2,000 TPH [45 - 1,800 TON/H].

Flakers (FL)
Includes motor and drive.
Description Drum flaker to 200 SF [18 M2] of surface. Material: Default: *CS*. Surface area: Range: 10 - 250 SF [1 - 23 M2]. Type DRUM

Mills (M)
Includes mill, motor, bearings, gears, lube system and vendor-supplied instruments.
Description Attrition mill to 300 HP [224 KW]. Material: Default: *CS*. Driver power: Range: 5 - 300 HP [4 - 224 KW]. Driver speed: Max: 3,600 RPM Type ATTRITION

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11-7

Mills (M) - continued.


Description Wet or dry autogenous mills. Material: Default: *CS*. Application: Default: *WET* WET- Wet grinding DRY- Dry grinding Ball mill includes initial ball charge. Material: Default: *CS*. Application: Default: *WET* WET- Wet grinding DRY- Dry grinding Rod mill includes initial rod charge. Material: Default: *CS*. Application: Default: *WET* WET- Wet grinding DRY- Dry grinding Micro-pulverizer to 30 HP [22 KW]. Material: Default: *CS*. Driver power: Range: 7.5 - 30 HP [5.5 - 22 KW]. Driver speed: Max: 3,600 RPM Roller mill to 400 HP [300 KW]. Material: Default: *CS*. Application: Default: *WET* WET- Wet grinding DRY- Dry grinding Rod charger for rod mill. ROD CHARGR ROLLER ROD MILL BALL MILL Type AUTOGENOUS

MIKRO PULV

11-8

11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment (G6)

Stock Treatments (ST)


Description Type Refiners are used for the refining of fibers either from REFINER Kraft pulping or secondary fiber operations. The refiner is a double-disk type with rotor and stator in a quick opening hinged housing. The shaft is supported on anti-friction grease-lubricated bearings, packing box, electro-mechanical plate positioning. Also included is the drive consisting of the gear box, electric motor, coupling and guard. Material: Default: *SS316* SS316- SS316 SS304- SS304 Stock flow rate: Enter stock flow rate (bone dry) or plate diameter. Range: 5 - 2000 TPD [.20 - 75 TON/H]. Plate diameter: Enter stock flow rate (bone dry) or plate diameter. Range: 12 - 60 INCHES [305 - 1,520 MM]. CSF - ml of water: CSF = Canadian Standard Freeness. Default: *120*. Deflakers reduce and disperse flakes into finer size, and are mainly used in pulp mill operations. The unit can be designed for a wide range of capacities and solids concentration. Due to the intermeshing stator and rotor design, the unit can also be used in high shear mixing operations. Two designs are available: Plate type includes stator and rotor plate tackles DEFLAKE DK housed in a body with quick hinged door opening for easy maintenance, electric motor driver, coupling, packing seal, external rotor/stator adjustment mechanism, built in junk trap. Material: Default: *SS316* SS316- SS316 SS304- SS304 Hydraulic capacity: Enter hydraulic capacity or rotor diameter. Range: 5.0 - 2000 GPM [0.3 - 125.0 LS]. - Continued on next page -

11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment (G6)

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Stock Treatments (ST) - continued


Description DEFLAKE DK - continued Rotor diameter: Enter hydraulic capacity or rotor diameter. Range: 4 - 30 INCHES [100 - 750 MM]. Deflaker speed: Default: *1,800* RPM. Consistency Air Dried: Range: 1 - 10; Default: *4*. Concentric conical type includes shell and plug tackles housed in body, electric motor driver, external rotor/stator adjustment mechanism, built in junk trap and lube oil system. Material: Default: *SS316* SS316- SS316 SS304- SS304 Hydraulic capacity: Range: 5 - 2,000 GPM [0.3 - 125.0 L/S]. Deflaker speed: Default: *1,800* RPM. Consistency Air Dried: Range: 1 - 10; Default: *4*. Type

DEFLAKE CN

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11 Crushers, Mills and Stock Treatment (G6)

12 Drying Systems

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Crystallizers (CRY) Evaporators (E) Wiped Film Evaporators (WFE) Air Dryers (AD) Dryers (D) Drum Dryers (DD) Rotary Dryers (RD) Tray Drying Systems (TDS)

12 Drying Systems (G6)

12-1

Crystallizers (CRY)
Description Batch vacuum crystallizer unit for small scale production of crystals. Includes cone bottom agitated tank, steam jet ejectors and direct contact condenser to 8200 GALLONS [25.8 M3]. Energy requirements are lower for a batch vacuum unit than for a continuous vacuum unit, however, for the same capacity, batch units must be larger than continuous units and are therefore more expensive. A warm saturated solution is fed to a cone bottom tank. The pressure in the tank is then reduced using stream-jets. The solution flashes and the flashed solvent is condensed in a direct contact condenser. The non-condensables which pass through the direct contact condenser are vented to the atmosphere by the steam-jet equipment. While the solution is flashing, agitators in the crystallizer keep the forming crystals in the suspension and keep the contents of the tank at a uniform concentration. When the supersaturation of the flashed solution has been removed (by the formation of the crystals), the tank is emptied. Material: *CS*. CS- Carbon steel RBLCS- Rubber-lined CS SS304- SS304 Liquid volume: Range: 850 - 8,200 GALLONS [2.7 - 25.8 M3]. Mechanical scraped-surface crystallizer, jacketed, spiral ribbon scraper, trough, stacked in lengths of 40 FEET [12 M]. Includes motor and drive. For the relatively small-scale production of crystals from a supersaturated solution. The scraped-surface is used where a slight change in the temperature of a solution means a large change in its solubility. When the required rate of heat removal is greater then 200,000 BTU/HR, the scraped surface crystallizer is usually not economical. The scraped-surface crystallizer consists of a 24-inch wide trough with a semi-circular bottom, a cooling jacket on the outside and a spiral ribbon scraper/mixer the length of the trough. - Continued on next page MECHANICAL Type BATCH VAC

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12 Drying Systems (G6)

Crystallizers (CRY) - continued


Description MECHANICAL - continued Crystals growing on the walls off the trough are scraped off and suspended in the mother liquor. These units are manufactured in lengths of 10 to 40 FEET. If lengths greater than 40 are required, the units are stacked one on top of another and the solution cascades from one level to the next. Material: *CS*, CI CS- Carbon steel CI- Cast iron Length: Range: 20 - 1,000 FEET [6.1 - 300 M] Material: SS (Stainless steel) Length: Range: 20 - 550 FEET [6.1 - 165 M] Oslo growth type crystallizer to 6,900 TPD [260 OSLO TONH]. Large scale crystal production. Includes interconnecting piping, recirculating pump and accessories. This piece of equipment, also called a growth crystallizer or classified-suspension crystallizer, operates in the following manner. The feed stream plus a recycle stream of saturated solution are pumped through a heat exchanger and heated. The solution enters a vaporization chamber and a portion of the solvent is flashed, thus cooling the solution and raising the concentration of the solute. This supersaturates the solution. The supersaturated solution is then fed to the bottom of a suspension or crystallizing chamber where it contacts already formed crystals. Through the formation of new crystals and the growth of existing crystals, the supersaturation of the solution is removed. Additionally, as the solution moves upward through the suspension chamber, the small crystals are carried upward while the large crystals settle to the bottom, thus classifying the crystals by size. The large crystals are removed from the bottom of the suspension chamber while the solution, no longer saturated, is mixed with fresh feed, fed to the heat exchanger, and the events described above are repeated. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Crystallizer rate: Max: 6,900 TPD [260 TON/H] Type

12 Drying Systems (G6)

12-3

Evaporators (E)
Description Agitated falling film evaporator to 150 SF [13 M2] includes motor and drive. Material: Default: *SS304* SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 Heat transfer area: Range: 4 - 150 SF [0.4 - 13 M2] Forced circulation evaporator to 10000 SF [925 M2] FORCED CIR includes interconnecting piping, circulating pumps and drivers. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Heat transfer area: Range: 100 - 10,000 SF [10 -925 M2] Tube material: CS tubes with CS shell, Cu. or Ni tubes with CI shell. CS- Carbon steel CU- Copper NI- Nickel Material: CI (Cast iron) Heat transfer area: Range: 155 - 8,000 SF [14 - 740 M2] Tube material: CS tubes with CS shell, Cu or Ni tubes with CI shell. CS- Carbon steel CU- Copper NI- Nickel Long tube rising film evaporator to 35 SF [3.2 M2] includes interconnecting piping. Material: SS steel tubes with SS shell. Heat transfer Area: Range: 18 - 35 SF [1.7 - 3.2 M2] LONG TUBE Type FALL FILM

12-4

12 Drying Systems (G6)

Evaporators (E) - continued


Description Type Long tube vertical evaporator to 50000 SF [4640 M2] LONG VERT variety of tube and shell materials. Karbate tubes with rubber-lined CS shell, CU tubes with other shell materials. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Surface area: Range: 400 - 50,000 SF [38 - 4,640 M2] Material: CI (Cast iron) Surface area: Range: 100 - 25,000 SF [10 - 2,320 M2] Material: CU Surface area: Range: 200 - 3,000 [19 - 275 M2] Material: RBLCS Surface area: Range: 100 - 2,700 SF [10 - 250 M2] Standard vertical tube evaporator to 7000 SF [650 M2] CS tubes with CS shell, Cu tubes with CI shell, Pb shell with Pb-lined CS shell. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Surface area: Range: 100 - 6,000 SF [10 - 555 M2] Material: CI (Cast iron) Surface area: Range: 100 - 6,000 SF [10 - 555 M2] Material: PBLCS (Lead-lined CS) Surface area: Range: 200 - 7,000 SF [19 - 650 M2] STAND VERT

12 Drying Systems (G6)

12-5

Evaporators (E) - continued


Description Type Standard horizontal tube evaporator to 10000 SF [920 STAND HOR M2]. CS tubes with CS shell, Cu tubes with CI shell. Material: Default: *CS* Surface area: Range: 100 - 10,000 SF [10 - 920 M2] Material: CI (Cast iron) Surface area: Range: 100 - 6000 SF [10 - 555 M2]

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12 Drying Systems (G6)

Wiped Film Evaporators (WFE)


Includes motor and drive.
Description Agitated thin film evaporator with explosion-proof motor and drive. Material: Default: *SS316* Heat transfer area: Range: 0.95 - 27 SF [0.1 - 2.5 M2] Type THIN FILM

Packaged system including condenser and stand. Material: Default: *SS316* Heat transfer area: Range: 0.2 - 12 SF [0.02 - 1.1 M2]

WFE SYSTEM

12 Drying Systems (G6)

12-7

Air Dryers (AD)


Description Dual tower, desiccant type, for drying of air to -40 DEG F [-40 DEG C] dew point; includes desiccant. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Gas flow rate: Max: 50,000 CFM [84,900 M3/H] Type AIR DRYER

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12 Drying Systems (G6)

Dryers (D)
Includes solid materials.
Description Atmospheric tray batch dryer. Material: Default: *CS* Tray area: Range: 30 - 200 SF [2.8 - 18.5 M2] Material: SS Tray area: Range: 30 - 250 SF [2.8 - 23 M2] Vacuum tray batch dryer. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Tray area: Range: 40 - 200 SF [3.8 - 18.5 M2] Agitated pan batch dryer for sensitive materials. Includes motor and drive. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel 304CD- CS clad with 304 SS 316CD- CS clad with 316 SS Surface area: Range: 12 - 180 SF [1.1 - 16.7 M2] Diameter: Range: 3 - 10 FEET [0.9 - 3.0 M] Pan depth: Range: 18 - 36 INCHES [450 - 900 MM] Driver power: Range: 3 - 40 HP [2.22 - 30 KW] PAN VAC TRAY Type ATMOS TRAY

12 Drying Systems (G6)

12-9

Dryers (D) - continued


Description Type

SPRAY Continuous spray drying system. Includes supports, heater, filter, atomizer, fan, driver, instrumentation, interconnecting piping, cyclone and accessories to 9000 LB/H [4080 KG/H] evaporative capacity (water). Material: Default: *CS* Evaporation rate: Range: 700 - 9,000 LB/H [320 - 4,080 KG/H]

12-10

12 Drying Systems (G6)

Drum Dryers (DD)


Includes motor and drive.
Description Single atmospheric drum dryer for drying of solids on web material. on steam-heated rotating drum. Material: Default: *CS* Tray area: Range: 10 - 200 SF [1 - 18 M2] Double atmospheric drum dryer for drying of solids on DOUBLE ATM web material on pair of steam heated drums. Material: Default: *CS* Tray area: Range: 25 - 400 SF [2.4 - 35 M2] Type SINGLE ATM

Single vacuum rotary drum dryer for drying of sensitive solids under vacuum. Material: Default: *CS* Tray area: Range: 10 - 200 SF [1 - 18 M2]

SINGLE VAC

Rotary drum cooker-cooler. Use to blanch foods like pasta or corn, cook foods like meats or poultry, or cool foods like bagged soup. Material: SS304, *SS316* Dryer drum diameter: MAX: 72 INCHES [1,825 MM] - Continued on next page -

S COOKCOOL

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Drum Dryers (DD) - continued


Description S COOKCOOL - continued Type

Only 60 INCH (1525 MM) and 72 INCH (1825 MM) diameters are available. Food flow rate: MAX: 303,000 LB/HR (137,437 KG/HR) at default product density 50 LB/CF (800 KG/M3). The maximum capacity any model can handle depends upon the product density, and is thus volumetric in nature; densities higher than the default can realize capacities above 303,000 lb/hr (137,437 KG/HR), while densities lower than the default realize maximum capacities below 303,000 lb/hr (137,437 KG/HR). Cooler length: MIN: 4 FEET [1.2M] for 60 INCH [1,525 MM] and 8 FEET [2.4 M] for 72 INCH [1,825 MM] drum dia., MAX: 16 FEET [4.8 M] Product density: MIN: 50 PCF, MAX: 303,000 LB/ HR [137,437 KG/HR] at product density 50 LB/CF (800 KG/M3). Cook time: If drum diameter is specified, default cooking time is 1 MINUTE, which is the minimum allowable cooking time, and therefore the cooking time that results in the maximum allowable capacity. If capacity is specified, the default cooking time is computed based on the capacity, cooker length, and drum diameter. MIN: 1 MINUTE, MAX: 12 MINUTES. Driver power: Default: based on drum diameter, food capacity and cooker length. Driver type: *WVRDC*- Washdown, VFD rated, direct drive, CS WVCDC- Washdown, VFD controlled, direct drive, CS

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12 Drying Systems (G6)

Rotary Dryers (RD)


Includes motor and drive unit.
Description Direct contact of hot gas with moist solids with maximum surface area of 2000 SF [185 M2]. Material: Default: *CS* Surface area: Range: 100 - 2,000 SF [10 - 185 M2] Indirect contact of hot gases with moist solids with maximum surface area of 2000 SF[185 M2]. Material: Default: *CS* Surface area: 100 - 2,000 SF [10 - 185 M2] Jacketed rotary vacuum dryer with explosion-proof motor. Maximum capacity of 500 CF [14.1 M3]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS316- SS316 Flow rate: 8 - 500 CF [0.25 - 14.1 M3] Conical rotary vacuum dryer with maximum capacity of 400 CF. [11.3 M3]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Flow rate: 3 - 400 CF [0.1 - 11.3 M3] VACUUM JAC VACUUM INDIRECT Type DIRECT

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Tray Drying Systems (TDS)


Description Atmospheric tray dryer with painted steel chamber. Material: Default: *SS316* Tray surface area: Range: 80 - 300 SF [7.5 - 27.5 M2] Batch tray dryer with vacuum and no trays. Material: Default: *CI* Tray surface area: Range: 20 - 75 SF [1.9 - 6.9 M2] Material: SS304 Tray surface area: Range: 20 - 80 SF [1.9 - 7.0 M2] Turbo tray drying system with auxiliaries except heating system. Material: Default: *CS* Tray surface area: Range: 60 - 20,000 SF [6 - 1,850 M2] Heating medium: Default: *blank* H-AIR- Hot air STEAM- Steam blank- Other heating medium Batch tray dryer with vacuum pump and condenser. Material: Default: *CI* Tray Surface Area: Range: 13 - 70 SF [1.3 - 6.5 M2] VAC SYSTEM TURBO VACUUM Type ATM SYSTEM

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13 Solids Conveying

(G10)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Conveyors (CO) Definitions and Samples of Conveyor Section Types Cranes (CE) Elevators, Lifts (EL) Feeders (FE) Hoists (HO) Scales (S)

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Conveyors (CO)
Description Open belt conveyor for transporting solid materials over long distances. Because the belt material is reinforced rubber, materials at temperatures above 150 DEG F are normally not handled. Includes grade-level support steel, belt tensioning device, motors and drives. An endless moving belt is used to transport solids either horizontally or on an incline. The belt may be flat, but is typically troughed in order to increase the carrying capacity of the belt. Belt Width: Range: 18 - 120 INCHES [450 - 3,000 MM] Product Density: MAX: 20 0 PCF [3,200 KG/M3]; Default: *50* PCF [*800* KG/M3] Driver Power per Section: Driver power per section if conveyor has multiple sections. - Continued on next page Type OPEN BELT

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Conveyors (CO) - continued


Description OPEN BELT - continued Conveyer Speed: MIN: 20 FPM [370 M/H] Vertical lift (+) or drop (-): Difference in elevation between feed and discharge: lift (positive), drop (negative). Default: *0.0* FEET [*0.0* M] Height Grade Section: Grade section has this uniform, nominal height for entire length. Default: *6* FEET [*2* M]. Length Grade Section: Default length = conveyor length, if length of other two section type = 0.0. Height Slope Section: Slope section varies from grade section height to this designated height. Length Slope Section: Default length = conveyor length, if length of other two section types = 0.0. Height Above Grade Section: Above grade section varies from slope section height to this designated height. Length Above Grade Section: Default length = conveyor length, if length of other two section types = 0.0. Cantilever Length: Cantilever length may be specified only for the end of an elevated section. Default: *0.0* FEET [*0.0* M] Tower Bent Spacing: Tower (bent) spacing applies to elevated sections only. Default: *80* FEET [*25* M] Gallery Enclosure: Default: *NO GALLERY* GALLERY- Gallery enclosure for conveyor and walks NO GALLERY- No gallery enclosure Number of Motors: Default: 1 per MILE [1 per 1.6 KM] Number of Walkways: Default: 1 if no gallery, 2 if conveyor has gallery enclosure. Walkway Width: Default: 36 INCHES [910 MM] if no gallery, 54 INCHES [1370 MM] if gallery enclosure. Type

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Conveyors (CO) - continued


Description Same as open belt conveyor but enclosed with corrugated sheet metal canopy enclosing the belt to protect the belt and the materials from the elements. Canopy is also used to control dust when transporting material with fines. Belt Width: Range: 18 - 120 INCHES [450 - 3,000 MM] Product Density: MAX: 200 PCF [3,200 KG/M3]; Default: *50* PCF [*800* KG/M3] Driver Power per Section: Driver power per section if conveyor has multiple sections. Speed: MIN: 20 FPM [370 M/H] Vert Lift (+) or drop (-): Difference in elevation between feed and discharge: lift (positive), drop (negative). Default: 0.0 FEET [0.0 M]. Height Grade Section: Grade section has this uniform, nominal height for entire length. Default: *6* FEET [*2* M] Length Grade Section: Default length = conveyor length, if length of other two section types = 0.0. Height Slope Section: Slope section varies from grade section height to this designated height. Length Slope Section: Default length = conveyor length, if length of other two section types = 0.0. Height Above Grade Section: Above grade section varies from slope section height to this designated height. Length Above Grade Section: Default length = conveyor length, if length of other two section types = 0.0. Cantilever Length: Cantilever length may be specified only for the end of an elevated section. Default: *0.0* FEET [*0.0* M] Tower Bent Spacing: Tower (bent) spacing applies to elevated sections only. Default: *80* FEET [*25* M] Type CLOSED BLT

- Continued on next page -

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Conveyors (CO) - continued


Description CLOSED BLT - continued Gallery Enclosure: Default: *NO GALLERY* GALLERY- Gallery enclosure for conveyor and walks NO GALLERY- No gallery enclosure Number of Motors: Default: 1 per MILE [1 per 1.6 KM] Number of Walkways: Default: 1 if no gallery, 2 if conveyor has gallery enclosure. Walkway Width: Default: 36 INCHES [910 MM] if no gallery, 54 INCHES [1370 MM] if gallery enclosure. Type

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Definitions and Samples of Conveyor Section Types


Section 1: A conveyor section at uniform nominal height (H1) above grade. The section on post-type legs and has a total length L1.

Section 2: A conveyor section where height varies from the nominal grade height (H1) to some elevation above grade (H2). The section is supported on bents or tower-type supports and has a total length L2.

Section 3: A conveyor section where height varies from one elevated height (H2) to a second elevated height (H3). The section is supported on bents or tower-type supports and has a total length L3.

Samples of Combined Sections Sections 1, 2 and 3 Section 1 and 3

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Conveyors (CO) - continued


Description Apron to 50 FEET [15 M] includes motor and drive, open pans mounted between endless chains, not enclosed (open), and floor-mounted support steel. The apron conveyor is suitable for conveying coarse solids. The open apron conveyor is limited to material temperatures less than 600 DEG F. Material: Default: *CS* Conveyer Length: Range: 7 - 50 FEET [2.2 - 15 M] Conveyer Width: Range: 18 - 54 INCHES [450 - 1,350 MM] Conveyer Flow Rate: Range: 20 - 200 TPH [17 - 142 TON/H] Driver Power: Range: 2 - 20 HP [1.5 - 15 KW] Product Density: MAX: 200 PCF [3,200 KG/M3]; Default: *50* PCF [*800* KG/M3] Pneumatic conveying system for moving granular materials horizontally and vertically to areas that are either far away or otherwise hard to reach economically with mechanical conveyors. Includes TEFC motor, blower, base, coupling, check valve, instrumentation and filter piping. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel AL- Aluminum Conveyer Length: Range: 100 - 1,200 FEET [30 - 360 M] Tube Diameter: Range: 3 - 4 INCHES [75 - 100 MM] Conveyer Flow Rate: Range: 2 - 15 TPH [2 - 13 TON/H] Product Density: Range: 20 - 60 PCF [325 - 960 KG/M3]; Default: *50* PCF [*800* KG/M3] PNEUMATIC Type APRON

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Conveyors (CO) - continued


Description Roller conveyor for moving firm flat-bottomed unit loads, (e.g., drums, pallets and boxes). Inclines or declines should not be more than 5o. Especially suitable for conveying unit loads in a curved path. Rollers supported in frame. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Conveyer Length: Range: 4 - 25 FEET [1.3 - 7.5 M] Conveyer Width: Range: 12 - 20 INCHES [300 - 500 MM] Roller Spacing: Range: 3 - 4 INCHES [75 - 100 MM] Screw conveyor for conveying granular or fine solids SCREW horizontally or up an incline. Screw conveyor capacity, however, decreases rapidly as the angle of incline increases. Includes motor, drive and helical screw in U-shaped trough. The crew conveyor consists of a helical screw inside an enclosed U-shaped trough. As the screw rotates, the material is moved forward. Screw conveyors are inexpensive, easy to maintain and can easily be made dust-tight. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS305- SS305 SS316- SS316 Conveyer Length: Range: 10 - 1,000 FEET [3.1 - 300 M] Screw Diameter: Range: 6 - 24 INCHES [155 - 600 MM] Product Density: MAX: 100 PCF [1,600 KG/M2] Vibrating conveyor for moving granular materials horizontally or on slight incline. Includes motor and drive, carrying trough, support base and drive springs. The material being transported should have a high friction factor on steel as well as a high internal friction factor. Material must be dense so that air resistance will not retard the flight of the solid particle as it is thrown forward, and the material should not aerate. - Continued on next page VIBRATING Type ROLLER

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Conveyors (CO) - continued


Description VIBRATING - continued Friable materials can be handled because the movement of the material is gentle. The conveyor can be made dust-tight and materials of construction may be used to allow the handling of materials at temperatures up to 2000 DEG F. A vibrating conveyor consists of a carrying trough, supporting base, drive springs and a drive system. The drive system and springs impart an oscillating motion to the trough which causes the material to move forward in a hopping motion. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Pan Width: Range: 12- 36 INCHES [300 - 900 MM] Spaced bucket centrifugal discharge elevator includes motor, drive and bucket contents discharged by centrifugal motion. For the vertical lifting of free-flowing fine or small lump materials such as coal, sand and dry chemicals. This elevator should not be used for materials that are degraded by breakage or for fluffy materials. This equipment item consists of evenly spaced buckets attached to an endless belt or chain enclosed in a supporting casing. This is called a centrifugal discharge elevator because the contents of the buckets are thrown into the discharge chute by centrifugal force as the bucket rounds the head shaft. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Conveyer Length: Range: 12 - 120 FEET [4 - 36 M] Bucket Width: Range: 6 - 16 INCHES [150 - 400 MM] Conveyer Flow Rate: Range: 16 - 156 TPH [14.5 - 141 TON/H] Product Density: MAX: 100 PCF [1,600 KG/M3]; Default: *50* PCF [*800* KG/M3] CENT BKT L Type

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Conveyors (CO) - continued


Description Continuous bucket elevator, buckets closely spaced with back of preceding bucket serving as gravity discharge chute for dumping bucket. Includes motor and drive. The slower speed and gentler discharge make this type of elevator more suitable for materials which are degraded through breakage, and for fluffy materials. This equipment item is the same as the spaced bucket centrifugal discharge elevator except buckets are closely spaced with the back of the preceding bucket serving as a discharge chute for the bucket with is dumping as it rounds the head shaft. Close bucket spacing allows the same capacity to be achieved as slower elevator speeds. Thus, bucket discharge is by gravity rather than centrifugal force. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Conveyer Length: Range: 12 - 100 FEET [4 - 36 M] Bucket Depth: Range: 8 - 24 INCHES [200 - 600 MM] Conveyer Flow Rate: Range: 40 - 216 TPH [36 - 195 TON/H] Product Density: MAX: 100 PCF [1,600 KG/M3]; Default: *50* PCF [*800* KG/M3] Sanitary horizontal conveyor Material: *SS304*, SS316 Conveyer length: Range: 6 - 20 FEET [1.8 - 6 M] Belt width: Available sizes: 18 INCH [450 MM] 24 INCH [600 MM] 30 INCH [750 MM] 36 INCH [900 MM] Conveyer type: *INSPC*- Inspection type conveyor BIDIR- bi-directional type (reversing belt conveyor) Driver power: Default *1* HP Driver type: *WVRDC*- Washdown, VFD rated, direct drive, CS WVCDC- Washdown, VFD controlled, direct drive, CS S BELTCONV Type CONT BKT L

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Conveyors (CO) - continued


Description Sanitary vertical conveyor Material: *SS304*, SS316 Vertical lift (+) or drop (+): MIN: - 40 FEET [-12.2 M]; MAX: 40 FEET [12.2 M] Difference in elevation between feed and discharge: lift (positive), drop (negative) Belt width: Available sizes: 18 INCH [450 MM] 24 INCH [600 MM] 30 INCH [750 MM] 36 INCH [900 MM] Length of lead-in section: Default and MIN: *2* FEET [.6 M] Length of the conveyor at feed end before lift or drop Length of lead-out section: Default and MIN: *2* FEET [.6 M] Length of the conveyor at discharge end before lift or drop Driver power: Default *1* HP Driver type: *WVRDC*- Washdown, VFD rated, direct drive, CS WVCDC- Washdown, VFD controlled, direct drive, CS Sanitary vibratory conveyor Material: *SS304*, SS316 Conveyer length: Range: 6 - 40 FEET [1.8 - 12.2M] Belt width: Available sizes: 18 INCH [450 MM] 24 INCH [600 MM] 30 INCH [750 MM] 36 INCH [900 MM] Belt support: *NONE*- No belt support will be provided BSUP- Belt support will be provided - Continued on next page S VIBRATRY Type S VERTICAL

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Conveyors (CO) - continued


Description S VIBRATRY - continued Driver power: Default *1* HP Driver type: *WVRDC*- Washdown, VFD rated, direct drive, CS WVCDC- Washdown, VFD controlled, direct drive, CS Number of lane dividers: Default *0*; MAX: 2 Dewatering screen: *NONE*- De-watering screen pair not included DWAT- De-watering screen pair included Pneumatic gate: *NONE*- Full-width pneumatic screen not included PNUM- Full-width pneumatic screen included Discharge type: *NONE*- No discharge exists DROP- Drop-out type discharge BIAS- Bias type discharge Sanitary incline conveyor Material: *SS304*, SS316 Length of incline section: MIN: 2 FEET [.600 M]; MAX: 40 FEET [12.2 M] Belt width: Available sizes: 18 INCH [450 MM] 24 INCH [600 MM] 30 INCH [750 MM] 36 INCH [900 MM] Length of lead-in section: Default and MIN: *2* FEET [.6 M] Length of the conveyor at feed end before lift or drop Length of lead-out section: Default and MIN: *2* FEET [.6 M] Length of the conveyor at discharge end before lift or drop Driver power: Default *1* HP Driver type: *WVRDC*- Washdown, VFD rated, direct drive, CS WVCDC- Washdown, VFD controlled, direct drive, CS S INCLINE Type

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13 Solids Conveying (G10)

Cranes (CE)
Description Type BRIDGE CRN Travelling bridge crane includes trolley, hoists, bridge, bridge rail, end trucks and drivers; not included are building crane supports or travelling rails (see Plant Bulk Steel - Mill Building) to 200 TONS [175 TON]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Crane Capacity: Range: 5 - 200 TONS [5 - 175 TON] Includes hoist trolley and track beam to 30 TONS HOIST [25 TON]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Crane Capacity: Range: 0.5 - 30 TONS [0.5 - 25 TON]

Elevators, Lifts (EL)


Description Freight elevator for lifting personnel, equipment and supplies in process buildings and open steel structures. Capacity to 10 TONS [10 TON] and 200 FEET [60 M] lift. Includes geared motor drive at 150 FPM [2750 M/H]. Elevator Capacity: Range: 2 - 10 TONS [2 - 10 TON] Height: Range: 20 - 200 FEET [7 - 60 M] Elevator for lifting personnel and small tools in process PASSENGER buildings and open steel structures. Capacity to 5 TONS [5 TON] and 200 FEET [60 M] lift. Includes geared variable stage drive at 2 00 FPM [3650 M/H]. Elevator Capacity: Range: 1 - 5 TONS [1 - 5 TON] Height: Range: 20 - 200 FEET [7 - 60 M] Type FREIGHT

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Feeders (FE)
Description Volumetric belt feeder to 4800 CFH [135 M3/H]. Includes motor and drive. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Feeder Rate: Range: 120 - 4,800 CFH [3.5 - 135 M3/H] Bin activator. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Diameter: Range: 3 - 15 FEET [1.0 - 4.5 M] Rotary vane feeder with diameter to 36 INCHES [900 MM]. Includes motor and drive. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Rotary Feeder Diameter: Range: 3 - 36 INCHES [80 - 900 MM] ROTARY BIN ACTVTR Type BELT

The model assumes 40 LBS/CF for capacity related calculations. The model also assumes that each diameter unit has a maximum volumetric capacity. For example, a 4 INCH diameter has 0.013 CF/rev and a 20 INCH diameter has 2.7 CF/rev. The model calculations handle the following two cases: If Rate (LBS/H) and RPM are not specified then: For Dia <= 20, RPM=45 For Dia > 20, RPM=30 Assume 50% fill, so Rate is: CF/Rev*RPM*0.5*(40 LBS/CF)*(60 Min/Hr) If Rate is specified then: RPM = Rate/(40 LBS/CF)/(CF/rev)/(60 Min/Hr) Horsepower is estimated from diameter. For example, a 3 INCH diameter has 0.333 HP and a 30 INCH diameter has 5.0 HP.

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13 Solids Conveying (G10)

Feeders (FE) - continued Description Vibrating feeder. (includes hopper) Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Length: Range: 5 - 14 FEET [1.6 - 4.2 M] Feeder Width: Range: 12 - 72 INCHES [3.5 - 1,800 MM] Loss-in-weight. Gravimetric weigh belt for free-flowing WT LOSS feeding/proportioning of solids. Includes motor and variable speed drive. Material: Default: *CS* Flow Rate: Range: 5 - 2,400 LB/H [2.3 - 1,085 KG/H] Sanitary dumper. Lifts vats, combos, and tubs. Heavy duty stainless steel construction is non-corrosive to withstand rigors of daily washdown. Material of construction is SS316. Dump height: MIN: 3 FEET [0.914 M]; MAX: 17 FEET [5.18 M] for INLIN lift, 14 FEET [4.26 M] for OFF lift. Container type: *55GD*- 55 GALLON [0.2 M3] drum 140GD- 140 GALLON [0.5 M3] drum CTOTE- Corrugated tote WOODC- Wood crate 3642B- SS bin 36 x 42 INCHES [914 x 1066 MM] 4242B- SS bin 42 x 42 INCHES [1066 x 1066 MM] 4842B- SS bin 48 x 42 INCHES [1219 x 1066 MM] 3654B- SS bin 36 x 54 INCHES [914 x 1372 MM] 4254B- SS bin 42 x 54 INCHES [1066 x 1372 MM] 4854B- SS bin 48 x 54 INCHES [1219 x 1372 MM] FBOX- Fiber box 18 x 18 x 36 INCHES [457 x 457 x 914 MM] - Continued on next page DUMPER Type VIBRATING

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Feeders (FE) - continued Description DUMPER - continued Lift type: *INLIN*- Inline hydraulic lift OFF- Offset electric lift Retainer hold down: *MAN*- Manual mechanism AUTO- Automatic mechanism AUTOB- Automatic mechanism and hydraulic box retainer Hydraulic power pack: *NONE*- External hydraulic power pack INCL- Self-contained hydraulic power pack Sanitary bulk bag unloader Sack size: *1,500 LBS [681 KG], MAX: 4,000 LBS [1,814 KG] Discharge type: *GRAV*- Gravity discharge SCREW- Flexible screw conveyor Control type: *MAN*- Manual control LIW- Loss-in-weight control Frame loading type: *FORK*- Fork lift loading HOIST- Electric hoist and trolley Sanitary screw feeder Includes a hopper with a screw feeder to convey dry, fine, or wet solids. The screw feeder is controlled as specified by the user. Material of construction is SS316. Flow rate: Enter mass rate/vol. rate MAX: 5600LB/H [2540KG/H] at 35PCF[560KG/M3] DRY-VOL Volumetric rate: Enter mass rate or vol. rate; MAX varies with density, product and control type. MAX: 160 CFH [4.5 M3/H] SAN SCREW SACK DUMP Type

- Continued on next page -

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Feeders (FE) - continued Description SAN SCREW - continued Product density: *35 |PCF [560 |KG/M3] Product type: *FINE*- Fine powders only DRY- Dry particulates; fine, coarse powders WET- Wet, dry particulates; fine, coarse powder Control type: *VOL*- Volumetric control LIW- Loss-in-weight control Extended auger length: *12 |INCHES [304 MM]*, MIN: 12 |INCHES [304 MM] Enclosure type: *WASH*- Washdown enclosure EXPR- Explosion-proof enclosure Sanitary weigh belt feeder Provides flow control for food and other solid materials not requiring total material containment. Material of construction is SS316. Flow Rate: MAX: 90,000 LB/H [40,800 KG/H] Required: enter rate or width. Feeder Width: Two available widths: 12 INCHES [300 MM], 24 INCHES [600 MM]. Required: enter rate or width. Enclosure type: *CLOSE*- Closed frame unit OPEN- Open frame unit SAN BELT Type

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Hoists (HO)
Description Type 5-speed electric hoist with motor driven trolley. The HOIST trolley suspends the hoist from an I-beam. The hoist is propelled along the I-beam by the motor driven trolley. An electric hoist used for repetitive or high-speed lifting. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Hoist Capacity: Range: 1 - 12 TONS [1 - 10 TON] Single speed electric hoist, no trolley. Used for repetitive or high-speed lifting. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Hoist Capacity: Range: 1 - 14 TONS [1 - 12 TON] 5-speed electric hoist, no trolley. Used for repetitive or 5 SPEED high-speed lifting. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Hoist Capacity: Range: 1 - 13 TONS [1 - 11 TON] HAND GT Hand hoist, geared manual pull-chain driven trolley. For intermittent service, especially maintenance work. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Hoist Capacity: Range: 1 - 12 TONS [1 -10 TON] Hand hoist, manually-pulled trolley. The hoist is moved to a new position on the I-beam by manually pulling the trolley. For intermittent service, especially for maintenance work. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Hoist Capacity: Range: 1 - 12 TONS [1 - 10 TON] HAND PT 1 SPEED

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Hoists (HO) - continued


Description Type Hand hoist, no trolley. The hand hoist without trolley HAND NT is a portable lifting device which is suspended from a hook and operated by a hand chain. For intermittent service, especially for erection and maintenance work. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Capacity: Range: 1 - 18 TONS [1 - 16 TON] Beam scale to 2000 LBS [900 KG]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Scale Capacity: Range: 300 - 2,000 LBS [135 - 900 KG] Conveyor belt scale. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Belt Width: Range: 18 - 72 INCHES [450 - 1,800 MM] Bench, dial, and beam to 3000 LBS [1350 KG]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Scale Capacity: MAX: 3,000 LBS [1,350 KG] Floor, dial, and beam full frame to 8000 LBS [3600 KG]. Floor, dial, and beam full frame to 8000 LBS [3600 KG]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Scale Capacity: MAX: 8,000 LBS [3,600 KG] Floor, dial, and beam semi-frame to 8000 LBS [3600 KG]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Scale Capacity: MAX: 8,000 LBS [3,600 KG] SEMI FRAME FULL FRAME BENCH BELT BEAM SCALE

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Hoists (HO) - continued


Description Tank scale, weigh bridge and saddles 150000 LBS [68000 KG]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Scale Capacity: Range: 10,000 - 150,000 LBS [4,500 - 68,000 KG] Track scale, for weighing rail cars to 300 TONS [265 TON]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Weight Capacity in Tons: Range: 150 - 300 TONS [130 - 265 TON] Truck scale, for weighing trucks/lorries to 60 TONS [54 TON]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Weight Capacity in Tons: Range: 30 - 60 TONS [25 - 54 TON] Sanitary floor scale - flush mounted SAN FLOOR TRUCK TRACK Type TANK SCALE

The sanitary floor scale is a deck provided in a frame, located inside a small pit so that the top of the scale is flush with the floor. Weigh cells and instrumentation in the frame measure the weight and display it on a nearby local panel.
Material of construction is stainless steel. Scale Capacity: MAX: 10,000 LBS [4,500 KG] Platform Size: 3X3- 3x3 FEET [0.9x0.9 M] platform 4X4- 4X4 FEET [1.2x1.2 M] platform 4X5- 4x5 FEET [1.2x1.5 M] platform 4X6- 4x6 FEET [1.2x1.8 M] platform 5X5- 5x5 FEET [1.5x1.5 M] platform 5X7- 5x7 FEET [1.5x2.1 M] platform - Continued on next page -

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Hoists (HO) - continued


Description SAN FLOOR - continued Local digital indicator: *INCL*- Includes logical digital indicator NONE- Remote indicator only Deck surface: *PLAIN*- Glass bead sandbase TREAD- Tread plate Deck lift: *AUTO*- Automatic deck lift NONE- No deck lift Floor installation: *NEW*- No floor alteration necessary EXIST- Alter the existing floor Type

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Scales (S)
Description Beam scale to 2000 LBS [900 KG]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Scale Capacity: Range: 300 - 2,000 LBS [135 - 900 KG] Conveyor belt scale. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Belt Width: Range: 18 - 72 INCHES [450 - 1,800 MM] Bench, dial, and beam to 3000 LBS [1350 KG]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Scale Capacity: MAX: 3,000 LBS [1,350 KG] Floor, dial, and beam full frame to 8000 LBS [3600 KG]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Scale Capacity: MAX: 8,000 LBS [3,600 KG] Floor, dial, and beam semi-frame to 8000 LBS [3600 KG]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Scale Capacity: MAX: 8,000 LBS [3,600 KG] Tank scale, weigh bridge and saddles 150000 LBS [68000 KG]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Scale Capacity: Range: 10,000 - 150,000 LBS [4,500 - 68,000 KG] TANK SCALE SEMI FRAME FULL FRAME BENCH BELT Type BEAM SCALE

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13 Solids Conveying (G10)

Scales (S) - continued


Description Track scale, for weighing rail cars to 300 TONS [265 TON]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Weight Capacity in Tons: Range: 150 - 300 TONS [130 - 265 TON] Truck scale, for weighing trucks/lorries to 60 TONS [54 TON]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Weight Capacity in Tons: Range: 30 - 60 TONS [25 - 54 TON] Sanitary floor scale - flush mounted The sanitary floor scale is a deck provided in a frame, located inside a small pit so that the top of the scale is flush with the floor. Weigh cells and instrumentation in the frame measure the weight and display it on a nearby local panel. Material of construction is stainless steel. Scale Capacity: MAX: 10,000 LBS [4,500 KG] Platform Size: 3X3 - 3x3 FEET [0.9x0.9 M] platform 4X4 - 4X4 FEET [1.2x1.2 M] platform 4X5 - 4x5 FEET [1.2x1.5 M] platform 4X6 - 4x6 FEET [1.2x1.8 M] platform 5X5 - 5x5 FEET [1.5x1.5 M] platform 5X7 - 5x7 FEET [1.5x2.1 M] platform Local digital indicator: *INCL* - Includes logical digital indicator NONE - Remote indicator only Deck surface: *PLAIN* - Glass bead sandblasted TREAD - Tread plate Deck lift: *AUTO* - Automatic deck lift NONE - No deck lift Floor installation: *NEW* - No floor alteration necessary EXIST - Alter the existing floor SAN FLOOR TRUCK Type TRACK

13 Solids Conveying (G10)

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13 Solids Conveying (G10)

14 Separation Equipment

(G7)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Centrifuges (CT) Dust Collectors (DC) Filters (F) Separation Equipment (SE) Thickeners (T) Screens (VS)

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Centrifuges (CT)
Includes motor and drive unit.
Description Atmospheric suspended basket. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Driver Power: Range: 2 - 30 HP [1.5 - 22 KW] Type ATM SUSPEN

Automatic batch filtering centrifuge to 60 INCHES [1520 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel RBLCS- Rubber-lined CS SS316- SS316 HASTC- Hastelloy C Centrifuge diameter: Range: 24 - 60 INCHES [610 - 1,520 MM] Centrifuge capacity: Range: 3 - 30 CF [0.085 - 0.84 M3]

BATCH AUTO

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Centrifuges (CT) - continued.


Description Batch bottom-suspended filtering centrifuge with diameter to 48 INCHES [1210 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel RBLCS- Rubber-lined CS Centrifuge diameter: Range: 20 - 48 INCHES [510 - 1,210 MM] Batch bottom-driven centrifuge, top unloading, explosion-proof motor with diameter to 56 INCHES [1420 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel RBLCS- Rubber-lined carbon steel SS316- SS316 HASTC- Hastelloy C Centrifuge capacity: Range: 2 - 20 CF [0.06 - 0.56 M3] Centrifuge diameter: Range: 18 - 56 INCHES [460 - 1,420 MM] Batch bottom-driven centrifuge, bottom unloading, fixed speed hydraulic driver with diameter to 56 INCHES [1420 MM]. Material: Default: *SS316* Centrifuge diameter: Range: 12 - 56 INCHES [305 - 1,420 MM] Batch top-suspended filtering centrifuge with diameter BATCH TOP to 50 INCHES [1260 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel RBLCS- Rubber-lined carbon steel Centrifuge diameter: Range: 20 - 50 INCHES [510 - 1,260 MM] BOT UNLOAD TOP UNLOAD Type BATCH BOTM

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Centrifuges (CT) - continued


Description High speed disk clarifier centrifuge, stack of rotating conical disks to shorten sedimentation path, batch removal of solids and diameter to 20 INCHES [500 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* Centrifuge diameter: Range: 10 - 20 INCHES [250 - 500 MM] Reciprocating conveyor, with continuous filtering RECIP CONV centrifuge for free-draining granular solids, horizontal bowl, removal by reciprocating piston and diameter to 50 INCHES [1250 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Centrifuge diameter: Range: 15 - 50 INCHES [375 - 1,250 MM] Material: SS (Stainless steel) Centrifuge diameter: Range: 20 - 50 INCHES [500 - 1,250 MM] Scroll conveyor with continuous filtering centrifuge, solids removal by scroll conveyor and diameter to 75 INCHES [1875 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Centrifuge diameter: Range: 15 - 75 INCHES [375 - 1,875 MM Material: SS (Stainless steel) Centrifuge diameter: Range: 15 - 50 INCHES [375 - 1,250 MM] Solid bowl with diameter to 54 INCHES [1370 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS316- SS316 Bowl diameter: Range: 18 - 54 INCHES [460 - 1,370 MM] Dowl length: Range: 28 - 132 INCHES [720 - 3,350 MM] SOLID BOWL SCROLL CON Type DISK

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Centrifuges (CT) - continued


Description Screen bowl with diameter to 54 INCHES [1370 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS316- SS316 Bowl diameter: Range: 18 - 54 INCHES [460 - 1,370 MM] Bowl length: Range: 28 - 132 INCHES [720 - 3,350 MM] High speed tubular sedimentation centrifuge, bottom TUBULAR entry, batch solids removal and diameter to 6 INCHES [150 MM]. The following rates are shown to assist in selecting the proper equipment item, however, rates outside this range may be input. TPH = 110-325, TON/H = 91-263. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Bowl diameter: Range: 4 - 6 INCHES [105 - 150 MM] Continuous filtration vibratory centrifuge with solids VIBRATORY removal by vibratory screen for dewatering of coarse solids with screen diameter to 56 INCHES [1420 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Screen diameter: Range: 48 - 56 INCHES [1,220 - 1,420 MM] Inverting filter centrifuge. Material: Default: *SS316* Centrifuge diameter: Range: 12 - 52 INCHES [305 1,320 MM] Centrifuge capacity: Range: 0.2 - 12 CF [0.0056 0.34 M3] INVERTING Type SCREEN BWL

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Dust Collectors (DC)


Description Centrifugal precipitator includes driver and interconnecting piping with flow rate to 10,000 CFM [16,990 M3]. Material: Default: *CS* Gas flow rate: Range: 500 - 10,000 CFM [850 - 16,990 M3/H] Cloth bay baghouse includes hopper bottom, airlocks CLOTH BAY and electrical motor shakers. Cloth area to 12,000 SF [1,110 M2]. Fabric filters are used for high efficiency 99+%, cleaning of small particles (less than one micron). Fabric filters are an excellent choice where feed conditions may vary because efficiency is unaffected by varying flowrates, particulate loading, or particle size distribution. Baghouses are not a good choice if the gas contains free moisture or if condensation will occur in the baghouse. Baghouses are limited to a maximum temperature of 550 DEG F. Shaker type filters are generally used for: Low CFM Low particulate loading Intermittent operation. Pulse type units are used for: Large CFM High particulate loading Continuous operation. The cloth bay dust collector is commonly called a baghouse or fabric filter. Dust laden gas is ducted into a rectangular (small units may be cylindrical) enclosure. The dirty gas must pass through cloth tubes or bags to get out of the baghouse. Baghouses are characterized by the method used to clean the filter bags. Two options are available - shaker and pulse type cleaning, which are a function of the air-tomedia ratio. - Continued on next page Type CENTRF PRE

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Dust Collectors (DC) - continued


Description CLOTH BAY - continued The air-to-media ratio, also called the air-to-cloth ratio, is the CFM of gas passing through one square foot of filter fabric. Shaker type baghouses are limited to air-to-media ratios of less than 4:1. Dirty gas flows from the inside to the outside of the filter bags in a shaker type unit. In order to remove the collected dust, the flow of dirty gas is stopped and an electric motor shakes the bags. Pulse type units have their filter bags supported over a cylindrical wire cage and dirty gas flows from the outside of the bags to the inside. Pulse type units operate with air-to-cloth ratios from 4:1 to 15:1. Filter bags are cleaned by injecting a pulse of compressed air into the bags being cleaned. The pulse of air expands the bags violently and throws off the dust collected on the bags outside surface. The pulse type baghouse does not have to be taken off-line for cleaning. With both types of baghouse, the dust is collected in hopper bottoms and removed through an airlock. The air-to-media ratio, also called the air-to-cloth ratio, is the CFM of gas passing through one square foot of filter fabric. Shaker type baghouses are limited to air-to-media ratios of less than 4:1. Dirty gas flows from the inside to the outside of the filter bags in a shaker type unit. In order to remove the collected dust, the flow of dirty gas is stopped and an electric motor shakes the bags. Pulse type units have their filter bags supported over a cylindrical wire cage and dirty gas flows from the outside of the bags to the inside. Pulse type units operate with air-to-cloth ratios from 4:1 to 15:1. Filter bags are cleaned by injecting a pulse of compressed air into the bags being cleaned. The pulse of air expands the bags violently and throws off the dust collected on the bags outside surface. The pulse type baghouse does not have to be taken off-line for cleaning. With both types of baghouse, the dust is collected in hopper bottoms and removed through an airlock. Type

- Continued on next page -

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Dust Collectors (DC) - continued


Description CLOTH BAY - continued Today, most filter bags are manufactured from synthetic fibers. The materials in most common use are acrylics, nylon 6, nylon 66, nomex nylon, Teflon, polypropylene and polyesters (e.g., dacron). The baghouses in the system have polyester bags. Polyester has moderate all-around chemical resistance and good strength and abrasion resistance. Polyester may be used at a minimum continuous service temperature of 300 DEG F. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Surface Area: Range: 100 - 12,000 SF [10 - 1,110 M2] Flow rate: Enter surface area, flow rate, or boiler capacity (coalfired boiler aplx. only) Air/media ratio: Range: 1 - 4 CFM/SF [19 - 70 M2/H/M2] Air temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Boiler capacity: Max: 3,400 MMBTU/H [1,000 MEGAW] Baghouse with injected pulsed air Compressor for air pulse injection not included. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Surface Area: Range: 100 - 6,000 SF [10 - 557 M2] Flow Rate: Max: 250,000 CFM [420,000 M3/H] Air/media ratio: Range: 5 - 15 CFM/SF [91 - 270 M3/H/M2] Air temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Boiler capacity: Max: 200 MMBTU/H [60 MEGAW] PULSE SHKR Type

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Description Type

Cyclone for gas/solid separation. Diameter to 60 CYCLONE INCHES [1,500 MM]. Collection efficiency varies with particle size.

From the table above we see that cyclones are a good choice for medium size particles. Cyclones can be fabricated from a wide variety of internals and can also be refractory lined. Therefore cyclones can be used for the removal of particles from corrosive and/or high temperature (1,800 DEG F) gas streams. The cyclone has a cylindrically shaped upper section and long tapering conical lower section. Dirty gas enters the top section through a tangential nozzle. This imparts a swirling motion to the gas. The entrained particles are thrown to the wall of the cyclone by centrifugal force. The particles descend by gravity along the wall to the bottom of the cone where they are discharged. The gas spirals downward to the bottom of the cone then reverses direction and moves upward to the gas exit at the top center of the cyclone. Increasing the diameter of a cyclone increases its capacity but capacity of a single cyclone is limited to about 50,000 CFM. When larger flowrates must be handled several cyclones are arranged in parallel. Material Selection: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Diameter: Range: 3 - 60 INCHES [75 - 1,500 MM] Flow Rate: Range: 70 - 40,000 CFM [120 - 67,900 M2/H] Pressure drop: Default: *2.5* IN-H20 [*625* PA] to *27,000* CFM [*45,870* M3/H]; or *6* IN-H20 [*1,500* PA] Air Temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]

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Dust Collectors (DC) - continued


Description Type Multiple cyclone with flow rate to 20,000 CFM [33,980 MULT CYCLO M3/H]. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Gas flow rate: Range: 900 - 20,000 CFM [1,530 - 33,980 M2/H]

High voltage electrical precipitator


Gas flow rate: Min: 600 CFM [1,020 M3/H] Required: gas flow rate or boiler capacity (for coal-boiler application only) Boiler capacity: Max: 3,400 MMBTU/H [1,000 MEGAW] Required: gas flow rate or boiler capacity (for coalboiler application only) Removal efficiency: Min: 80.0%; Max: 99.99% Required: removal efficiency or particle load (for coalboiler application only) Particle size (microns): Default: *0.600* microns Particle resistance x10E10: Default: *2* OHM-IN [*5* OHM-CM] SO3 Concentration (ppm): Default: *4.50* ppm Low voltage electrical precipitator Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Gas flow rate: Range: 600 - 20,000 CFM [1,020 - 33,980 M3/H] Washer dust collector Material: Default: *CS* Gas flow rate: Range: 600 - 20,000 CFM [1,020 -33,980 M3/H] Air temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]

ELC H VOLT

ELC L VOLT

WASHERS

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14 Separation Equipment (G7)

Filters (F)
Description Cartridge filter to 1,200 GPM [75 L/S] with 5 micron cotton filter. Cartridge filters are generally used as a final filtering element for the removal of small particles, such as pipe scale, down to 10 microns in size from a liquid stream containing a low concentration of these solids. A cartridge filter consists of a tank containing one or more filter elements or cartridges which are tubes of wound natural or synthetic fibers. Liquid flows through the cartridges and the suspended solids are trapped by the fibers. As the filter gets dirtier, pressure drop builds to a point where the cartridges must be replaced. The cartridges are disposable. They are not cleaned and reused. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Liquid flow rate: Range: 30 - 1,200 GPM [1.9 - 75 L/S] Pressure leaf-dry filter with leaf area to 600 SF [55 M2]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS316- SS316 Surface area: Range: 50 -600 SF [4.7 - 55 M2] Pressure leaf-wet filter with leaf area to 600 SF [55 M2]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS316- SS316 Surface area: Range: 50 - 600 SF [4.7 - 55 M2] LEAF WET LEAF DRY Type CARTRIDGE

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Description Type Automatic plate and frame filter with capacity to 50 CF PLATE [1.4 M3]. FRAM Material: Default: *RBLCS* RBLCS- Rubber-line CS PPLCS- Polyprop. lined CS SS316- SS316 Frame capacity: Range: 10 - 50 CF [0.3 - 1.4 M3] Plate size: Range: 36 - 48 INCHES [900 - 1,200 MM]; Default: 48 INCHES [1,2000 MM] Disk Filter. General Features: The filter is a vacuum type (from drop leg), consisting of segmented disks with polypropylene filter bags, suction valve, vat (optional) with stiffeners, discharge trough, drive motor, base plate, rotor and bearing support. The following variations are available. Standard Disk Filter (for general chemical industry) This filter additionally includes a paddle agitator for the vat, worm and gear reducer for filter drum, air blow discharge mechanism and cleaning showers. Thickener (as in pulp and paper mills) includes the general features and in addition, has repulper, flushing pipe, hood with mounting flange, inspection and service doors, knock off and cleaning showers (including nozzles, header, hoses, valves). The filtrate valve (double solution type) and the drive reducer is a helical gear. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS316- SS316 RBLCS- Rubber lined CS EPLCS- Epoxy lined CS Application: Default: *MD RATE* LO RATE- Low filtration rate MD RATE- Medium filtration rate HI RATE- High filtration rate THCKNR- Used as a thickening device - Continued on next page ROTY DISK

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Description ROTY DISK - continued Solid flow rate: Enter solid flow rate or surface area. Surface area: Enter solid flow rate or surface area. Range: 100 - 900 SF [10 - 80 M2] Solids handling rate: Default: 0.30 TPD/SF [0.12 TPH/lM2] Number of disks: Min: 1; Default: *3*. Liquid flow rate: Flowrate of feed stream Consistency Air Dried: Percent of solids in the feed stream. Range: 0.50 - 5.00; Default: *15*. Tank or vat material: Default: *NONE* NONE- No vat will be provided CS- Carbon steel vat SS316- Stainless steel vat Drum Filter. General Features: The filter is a vacuum ROTY DRUM type (from drop leg), multi compartment cylinder shell with internal filtrate piping with polypropylene filter cloth, feed box with inlet and drain nozzles, suction valve, rake-agitated vat (optional) with stiffeners, discharge trough, driver consisting of rotor, drive motor base plate, worm, gear reducer and two pillow block bearing with supports. In addition to the standard filter, the following variations are available. Thickener (as in pulp and paper mills) includes the above general features and, in addition, has repulper, flushing pipe, hood with mounting flange, inspection and service doors, knock off and cleaning showers (including nozzles, header, hoses, valves). The distinguishing features are air-assisted scraper discharge, filtrate valve (double solution type), steel filter cloth and the drive reducer is a helical gear. Brown Stock and Bleach Washers in addition to the thickener features, the washers have multiple showers for washing. Lime Mud Filter and Dregs Washer essentially includes the same general features as the general washer, but with pre-coat for easier filtration. - Continued on next page Type

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Filters (F) - continued


Description ROTY DRUM - continued Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS316- SS316 RBLCS- Rubber lined CS EPLCS- Epoxy lined CS Application: Default: *MD RATE* LO RATE- Low filtration rate MD RATE- Medium filtration rate HI RATE- High filtration rate THCKNR- Used as a thickening device Solid flow rate: Enter solid flow rate or surface area. Surface area: Enter solid flow rate or surface area. Range: 100 - 2,000 SF [10 - 185 M2] Solids handling rate: Default: 0.50 TPD/SF [0.20 TPH/lM2] Number of disks: Min: 1; Default: *3*. Liquid flow rate: Flowrate of feed stream Consistency Air Dried: Percent of solids in the feed stream. Range: 0.50 - 5.00; Default: *20*. Tank or vat material: Default: *NONE* NONE- No vat will be provided CS- Carbon steel vat SS316- Stainless steel vat Scroll discharge centrifugal filter for dewatering fine solids (0 to 28 mesh) or medium coarse solids (.375 INCH [10 MM] to 28 mesh). Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Feed size selection: FINE- Fine solids MEDIUM- Medium solids Sewage filter with area to 600 SF [55 M2]. Material: Default: *CS* Surface area: Range: 100 - 600 SF [10 - 55 M2] SEWAGE SCROLL Type

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Description Type SPARKLER

Sparkler with area to 110 SF [10 M2].


Material: Default: *SS316* SS316- SS316 RBLCS- Rubber lined CS Surface area: Range: 8 - 110 SF [ 0.75 - 10.2 M2] Sparkler volume: Range: 0.5 - 15 CF [0.02 - 0.4 M3] Sparkler diameter: Range: 18 - 33 INCHES [450 - 825 MM]

Tubular fabric filters (bank of three) with automatic or TUBULAR manual cleaning/backwashing. Flow rate to 3400 GPM [210 L/S]. For filtering liquid streams such as cooling tower water and tank car loading lines. The wide selection of filter media available allows particles from 1 micron to 2,000 microns in size to be removed. Because tubular filters can be backwashed, liquid streams with high solids concentrations can be handled. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Liquid flow rate: Range: 100 - 3,400 GPM [6.5 - 210 L/S] Mesh size: Range: 60 - 700 MESH Mode of operation: Automatic cleaning and backwashing option available. Default: *NONE* NONE- No auto operation AUTO- Auto clan/backwash White water filter including centrifugal screening basket, internal showers and distributors. Liquid flow rate: Maximum flow varies: 4750 GPM [300 L/S] at 0.001 consistency, 2500 GPM [157 L/S] at 0.1. Consistency Air Dried: Range: 0.001 to 0.1; Default: 0.1 WHITEWATER

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Filters (F) - continued


Description Compressed gas filter Removes particulates from compressed gas. Supplied with standard 10 micron filter. Design gauge pressure Inlet: Min: 0.25 PSIG [1.75 KPA]; Max: 720 PSIG [4,965 KPA] Specified inlet pressure dictates maximum gas flow rate and pressure drop. Gas flow rate and Pressure Drop: Maximum gas flow rate, which varies with inlet pressure (see chart), is at standard conditions. Design gauge pressure Inlet 150 PSIG [1,033 KPA] 275 PSIG [1,895 KPA 720 PSIG [4,956 KPA] Gas flow rate MAX* 60,000 CFM [103,000 M3/H] 86,500 CFM [146,900 M3/H] 155,000 CFM [263,000 M3/H] Type COMPRSGAS

*at MAX Pressure Drop Temperature: Default: *60* DEG F [*15.5* DEG C]; Max: 100 DEG F [37.5 DEG C]. Maximum gas flow rate is achieved at 60 DEG F. Pressure drop: Range varies with temperature and inlet pressure. The following defaults and MIN/MAX values are applicable only to air at default temperature of 60 DEG F [15.5 DEG C]. For other gases and/or other temperatures, appropriate molecular weight and temperature corrections will be applied to the pressure drop.

Default 0.0175 psi [0.00012 N/mm2] 0.25 psi [0.00172 N/mm2] 0.50 psi [0.00345 N/mm2]

MIN 0.0175 psi [0.00012 N/mm2] 0.25 psi [0.00172 N/mm2] 0.50 psi [0.00345 N/mm2]

MAX 2.0 psi [0.01379 N/mm2] 3.0 psi [0.02068 N/mm2] 5.0 psi [0.03447 N/mm2]

Design gauge pressure Inlet range of 0.25 PSIG [1.75 KPA] - 150 PSIG [1,033 KPA]

Design gauge pressure Inlet range of 150 PSIG [1,033 KPA] - 275 PSIG [1,895 KPA]

Design gauge pressure Inlet range of 275 PSIG [1,895 KPA] - 720 PSIG [4,956 KPA]

Molecular weight: Default gas is air with a molecular weight of 28.96.

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Description Sanitary in-line metal trap Protects against iron contamination and reduces abrasive wear to equipment by trapping particles via gravity and magnetic separating action. Material of construction is SS316. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. Pipe diameter: MIN: 2 INCH [50 MM], MAX: 4 INCH [100 MM]. Standard sizes: INCHMM 250 380 4100 Sanitary fluming reclaim reel Sometimes used with a fluming pump and dewatering shaker. Water from the shaker will be forwarded to the fluming reclaim reel so that the reclaim reel can remove solids that werent removed by the shaker. Fluming rate: MAX: 1,200 GPM [75 L/S] Distribution header: NONE- Not included *INCL*- Included Cover option: *NONE*- Not included INCL- Included Culinary (sterile) air filter Keeps rust and other such matter out of the product. Material of construction is SS316. Air flow rate: Enter actual flow rate or pipe size; MAX: 4340 CFM [7373M3/H] at 100 PSIG [689.4KPA]. Pipe diameter: MIN: 0.5 INCH [15 MM], MAX: 8 INCH [200 MM] Standard sizes: INCHMM 0.515 125 - Continued on next page SAN AIR RECL REEL Type METAL TRAP

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Description SAN AIR - continued 250 380 4100 6150 8200 Design gauge pressure: MIN: 100 PSIG [680 KPA] Number of stages: *1*, MIN: 1, MAX: 3 Sanitary pipe filter Removes fine particles from a given liquid or gas. Material of construction is SS316. Pipe diameter: MIN: 1 INCHES [25 MM], MAX: 4 INCHES [100 MM]. -For size LONG and type INLIN, range is 1.5 IN [40MM] - 3 INCHES [75 MM]. -For type BASKT, MIN is 2 INCHES. Standard sizes: INCHES MM 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 25 40 50 65 (not available for BASKT) 80 SAN PIPE Type

4.0 100 (not available for INLIN) Style: *INLIN*- In-line filter BASKT- Basket filter - for dia. >= 2 INCHES [50 MM] If pipe diameter is 4 INCHES [100 MM], BASKT is the only available type. Otherwise, default is INLIN. Body size: *SHORT*- Short body LONG- Long body

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Description Sanitary filter press Takes in liquid through internal ports located in every frame and the two heads, then passes the liquid through the filter media and into the plates, and finally releases the liquid through the head. Any two must be entered: total area, plate size, number of plates. The third is computed accordingly. Plate material: SS304, *SS316* Total plate area: The maximum total area, entered in square feet (SF) or square meters (M2), depends on the plate type and plate size, and is internally calculated and checked. Plate size: Available sizes of round plates: INCHES MM 12 300 18 450 24 600 Available sizes of square plates: INCHES MM 12 7/8 300 18 7/8 450 24 600 Type SAN PRESS

Flow Diagram

Note:24 INCH (600 MM) plate size available for HYDRL (hydraulic) closure type only.

- Continued on next page -

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Description SAN PRESS - continued Type

Number of plates: The maximum number of plates depends upon the plate size:

Plate Size Square Round 12 INCH [300 MM] 127/8 INCH [300 MM] 18 INCH [450 MM] 187/8 INCH [450 MM] 24 INCH [600 MM] 24 INCH [600 MM]

MAX No. of Plates 15 25 40

Plate thickness: *1 INCH [25 MM]*; MIN: 1 INCH [25 MM]; MAX: 2 INCHES [50 MM]. These (i.e., the MIN and the MAX values) are the only standard plate thicknesses available. Head and stand material: CS- Carbon steel *SS*- Stainless steel Plate type: *ROUND*- Round plates SQUAR- Square plates Feed pump type: *PD *- Positive displacement pump CNTRF- Centrifugal pump NONE- No feed pump included Hydraulic closure: *HYDRL*-Hydraulic closure MANUL-Manual closure (not available for 24 INCH [600 MM] plate size)

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Description Culinary (sterile) steam filter Used primarily for cleaning factory or plant steam to reduce the levels of boiler feed chemicals, rust, pipe scale, and other contaminates. Material of construction is SS316. Flow rate: MIN: 215.0 LB/H [97.5 KG/H]; MAX: 36,100 LB/H [16,375 KG/H]. The Minimum/maximum flow rates are computed and depend upon the steam pressure. Those given above are at the default steam pressure of 100 PSIG [680 KPA]. Enter either flow rate or pipe diameter. Pipe diameter: MIN: 0.75 INCHES [20 MM]; MAX: 8 INCHES [200 MM]. Standard sizes are shown under Filter diameter. Enter either flow rate or pipe diameter. Body Diameter: Determined by Pipe Diameter. Type SAN STEAM

Pipe diameter Inch-Pound 0.75 INCHES 1 INCHES 2 INCHES 3 INCHES 4 INCHES 6 INCHES 8 INCHES Metric 20 MM 25 MM 50 MM 80 MM 100 MM 150 MM 200 MM

Filter body diameter Inch-Pound 1.5 INCHES 2.5 INCHES 4 INCHES 8.6 INCHES 10.7 INCHES 12.8 INCHES 16 INCHES Metric 38.1 MM 63.5 MM 101.6 MM 218.44 MM 271.78 MM 325.12 MM 406.4 MM

Body length: If pipe diameter is entered, system selects a filter body length from the above table. If user enters a length, it is printed, but the underlying design value is still provided by the table. Steam pressure-gauge: *100 PSIG [680 KPA]*

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Filters (F) - continued


Description Sanitary pipe strainer Removes large particles as a process stream passes through the strainers perforated plate or screen mesh. Material of construction is SS316. Pipe diameter: MIN: 1 INCH [25 MM], MAX: 4 INCHES [100 MM], with the following exceptions: -For BASKT style, MIN is 2 INCHES [50 MM]. -For size LONG and INLIN style, MAX is 3 INCHES [80MM]. Standard sizes: INCHMM 125 1.540 250 2.5*65* 380 4100 *BASKT style is not available in this size Style: *INLIN*- In-line filter BASKT- Basket filter - for dia. >= 2 INCHES [50 MM]. Not available for 2.5 IN [65 MM] pipe diameter. Note: for pipe diameter of 4 INCHES [100 MM], BASKT is the only available style; otherwise, the default style is INLIN. Body size: *SHORT*- Short body LONG - Long body Configuration: *SINGL*- Single filter TWIN- Twin filters Type SAN STRAIN

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14 Separation Equipment (G7)

Separation Equipment (SE)


Description Type Centrifugal cleaners/wet cyclones used for removal of PULP STOCK contaminants in fluids using centrifugal force. Includes the body, supporting legs, two reject valves per cyclone, reject chamber/grit pot, automatic or manual control of rejected materials and a header for multiple cyclones. Separate material specifications are allowed for the top and conical section. Sizing and scaling features allow contaminants to be separated by size and density/type. Linear or radial configurations are available. Main section material: Default: *SS316* SS316- SS316 316L- 316 L CS- Carbon steel CERML- Light ceramic liner on CS CERMM- Medium ceramic liner on CS CERMH- Heavy ceramic liner on CS CERMV- Very heavy ceramic liner on CS ABRPL- Abrasion resistant plate REPRB- Replaceable rubber liner on CS LS304- Replaceable SS304 on CS LS316- Replaceable SS316 on CS Cyclone diameter: Enter diameter or liquid flow rate. Range: 4 - 30 INCHES [100 - 750 MM] Liquid flow rate: Enter diameter or liquid flow rate. Application: Default: *AUTO* AUTO- Automatic cleaner discharge MANL- Manual cleaner discharge Configuration: Default: *LIN* LIN- Linear manifold RAD- Radial manifold Number of cyclones per manifold: Default: *1* Cone section material: Default: *SS316* SS316- SS316 316L- 316 L CS- Carbon steel - Continued on next page -

14 Separation Equipment (G7)

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Separation Equipment (SE) - continued


Description PULP STOCK - continued CERML- Light ceramic liner on CS CERMM- Medium ceramic liner on CS CERMH- Heavy ceramic liner on CS CERMV- Very heavy ceramic liner on CS CERMC- Ceramic ABRPL- Abrasion resistant plate REPRB- Replaceable rubber liner on CS LS304- Replaceable SS304 on CS LS316- Replaceable SS316 on CS Containment size: Default: *MEDIUM* SMALL- Small debris, less then 40 microns MEDIUM- Medium debris, 40 - 400 microns LARGE - Large debris, 400 - 4000 microns Containment density: Default: *MEDIUM* LIGHT - Light weight debris: asphalt, sand, ink MEDIUM- Medium weight debris: clay, heavy sand HEAVY- Heavy weight debris: metal clips, foil VHEAVY- Very heavy debris: nuts, bolts, rock Water-only cyclones for separation of light and heavy minerals or particle size separation. Cyclones may be linear or radial manifold and may be lined with replaceable liners. Cyclone diameter to 30 INCHES [760 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel CERML- Light ceramic liner CERMM- Medium ceramic liner CERMH- Heavy ceramic liner CERMV- Very heavy ceramic liner ABRPL- Abrasive resistant plate REPRB- Replaceable rubber lining LS304- Replaceable SS304 lining LS316- Replaceable SS316 lining Cyclone diameter: Diameter is for individual cyclone, group manifolding linear or radial. Range: 4 - 30 INCHES [105 - 760 MM] Configuration: Default: *LIN* LIN- Linear manifold RAD- Radial manifold WATER CYCL Type

14-24

14 Separation Equipment (G7)

Separation Equipment (SE) - continued


Description Type OIL WATER

Oil-water separator - API type.


Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Liquid flow rate: Maximum flow (see Configuration) less Specific Gravity increase. For example, for BOX 135 GPM [8.5 L/S] at 0.965. Min: 25 GPM [16 L/S] Diameter or width: Range: 4 - 8 FEET [1.22 - 2.40 M] Length: Range: 20 - 40 FEET [6.1 - 12.0 M] Configuration: Default: *BOX* RND- Round- max flow 545 GPM [34 L/S] at 0.85 SG BOX- Box - max flow 700 GPM [44 L/S] at 0.85 SG Oil specific gravity: Range 0.85 - 0.97; Default: *0.92*

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Thickeners (T)
Description Type Thickeners are used in many solid/liquid separation THICKENER processes and consist of a slow-moving rake mechanism rotating in a tank. The unit includes feed well, bridge, drive head (with optional overload alarm system), and a drive consisting of worm, gear and motor. An optional flocculator mechanism with flocculation chamber, paddles and flocculator drive with reduction gear and motor can be included. Additional storage capacity for the tank can be specified for special applications such as green liquor clarification, white liquor clarification or lime mud washing; as used in paper mill operations. If only a thickener mechanism is needed, the tank can be excluded. Application: Default: *STANDARD* STANDARD- Standard thickener/clarifier PRM-ETP- Primary clarifier usually for effluent SEC-ETP- Secondary clarifier usually for effluent GRN-LQ- Green liquor clarifier for pulp/paper WHITE-LQ- White liquor clarifier for pulp/paper LIMMUD- Lime mud washer for pulp and paper mills Rake and mechanism material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 MONEL- Monel RUBCV- Rubber covered CS Tank or vat material: Tank material required to obtain tank cost, leave blank for thickener mechanism only. CS- Carbon steel SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 MONEL- Monel RUBCV- Rubber covered CS Vessel diameter: Enter tank capacity or tank dimensions. Range: 9.5 - 400 FEET [3.0 - 12.0 M] Vessel height: Enter tank capacity or tank dimensions. Liquid volume: Enter tank capacity or tank dimensions. - Continued on next page -

14-26

14 Separation Equipment (G7)

Thickeners (T) - continued


Description THICKENER - continued Additional capacity: Extra storage in addition to basic tank capability. Default: *0.0* GALLONS [*0.0 M3]. Flocculator required: Default: *NO* NO- No flocculation required YES- Flocculator mechanism required Bridge type: Default: *FULL* FULL- Full length bridge 100 FEET [30 M] maximum SEMI- Semi-bridge for 100 FEET [30 M] diameter TRCTN- Traction type clarifier on semi-bridge Drive heat type: Default: *DH-STD* DH-STD- Standard drive head to 30 FEET [9 M] diameter DH-HD- Heavy duty drive - large diameter, thick sludge DH-HDA- Heavy duty, overload alarm, lifting device Design temperature: Default: 190 DEG F [88 DEG C] for green liquor; else 68 DEG F [20 DEG C]. Operating temperature: Default: Design temperature. Allowance for internals: Specify an allowance for internals as a percent of basic mechanism weight. Default: *0.0* Base material thickness: Base material thickness including corrosion allowance. Corrosion allowance: Default: 0.125 INCHES [3 MM] for CS, 0.0 for other materials. Number of manholes: Default: *1* Manhole diameter: Max: 480 INCHES [1,200 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM]. Type

14 Separation Equipment (G7)

14-27

Screens (VS)
Rectangular, circular.
Description Rectangular single deck, open or enclosed. Rectangular double deck, open or enclosed. Rectangular triple deck, open or enclosed. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Length: Range: 6 - 24 FEET [2.0 - 7.25 M] Width: Range: 3 - 8 FEET [1.0 - 2.25 M] Configuration: Default: *OPEN* OPEN- No duct enclosure Circular single deck. Circular double deck. Circular triple deck. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 Screen diameter: Range: 18 - 60 INCHES [450 - 1,5000 MM] Surface area: Range: 1.5 - 18 SF [0.2 - 1.7 M2] Rectangular hummer-type for fine separation; 1, 2 or 3 decks. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Surface area: Range: 10 - 80 SF [1.0 - 7.4 M2] Number of decks: Range: 1 - 3 HUMMER SIFTER 1 SIFTER 2 SIFTER 3 Type ONE DECK TWO DECK THREE DECK

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14 Separation Equipment (G7)

Screens (VS) - continued


Description Type LD STOCK Low consistency bow screen is used for fiber collection in a paper mill. The unit consists of a screen surface mounted on a frame curvilinear in shape, with inlet nozzle, discharge nozzle(s) and a collection chamber. The automatic feature includes solenoids, timers and an air cylinder for back-flushing and cleaning. Screen material: Default: *SS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Liquid flow rate: Enter capacity or screen surface area. Surface area: Enter capacity or screen surface area. Frame material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Consistency Air Dried: Percent of solids in the feed stream. 0.60 - 2.00; Default: *0.80* Mechanical bar screens are the first stage of screening BAR used in an effluent treatment system. These are wide mesh screens made from metal rods/flats welded onto a frame. Screen material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Liquid flow rate: Enter capacity or screen surface area. Surface area: Enter capacity or screen surface area. Pressure screen used for fine screening of contaminants in a paper mill. Includes shell for screen basket housing, rotor, foil blades, water lubricated packing box with packing seals, V-belt drive with belts, metal guard and motor.

PRESSURE

- Continued on next page -

14 Separation Equipment (G7)

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Screens (VS) - continued


Description Type

PRESSURE - continued
Basket material: Default: *SS316* CS- Carbon steel SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 Shell material: Default: *SS316* CS- Carbon steel SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 Hydraulic capacity: Enter capacity or diameter and length. Basket diameter: Enter capacity or diameter and length. Min: 60 INCHES [150 MM] Basket height: Enter capacity or diameter and length. Min: 60 INCHES [150 MM] Driver power: Max: 3,6000 RPM; Default: *1,800* RPM Design gauge power: Default: *15* PSIG [*150* MM] Seal type: Default: *MECH* PACK- Packing MECH- Mechanical seal Sanitary fluming dewatering shaker Vibratory conveyor with screen for dewatering fruits and vegetables that have been carried by watertransport up to this point in the food pumping system. The spreader (which is included by default, but can be excluded by selecting NONE in the Spreader option field) reduces the velocity of the water by spreading the water and product onto the dewatering shaker. Material of construction is stainless steel. If you require a foundation for this item, it must be added. - Continued on next page SHAKER

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14 Separation Equipment (G7)

Screens (VS) - continued


Description SHAKER - continued Screen size: 24X60- 2x24 INCHES [609 MM] x 30 INCHES [762 MM] screens 36X60- 2x36 INCHES [914 MM] x 30 INCHES [762 MM] screens Required to enter at least one of the following: size, fluming rate or solids capacity. Fluming rate: MAX: 500 GPM [31 L/S] Required to enter at least one of the following: size, fluming rate or solids capacity. Solids capacity: MAX: 30,000 LB/H [13,500 KG/H] Required to enter at least one of the following: size, fluming rate or solids capacity. Spreader option: NONE- Not included *INCL*- included Type

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14 Separation Equipment (G7)

15 Utility Service Systems

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Cooling Towers (CTW) Steam Boilers (STB) Heating Units (HU) Refrigeration Units (RU) Electrical Generators (EG) Water Treatment Systems (WTS)

15 Utility Service Systems (G6)

15-1

Cooling Towers (CTW)


Description Type Cooling tower includes fans, drivers, concrete basin COOLING and field erection; does not include pumps and piping. Water flow rate: Min: 1,000 GPM [65 L/S] Temperature range: 10 - 50 DEG F [6 - 27 DEG C]; Default: *15* DEG F [*8* DEG C] Approach gradient: Range: 5 - 22 DEG F [3 - 12 DEG C]; Default: *10* DEG F [*5* DEG C] Wet bulb temperature: Range: 60 - 82 DEG F [16 - 28 DEG C]; Default: *75* DEG F [*24* DEG C] Length each header: Default: *0* FEET [*0* M]

15-2

15 Utility Service Systems (G6)

Cooling Towers (CTW) - continued


Description Cooling tower includes fans, drivers, concrete basin, two cooling water pumps, motor drivers, instrumentation for tower and inhibition system (less tanks and inhibition pumps), and field erection of cooling tower. Water flow rate: Min: 1,000 GPM [65 L/S] Temperature range: Range: 10 - 50 DEG F [6 - 27 DEG C]; Default: *15* DEG F [*8* DEG C] Approach gradient: Range: 5 - 22 DEG F [3 - 12 DEG C]; Default: *10* DEG F [*5* DEG C] Wet bulb temperature: Range: 60 - 82 DEG F [16 - 28 DEG C]; Default: *75* DEG F [*24* DEG C] Length each header: Default: *0* FEET [*0* M] Factory assembled cooling tower including fans, drivers and basins. Water flow rate: Range: 150 - 6,000 GPM [9.5 - 375 L/S] Temperature range: Range: 5 - 50 DEG F [3 - 27 DEG C]; Default: *15* DEC F [*8* DEG C] Approach gradient: Range: 5 - 22 DEG F [3 - 12 DEC C]; Default: *10* DEG F [*5* DEG C] Wet bulb temperature: Range: 60 - 82 DEG F [16 - 28 DEG C]; Default: *75* DEG F [*24* DEG C] Number of cells: Default: *1* PACKAGED Type COOLING WP

15 Utility Service Systems (G6)

15-3

Steam Boilers (STB)


Description Type Packaged boiler unit includes forced draft fans, BOILER instruments, controls, burners, soot-blowers, feedwater deaerator, chemical injection system, steam drum, mud drum and stack. Steam capacity to 800,000 LB/H [362,000 KG/H]. Shop assembled. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Boiler flow rate: Range: 10,000 - 800,000 LB/H [4,540 - 362,000 KG/H] Steam gauge pressure: Range: 250 - 600 PSIG [1,725 - 4130 KPA]; Default: *250* PSIG [*1,725* KPA] Superheat: For saturated steam enter 0.0 degrees, else, minimum superheat 100 DEG F [55 DEG C]. Max: 300 DEG F [165 DEG C]; Default: *100* DEG F [*55* DEG C] Heating medium: GAS- Gas fuel OIL- Oil fuel Field erected boiler unit includes forced draft fans, STM BOILER instruments, controls, burners, soot-blowers, feedwater deaerator, chemical injection system, structural steel platforms, steam drum, mud drum and stack with steam capacity to 2,220,000 LB/H [997,000 KG/H]. Oil fired. Economizer for large capacities. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Boiler flow rate: Range: 40,000 - 2,200,000 LB/H [18,2000 - 997,000 KG/H] Steam gauge pressure: Max: 1,000 PSIG [6,890 KPA]; Default: *400* PSIG [*2,700* KPA] Superheat: Max: 300 DEG F [165 DEG C]; Default: *100* DEG F [*55* DEG C]

15-4

15 Utility Service Systems (G6)

Heating Units (HU)


Description Process heater type dowtherm unit to 40 MMBTU/H [11.5 MEGAW]. Material: Default: *CS* Duty: Max: 40 MMBTU/H [11.5 MEGAW] Design gauge pressure: Max: 6,000 PSIG [40,000 KPA]; Default: *500* PSIG [*3,500* KPA] Design temperature: Max: 1,500 DEG F [815 DEG C]; Default: *750* DEG F [*400* DEG C] Type CYLINDER

15 Utility Service Systems (G6)

15-5

Refrigeration Units (RU)


Description Type Centrifugal compression refrigeration unit produces CENT COMPR chilled water cooling medium for circulation. Includes centrifugal compressor, driver, condenser, controls, interconnecting piping, refrigeration capacity to 3,000 TONS [10,500 KW] and field erection. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Refrigeration capacity: Range: 50 - 3,000 TONS-REF [180 - 10,500 KW] Evaporator temperature: Range: -40 - 40 DEG F [-40 - 5 DEG C] Mechanical compression refrigeration unit produces liquified refrigerant for circulation. Includes reciprocating compressor, driver, water cooled condenser, controls, interconnecting piping, refrigeration capacity to 500 TONS [1,750 KW] and field erection. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Refrigeration capacity: Range: 4 - 500 TONS-REF [15 - 1,750 KW] Evaporator temperature: Range: -80 - 40 DEG F [-60 - 5 DEG C] MECHANICAL

15-6

15 Utility Service Systems (G6)

Electrical Generators (EG)


Description Portable stand-by diesel generator, skid-mounted to 800 KW. Used primarily as a stand-by unit to supply electrical power in the event of an interruption of the main power supply. Diesel generator sets can also be operated continuously. Includes a voltage regulator3 phase sensing with volts-per-hertz; auto start-stop module; electric hourmeter; and voltmeter. Also used as a standby for continual electrical service during the interruption of normal power. Fuel stop power in accordance with ISO 3046/1, DIN 6271, BS 5514, and ISO 8528. Ratings are based on SAE J1349 standard conditions. These ratings also apply at ISO 3046/1, DIN 6271 and BS 5514 standard conditions. No generator set duration required below 55 DEG C (131 DEG F). Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Output KW: Range: 10 - 800 KW Turbo-generator includes condensing steam turbine and cooled electric generator. Steam at 850 PSIG [5,860 KPA] and 900 DEG F [482 DEG C], exhaust at 2.5 in HG [8.4 KPA] and capacity to 100,000 KVA. Used for the continuous generation of electrical power. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Output KVA: Range: for steam, 800 - 100,000 KVA; for gas, 800 - 260,000 KVA. Driver type: *Steam*, Gas. TURBO GEN Type PORTABLE

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Water Treatment Systems (WTS)


Description Demineralizing system. Two-stage ion exchange unit. First stage converts metal salts to acid and second stage anion exchange removes acids. Optional automatic degasification of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Water flow rate: Range: 150 - 15,000 GPH [0.6 - 56.5 M3/H] Mode of operation: Default: *NONE* NONE- No auto operation AUTO- Auto degas CO2 + O2 Softening treatment system for boiler feedwater consists of hot lime process softener, filters, Zeolite softeners, associated piping and instruments. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Water flow rate: 10,000 - 50,000 GPH [38 - 189 M3/H] Aerators are used in aeration of effluent. The unit AERATOR consists of a drive motor, coupling, guard, rotor shaft and impeller. Other features vary depending upon the type as given below: High Speed Floating general aerator with pontoons. Low Speed Floating in addition to the gear box for speed reduction, pontoons are included for floating. Low Speed Fixed speed reduction by means of gear box. Material: *CS*- Carbon steel316L- 316L SS304- SS304NI- Nickel SS316- SS316INCNL- Inconel SS321- SS321MONEL- Monel SS347- SS347HAST- Hastelloy 304L- 304LTI- Titanium - Continued on next page SOFTENING Type DEMINERAL

15-8

15 Utility Service Systems (G6)

Water Treatment Systems (WTS) - continued


Description AERATOR - continued Aerator type: Default: *LSFIELD* LSFIXED- Low speed fixed aerator LSFLOT- Low speed floating type aerator HSFLOT- High speed floating type aerator Aeration capacity: Capacity is mass of O2 per hour. Enter capacity or impeller diameter and power. Impeller diameter: Enter capacity or impeller diameter and driver power. Driver power: Enter capacity or impeller and driver power; Range: 1.0 - 150.0 HP [0.75 - 112 KW] Driver speed: Max: 3,600 RPM; Default: *1,800* RPM Number of pontoons: Default: 3 for LSFLOT, 1 for HSFLOT, and none for LSFIXED. Type

15 Utility Service Systems (G6)

15-9

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15 Utility Service Systems (G6)

16 Flares and Stacks

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Flares (FLR) Stacks (STK)

16 Flares and Stacks (G6)

16-1

Flares (FLR)
A flare system is composed of several parts: a flare tip, a seal, an ignition system, a knock-out drum and a riser stack. The flare tip may be either smokeless or non-smokeless. Smokeless flare tips have nozzles for injecting steam at the exit of the tip. The high velocity steam inspirates air into the flame resulting in more complete combustion and therefore no smoke. Non-smokeless flare tips do not have these steam injection nozzles. Flares are also classified as continuous and emergency. Continuous flares handle a continuous and steady flow of flare gas. Emergency flares are designed to safely burn a sudden large release of combustible gases that are not normally vented. Continuous flares are normally smokeless and emergency flares non-smokeless. The flare seal is a device for preventing air from diffusing down the stack and creating a combustible mixture with the flare gas inside the stack. Flare gas is ignited at the exit of the flare tip by one or more pilots. Should any of these pilots go out, the ignition system would reignite them. The flare vendor would supply all of the above components for a new installation. The vendor may also be requested to supply a knock-out drum. This device disengages entrained liquid from the flare gas. If this liquid is not removed, it travels up the stack, is ignited and falls flaming to the ground creating a fire hazard. If the flare is elevated, the final component of the flare system is the riser stack. The stack is characterized by its method. A ground flare requires no stack. The diameter of the flare tip and the height of the stack that supports it (if it is an elevated flare) is calculated using formulas that take into account process conditions and safety considerations. The diameter of the flare tip is calculated using the following formula: D = sqrt(w/adfv) where sqrt indicates the square root and: D = tip diameter of the flare: INCHES [MM] w = mass flowrate of the flare gas: LB/H [KG/H] f = exit velocity / sonic velocity of the flare gas d = density of the flare gas: PFC [KG/M3] v = sonic velocity of the flare gas, calculated using sqrt(cT/M): FPS [M/S] M = molecular weight of the flare gas T = absolute temperature of the flare gas: DEG R [DEG K] P = absolute pressure of the flare gas: (14.7 + PSIG) [101.3 + KPA] a = 19.6 in I-P units = 0.0027123 in METRIC units. R = 10.73 in I-P units = 8.3145 in METRIC units c = 59682 in I-P units = 107427 in METRIC units
The total height of the stack is calculated using the following formula:

H = Y - 40D

16-2

16 Flares and Stacks (G6)

where: H = stack height, including flare type: FEET [M] D = flare tip diameter: FEET [M] and:
Y = sqrt [(EQwk/4 q)-x2]

where: E = emissivity of the flame (see formula on page 16-4) Q = heat content of the flare gas: BTU/LB [KG/KG] w = mass flowrate of the flare gas: LB/H [KG/H] k = 1.0 in I-P units, 0.8306 in METRIC units q = allowable radiation intensity: BTU/SF/ H [W/M2] x = radius of allowable radiation intensity (see formula on page 16-4): FEET [M] For flare types GUYED and DERRICK, and for self-supported stacks (SELFSUPP) 40 FEET [12 M] or less in height, the length of the bottom section (L) is the total stack height. For self-supported stacks greater than 40 FEET [12 M] in height, the length of the bottom section is determined from a consideration of the load requirements. Emissivity of the flame: E = (0.048)sqrt (M) where: sqrt = square root E = emmissivity of the flame M = molecular weight of the flare gas Radius of allowable radiation intensity:
X = (c)sqrt(QW/105)

where: X = radius of allowable radiation intensity: FEET [M] Q = heat content of flare gas: BTU/LB [KJ/KG] W = mass flowrate of flare gas: LB/H [KG/H] c = 0.58 in I-P units, 0.5647 in METRIC units

16 Flares and Stacks (G6)

16-3

The diameter and thickness of the flare stack is determined by structural considerations such as loadings and method of support. Description Type

Derrick-supported flare stack includes stack, support DERRICK structure, flare tip, molecular seal and ignition system. Design based upon process conditions or given sizes. Derricks are used to support tall stacks. Generally, derrick supported flare stacks are cheaper than selfsupporting stacks at heights above 200 FEET [60 M]. Derricks are used instead of guyed stacks when land is limited.
Shell material:

Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Gas mass flow rate: Enter either mass flow rate or diameter and length (height) of flare. Diameter Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Height Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Diameter Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Height Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Diameter Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] - Continued on next page -

16-4

16 Flares and Stacks (G6)

Flares (FLR) - continued


Description DERRICK - continued Height Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Gas temperature: Default: *100* DEG F [*40* DEG C] Molecular weight: Default: *40* Thickness Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Thickness Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Thickness Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Percent sonic velocity at exit: Enter the gas exit velocity as a percent of sonic velocity. Default: *20* Flare type: Default: *SMOKELESS* SMOKELESS- Standard smokeless flare AIR ASSIST- Air assisted smokeless flare NONSMOKE- Non-smokeless flare Radius radiation intensity: Minimum radius at which a person would be exposed to the allowable radiation. Allowable radiation intensity: Allowable radiation intensity at the specified minimum radius. Default: *1,500* BTU/H/SF [4,500 W/M2] Gas heat content: Default: *20,000* BTU/LB [*46,500* KJ/KG] Guyed flare stack includes stack, supports, flare tip, GUYED molecular seal and ignition system. Design based upon process conditions or given sizes. This is generally the least expensive support system for flare stacks over 50 FEET tall. However, a large unobstructed area around the stack must be provided so that there will be no interference with the guy wire. Shell material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel - Continued on next page Type

16 Flares and Stacks (G6)

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Flares (FLR) - continued


Description GUYED - continued Gas mass flow rate: Enter either mass flow rate or diameter and length (height) of flare. Diameter Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Height Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Diameter Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Height Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Diameter Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Height Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Gas temperature: Default: *100* DEG F [*40* DEG C] Molecular weight: Default: *40* Thickness Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Thickness Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Thickness Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Percent sonic velocity at exit: Enter gas exit velocity as a percent of sonic velocity. Default: *20*. Flare type: Default: *SMOKELESS* SMOKELESS- Standard smokeless flare AIR ASSIST- Air assisted smokeless flare NONSMOKE- Non-smokeless flare Radius radiation intensity: Minimum radius at which a person would be exposed to the allowable radiation. Allowable radiation intensity: Allowable radiation intensity at the specified minimum radius. Default: *1,500* BTU/H/SF [*4,500* W/M2] Gas heat content: Default: *20,000* BTU/LB [*46,500* KJ/KG] Type

16-6

16 Flares and Stacks (G6)

Flares (FLR) - continued


Description Self-supported flare stack includes stack, flare tip, molecular seal and ignition system; one, two or three segments of different length and diameter. This flare is generally used for stack heights up to 50 FEET and when the availability of land does not permit guyed stacks, self-supporting stacks are cheaper than derrick supported stacks for stack heights up to 200 FEET [60 M]. Shell material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Gas mass flow rate: Enter either mass flow rate or diameter and length (height) of flare. Diameter Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Height Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Diameter Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Height Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Diameter Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Height Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Gas temperature: Default: *100* DEG F [*40* DEG C] Molecular weight: Default: *40* Thickness Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Thickness Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Thickness Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Percent sonic velocity at exit: Enter gas exit velocity as a percent of sonic velocity. Default: *20*. - Continued on next page Type SELF SUPP

16 Flares and Stacks (G6)

16-7

Flares (FLR) - continued


Description SELF SUPP - continued Flare type: Default: *SMOKELESS* SMOKELESS- Standard smokeless flare AIR ASSIST- Air assisted smokeless flare NONSMOKE- Non-smokeless flare Radius radiation intensity: Minimum radius at which a person would be exposed to the allowable radiation. Allowable radiation intensity: Allowable radiation intensity at the specified minimum radius. Default: *1,500* BTU/H/SF [*4,500* W/M2] Gas heat content: Default: *20,000* BTU/LB [*46,500* KJ/KG] Horizontal ground flare includes flare tip and horizontal HORIZONTAL stack (30 FEET [10 M]) only; burn pit not included. Design based upon process conditions or sizes. This is an inexpensive flaring arrangement if land is plentiful and cheap. Shell material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Gas mass flow rate: Enter either mass flow rate or diameter and length (height) of flare. Diameter Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Length Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Diameter Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Length Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Diameter Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Max: 96 INCHES [2,400 MM] Type

- Continued on next page -

16-8

16 Flares and Stacks (G6)

Flares (FLR) - continued


Description HORIZONTAL - continued Length Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Gas temperature: Default: *100* DEG F [*40* DEG C] Molecular weight: Default: *40* Thickness Bottom section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Thickness Middle section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Thickness Top section: For single diameter stacks, enter dimensions in bottom section data. Percent sonic velocity at exit: Enter gas exit velocity as a percent of sonic velocity. Default: *20*. Flare type: Default: *SMOKELESS* SMOKELESS- Standard smokeless flare AIR ASSIST- Air assisted smokeless flare NONSMOKE- Non-smokeless flare Radius radiation intensity: Minimum radius at which a person would be exposed to the allowable radiation. Allowable radiation intensity: Allowable radiation intensity at the specified minimum radius. Default: *1,500* BTU/H/SF [*4,500* W/M2] Gas heat content: Default: *20,000* BTU/LB [*46,500* KJ/KG] Recuperative thermal oxidizer for low concentration non-chlorinated waste gas. Material: Default: *CS* (Carbon steel) Standard gas load rate: Low concentration non-chlorinated waste gas; burner, box, stack, exchanger blower. Max: 20,000 CFM Gas heat content: Default: *13.00* BTU/CF [*484* KJ/M3] Gas oxygen content: Min: 0.0; Default: *14.00* THRM OX LC Type

16 Flares and Stacks (G6)

16-9

Flares (FLR) - continued


Description Vapor control flare for storage and loading. Includes stack, burners, seal drum, flare, sensors, etc. Material: Default: *CS* Standard gas load rate: Max: 12,000 GPM [775 L/S] Gas heat content: Min: 50 BTU/CF [1,860 KJ/M3]; Default: *50* BTU/CF [1860 KJ/M3] Type STORAGE

Stacks (STK)
Description Stack height to 200 FEET [60 M] and diameter to 60 INCHES [1500 MM]. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel Height: Range: 30 - 200 FEET [10 - 60 M] Diameter: Range: 24 - 60 INCHES [600 - 1,500 MM] Type STACK

16-10

16 Flares and Stacks (G6)

17 Introduction to Plant Bulks


(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction to Plant Bulks List of Plant Bulks

17 Introduction to Plant Bulks (G6)

17-1

Introduction to Plant Bulks


Plant bulk items are those materials or non-process equipment items that provide support or services to process equipment within a unit area, such as yard pipe and duct, concrete tanks, pipe rack, instrument panels, electrical cable trays, insulation and paint.

List of Plant Bulks


The following is a list of plant bulks by chapter. The plant bulk descriptions in Chapters 18 through 24 include some of the entry fields for defining plant bulks. The descriptions include the minimum and maximum values and the defaults. Default values appear between asterisks (*).

17-2

17 Introduction to Plant Bulks (G6)

Chapter 18: Piping


YARD PIPE PIPE UTIL PIPE RCON PIPE DUCT RD DUCT SQ EQPT TRACE PIPE TRACE LAUNDER SQ LAUNDER RD COAT WRAP HOT TAP SCRAPER LR WELL HEAD HDPE SPRNK FOAM SPHOS WSHWR FLO PANEL Above grade or buried yard piping Above grade or buried piping Utility pipe and utility stations Buried concrete pipe Round duct with hangers Square duct with hangers Fluid heat tracing for equipment Fluid heat tracing for pipe Square or rectangular launders Half round launders Coating and wrapping of buried pipe Hot tap of production pipe for branch Permanent scraper launcher and receiver Pipe, valve and fittings at a well head High density polyethylene pipe, fusion bonded Sprinkler system (water / water+foam) Foam fire systems Standpipe and hose fire systems Emergency eyewash and shower units Sanitary flow diversion panel

Chapter 19: Civil


ABVGR TANK BELGR TANK CONCRETE SCAFFOLD TRENCH CONTAINMNT DIKE MEMBR YARD PIPE PIPE HDPE RCON PIPE BUILDING LINING PIPE RACK PIPE SUPPT Above grade concrete tank Below grade concrete tank Foundations, slabs, other concrete items Scaffold erection and dismantling Drainage trench for paved areas Tank containment - concrete paving, wall Tank containment - dike and geomembrane Above grade or buried yard piping Above grade or buried piping High density polyethylene pipe, fusion bonded Buried concrete pipe Building Organic, metallic, abrasion resist. lining Pipe rack Tee or bent type pipe sleepers

17 Introduction to Plant Bulks (G6)

17-3

Chapter 20: Steel


OPN STL ST PIPE RACK PIPE SUPPT MILL BLDG PLATFORM GALLERY TRNS TOWER GRATE LADDER STAIR MISC STEEL FABR PLATE SIDING SAN PLATFM Open steel structure Pipe rack Tee or bent type pipe sleepers Multiple-bay mill building Elevated access platform - complete Gallery for pipe, conveyor, personnel Conveyor transfer tower Steel grate - less support structure Steel ladders Stairs with grate, treads and handrail Miscellaneous steel items Fabricated steel plate items Siding and roofing for steel structures Sanitary platform

Chapter 21: Instrumentation


INST PANEL INST TRAY INST WIRE PNU TUBING THCPL WIRE JUNC BOX MULTI CONT HL PIU LL PIU DATA HIWAY OPER CENT Instrument panel - analog Instrument cable tray Instrument electronic transmission wire Instrument pneumatic tubing runs Thermocouple wire runs Instrument junction box Multifunction controllers High energy level process interface unit Low energy level process interface unit Data highway cable Operator center

17-4

17 Introduction to Plant Bulks (G6)

Chapter 22: Electrical


General ELEC CABLE CONDUIT ELEC TRAY EQPT TRACE PIPE TRACE GRND GRID AREA LIGHT CTRL CABLE DEEP ANODE GALV ANODE SURF ANODE POT TEST RECTIFIER SOLAR PANL EMER LIGHT CABLE DUCT Electrical power cable run (3 or 4 wire) Electrical conduit Electrical cable tray Electrical tracing for equipment Electrical tracing for pipe Ground grid Area lighting on poles Electrical control cable runs (600 v) Group of anodes in deep well Individual galvanic anode Group of anodes in shallow surface bed Potential measurement test station Transformer/rectifier Solar panel with storage batteries Emergency light with battery Underground cable duct

Substation BUS DUCT TRANSFORM OIL C BRKR DISCNCT SW POLE LINE SUBSTN STL BREAKER MCC SWITCH BRD AC DC TRAN PKG TRANSF EM PWR SET UPS PF CORRECT Bus duct Electrical transformer: 1 or 2 tap Oil circuit breakers Disconnect switch Power pole lines Steel for substation structure Current breaker: main, feeder, tie Motor control center Switch board AC/DC Transformer Package transformer with panel Emergency diesel generator Uninterrupted power supply Power factor connection capacitor

17 Introduction to Plant Bulks (G6)

17-5

Chapter 23: Insulation and Firepoofing


INSUL AREA INSUL PIPE FIREP AREA FIREP SSTL General area insulation Pipe insulation General area fireproofing Structural steel fireproofing

Chapter 24: Paint


- PAINT AREA - PAINT PIPE - PAINT SSTL General area painting Pipe painting Structural steel painting

17-6

17 Introduction to Plant Bulks (G6)

18 Piping

(G10)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Piping Plant Bulks How Icarus Calculates Insulation Length on Piping Trapping Distances (Steam) Pipe Temperature Procedure Pipe Insulation Material Procedure Pipe Insulation Thickness Procedure Pipe Paint Procedure No. of Paint Coats Procedure Pipe Diameters Pipe Schedule Standard Equations for Pipe Diameter (Old) Standard Equations for Pipe Diameter (New) Utility Piping Services Utility Station Diagram Default Piping Materials Pipe Materials - Ferrous Materials Carbon Steel API Pipe High Alloy Steel Pipe Materials - Non-Ferrous Materials Non - Ferrous Materials Plastic and Resin Materials Lined Steel Pipe Spool Types Remote & Field Shop Piping Procedures for Various Materials Remote Shop Piping Procedures Small Bore Piping Procedures Icarus Pipe Fabrication, Erection and Testing Procedures - Continued on next page -

18 Piping (G10)

Valve and Fitting Options for Installation Bulk Piping Valve Trim Specifications

18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks


Piping plant bulks include transfer lines, utility piping, duct and tubed tracing.
Description Transfer lines, yard pipe runs, above/below grade Insulated and traced pipe runs. For above-grade piping, hangers are supplied, but support steel, pipe racks, etc. must be specified elsewhere. If buried pipe is specified, trenching, coating, wrapping, sand bed and backfilling is provided. Custom pipe spec: Enter either Custom Pipe Spec (see Design Basis) or Material, not both. Pipe material: Enter either Custom Pipe Spec (see Design Basis) or Material, not both. See piping materials listed later in this chapter. Default: *CS*. Length: Min: 1.0 FEET [0.35 M] Pipe diameter: Range: 0.5 - 72 INCHES DIAM [15 - 1,800 MM DIAM] Design gauge pressure: Default: determined from Custom Pipe Spec or 150 PSIG [1,000 KPA]. Design temperature: Default: determined from Custom Pipe Spec or 68 DEG F [20 DEG C]. Pipe thickness: Leave blank if schedule is specified. Pipe schedule or gauge: Leave blank if thickness is specified. STD - Standard wall pipe XS - Extra-strong pipe XXS - Double extra-strong 5 - Pipe schedule 100 - Pipe schedule 120 - Pipe schedule 140 - Pipe schedule 160 - Pipe schedule Type YARD PIPE

- Continued on next page -

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Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description YARD PIPE - continued 10 - Pipe schedule 7G - SS gauge pipe only 20 - Pipe schedule 10G- SS gauge pipe only 30- Pipe schedule 11G - SS gauge pipe only 40 - Pipe schedule 12G- SS gauge pipe only 60 - Pipe schedule 14G- SS gauge pipe only 80- Pipe schedule Flange class: Default: determined from custom spec or pipe material, temperature and pressure. 150- Class 150 300- Class 300 600- Class 600 900- Class 900 1500- Class 1500 2500- Class 2500 125- Class 125 WOG 250- Class 250 WOG Configuration: Default: *ABOVE* ABOVE- Above-grade BURIED- Buried Depth buried pipe: Below grade depth to top of pipe for buried pipe only. This is the distance from grade level to the top of the buried pipe. The trench depth is determined by the below grade depth, the pipe diameter and sand bed (6 INCHES [150 MM] in depth). Range: 24 - 120 INCHES [600 - 3,000 MM]. The default value will be taken as 36 INCHES [1,000 MM] minimally, or the depth of footings specified for general civil data. Special pipe description: Insulation, tracing, jacketing options. Default: *NONE* PPROT- Personnel protection insulation. The system will generate 1.00 INCH of personnel protection for 100 percent of the pipe. This option can be used in conjunction with the Personnel protect field, which allows the user to tell the system how much pipe to insulate. For instance, if the user only needs 25 FEET of a 100 FEET run of pipe to be personnel protected, the user can input the percentage in the Personnel protect field. The system would generate 25 FEET plus waste. Type

- Continued on next page -

18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description YARD PIPE - continued The thickness of the personnel protection insulation generated will always be 1.00 INCH. AC-T- Anti-condensation insulation/tube tracer AC-E- Anti-condensation insulation/elec tracer FP-T- Freeze protection insulation/tube tracer FP-E- Freeze protection insulation/elec tracer FULL- Fully jacketed pipe (see illustration) EXPD- Exposed-weld jacketed pipe (see illustration) T-SP- Spiral traced/tube conn./no cement T-SPC- Spiral traced/tube conn./heat cement P-SP- Spiral traced/pipe conn./no cement P-SPC- Spiral traced/pipe conn./heat cement T-LO- Longit. traced/tube conn./no cement T-LOC- Longit. traced/tube conn./heat cement P-LO- Longit. traced/pipe conn./no cement P-LOC- Longit. traced/pipe conn./heat cement E-AMB- Electrical traced/ambient temp control E-PRO- Electrical traced/process temp control STAND- Standard heat or cold insulation Steam gauge pressure: Steam supply pressure for traced or jacketed pipe only. Default: *25* PSIG [*175* KPA] E-Trace maintenance temperature: For electrical tracing - process maintenance temperature; Max: 250 DEG F [120 DEG C] over ambient. Default: 220 DEG F [105 DEG C] Weld X-ray%: Min: 100; Default: See Area Design Basis. Number of elbows: Default: *0* Number of reducers: Default: *0* Number of tees: Default: *0* Number of flanges: Enter number of flanges in addition to those for valves. Default: *0* Number of blinds: Default: *0* Number of spectacle blinds: Default: *0* Number of threadless: Default: *0* Number of gate valves: Default: *0* Number of globe valves: Default: *0* Type

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18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description YARD PIPE - continued Number of ball valves: Default: *0* Number of butterfly valves: Default: *0* Number of check valves: Default: *0* Number of control valves: Size: same as pipe size to 4 INCHES [100 MM], smaller than pipe otherwise. Default: *0*. See Control Valve Options in Chapter 21 for default size reductions. Number of safety valves: Default: *0* Number of regulating valves: Default: *0* Number of angle valves: Default: *0* Number of plug valves: Default: *0* Number of orifice plates: Default: *0* No. Knife Gate Valve: Default: *0* Personnel protect: Personnel protection percent coverage. For example, if out of 50 FEET run of pipe, 12.5 FEET needs personnel protection, enter 25 in this field. The system will then generate 12.5 FEET of personnel protection plus waste. The thickness of the personnel protection insulation generated will always be 1.00 INCH. Default: *100*. Note: You must select PPROT in the Special Pipe Descr. field before the system will use the personnel protection. Control valve minimum class: For fluid control valves only. Default: *3*. 3- Minimum 300 class fluid control valve 1- Minimum 150 class fluid control valve Control valve reduced size: Fluid positioning CV only. Default: reduced 0 to 4 line sizes based on size. L- Line size control valves R- Standard size control valves Above grade or buried piping Pipe material: Enter either Custom Pipe Spec (see Design Basis) or Material, not both. Default: from custom spec, connected equipment or CS. Pipe length: Min: 1.0 FEET [0.35 M] Pipe diameter: Range: 0.5 - 72 INCHES DIAM [15 - 1,800 MM DIAM] PIPE Type

18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE - continued Fluid phase: *G*- Gas L- Liquid S- Steam (enter desired flow rate below) Liquid flow rate: Enter diameter or liquid flow rate or gas flow rate. Gas flow rate: Enter diameter or liquid flow rate or gas flow rate. Fluid density: Default based on fluid phase: Gas Phase:0.0674 PCF [1.08 KCM] Liquid Phase:62.4 PCF [1000 KCM) Steam Phase:Calculated as the inverse of specific volume, which is calculated from design pressure and temperature as described under Steam Lines in the Standard Equations for Pipe Diameter section. Fluid viscosity: Default based on fluid phase: Gas phase:0.025 CPOISE (0.025 millipascal-second) Liquid Phase:1.0 CPOISE (1.0 millipascal-second) Steam Phase:Calculated using an internal function of design pressure and design temperature in which, for a design pressure of 150 PSIG (~1000 KPA) and a design temperature of 250 DEG F (120 DEG C), default value is calculated to be 0.013 CPOISE. Design gauge pressure: Default: determined from Custom Pipe Spec or 150 PSIG [1,000 KPA]. Design temperature: Default: determined from Custom Pipe Spec or 68 DEG F [20 DEG C]. Operating temperature: Default: same as design temperature. - Continued on next pageType PIPE

18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE - continued Pipe schedule or gauge: Enter thickness or schedule/gauge, not both. Default: calculated from material temperature, pressure. STD- Standard wall pipe100- Pipe schedule XS- Extra-strong pipe120- Pipe schedule XXS- Double extra-strong140- Pipe schedule 5- Pipe schedule160- Pipe schedule 10- Pipe schedule7G- SS gauge pipe only 20- Pipe schedule10G- SS gauge pipe only 30- Pipe schedule11G- SS gauge pipe only 40- Pipe schedule12G- SS gauge pipe only 60- Pipe schedule14G- SS gauge pipe only 80- Pipe schedule Valves and fittings: Enter type and quantity of each valve and fitting required for this line. Pipe type: CS and SS only. Default: custom/material spec if entered, or else welded. W- Welded pipe S- Seamless pipe Flange type: Default: see project design basis W- Weld-neck S- Slip-on B- Lap flanges and stub to 12 INCHES (300 MM), or else weld-neck Flange class: Default: determined from custom spec or pipe material, temperature and pressure. 150- Class 150 300- Class 300 600- Class 600 900- Class 900 1500- Class 1500 2500- Class 2500 125- Class 125 WOG 250- Class 250 WOG Bend for elbow: Substitute pipe bends for any specified elbow (up to 12 INCH [300 MM] pipe only). *E*- Elbow B- Bend instead of elbow - Continued on next page Type

18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE - continued Branch for tee: Substitute fabricated branch nozzles for any specified tees. *T*-Tee B-Branch Pipe connector type: Default: see project design basis SW- Socket weld connections; max: 2 INCHES (50 MM) SB- Screw and backweld; max: 2 INCHES (50 MM) SC- Screw (no backweld); max: 2 INCHES (50 MM) WF- Weld pipe / flange valves WW- Weld pipe / weld valves; min: 2 INCHES (50 MM) VC- DI Victaulic couplings VS- SS Victaulic couplings PF- Press fit swage couplings; max: 2 INCHES (50 MM) TC- Tri-clover sanitary; max: 4 INCHES (100 MM) CB- Cherry-Burrel sanitary; max: 4 INCHES (100 MM) Number of welds: Default: determined from pipe length and combination of valves and fittings Control valve reduced size: Fluid control valve only; default: reduced 0-4 sizes except BVO and sanitary valves L- Line size control valves R- Standard size control valves Control valve minimum class: For fluid control valves only. Default: *3*. 3- Minimum 300 class fluid control valve 1- Minimum 150 class fluid control valve Weld X-ray: Default: see project design basis Stress relief: C- Piping stress relief if code requires Y- Stress relieve all piping N- No piping stress relief required Special pipe description: Default: *NONE* - Continued on next page Type

18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE - continued STAND- Standard heat or cold insulation PPROT- Personnel protection insulation. The system will generate 1.00 INCH of personnel protection for 100 percent of the pipe. This option can be used in conjunction with the Personnel protection field, which allows the user to tell the system how much pipe to insulate. For instance, if the user only needs 25 FEET of a 100 FEET run of pipe to be personnel protected, the user can input the percentage in the Personnel protection field. The system would generate 25 FEET plus waste. The thickness of the personnel protection insulation generated will always be 1.00 INCH. AC-T- Anti-condensation insulation/tube tracer AC-E- Anti-condensation insulation/elec tracer FP-T- Freeze protection insulation/tube tracer FP-E- Freeze protection insulation/elec tracer FULL- Fully jacketed pipe (see illustration) EXPD- Exposed-weld jacketed pipe (see illustration) T-SP- Spiral traced/tube conn./no cement T-SPC- Spiral traced/tube conn./heat cement P-SP- Spiral traced/pipe conn./no cement P-SPC- Spiral traced/pipe conn./heat cement T-LO- Longit. traced/tube conn./no cement T-LOC- Longit. traced/tube conn./heat cement P-LO- Longit. traced/pipe conn./no cement P-LOC- Longit. traced/pipe conn./heat cement E-AMB- Electrical traced/ambient temp control E-PRO - Electrical traced/process temp control E-Trace maintenance temperature: For electrical tracing - process maintenance temperature. Default: 392 DEG F [200 DEG C] for M series cable and 220 DEG F [105 DEG C] for self-regulating cable. Max: 250 DEG F [120 DEG C] for self-regulating cable and 1049 DEG F [565 DEG C] for MI cable over low ambient temperature. Type

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10

18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE - continued E-trace cable type: Use A series to 120 DEG F[48 DEG C], P series to 250 DEG F[120 DEG C] and M series to 1049 DEG F [565 DEG C] over low ambient temperature. 3A 3 W/FT (10 W/M) Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 5A 5 W/FT (16 W/M) Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 8A 8 W/FT (26 W/M) Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 10A 10 W/FT(33 W/M) Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 5P 5 W/FT (16 W/M) Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 10P 10 W/FT (33 W/M) Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 15P 15 W/FT (49 W/M) Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 20P 20 W/FT (65 W/M) Chemelex XTV2-CT cable M2 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 9 OHM/FT [29.5 OHM/M] M4 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 4.14 OHM/FT [13.6 OHM/M] M6 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 1.15 OHM/FT [3.77 OHM/M] M8 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.505 OHM/FT [1.66 OHM/M] M10 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.2 OHM/FT [0.656 OHM/M] M12 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.1 OHM/FT [0.328 OHM/M] M14 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.0561 OHM/FT [0.184 OHM/M] M16 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.0281 OHM/FT [0.0922 OHM/M] M18 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.013 OHM/FT [0.042 OHM/M] M20 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.00516 OHM/ FT [0.016 OHM/M] E-trace cable category: Default: *S*, self-regulating cable Select M for MI tracing cable or S for self-regulating tracing cable. Heat trace fluid: STM- Steam trapped OTHR- Other fluid / no traps Valve packing or seal: *S*- Standard valve packing E- Environmental (double steam) B- Bellows seal SV/GL/GA else environmental packing - Continued on next page Type

18 Piping (G10)

11

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE - continued Pipe sandblast percent of area: Default: 100%; see design basis Pipe insulation thickness: Default from insulation schedule and unit area specs (see minimum insulation temperature) Pipe insulation jacket type: Default: see project design basis; AL, SS, CS. Pipe insulation type: Default: see project design basis CA- Calcium silicate MW- Mineral wool FG- Foam-glass Personnel protection: Personnel protection percent coverage. For example, if out of 50 FEET run of pipe, 12.5 FEET needs personnel protection, enter 25 in this field. The system will then generate 12.5 FEET of personnel protection plus waste. The thickness of the personnel protection insulation generated will always be 1.00 INCH. Default: see unit area pipe specs. Note: You must select PPROT in the Special Pipe Descr. field before the system will use the personnel protection. Pipe installation option: Default: above ground pipe or supports on rack (specified elsewhere) *A*- Above ground piping B - Buried piping Depth buried pipe: Min: 24.0 INCHES [600.0 MM]; Max: 120 INCHES [3000.0 MM]. Below grade depth to top of pipe for buried pipe only. Default: system calculated. Steam gauge press: Max: 25 PSIG [175 KPA]. Steam supply pressure for traced or jacketed pipe. Type

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18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE - continued Pipe routing type: Specify pipe routing type to be used from the external fitting specs file specified at the design basis level (see your software users guide for instructions on where to specify the file name). AGU- Above ground unit piping AGR- Above ground rack piping UGU- Under ground unit piping MRP- Machine room piping OTP- Miscellaneous piping Once a pipe routing type is specified, the system uses the data in the external fitting specs file for the valve rules, fitting rules, horizontal allowance, vertical allowance and the diameter size definition. Pipe routing type is meant to refer to the location of the piping. However, the above descriptions are for reference only; using the fitting specs file, the user controls the context of the rules and can assign meaning at his discretion. The available fitting specs files are listed in the PIPEDATA.SET file that the user places in the main PIDS folder: [Icarus software folder]\PIDS. The user sets up this file by copying the PIPEDATA.SET provided in the [Icarus software folder]\New Files\dat\pids folder to the main PIDS folder. The user can edit the PIPEDATA.SET file in a true text editor, such as Notepad, adding fitting specs files simply by typing in the file names. If the user has not set up this file, then the system will look for a file called FITSPC.DAT. If available, this file will be used as the fitting specs file. If not, a set of default rules will be used. A default FITSPC.DAT file is available at [Icarus software folder]/New Files/dat/ pids. This file can be copied, edited, and used as a basis for alternate fitting specs files. Fitting specs files must be listed in the PIPEDATA.SET file and placed in the main PIDS folder. See Figure FITSPC.DAT for an illustration explaining the data in the FITSPC.DAT file. Type

- Continued on next page -

18 Piping (G10)

13

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE - continued Fitting rules application: Select whether to use the fitting rules. Y- Use fitting rules for the type of piping N - Do not use fitting rules Fitting and valve rules are specified in the external fitting specs file (see illustration on following page), selected at the project design basis level. Fitting and valve codes are available in Valve and Fitting Options for Installation Bulk Piping in this chapter. Users put in the number of each valve and fitting type per 100 feet (30 meters). The length used in these calculations is after the horizontal and vertical adjustments have been accounted for. Valve rules application: Select whether to use the fitting and/or valve rules. Y- Use valve rules for the type of piping N - Do not use valve rules Fitting and valve rules are specified in the external fitting specs file (see illustration on following page), selected at the project design basis level. Fitting and valve codes are available in Valve and Fitting Options for Installation Bulk Piping in this chapter. Users put in the number of each valve and fitting type per 100 feet (30 meters). The length used in these calculations is after the horizontal and vertical adjustments have been accounted for. - Continued on next page Type

14

18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks - continued Figure FITSPC.DAT

18 Piping (G10)

15

Note: The user specifies four sets of diameter sizes, and four sets of fitting/ valve rules for each routing type. The user specifies only one set of allowance rules per routing type. Note: THe user is not limited to the first eight columns for fittings or to the last eight columns for valves; this is just the suggested use of the columns. The total percentage distribution should equal 100, but does not need to - the system will not crash if the distribution is not 100%. Always edit the FITSPC.DAT file using a true text editor such as Notepad or EDITPLUS (shareware). To use a specific fitting specs file, add it to PIPEDATA.SET and move it to the / PIDS directory. Then, select it at the base level (see softwares user guide). To use this file with piping, add the above/below grade pipe item (PIPE) and select one of the piping routing types in the form. Once the routing type is selected, the system will use the file for this piping item. The user may select alternative fitting specification files by changing the fitting specification file name at the design basis level.

16

18 Piping (G10)

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE - continued Horizontal allowance: Select whether to use horizontal allowance. Y- Use horizontal allowance for the type of piping N- Do not use horizontal allowance Horizontal allowance is specified for each piping routing type in the external fitting specification file. An entry of 100 means the system will not adjust the input length, whereas an entry of 150 will increase the input length by 50 percent. Vertical allowance: Select whether to use vertical allowance. Y- Use vertical allowance for the type of piping N - Do not use vertical allowance Vertical allowance is specified for each piping routing type in the external fitting specification file. An entry of 100 means the system will not adjust the input length, whereas an entry of 150 will increase the input length by 50 percent. Primary equipment user tag: User tag of the primary (i.e., upstream) equipment to which this pipe is connected. Default: NONE. Primary equipment connection: Connection location of the pipe on the primary (i.e., upstream) equipment; Default: not connected <Blank>. <Blank>- not connected to any equipment S- connected to shell of equipment U- connected to tube side of equipment J- connected to jacket of equipment B- connected to bottom of double diameter tower T- connected to top of double diameter tower Secondary equipment user tag: User tag of the secondary (i.e., downstream) equipment to which this pipe is connected. Default: NONE. Secondary equipment connection: Connection location of the pipe on the secondary (i.e., downstream) equipment; Default: not connected <Blank>. <Blank>- not connected to any equipment S- connected to shell of equipment U- connected to tube side of equipment J- connected to jacket of equipment B- connected to bottom of double diameter tower T- connected to top of double diameter tower Type

18 Piping (G10)

17

Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Jacket Pipe Illustrations User an select jacketing for PIPE and YARD PIPE under Special Pipe Description.

18

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Description Utility service lines, stations: standard configuration Utility headers: runs of pipe providing up to 15 different services. Utility station: short runs of smallbore pipe providing local air, water, steam and condensate drain services. Pipe material: See piping materials listed later in this chapter. Default: *CS* (Carbon steel). Number utility stations: A utility station consists of three 100 FEET [30 M] lines of 1 INCHES [25 MM] diameter pipe for air, water and steam service, and one 50 FEET [15 M] condensate line of 0.75 INCHES [20 MM] diameter. Default: *1*. Enter 0.0 to exclude all utility stations. Length parameter: Pipe lengths = 1 x length parameter, except firewater loop/lat. = 2 x, hp steam = 0.5 x. Default: 100 FEET [30 M]. Header diameter symbol: Diameter symbol defines size of any line not specified. See Utility Piping Services later in this chapter. L- Low/small diameter M- Medium diameter H- High/large diameter V- Very large diameter Firewater loop diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Firewater lateral diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Potable water header diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Line will be insulated base on location: US - uninsulated, UK - insulated. Cooling water supply diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Line will be insulated base on location: US - uninsulated, UK - insulated. - Continued on next page Type UTIL PIPE

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Description UTIL PIPE - continued Cool water return diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Line will be insulated base on location: US - uninsulated, UK - insulated. Low Pressure (LP) steam header diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Medium Pressure (MP) steam header diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. High Pressure (HP) steam header diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Condensate return diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Plant air header diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Instrument air header diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Fuel gas header diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Inert gas header diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Chemical sewer diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Flare header diameter: Default: determined by diameter symbol, enter 0.0 to delete if diameter symbol set. Buried concrete pipe, manholes, elbows, tees: trench, RCON PIPE backfill Includes trenching and backfilling. Diameter: Range: 12 - 98 INCHES [300 - 2,450 MM] Number of manholes: Default: *0* Number of elbows: Default: *0* Number of tees: Default: *0* Type

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Description Type Process ductwork, round DUCT RD Stiffeners and support hangers are designed, but support steel, racks, etc. must be specified elsewhere. Duct material: Default: *GALV* GALV- Galvanized CS CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel AL- Aluminum Duct diameter: If the duct capacity is specified, the duct dimension is determined from the capacity and the gas velocity. The velocity may be specified, or the system uses a variable velocity between 2000 and 4000 FPM [36600 - 72100 M/H] depending on the specified pressure. The calculated duct dimension is rounded to a standard size. Duct design pressure: Should be specified (indicate + or -) for design of duct thickness and stiffeners; -60 - 60 INCHES H2O [114,930 - 14,930 PA]. Default: *-20* INCHES H2O [*-4,980* PA]. Duct gauge: Leave blank if thickness is entered; enter thickness if thicker than 8 gauge. Range: 8 - 30. Duct wall thickness: Default: determined by size and pressure, leave blank if duct gauge number entered. Duct class: The duct class indicates the quantity and abrasiveness of particulate material. Default: *1*. 1 - Non-abrasive applied. 2- Mod-abras./lo concern. 3- Hi-abras.lo concern. 4- Hi-abras./hi concern. Configuration: Seam configuration; applies to class 1 duct only. Default: *LONG* LONG- Longitudinal seam SPIR- Spiral seam Duct insulation thickness: Default: 0.0 INCHES [0.0 MM]. Partical density: Density of concentrated particulates for duct classes 2, 3 and 4. Default: *25* PCF [*400* KG/M3]. - Continued on next page -

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Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Description DUCT RD - continued Stiffener size: Default: size and spacing determined from duct pressure, dimensions and thickness. Stiffener spacing: Default: size and spacing determined from duct pressure, dimensions and thickness. Support weight: Hanger weight (each); support steel, racks, etc. must be specified elsewhere. The system determines the support weight based on standard spacing of 12 FEET [3.5 M] and the duct loads. The calculated weight and spacing may be replaced with an input weight and spacing. Support spacing: Default: *12* FEET [*3.5* M]. Number of elbows: Default: *0* Number of tees: Default: *0* Number of reducers: Default: *0* Number of dampers: Default: *0* Number of access doors: Default: *0* Number Flexible connection: Default: *0* Process ductwork, square DUCT SQ Type

Stiffeners and support hangers are designed, but support steel, racks, etc. must be specified elsewhere.
Duct material: Default: *GALV* GALV- Galvanized CS CS- Carbon steel SS- Stainless steel AL- Aluminum Duct width: If the duct capacity is specified, the duct dimension is determined from the capacity and the gas velocity. The velocity may be specified, the system uses a variable velocity between 2000 and 4000 FPM [36600 - 73100 M/H] depending on the specified pressure. The calculated duct dimension is rounded to a standard size.

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Description DUCT SQ - continued Duct design pressure: Should be specified (indicate + or -) for design of duct thickness and stiffeners. -60 - 60 INCHES H2O [14,930 - 14,930 PA]. Default: *-20* INCHES H2O [*-4,980* PA]. Duct gauge: Leave blank if thickness is entered; enter thickness if thicker than 8 gauge. Range: 8 - 30. Duct wall thickness: Default: determined by size and pressure, leave blank if duct gauge number entered. Duct class: The duct class indicates the quantity and abrasiveness of particulate material. Default: *1*. 1 - Non-abrasive applied. 2- Mod-abras./lo concern. 3- Hi-abras.lo concern. 4- Hi-abras./hi concern. Duct insulation thickness: Default: 0.0 INCHES [0.0 MM]. Partical density: Density of concentrated particulates for duct classes 2, 3 and 4. Default: *25* PCF [*400* KG/M3]. Stiffener size: Default: size and spacing determined from duct pressure, dimensions and thickness. Stiffener spacing: Default: size and spacing determined from duct pressure, dimensions and thickness. Support weight: Hanger weight (each); support steel, racks, etc. must be specified elsewhere. The system determines the support weight based on standard spacing of 12 FEET [3.5 M] and the duct loads. The calculated weight and spacing may be replaced with an input weight and spacing. Support spacing: Default: *12* FEET [*3.5* M]. Number of elbows: Default: *0* Number of tees: Default: *0* Number of reducers: Default: *0* Number of dampers: Default: *0* Number of access doors: Default: *0* Number Flexible connection: Default: *0* Type

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Description Fluid heat tracing existing equipment The item of equipment and its insulation are not included; these are assumed to be specified elsewhere in the project. Material: Default: *CU* CU- Copper SS- Stainless steel Tracer tube length: This is the total length of 0.5 INCHES O.D. tubing required to heat trace an item specified elsewhere in the estimate. This length does not include the run to and from supply and return headers, as these lengths are specified in the Dist./Supply Header and the Dist./ Return Header fields. Tracing symbol: T-SP- Traced: tube conn. - spiral tracer - no cement T-SPC- Traced: tube conn. - spiral tracer - with cement P-SP- Traced: pipe conn. - spiral tracer - no cement P-SPC- Traced: pipe conn. - spiral tracer - with cement Distance to supply header: Distance specified is from traced equipment item to supply and return headers. The headers are not included in this item, but are specified by the user elsewhere in the estimate for Area Pipe Specifications or as a separate bulk item description. Min: 5.0 FEET [1.6 M]; Default: *25* FEET [*7.5* M]. Distance to return header: Distance specified is from traced equipment item to supply and return headers. The headers are not included in this item, but are specified by the user elsewhere in the estimate for Area Pipe Specifications or as a separate bulk item description. Min: 5.0 FEET [1.6 M]; Default: *25* FEET [*7.5* M]. Heating medium: Default: *STM* STM- Steam heating medium OTHR- Other heating medium Steam gauge pressure: Default: *25* PSIG [*175* KPA]. Type EQPT TRACE

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Description Fluid heat tracing for existing pipe runs 0.5 INCHES O.D. tubing applied to existing pipe. The traced pipe and its insulation are not included; these are assumed to be specified elsewhere in the project. An insulation adjustment is included to account for tracers and tracer connections to headers. Material: Default: *CU* CU- Copper SS- Stainless steel Traced pipe length: The pipe being traced is not included, but must be specified elsewhere. Traced pipe diameter: The pipe being traced is not included, but must be specified elsewhere. Tracing symbol: T-SP- Traced: tube conn. - spiral tracer - no cement T-SPC- Traced: tube conn. - spiral tracer - with cement P-SP- Traced: pipe conn. - spiral tracer - no cement P-SPC- Traced: pipe conn. - spiral tracer - with cement T-LO- Traced: tube conn. - longit. tracer - no cement T-LOC- Traced: tube conn. - longit tracer - with cement P-LO- Traced: pipe conn. - longit tracer - no cement P-LOC- Traced pipe conn. - longit tracer - with cement Distance to supply header: Distance specified is from traced pipe to supply or return header. Min: 5 FEET [1.6 MM]; Default: *25* FEET [*7.5* M]. Distance to return header: Distance specified is from traced pipe to supply or return header. Min: 5 FEET [1.6 MM]; Default: *25* FEET [*7.5* M]. Heating medium: Default: *STM* STM - Steam heating medium OTHR - Other heating medium Steam guage pressure: Default *25* PSIG [*175* KPA]. (See Trapping Distances tables.) Type PIPE TRACE

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Piping Plant Bulks - continued


Trapping Distance (Steam) Traced Process Line Size 0.50 INCHES [12.7 - 25.4 MM] 1.25 -1.50 INCHES [31.75-38.10 MM] 2.00 INCHES 50.80 MM] 2.50 - 3.00 INCHES [63.50 - 76.20 MM] 3.50 - 4.00 INCHES [88.90 - 101.60 MM] 25 PSIG [175 KPA] 150 FEET [45.72 M] 130 FEET [39.62 M] 120 FEET [36.57 M] 100 FEET [30.48] 150 FEET [45.72 M] 240 FEET [73.15 M] 120 FEET [36.57 M] 200 FEET [60.96 M] 250 FEET [76.20 M] 150 PSIG [1050 KPA] 250 FEET [76.20 M] 200 FEET [60.96 M] 180 FEET [54.86 M] 150 FEET [45.72 M] 240 FEET [73.15 M] 350 FEET [106.68 M] 200 FEET [60.96 M] 300 FEET [91.44 M] 360 FEET [109.72 M] 200 PSIG [1400 KPA] 300 FEET [91.44] 230 FEET [70.10 M] 200 FEET [60.96 M] 190 FEET [57.91 M] 270 FEET [82.29 M] 400 FEET [121.92 M] 210 FEET [64.00 M] 340 FEET [103.63 M] 420 FEET [128.01 M] No. of 0.5 INCH [12.7 MM] O.D. Tracers per Line 1 OR 2 1 OR 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 3

over 4.00 INCHES [over 101.60 MM]

STEAM Tracing - Number of Tracers Per Line


Traced Process Line Size (INCHES) <3 > to < 8 >8 No. of 0.5 INCH [12.7 MM] O.D. Tracers per Line 1 2 3

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How Icarus Calculates Insulation Length on Piping


All pipe insulation is calculated and reported as straight run equivalent length. The final length is calculated by adding the specified length of straight run pipe, plus straight run equivalent lengths for fittings (4 FEET [1.22 M]/fitting) and valves (7 FEET [2.13 M]/valve), plus an overall 5% allowance for wastage. The final equation in l-P is: [pipe length + (fitting count * 4) + (valve count *7)] * 105% Example calculations:
Specified 100 FEET [30.5 M] 4 INCH pipe + 0 fittings, 0 valves 1 FL, 0 valves 0 fittings, 1 GA (this creates 2 matching FL) 1 FL, 1 GA 1 FL, 3 EL, 1 GA Reported Length FEET 105 109 121 125 138 32 33 37 38 42 M

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Description Type Launders, half-round, rubber lined LAUNDER RD Steel launder lined with 0.25 INCHES [6.0 MM] natural rubber. Material is RBLCS (Rubber-lined carbon steel) Cover Type: Default: *NONE* COVRD- Plate cover NONE- No cover Launders, square/rectangular, rubber lined Steel launder lined with 0.25 INCHES [6.0 MM] natural rubber. Material is RBLCS (Rubber-lined carbon steel) Cover Type: Default: *NONE* COVRD- Plate cover NONE- No cover Coat and wrap pipe for burial: manual or machine Application may be by hand or machine. Application Symbol: HAND- Manual MACH- Machine Hot tap: production line to branch line HOT TAP Split tee or nipple, flange and valve provided; branch must be specified elsewhere. Available in Icarus 2000 and Icarus Process Evaluator only. Material: Default: *GRBW* GRBW- API5L and 5LS Gr. B304LP- 304L X42W- API5LX Grade X42316P- SS316 X52W- API5LX Grade X52316LP- 316L X60W- API5LX Grade X60321P- SS321 X65W- API5LX Grade X65AL- Aluminum A 53- A 53CU- Copper A 106- A 106NI- Nickel A333C- 3.5 NiMONEL- Monel A335C- 1.25Cr -.5Mo - SiINCNL- Inconel 304P- SS304 COAT WRAP LAUNDER SQ

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Description HOT TAP - continued Flange Class: Default: *600* 150- Class 150 300- Class 300 600- Class 600 900- Class 900 1500- Class 1500 2500- Class 2500 125- Class 125 WOG 250- Class 250 WOG Permanent scraper launcher and receiver SCRAPER LR A pair (launcher and receiver) is provided for each item. Available in Icarus 2000 and Icarus Process Evaluator only. Material: Default: *X52W* X52W- API5LLX-X52 welded X42W- API5LX-X42 welded X60W- API5LX-X60 welded X65W- API5LX-X65 welded GRBW- API5L - gr B/5LS welded X52S- API5LX-X52 seamless X42S- APIFLX-X42 seamless X60S- API5LX-X60 seamless X65S- API5LX-X65 seamless GRBS- API5L - gr B seamless Flange Class: Default: *600* 150- Class 150 300- Class 300 600- Class 600 900- Class 900 1500- Class 1500 2500- Class 2500 125- Class 125 WOG 250- Class 250 WOG Type

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Description Type Pipe, valve, and fittings at well head WELL HEAD Standard valve and fitting configuration plus 70 FEET [20 M] of pipe. Available in Icarus 2000 and Icarus Process Evaluator only. Material: Default: *X52W* X52W- API5LLX-X52 welded X42W- API5LX-X42 welded X60W- API5LX-X60 welded X65W- API5LX-X65 welded GRBW- API5L - gr B/5LS welded X52S- API5LX-X52 seamless X42S- APIFLX-X42 seamless X60S- API5LX-X60 seamless X65S- API5LX-X65 seamless GRBS- API5L - gr B seamless Pipe diameter: Default: *8* INCHES DIAM [*200* MM DIAM] Type of well: Default: *PROD* PROD- Production well INJEC- Injection well Sprinkler fire system (water / water+foam) Pipe material: *A 53*, 304P, 316P Outlet arrangement: *PLANE*- Outlet devices arranged over planar area ARRAY- Outlet devices arranged over equipment area Diameter or length: If outlet arrangement is PLANE, with devices arranged over planar area, enter the plane area; if outlet arrangement is ARRAY, with devices arranged over equipment area, enter the component length or diameter. Width: If outlet arrangement is PLANE, with devices arranged over planar area, enter the width of the plane area; if outlet arrangement is ARRAY, with devices arranged over equipment area, enter the component width. Default: same as Diameter or length. Height: For ARRAY outlet arrangement only, enter height of outlet configuration. Default: *20* FEET [*6* M]. - Continued on next page SPRNK

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Description SPRNK - continued Number of levels: for PLANE outlet arrangement only, enter number of levels or floors having the indicated dimensions. Default: *1*. Number of sprinklers: Default based on hazard type and area dimensions. Sprinkler location: *OUT*- outdoor installation IN- indoor installation Hazard type: *EFLH*- Extinguished fire - light hazard occupancy EFOH1- Extinguished fire - ordinary hazard grp 1 EFOH2- Extinguished fire - ordinary hazard grp 2 EFXH1- Extinguished fire - extra hazard grp 1 occup EFXH2- Extinguished fire - extra hazard grp 2 occup EPXH2- Exposure prot. - extra hazard grp 2 occup CBXH2- Control burning - extra hazard grp 2 occup PFXH2- Fire prevention - extra hazard grp 2 occup System type: *WSPNK*- Water sprinkler WSPRY- Water spray FSPNK- Foam sprinkler FSPRY- Foam spray Pipe system type: *DRSYS*- Dry pipe system WTSYS- Wet pipe system DPPNU- Deluge sys/pilot head/pneumatic actuator DPHYD- Deluge sys/pilot head/hydraulic actuator DELEC- Deluge sys/electric actuator Detector type: *SPRKR*- Automatic sprinkler detector FXTMP- Fixed temperature detector R-O-R- Rate of rise temperature detector SMKAL- Smoke alarm detector NONE- No detectors installed - Continued on next page Type

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Description SPRNK - continued Application density: Max: 1.00 GPM/SF [0.650 L/S/M2] Volume of water/foam required per unit area. Default based on hazard/class. Coverage area per sprinkler: Max: 400 SF [37.0 M2] Number of hose stations: Default: 0 Number of hydrants: Default: 0 Foam concentration: Default: 3%; Max: 100%; for foam System type only Foam tank option: *NONE*- No foam storage tank required BALPR- Tank with balanced pressure proportioning PRTNK- Tank with pressure proportioning ARPMP- Tank with around the pump proportioning Tank design gauge pressure: Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA]; for foam systems only Tank temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C]; for foam systems only Pipe sizing method: *HYDLC*- Hydraulic pressure drop calculations PSCHD- Schedule of pipe sizes vs. number of sprinklers Foam fire systems Pipe material: *A 53*, 304P, 316P. Outlet arrangement: *PLANE*- Outlet devices arranged over planar area ARRAY- Outlet devices arranged over equipment area Diameter or length: If outlet arrangement is PLANE, with devices arranged over planar area, enter the plane area; if outlet arrangement is ARRAY, with devices arranged over equipment area, enter the component length or diameter. Width: If outlet arrangement is PLANE, with devices arranged over planar area, enter the width of the plane area; if outlet arrangement is ARRAY, with devices arranged over equipment area, enter the component width. Default: same as Diameter or length. - Continued on next page FOAM Type

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Description FOAM - continued Height: For ARRAY outlet arrangement only, enter height of outlet configuration. Default: *20* FEET [*6* M]. Number of levels: Default: 1.00; for PLANE outlet arrangement only, number of levels or floors having the indicated dimensions. Number of foam outlets: Default based on area size. System type: *LOEXP*- Low expansion foam system MDEXP- Medium expansion foam system HIEXP- High expansion foam system Pipe system type: *DRFXP*- Dry pipe system WTFXP- Wet pipe system DLFXP- Deluge system PORT- Portable system with nozzle Foam delivery option: FCHMB- Foam chambers MONTR- Monitors *NOZLE*Nozzles HNDLN- Hand lines SPRKR- Sprinklers Application density: Volume of water/foam required per unit of area. Default based on hazard/class. Number of hose stations: Default: 0 Number of hydrants: Default: 0 Foam concentration: Default: 3.00%; Max: 100% Foam tank option: *NONE*- No foam storage tank required BALPR- Tank with balanced pressure proportioning PRTNK- Tank with pressure proportioning ARPMP- Tank with around the pump proportioning Tank design gauge pressure: Default: *15* PSIG [*100* KPA] Tank temperature: Default: *68* DEG F [*20* DEG C] Type

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Description Standpipe and hose fire systems Pipe material: *A 53*, 304P, 316P Length: Area length for determining number of hoses Width: Area width for determining number of hoses; default: same as length Number of levels: Default: 1.00; number of levels or floors having the indicated dimensions. System type: *C-I*- Class I stand pipe and hose system C-II- Class II stand pipe and hose system C-III- Class III stand pipe and hose system Number of hoses: Default based on class and area dimensions Pipe system type: *DRAUT*- Automatic dry system; Class I only DRSMA- Semi-automatic dry system; Class I only DRMNL- Manual dry system; Class I only WTAUT- Automatic wet system WTMNL- Manual wet system Minimum flow per hose: Max: 1,250.0 GPM [78.0 L/S]; Default: for C-I, C-III, 500 GPM [31 L/S]; for C-II, 100 GPM [6.3 L/S] Number of hydrants: Default: 0 Emergency eyewash and shower units Pipe material: *A 53*, 304P, 316P Number of wash units: Default: 0 Enter the number of wash units (type specified below in Wash unit type field) to be included at the eyewash station. Number of shower units: Default: 0 Enter the number of full-body showers. Number of combined units: Default: 0 - Continued on next page WSHWR Type SPHOS

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Description WSHWR - continued When a quantity is specified, this combination unit provides a combination full-body shower and wash unit (type specified below in Wash unit type field). Number of nozzles per shower: Default: 1; Max: 12 Enter the number of nozzles per shower unit. Length supply pipe: Default: *50.0* FEET [*50.0* M] Wash unit type: EYE1- single outlet eyewash unit *EYE2*- double outlet eyewash unit FACE- face wash unit COMB- combination eye and face wash unit Drain requirement: *YES*, NO High density polyethylene pipe, fusion bonded Pipe length: Min: 1.0 FEET [0.35 M] Pipe diameter: 2-54 INCHES DIAM [50-1350 MM DIAM] Design gauge pressure: Default: based on SDR and temperature Temperature: Default: 73 DEG F [23 DEG C] Configuration: *BURIED*, ABOVE Depth of buried pipe: 24-120 INCHES [600-3000 MM] Number of Elbows: Default: *0* Number of Reducers: Default: *0* Number of Wyes: Default: *0* Number of Yes: Default: *0* Number of Blinds: Default: *0* Sanitary flow diversion panel Panel consists of pipe with swivelling elbow (must be positioned manually) used to divert flow to one of four pipes. If included, proximity sensor identifies position of elbow. Quick disconnects are used to connect elbow with downstream pipe. Used in the sanitary industry. Panel enclosures are stainless steel for sanitation. Custom Pipe Spec: enter either Custom Pipe Spec (see Design Basis) or material, not both. Default: 304 PS - Continued on next page FLO PANEL HDPE PIPE Type

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Description FLO PANEL - continued Material: *304PS*- SS304, sanitary grade pipe material 316PS- SS316, sanitary grafe pipe material Material selection is for piping (wetted part) only; enclosure material is SS316. Pipe diameter: Standard pipe diameters between1.50 INCHES [40.0 MM] and 4.00 INCHES [100 MM] Panel type: *DWALL*- Double wall type panel SWALL- Single wall type panel No. stations/panel: MIN: *2*; MAX: 8 Proximity sensors: NO- No proximity sensors will be provided *YES*- Proximity sensors will be provided Clamp connections: select clamp connection type for front (U-bend) side *CB*- Cherry-Burrel couplings TC- Tri-Clover couplings No. of extra U-bends: Default: *0* Ferrules on outlet: *NO*- No ferrule will be provided YES- Ferrules will be provided Clamp type for back side is the same as front side when ferrules are provided. Type

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Pipe Diameters
(Inch - Pound diameters are for ANSI B36.19)
INCHES 0.51 .75 1 1.251 1.51 2 2.51 3 3.51 4 51 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 48 542 602 722
1 2

MM 51 20 25 32 401 50 651 80 901 100 1251 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 750 900 1050 1200 13502 15002 18002

Non-standard pipe sizes are not created by models unless specified. Elbows and tees are fabricated from like-diameter pipe. Estimate includes more welds to fabricate fittings.

Pipe Schedule
Use ANSI B36.10 for all materials, all country locations. Exceptions: Japan - does have schedule 20SS 0.5 - 12 INCHES diameter. Japan - schedule 40, 60, 80, and 100SS > 20 INCHES diameter is much thinner.

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Standard Equations for Pipe Diameter (Old)


Liquid Lines GPM Range 0 - 90 91 - 250 251 - 500 501 - 1000 1001 - 2000 2001 - 3000 3001 - 4000 > 4000 Velocity 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Slurry Lines GPM Range 0 - 3000 3001 - 5000 5001 - 7000 > 7000 Velocity 3 5 7 8

Diameter = 0.6384*(GPM/Velocity)**0.5 IF (Diameter > 4.0) THEN Diameter = Diameter - 1.00 ELSE Diameter = Diameter - 0.25

Gas Lines Minimum Flowrate = 100000.0 Maximum Flowrate = 1.0E07 Flowrate LBS/HR X1 = 1.0E05 X2 = 1.0E07 for velocity calculations for velocity calculations Velocity FPS Y1 = 30.0 Y2 = 100.0

Velocity=Log-Log

Specific Volume = 10.73*(Fahrenheit+460.0)/(Molewt*(Pressure+15.0)) Diameter = 0.226*((Flowrate*Specific Volume)/Velocity)**0.50 IF (Diameter > 18.0) Use one pipe size smaller

Steam Lines Minimum Flowrate = 10000.0 Maximum Flowrate = 1.0E06 Flowrate LBS/HR X1 = 1.0E04 X2 = 1.0E06 for velocity equations for velocity equations Velocity FPS Y1=20.0 Y2=100.0

Velocity = Log-Log

TempSteam = 100.0*(Pressure+30.0)**0.25 SpecificVolume = 0.596*(TempSteam+460.0)/(Pressure+15.0) Diameter = 0.226*(Flowrate*SpecificVolume/Velocity)**0.50 IF (Diameter > 18.0) Use one pipe size smaller

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Standard Equations for Pipe Diameter (Old) - continued


Relief Lines SQ INCHES 0.196 1.287 2.853 6.38 16.0 26.0 DIAM INCHES 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 8.0

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Standard Equations for Pipe Diameter (New)


The new line sizing models are characterized by a maximum pipe velocity criterion and a maximum pressure drop criterion, as listed below:
Parameter Pipe Velocity Equation V V max P 100 P max Remarks V = flow Velocity; Vmax = maximum velocity given below; P max is the allowable maximum pressure drop per 100ft, given below

Pressure Drop (psi per 100 ft.)

Application Liquid Lines

Maximum Velocity V max = 100 p 10.5 Where: Vmax = Maximum allowable velocity liquid (FT/S) A = Maximum velocity multiplier liquid( FT/S) Default = 100 B = Maximum velocity exponent liquid Default = 0.5 Pl = Pressure liquid(Psia) Vmax = A/Pl

Maximum Pressure Drop Per 100 ft. P max = 1 psi

B
P max = 0.224 + 0.00172 P + 0.0000034 P2 where P is the operating pressure in psia.

Gas Lines

V max = 100 p v0.5

Steam Lines Centrifugal Pump Suction PD & Gear Pump Suction All Pump Discharge

V max = 100 p s0.5 V max = 5 ft/s V max = 1.5 ft/s Table as a function of Pipe Diameter V max = 3 ft/s

P max = 1 psi P max = 1 psi P max = 1 psi

P max = 3 psi

Tower Reboiler

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Standard Equations for Pipe Diameter (NEW) - continued


Name Equation Flare Stack inlet header V max = 0.75* Sonic Velocity Pipe Diameter Liquid Vapor** d=12*(4*gpm/(X*7.481*60*Vmax))0.5 d=0.226*(flowrate*specificvolume/Vmax)0.5 Where: Vmax = Maximum allowable velocity - liquid (FT/S) A = Maximum velocity multiplier - liquid( FT/S) Default = 100 B = Maximum velocity exponent - liquid Default = 0.5 Pl = Pressure - liquid(Psia) Vmax = A/Pl Friction Factor Vapor/Liquid

f=2*[(8/NRE)12 + 1/(C1+C2)1.5]0.0833 where: C1={2.457*ln[1/((7NRE)0.9+(0.27*( /(d/12))))]}16 C2=(37530/NRE)16

( d 12 ) v N RE = ------------------------ (abs. roughness) = 0.00015ft (Commercial steel/wrought iron)


v (liquid velocity) = 0.4085*gpm/d2 v (vapor velocity) = 0.051076* flowrate*specificvolume/d2

(liquid density) = lb/ft3 (liquid viscosity) = cP*6.7197*10-4


d = pipe ID, inches

Frictional pressure drop P 100 ( 2f v 2 ) - = (psi per 100 ft) 100 d - 144 gc Vapor/Liquid 12 Vapor Density

=((Pi+14.696)*MW)/(10.73*(Ti+460))
where: Pi=Operating Pressure, psig Ti= Operating Temperature, oF MW=Molecular Weight

18 Piping (G10)

47

Standard Equations for Pipe Diameter (NEW) - continued


Name Vapor Viscosity Equation

g =K*10-4*EXP(X* s y)
where: ( 9.4 + 0.02 MW ) ( T i + 460 ) K = -----------------------------------------------------------------------209 + 19 MW + ( T i + 460 ) y=2.4 0.2*X (520/14.696)*(Pi+14.696)/Ti+460)*1/62.428
1.5

X=3.5+(986/Ti+460)+0.01*MW

s , Standard density=(MW/28.97)*0.0764*

Pressure Drop Steam

P ( 3.36 10 ) f ( flowrate ) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 100 5 100 (d )


2 1 f = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 Log ( ( d 12 ) ) Log ( ( d 12 ) ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 3.7 ( 5.02 N RE ) 3.7 + ( 13 N RE ) where:

Friction Factor, Steam

( d 12 ) v N RE = ------------------------

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18 Piping (G10)

Maximum Flow Velocity as a function of Pipe Diameter for Pump Discharge (Fluid Specific Gravity = 1)
Pipe Diameter (inches) 1 1.5 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Maximum Velocity (fps) 10.5 11.0 11.1 11.3 11.6 12.0 12.2 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 13.0 13.1

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49

Utility Piping Services


Utility headers are sized based upon the following: The Utility Header Diameter Symbol (L,M,H,V) as specified for Plant Bulk Utility Piping will give diameters for each service as tabulated in the following table. By specifying the desired diameter for that service. If the Utility Header Symbol is designated, then a run of each service line is provided by the system in default of a non-specified diameter. The default diameter corresponding to the service type is listed in the table below.

A user-specified diameter for a service header overrides the diameter associated with the Utility Header Diameter Symbol. Service headers may be omitted by:
Specifying 0.0 diameter for the undesired service. Omitting the Utility Diameter Symbol, whereby only diameter-specified headers are provided. These items are cost accounted to the same COAs as process piping. Service Symbol Type Water F (b) F (b) P C L (i) M (i) H (i) P I F I CS (b) FL US Firewater - loop Firewater - lateral Potable water Cooling water and return line Steam* Low pressure steam Medium pressure steam High pressure steam Air Plant air Instrument air Gas Fuel gas Inert gas Other Chemical sewer Flare line Utility station (see diagram) 8[200] 10[250] 12[300] 14[350] excluded 10[250] 14[350] 16[400] 24[600] excluded 1 [25] 1 [25] 1 [25] 1 [25] 2 [50] 2 [50] 2 [50] 2 [50] 4[100] 4[100] 6[150] 6[150] excluded excluded 2 [50] 2 [50] 3 [80] 2 [50] 4[100] 3 [80] 6[150] [100] excluded excluded 3 [80] 3 [80] 3 [80] 4[100] 4[100] 4[100] 8[200] 8[200] 6[150] 12[300] excluded 12[300] excluded 8 [200] excluded 6[150] 4[100] 2 [50] 6[150] 8[200] 6[150] 2 [50] 8[200] 12[300] 6 [150] 4 [100] 12[300] 16[400] 6 [150] 6 [150] 14[350] excluded excluded excluded excluded Nominal Pipe Diameter: INCHES [MM] Diameter Symbol L M H V -

*One condensate return line is provided upon selection of any combination of steam services. (b) Buried (i) Insulated

50

18 Piping (G10)

Utility Station Diagram

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51

Default Piping Materials


Equipment Fabrication Materials Temperature Range* F all C all A 106 (up to 2 INCHES [50 MM] A 53 (2 INCHES [50mm] and larger) 304P A333A A 106 (up to 2 INCHES [50 MM] A 53 (2 INCHES [50 MM] and larger) A335C A335F 304P Material corresponding to processside cladding material. all all all all all Carbon steel - see above RBLCS TFELS Piping Material Symbol Questimate and Icarus Project Manager All Materials

Icarus 2000 and Icarus Project Evaluation All carbon and Low Alloy Steel -425 to 051 -50 to -21 -20 to 650 -20 to 650 651 to 1000 1000 to 1200 1201 to 1500 -253 to -46 -45 to -29 -28 to 343 -28 to 343 344 to 537 538 to 648 649 to 815

Clad Vessels Lined Vessels: Brick or monolithic lined Lined Vessels: rubber lined

all Lined Vessels: organic (except rubber), glass, lead zinc lines High Alloy Steel (Stainless) Aluminum Copper and Copper Alloys; Except for HE and RB HE and RB only HASTELLOY INCONEL KARBATE (graphite) MONEL Nickel Titanium Wood -425 to 650 651 to 1500 -425 to 650 651 to 1500 -20 to 400

-252 to 343 344 to 815 -253 to 148 -28 to 204 -28 to 204

304P 316P AL

CU Carbon Steel - see above all all all all all all all all all all all all all all all HAST INCNL TFELS MONEL N TI TFELS 316P

Expoxy/Polypropylene (PPL) all

The maximum temperature for any pipe material will not exceed the maximum temperature for the corresponding plate material listed in Chapter 28.

52

18 Piping (G10)

Pipe Materials - Ferrous Materials


Carbon Steel (COA 310 - 319)
System Material Symbol ASTM BS JIS DIN Composition Recommended Length Type** Maximum Temperature Degrees* F A 53 or CS A-53 (B) 3601 G3454 ERW410 STPG G3452 SGP ERW410 STPG G3452 SGP G3456 STPT 17172 StE240.7 1100 593 C 1

GALV

(B)

StE240.7

Galvanized CS 1100

593

A 106 or CS A - 106 3602 (B) HFS410 A33A A-333 (6)

17175 St45.8

1100 1100

593 593

1 1

3603 G3460 SEQW-680 410LT50 STPL380 TTSt35N

* The maximum temperature for any pipe material will not exceed the maximum temperature for the corresponding plate material listed in Chapter 28. ** See Length Types.

API Pipe (COA 310-319)


System Material Symbol ASTM BS JIS DIN Composition Recommended Length Type** Maximum Temperature Degrees* F GRBW*** X42W X52W X60W X65W 5L/5LS 3601 G3454 ERW410 STPG 17172 StE240.7 1100 1100 1100 1100 1100 593 593 593 593 593 C 1 1 1 1 1

* The maximum temperature for any pipe material will not exceed the maximum temperature for the corresponding plate material listed in Chapter 28. ** See Length Types. *** For GRBS (GR.B seamless), select GRBW (GR.B welded) as the system material symbol and then select Seamless in the Pipe Type Field.

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53

Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel (All COA 320-329, except A##C COA 310-319)
System Material Symbol ASTM BS JIS DIN Composition Recommended Length Type** Maximum Temperature Degrees* F C 648 648 648 648 1 1 1 1

A-335 3604
A335B A335C A335D A335F (12) (11) (22) (5) 620-440 621 622 625

G3458 17175
STPA22 STPA23 STPA24 STPA25 13CrMo44 13CrMo44 10CrMo910 12CrMo195G 1Cr - .5Mo 2.25Cr-1Mo 1200 1200 1200 I.25CR-.5Mo-Si 1200

Low Temperature Service A-333 3603


A33C (3) 503LT10 0

Min. Temp F
3.5Ni -150

G3460

SEW680

C
-101 1

STPL450 10Ni14

* The maximum temperature for any pipe material will not exceed the maximum temperature for the corresponding plate material listed in Chapter 28. ** See Length Types.

Random lengths assumed for pipe of different materials and diameters.

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18 Piping (G10)

High Alloy Steel (COA 320-329)


System Material Symbol ASTM BS JIS DIN Composition Recommended Length Type** Maximum Temperature Degrees* F 304P 304LP 316P 316LP 321P 6MOP A-312 TP 304 3605 G3459 304S18 SUS304TP 2462 X5CrNi1810 2462 X2CrNi1911 18Cr-8Ni 18Cr-8Ni 1500 1500 815 815 815 815 815 750 C 1 1 1 1 1 1

A312 3605 G3459 TP 304L 304S14 SUS304LTP A-312 TP 316 3606 G3459 316S18 SUS316TP

2462 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 1500 X5CrNiMo17122 2462 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 1500 X2CrNiMo17132 2462 X6CrNiTi1810 18Cr-10Ni-Ti 1500

A-312 3605 G3459 TP 316L 316S14 SUS316LTP A-312 TP 321 3605 G3459 321S18 SUS321TP

A-312 3605 G3459 2463 20Cr-18Ni-6Mo 1382 TP 317L 316S22 SUS317LTP-A X2CrNiMo18143 Guage Pipe (Very Light Wall) A-312 TP 304 A-312 TP 316 3605 G3459 304S18 SUS304TP 3605 G3459 316S18 SUS316TP 3605 G3459 304S18 SUS304TP 3605 G3459 316S18 SUS316TP 2462 X5CrNi1810 18Cr-8Ni 1500

304PG 316PG

815 815

2 2

2462 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 1500 X5CrNiMo17122 2462 X5CrNi1810 18Cr-8Ni 1500

Sanitary Pipe (Polished, Quick Disconnects) 304PS*** A-312 TP 304 316PS*** A-312 TP 316 815 3 3

2462 16Cr-12Ni-Mo X5CrNiMo17122

* The maximum temperature for any pipe material will not exceed the maximum temperature for the corresponding plate material listed in Chapter 28. ** See Length Types. ***<axo,i, 200 PSIG (1,375 KPA)

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55

Pipe Materials - Non-Ferrous Materials


Non-Ferrous Materials (COA 330-339)
System ASTM Material Symbol BS JIS DIN Composition Recommended Length Type* Maximum * Temperature Degrees* F AL B-241 1474 H4080 1746 Aluminum U.S to 10 INCHES [250 MM] A96961 6061 A6061T U.S above 10 INCHES [250 MM] and all others B-42 2871 C10200 C103 B-161 3074 N02200 NA11 B-165 3074 N04400 NA13 B-167 N06600 B-337 R50400 B-619 N10276 B-464 N08020 B-658 R60702 H4630 TTP35 H4552 NMCr 17850 H3300 C1020T H4552 NNCT H4552 NCuT 1754 OF-Cu 17740 Ni99.2 17751 NiCu30Fe Copper Nickel 99Ni Monel 67Ni-30Cu Inconel 72Ni-15Cr-8Fe Titanium 350 176 C 1

CU N MONEL INCNL TI HAST A 20 ZR

400 600 800 1200 600 1250

204 315 426 648 315 676 426 371

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

17751 Hastelloy NiMo16Cr15 54Ni-16Mo-15Cr

Alloy 20 800 35Ni-35Fe-20Cr-Cb Zirconium 99.2Zr 700

* The maximum temperature for any pipe material will not exceed the maximum temperature for the corresponding plate material listed in Chapter 28. ** See Length Types.

56

18 Piping (G10)

Plastic and Resin Materials


(COA 350-359)
Recommended Maximum Temperature DEG C Length C Type* 125

Material Class

Pipe Material

System Material DEG F Symbol F FRP 260

Plastics and Resins Fiberglass Reinforced ** Epoxy Resin Polyvinyl Chloride, Maximum 8 INCHES [200 MM}diameter Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride, Maximum 8 INCHES [200 MM] diameter * See below for Length Types ** Thickness/schedule not adjustable

PVC

140

60

CPVC

200

93

Type 10 FEET [3 M] 1 2 3 4 5 All D All D 15 FEET [4.6 M]

Length 20 FEET [6.1 M] < = 1.5 INCHE All D 30 FEET [9.1 M] > 1.5 INCHE All D

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57

Lined Steel Pipe


(COA 340-349) Lined piping of the materials in the following table are developed irrespective of the equipment or pipe temperature. The user must give consideration to temperature-material selections for these materials, as the system does not produce a warning or error condition if the recommended maximum temperature is exceeded.
Recommended Maximum Temperature Degrees Spool C Type*

Lined Steel Remote shop fabricated carbon steel pipe and fittings, lined with: Epoxy Glass Natural rubber, (1/4 INCHES [6 MM] thick Nitrile rubber (1/4 INCHES [6 MM] thick Hypalon rubber (1/4 INCHES [6 MM] thick Butyl rubber (1/4 INCHES [6 MM] thick) Neoprene rubber (1/4 INCHES [6 MM] thick Ebonite (1/4 INCHES [6 MM] thick Cement Polypropylene Polyvinylidene Fluoride (KYNAR) Polyvinylidene Chloride (SARAN) Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP TEFLON) Polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE TEFLON) Remote shop fabricated stainless steel pipe and fittings, lined with: Polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE TEFLON)

System Material Degrees Symbol F

EPLCS GSLCS RBLCS NITRL HYPLN BUTYL NEPNE EBONT CMLCS PPLCS* PVDF* PVDC FEP TFELS* TFESS*

260 450 175 175 175 175 175 175 225 275 175 400 450 450

125 230 80 80 80 80 80 80 110 135 80 200 230 230

4 2 4

1 1 3 4 1 1

* Can use bends up to 4 INCHES instead of elbows.

Spool Types
Spool Type 1 2 Spool Diameter All < = 1 INCH > 1 and < 2 INCH > 2 INCH All All Default Spool Length 20 FEET [6.1 M] 2 FEET [0.6 M] 6 FEET [1.9M] 10 FEET [3.1M] 10 FEET [3.1M] 20 FEET [6.1 M] Maximum Spool Length 40 FEET [12 M] 2 FEET [0.6 M] 6 FEET [1.9M] 10 FEET [3.1M] 10 FEET [3.1M] 20 FEET [6.1 M]

3 4

58

18 Piping (G10)

Icarus systems automatically include two flanges per spool. For yard pipe (Plant bulks - YARD PIPE), specifying the number of flanges overrides the default. An error message appears if the number of flanges you specified causes the spool piece to exceed the maximum length for that particular spool piece type and diameter. For installation bulk piping (Component - Pipe Item Details), specifying the number of flanges overrides the default. If the number of flanges specified causes the spool piece to exceed the maximum length for that particular spool piece type and diameter, the default spool length is used. However, the system will not generate a message that there are too few flanges. The spool pieces are shipped pre-flanged and ready for bolt-up to valves and flanged fittings in the field. The following is a yard pipe example: Yard Pipe Example:
20 FEET [61 M] Yard Pipe 10 INCHES diameter System generates: 10 sections Spool length = 20 FEET [6.1 M] 200 FEET [61 M] Yard Pipe 10 INCHES diameter User enters: System generates: 5 Sections Spool lengths = 40 FEET [12 M} TFELS (material) 20 flanges TFELS (Material) 10 flanges 10 flanges

200 FEET Yard Pipe 10 INCHES diameter TFELS (Material) User enters: 8 flanges System generates: ERROR: Too few flanges on this run of pipe System cannot generate this run of year pipe. When the user enters 8 flanges, the system tries to break the yard pipe into 4 sections (Spools):

The Spool Type Chart indicates that TFELS is a Type 1 spool and cannot exceed a maximum length of 40 FEET [12 M] on a single spool piece; therefore, the system generates an error message.

- Continued on next page -

18 Piping (G10)

59

Yard Pipe Example - continued


To determine the minimum number of flanges on a spool piece of yard pipe: 1) Determine the length of the pipe. 2) Determine the Spool Type. 3) Look at the maximum length of spool for the spool type. Calculate: Minimum Number of flanges = (Length of Pipe / Maximum Length) x2 Example: Material =

60

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61

62

18 Piping (G10)

18 Piping (G10)

63

Icarus Pipe Fabrication, Erection and Testing Procedures


Code of Account 3X2 FIELD SHOP FAB (312-CS, 322-SS, etc.) Icarus Operation HANDLE AND WELD PREP OPER. Shop handling for fabrication Unload from train/truck into shop storage procure material for favrication; place completed spools in temporary storage. Prepare for welding (clean, pickle, etc.); smooth weld (deburr/ grink), and clean-up For temperatures up to 400F [204C] Flame cut pipe- plain end Machine cut pipe - plain end Flame bevel pipe for welding Machine bevel pipe for welding Manual butt weld Dig out & re-weld bad Xray welds Radiographic inspection Local stress, relieving User specified User specified What is Included

Weld prep

Pre-heating CUTTING PIPE Flame cutting Machine cutting BEVELING PIPE Flame beveling Machine beveling WELDING (shop) Butt weld Repari bad x-ray welds FIELD SHOP X-RAY FIELD SHOP STRESS RELIEF TESTING, MISC. CLEANING Clean & polish Other testing 3X4 REMOTE SHOP FAB (3140CS, 324-SS, etc.)

[Operations same as Field Shop] [Cost accounted as material cost]

64

18 Piping (G10)

Icarus Pipe Fabrication, Erection and Testing Procedures - continued


Code of Account Icarus Operation What is Included Handle and erect fabricated spool pieces; includes handle and haul from storage yard, unload and rig in place and align. Field handle valves, orifice unions, etc. Field attach flanges and do bolt-ups Same item as Erect Shop Fab Pipe Same Same Same Same Same Same items items items items items items as as as as as as Field Field Field Field Field Field Shop Shop Shop Shop Shop Shop Fab Fab Fab Fab Fab Fab 3X7 PIPE ERECTION ERECT SHOP FAB PIPE (317-CS, 327-SS, etc.)

ERECT VALVE BOLT UP CONNECTIONS ERECT STRAIGHT RUN PIPE WELDING (field) Flame cutting Machine cutting Flame beveling Machine beveling Butt weld Repair bad X-ray welds FIELD X-RAY FIELD STRESS RELEIF 307 PREFAB PIPE REWORK 306 PIPING SYSTEM TESTING REPAIR & ADJ PREFAB PIPE PIPE TESTING (field only) Hydrostatic testing

Same items as Field Shop Fab Same items as Field Shop Fab 10% of all shop man-hours (12.5% in UK) Prepare for test (place blinds & blanks, open valves, support items, air purge, etc.); test (fill, pressurize and monitor lines, soap test joints); clean up after test (drain lines, remove temporary items, close valves, etc.)

18 Piping (G10)

65

Valve and Fitting Options for Installation Bulk Piping


Selections of available valves and fittings on installation bulk piping are listed alphabetically below, with those available for standard piping materials listed separately from those available only for sanitary piping materials. These choices are available only on installation bulk piping (Piping - Line Item Detail) or when adding installation bulk piping through the use of the P&ID editor on Icarus 2000 systems.
Description Symbol For Standard Piping Materials (all available piping materials except 304PS and 316PS) Angle valve Ball valve Blind Butterfly valve Check valve DI or SS Victaulic coupling (Vict. Pipe only Elbow Expansion joint Extra drains* Gate valve Globe valve Knife gate valve None Plug valve Reducer Regulating valve Rupture disk Safety/relief valve Spectacle blind Strainer Steam trap Tee Temperature valve Threadolet Transition joint at material change PL RE RV RD SV SB ST TP TE TV TL TR AN BA BL BU CH VS EL ST DR GA GL KN

Flange (exclude valve flanges, set by system)** FL

**Drain is defined as a fitting assembly composed of three elbows, one gate valve, and 10 FEET (3 M) of 0.75 INCH (20 mm) pipe. However, the user can select the diameter, length, number of fittings, and type of fittings (a maximum of four different types) at the project level. *Flange costs include cost of gaskets and bolts.

66

18 Piping (G10)

Valve and Fitting Options for Installation Bulk Piping - continued


Description Butterfly valve - sanitary, max 8 IN[200 MM] Check valve - sanitary, max 4 IN[100 MM] Cross - sanitary, max 8 IN[200 MM] Elbow (45 degree)-sanitary, max 8 IN[200 MM] Elbow (90 degree)-sanitary, max 8 IN[200 MM] Flange - sanitary (exclude valve flanges) Hose adapter -sanitary, max 4 IN[100 MM] Pipe adapter-sanitary, max 4 IN[100 MM] Quick-joint conn. -sanitary, max 4 IN[100 MM] Reducer (concen.)-sanitary, max 8 IN[200 MM] Reducer (eccen.)-sanitary, max 8 IN[200 MM] Safety valve - sanitary, max 4 IN[100 MM] Swivel-joint conn. -sanitary, max 4 IN[100 MM] Tee - sanitary, max 8 IN[200 MM] Threadolet - sanitary Symbol BU CH CR 45 EL FL HA PA QJ RE ER SV SJ TE TL

For Sanitary Piping Materials (304PS and 316PS) Only

**Drain is defined as a fitting assembly composed of three elbows, one gate valve, and 10 FEET (3 M) of 0.75 INCH (20 mm) pipe. However, the user can select the diameter, length, number of fittings, and type of fittings (a maximum of four different types) at the project level. *Flange costs include cost of gaskets and bolts.

18 Piping (G10)

67

Valve Trim Specifications


The valve trim specifications in Aspen Icarus custom pipe specifications are based on the API-600 specification. The API-600 specifications pertain to steel gate valves only, but Aspen Icarus extends these valve trim specifications to apply to gate, globe and check valves. Aspen Icarus has implemented a subset of the specification based on the data available. The table below provides a summary of the differences between the trim choices. Please refer to the specification for further information. Definition of Aspen Icarus Valve Trim Specifications
API-600 Trim Number Trim Definition TRIM 01 F6 Nominal Trim Comments Default trim for all Carbon Steel Gate, Globe and Check valves Default Trim for all SS Gate, Globe and Check Valves Cobalt-chromium alloy seats Default for Monel valves Default for SS 316 Valves

TRIM 02 TRIM 05 TRIM 08 TRIM 09 TRIM 10 TRIM 12

SS 304 Trim Hard Faced Trim F6 and Hard Faced Monel Trim SS 316 Trim SS316 Trim + Hard faced

Note that selecting a trim that has a lower number than the default trim for that valve body material will be ignored (e.g., selecting TRIM 01 for a Monel valve is not valid, you must select TRIM 09,10,12). Also, these specs do not apply to control valves. Please contact Aspen Icarus if you are interested in working with us to extend the list of choices to address your requirements.

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69

70

18 Piping (G10)

19 Civil

(G8)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Civil Plant Bulks Foundation Types Typical Structure Live Loads Soil Types Specifying Seismic Data How Icarus Calculates Wind Load and Seismic Shear Example of Equipment Foundation Design Example of Pile Foundation for an Equipment

19 Civil (G8)

19-1

Civil Plant Bulks


Civil plant bulk items include concrete tanks, foundations and structures.
Description Concrete tanks: above grade, circular/rectangular Shape symbol: CYLIN- Cylindrical tank RECT- Rectangular tank Inside length or diameter: Enter length for rectangular tanks or diameter for cylindrical tanks. Inside width: Enter length for rectangular tanks, leave blank for cylindrical tanks. Fluid density: Default: *62.4* PCF [*1,000* KG/M3] Foundation thickness: Min: 4.0 INCHES [100 MM] Wall thickness top: Min: 4.0 INCHES [100 MM] Wall thickness bottom: Min: 4.0 INCHES [100 MM] Soil type: See Soil Types later in this chapter. Type ABVGR TANK

19-2

19 Civil (G8)

Civil Plant Bulks - continued


Description Concrete tanks: below grade, circular/rectangular Shape symbol: CYLIN- Cylindrical tank RECT- Rectangular tank Inside length or diameter: Enter length for rectangular tanks or diameter for cylindrical tanks. Inside width: Enter length for rectangular tanks, leave blank for cylindrical tanks. Fluid density: Default: *62.4* PCF [*1,000* KG/M3] Foundation thickness: Min: 4.0 INCHES [100 MM] Wall thickness top: Min: 4.0 INCHES [100 MM] Wall thickness bottom: Min: 4.0 INCHES [100 MM] Height above ground: Enter height that wall projects above grade. Default: Top flush with grade *0.0*. Soil type: See Soil Types later in this chapter. Include allowance (material and labor) for shoring if soil type is SAND or poorer; full exposed surface and depth is shored. No equipment rental included. Concrete foundations, structures: 18 types (see Foundation Types later in this chapter) Various types of concrete items. Material quantities are per item. If using Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, see Aspen Capital Cost Estimator Users Guide, Chapter 10, Administrative Operations, for information on customizing foundation data by using an external file to define foundation quantities, man-hours, and costs. Concrete quantity: Enter design quantity, overpour will be added based on item type. Foundation type: See Foundation Types later in this chapter. Excavation quantity: Default: Excavation, formwork and rebar based on concrete quantity and type. Rebar quantity: Default: Excavation, formwork and rebar based on concrete quantity and type. Formwork quantity: Default: Excavation, formwork and rebar based on concrete quantity and type. - Continued on next page CONCRETE Type BELGR TANK

19 Civil (G8)

19-3

Civil Plant Bulks - continued


Description CONCRETE - continued Grout quantity: Default: *0.0* CY [*0.0* M3]. Non-shrink grout. Anchors and embedments: Default: = 0 if grout = 0; determined from concrete quantity if external civil file exists, or else determined from grout quantity. Sealcoat or liner type: SC- Sealcoat GM- Standard geosynthetic membrane C1- Bentonite clay liner - 1 membrane C2- Bentonite clay liner - 2 membranes *NO*- No sealcoat or membrane liner Sealcoat or liner area: Default 0.0 SY Membrane thickness: Default 0.060 INCHES [1.50 MM]; Min: 0.020 INCHES [0.500 MM]; Max: 0.120 [3.0 MM] Type

1 2 3 4 5 6

Calculate foundation footprint surface area. Convert to a square of equivalent size. Excavated footprint = equivalent square + allowance [Width] for formwork. Depth of footing [to the frostline] in your Project Civil Design Basis = 1 FOOT Blinding slab covers the footprint of the equivalent-sized square. User can specify the excavation slope in the project and area level civil specs. By default, Icarus calculates excavation slope based on soil type.

19-4

19 Civil (G8)

Civil Plant Bulks - continued


Description Scaffold labor: erect, dismantle Temporary tubular steel scaffold, rental excluded. Default plank area = L x W. Concrete drainage trench, grate cover Average invert depth: Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM] Trench width: Default: *12* INCHES [*300* MM] Tank containment with concrete paving and surrounding wall with coating Depth of paving: Default: *8* INCHES [*200* MM] Wall height: Default: *3* FEET [*0.900* M] Wall thickness: Default: *12* INCHES [*300* MM] Number of stairways: Access stairway over wall. Default: *2*. Sealcoat option: Default: *YES* YES- Concrete sealer coating required NO- No sealer coating Tank containment with diked area and geomembrane DIKE MEMBR Contained length: Length, width and depth of diked area. Contained width: Length, width and depth of diked area. - Continued on next page CONTAINMNT TRENCH Type SCAFFOLD

19 Civil (G8)

19-5

Civil Plant Bulks - continued


Description DIKE MEMBR - continued Contained depth: Length, width and depth of diked area. Default: *4* FEET [*1.20* M] Imported fill depth: Imported fill for membrane bedding and/or protective cover. Default: *12* INCHES [*300* MM] Unit cost of fill: Imported fill for membrane bedding and/or protective cover. Default: *0.0* currency/CY [*0.0* currency/ M3] Membrane thickness: Range: 0.020 - 0.120 INCHES [0.500 - 300 MM]; Default: *0.060* INCHES [*1.50* MM] Membrane liner type: *GM*- Standard geosynthetic membrane liner C1- Bentonite clay liner - 1 membrane C2- Bentonite clay liner - 2 membrane sandwich NO- No geosynthetic membrane liner Type

19-6

19 Civil (G8)

Civil Plant Bulks - continued


Description Above grade or buried yard piping See Chapter 18, Piping Above grade or buried piping See Chapter 18, Piping High density polyethylene pipe, fusion bonded See Chapter 18, Piping Buried concrete pipe See Chapter 18, Piping Building See Chapter 26, Buildings Organic, metallic, abrasion resist. lining Material: *EPLCS*- Epoxt resin lining ASRSN- Asphalt resin lining PHRSN- Phenolic resin lining PVDF- Kynar sheet lining TFELS- Teflon sheet lining BUTYL - Butyle rubber sheet 1/4 INCH [6 MM] NATRB- Natural rubber sheet 1/4 INCH [6 MM] NITRL- Nitrile rubber sheet 1/4 INCH [6 MM] HYPLN- Hypalon rubber sheet 1/4 INCH [6 MM] NEPNE- Neoprene sheet 1/4 INCH [6 MM] CLEAD- Chemical lead 16 PSF [80 KG/M2] I-ZN- Inorganic zinc coat 3 MIL [0.08 MM] ZNMZL- Flame sprayed zinc 8 MIL [0.20 MM] CERML- Ceramic liner, light abrasion and impact CERMM- Ceramic liner, med. abrasion, light impact CERMH- Ceramic liner, hvy. abrasion, light impact CERMV- Ceramic liner, hvy. abrasion, heavy impact ABRPL- Abrasion resistant plate 1 INCH [25 MM] REPRB- Replaceable rubber lining 1 INCH [25 MM] LS304- Replaceable SS304 plate 1 INCH [25 MM] LS316- Replaceable SS316 plate 1 INCH [25 MM] Lining adjustment: *4.00*; MIN: 1.00; MAX: 10.0; Adjustment: 1=large flat area, 4=typical; 10=small obstructed area, congested space LINING RCON PIPE BUILDING HDPE PIPE Type YARD PIPE

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Civil Plant Bulks - continued


Description Pipe rack See Chapter 20, Steel Tee or bent type pipe sleepers See Chapter 20, Steel Open Concrete Structure Precast or Cast-in-place concrete open structure. The default structure type is Precast. Structure can have combination of grating and concrete floor slab. In Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, you can load equipment into an open structure by assigning the structure and the equipment the same Structure Tag Number. See chapter 20, "Open Steel Structure". Concrete structure to support equipments with the option of cast-in-place or precast structure. Includes columns, beams, floor slab, grating, siding, handrail and toeplates, stairways, lighting, electrical panelboard and supply wiring/conduit. The number of levels, if not specified is determined from the total height and a level-to-level spacing of 15 FEET [4.5 M]. The bay span and bay width represent the typical column spacing and is used to determine the number of columns and column load. You can load equipment into an open structure by assigning the structure and the equipment, the same User Tage Number (Refer Open steel structure) Number of Floors: Default: based on structure height and approximate floor height of 15 FEET [4.5M] Distributed Load per Level: Default: 300 PSF [14 KN/M2] OPN CON ST PIPE SUPPT Type PIPE RACK

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19 Civil (G8)

Civil Plant Bulks - continued


Description OPN CON ST - continued Type

Structure Type: * PREC * - Precast concrete structure CONC - Cast-in-place concrete structure Concrete Type: Default: as specified in unit area civil specs. Bay span: Default: 20-25 FEET [6-7.6 M] Bay width: Default: 20-25 FEET [6-7.6 M] Number of stairways: Default: 1 + 1 per 5000 SF [500 M2] of area per floor Floor slab percent of area: Default: 75 Floor slab thickness: Concrete slab thickness. Default: If not specified, system calculates based on span and loading. Floor grate - percent of area: Default: 0 Grating type: Default: grating type from area steel specs Siding per wall area: Default: 0 Siding type: * CORR * - Corrugated siding NSUL - insulated siding Wind Force Adjustment: Additional adjustment for wind force specified in project civil design specs. Default: 1 Seismic Force Adjustment: Additional adjustment for seismic force specified in project civil design specs. Default: 1

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Foundation Types
Type 1 Symbol Type OCT+PROJ Description Octagon Slabs and Piers with Projection.

Foundation 2 OCTAGONL

Typical Application

Octagon Slabs and Piers without Projection.

Foundation 3 PAVING Area Paving.

Typical Application

Foundation 4 MASSPOUR

Typical Application

Mass Pours - Large Mats, Pile Caps, and Other Shapes - 25 CY [19 M3] minimum.

Foundation

Typical Application

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19 Civil (G8)

Foundation Types - continued


Type 5 Symbol Type SM BLOCK Description Small Blocks - Pumps, Compressors, 3 CY [2.3 M3] or less.

Foundation 6 LG BLOCK

Typical Application

Large Blocks - Large Compressors, Turbines 3-25 CY [2.3-1.9 M3].

Foundation 7 PILE CAPS

Typical Application

Pile Caps - 5 CY [3.8 M3] or less.

Foundation 8 CONDUIT Conduit Envelope.

Typical Application

Foundation 9 RING

Typical Application

Circular Ring Foundation - For Large Tanks.

Foundation

Typical Application

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Foundation Types - continued


Type 10 Symbol Type BASIN Description Basins.

Foundation 11 EL SLAB Elevated Slab.

Typical Application

Foundation 12 COLM/BM Columns and Beams.

Typical Application

Foundation 13 WALL Wall and Wall Footings.

Typical Application

Foundation 14 GRIND BM Grade Beam.

Typical Application

Foundation

Typical Application

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19 Civil (G8)

Foundation Types - continued


Type 15 Symbol Type PIER Description Piers.

Foundation 16 FOOTING Column Footings, Sleepers.

Typical Application

Foundation 17 BOX Valve Boxes, Manholes etc.

Typical Application

Foundation 18 SLAB GRB Slab on grade.

Typical Application

Foundation

Typical Application

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19-13

Typical Structure Live Loads


Typical Distributed Structure Loads PSF 50.0 150.0 300.0 [KB/M2] 2.5 7.0 14.0 Minimum possible design loading. Mostly access and platform areas, minor equipment support and stairways Designed for average elevated equipment supports, platform areas, and stairways; open construction used for most of the structure. Designed for heavy equipment supports, crane or catalyst loading structures, some covered construction (metal siding for potential wind loads), and outside freight. Elevators (lifts); equipment, cranes, elevators (lifts) not included. Remarks

450.0

21.0

600.0

28.0

Soil Types
Soil Type Soft dry clay in thick beds Firm dry clay Wet Sand Sand mixed with dry clay Dry compact sand Coarse compact sand Compact gravel Soft friable rock or shale formation Hardpan or compact sandstone beds Medium rock or granite formation Hard rock formation Soil Type Symbol SOFT CLAY FIRM CLAY WET SAND DRY SAND SAND GRAVEL SOFT ROCK HARDPAN MED-ROCK HARD ROCK Soil Loading PSF 2000 4000 4000 6000 8000 100 200 200 200 300 400 Soil Density KG/M3 960 1120 1920 1360 1600 1440 1520 1680 1700 1730 1760 60 70 120 85 100 90 95 105 106 108 110 KN/M2 PCF

SAND+CLAY 4000

12000 600 16000 800 20000 1000 30000 1400 80000 3800

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19 Civil (G8)

Specifying Seismic Data


There are three different ways to specify seismic data. The system actually uses acceleration (measured in g: 0.17 means 17% of "g") to get the seismic load. Therefore, the most accurate way of specifying your seismic design requirements is to specify the acceleration value to be designed for. Entering Mercalli Number or UBC Zone is less accurate because it forces the system to estimate Acceleration using the following table. UBC Zone 0 1 2A (A) 2B (2) 3 4 7 8 9,10,11,12 Mercalli number 1,2,3,4 5,6 Acceleration (g) 0.017 0.075 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40

How Icarus Calculates Wind Load and Seismic Shear


1) Wind Velocity The Wind Velocity to be entered is the Basic Wind Speed which is the 3second gust speed at 33 ft (10m) above ground. Icarus calculates the Wind Load profile along the height based on the ASCE Standard: Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Icarus uses a default Wind Exposure C and a Wind Velocity of 100 MPH [160 KMPH] at 33', which corresponds to a Wind load (velocity pressure qz) of 30 PSF. qz = 0.00256 Kz Kzt V * V * I (lb/sq ft) You can select Wind exposure [B, C, D] and Default Wind Exposure is C. Default Kzt=1.0 and Importance factor I=1.15. For Exposure "C", Kz=1.0 at 33' For V = 100 MPH and Exposure "C" qz=0.00256*1.0*1.0*100*100*1.15 = 29.5 PSF at 33': this is the default pressure (30 PSF) Icarus develops the Wind profile along the height as in the code and then calculate the wind load along the height. 2) Use of Wind Force Adjustment (default=1.0) If you want to make adjustments to the wind load or Kzt*I, it could be entered in Wind Force adjustment as a factor. Icarus also uses: Gust effect factor (Gf) = 1.0 for exposure C (not 0.85) Cf = 0.7 for Vertical Vessels and 1.4 for structures Additional Icarus factor: 1.10 Adjusted Pressure at 33' = qz* Cf* windadj*1.10

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3) Seismic acceleration (g) and Seismic Force Adjustment (default=1.0) Icarus use the input value of Peak Ground acceleration (measured in g: 0.17 means 17% of "g") directly to get the Seismic Shear. In the case of equipments, Icarus uses an additional factor of 1.1, Icarus does not make any other adjustments. Seismic Shear = Operating weight of Equipment * 1.10 * Seismic acceleration * SesmicForceAdjustment.

Example of Equipment Foundation Design


Vessel Dia. = 8' Height = 20' Allowable soil pressure = 4000 psf, Wind speed =100 MPH System Calculations: Wt of Vessel = 9300 lbs Moment due to wind = 124031 lb-ft Top Area reqd. = 0.828*(Dia + 2.0)**2 = 0.828*10*10 = 82.8 sf frost ht = 4.0 ft self wt of footing = top area * (frost+1) * 150.0 = 82.8*5.0*150.0 = 62100 lbs Total Weight = 9300 + 62100 = 71400 lbs eccentricity = 124031/71400 = 1.737' For the example above, and soil pressure, we have Type 2 footing, c.s. area = 82.8 is sufficient. This can be verified if we use the formula for square footing: 71400/(B**2) + 124031/(B**3 /6) = 4000 Concrete = 82.8* (frost+1)/27 = 15.33 CY For Type 2 Foundation: Contact Surface formwork = 15.0 sf/cy * 15.33 cy = 230 sf Back-up-lumber = 30.0 BF/cy * 15.33 cy = 460 BF Rebar quantity = 70 #/cy * 15.33 cy /2000 = 0.56 Tons Manhours: (need some adjustment based on the quantity unless external file is used) Formwork Fabrication = 0.08 mh /sf * 230 sf = 18*adj. = 22 Formwork Installation = (0.30*0.83)*230 = 57*adj. = 35 Formwork Strip & Clean = (0.30*0.17)*230 = 12*adj. = 12 Area = B*B

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19 Civil (G8)

Rebar Installation = 16.0/Ton * 0.56 = 9*adj.= 14 Pour & Finish Concrete = 2.0/CY * 15.33 = 30.66*adj = 30

Example of Pile Foundation for an Equipment


This is a sample calculation: Process equipment: VT CYLINDER Vessel Diameter = 12 feet Wind Speed = 100 MPH From Area Civil Specs for pile design: Footing depth (frost height) = 4 feet Pile Design Requirement = PILE; Pile Type = HP; Compressive Capacity=90 tons; Tensile capacity = 45 tons; Driven Depth = 60 feet; Pile Spacing = 4 feet; shear capacity = 2 tons Equipment Loading from System: Wt of Vessel = 20800 lbs Wind Force = 12695 lbs Moment due to wind = 260237 lb-ft base Area = 0.828*(Dia + 2.0)**2 = 0.828*14*14 = 162.288 sf Weight of Concrete = 133888 lbs D.L. with vessel empty = Weight of Vessel+Weight of Concrete + Weight of Soil (if there is projection) = 20800+133888+0 = 154688 lbs Weight of water (we assume 50% full for pile design) = 70573 lbs Maximum Weight = Empty weight + weight of Water = 154688+70573 = 225261 lbs Radius of Pile Group = (diameter - 1)/2.0 = 5.5 ft Minimum number of Piles = 4 (For individual foundations like piperack, open steel the minimum is 2 per column) Number of piles based on shear = (12695/2000) tons / 2tons= 4 Max. Number of piles possible based on spacing = 8 Height = 20 feet

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Start with 4 piles and then calculate the maximum load per pile based on the Vertical Load and Moment (for compression we use the Maximum weight, and for Tension we use the weight without water, the base moment here is the moment due to wind). Checks whether load per pile is less than allowable load. If it requires more than 8 piles, we try to provide a inner circle of piles. Number of piles required in this case = 4

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20 Steel

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Steel Plant Bulks How ICARUS Generates the Number of Column Struts

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Steel Plant Bulks


Steel plant bulks include structures, assemblies and components.
Description Open structure: columns/girders/beams/X-brace, grate, stairs Includes columns, girders, beams, cross-bracing, grating and column footings, handrail and toeplates, and stairways. Stairways are through-going, meaning each one extends from the top-most floor level down to the grate. The default design is bolted frame, for which bolted connections are provided. The design is changed to rigid frame if the user chooses FEM or F as the Analysis Type, in which case a rigid connection is provided. The number of levels, if not specified, is determined from the total height and a level-to-level spacing of 15 FEET [4.5 M], rounded to the nearest whole number; minimum of one level. The bay span and width represent the typical column spacing and is used to determine the number of columns and column load. The bay span is used to size the support beams, and bay width is used to size the main girders connecting to the columns. Type OPN STL ST

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Steel Plant Bulks - continued


Description OPN STL ST - continued The maximum number of open steel structures in an area is 10. In Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, you can load equipment into an open steel structure by assigning the structure and the equipment the same Structure Tag Number. The structure must be added to the area before the equipment, or else the system will generate an error. However, when the structures are evaluated, they appear at the end of the area's detailed design datasheet, equipment list, and detailed bulks. The system evaluates them last because the equipment that goes in the structures must be evaluated first before their calculated weights are added to the structure's loading. The flow chart on the following page shows the logic for hanging equipment in steel structures. Number of floors: Default: based on structure height and approximate floor height of 15 FEET [4.5 M]. Distributed load per level: Default: *300* PSF [*14.0* KN/M2] Bay span: Bay dimensions determine column spacing. Default: 20-25 FEET [6-7.6 M] each way. Bay width: Bay dimensions determine column spacing. Default: 20-25 FEET [6-7.6 M] each way. Number of stairways: Default: 1 + 1 per 5,000 SF [500 M2] of area per floor. Structural steel analysis: S- Simplified stress analysis F- 2D finite element rigid frame analysis (required if a rigid frame analysis with deflection check is desired) Column base option: FIXED- Rigid connection at column base. *PINNED*- Pinned connection at column base. Floor grates per area: Default: *75* Grating type: See Grating Types later in this chapter. Siding per wall area: Default: 0%; Min.: 0%; Max:100% - Continued on next page Type

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Steel Plant Bulks - continued


Description OPN STL ST - continued Siding type: *CORR*- corrugated siding INSUL- insulated siding Slab thickness: Default: *4* INCHES [*100 MM]; Min: 2 INCHES [50 MM]; Max: 8 INCHES. Concrete slab thickness over formed shell deck, applicable if slab% area > 0. Floor slab percent of area: Default: 0%; Min:0%; Max: 100%. Total of floor slab% area and floor grate% area must not be more than 100%. Type

20-4

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Steel Plant Bulks - continued


Description Type Steel pipe rack: columns, beams, X-brace, catwalk, PIPE RACK stairs, ladders Includes columns, lateral and longitudinal members, cross-bracing, column footings, catwalks, handrail and toeplates, stairs, and ladders (caged if over 10 FEET [3 M]). Main bents have rigid connections between beams and columns at odd numbered levels. Otherwise all joints are pinned connections. Column base may be rigid or pinned connection. Piping loads are defined as distributed load per level. An air cooler load can be defined above top level if required. Wide racks may require a third column at the midpoint of the beams in each bent. The height to the first level is defined separately since it is usually bigger than the height between levels which is assumed to be uniform. (A sketch of a typical pipe rack is located on the following page.) Width: *20* FEET [*6.0* M] Max 120 FEET[36M] Height: *20* FEET [*6.0* M] Max 60 FEET[18M] Number of levels: *1* Height to 1st level: *12.0* FEET; MIN: 8.00 FEET; MAX: 40 FEET[12M] Pipe rack type: *STEEL*- All steel piperack CONC-S- Concrete frame and steel sheets. CONC-P- Concrete frame and precast conc. struts PRECAST- All precast concrete piperack Structural steel analysis: S- Simplified stress analysis F- 2D finite element rigid frame analysis Main bent spacing: Default: *20.0* FEET Longitudinal column spacing along rack. Third column option: Option is for small racks. Racks wider than 40 FEET [12 M] get three column rows. YES- Third column now required (2 bay rack) NO- No third column (1 bay rack) Column base option: FIXED- Rigid connection at column base. *PINNED*- Pinned connection at column base.

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20 Steel (G6)

Steel Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE RACK - continued Distributed load per level: *50* PSF [*2.5* KN/M2] Air cooler loading: *0.0* Air cool distributed load above top rack level, if any. Catwalk width: *4.0* FEET [*1.2* M] Number of catwalks: *1* per level Number of ladders: *1* per 80 FEET [25 M] of length; MIN: 2 Number of stairways: Default: *0* No. of braced bays: Number of braced bays along rack length. *2* per 120 FEET [36M]; MIN: 0. Beam struts per column line: Number of longitudinal struts per column. *1* per each two beam levels. See figure on page 307 for explanation. Beam struts per pipe level: Number of longitudinal struts/beam per level/bay. Default: *0* or, if beam length is greater than 24 FEET [7 M], *1* Exclude end bent: Exclude end bents if this is a segment of a rack that is part of a longer rack. *NO*- Do not exclude end bents. ONE- Exclude one end bent. TWO- Exclude two end bents. Minimum beam or column width: *12.0* INCHES [*304* MM] For concrete pipe rack only, default is calculated by the system. If not, default is 12.0 INCHES. Concrete type: For concrete pipe rack only, default is area civil data for concrete strength and cost. 2- Standard concrete (Type B) 3- Higher grade concrete (Type C) 4- Chemical resistant concrete (Type D) Grating type: See Grating Types later in this chapter Type

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Steel Plant Bulks - continued

Sketch of a Typical Pipe Rack

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Steel Plant Bulks - continued

How ICARUS Generates the Number of Column Struts


System Generated Sets:

User-Entered Sets:

Default Number of Column Struts If a pipe rack has the default number of levels)1), the default number of column struts is also 1. For each additional two levels, the default number of column struts grows by 2; therefore, the default number of column struts may best be understood as 1 per each 2 beam level.

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* User-entered values override system-generated values. Steel Plant Bulks - continued


Description Pipe Truss Bridge A truss structure with multiple levels which can span longer areas. Wide Flange shapes are used for main members. Includes columns, lateral members, longitudinal chord members, bracings and column footing. (A sketch of a typical pipe bridge is located on the following page) Truss Width: Default: 20 FEET [6.0 M] Truss Height: Default: 24 FEET [7.2 M] Levels between top and bottom chord: Default: 0 Height to bottom chord: Default: 20 FEET [6.0 M] Distrib. Load/Level: Default: 50 PSF [2.4 KN/M2] Bay Length: Truss length determine bay length Default: Around 8 FEET [2.4 M] Wind Force Adjustment: Default: 1 Seismic Force Adjustment: Default: 1 Type PIPE TRUSS

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Steel Plant Bulks - continued


Description Series of individual steel pipe supports for long runs of pipe just above grade. The TEE type has one post with concrete footing; the BENT type has two posts with concrete footings. CONS uses round concrete columns with a steel wide flange on top connecting the columns. Round form tubes are used as formwork for the concrete columns. Support type: TEE- 1 steel post with beam BENT- 2 steel posts with beam CONT- Concrete tee CONS - 2 concrete columns with steel beam Type Pipe supports/sleepers: bent or tee, just above grade PIPE SUPPT

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Description Multiple-bay steel mill building: structural steel, siding Structural steel, crane beams and rails, elevated grate floors, corrugated or insulated exterior if applicable, foundations, lighting and electrical panelboard and supply wiring/conduit. The mill building model designs a frame that is specifically suited for a particular purpose multiple bays where overhead cranes carry materials along the length of the building. The term Bay in this case refers to a portion of the building width. Type MILL BLDG

The system assumes a cleared, level site; excavation is provided only for grade slab and column footings. Other site work must be specified using Site Development. Main column spacing: Column spacing along the length of the building. Default: *20* FEET [*6.0* M]. Siding per wall area: Default: 100% roofing and specified% siding provided, except 0.0 input deletes both. Siding type: Default: *CORR* CORR- Corrugated siding INSUL- Insulated corrugated siding Slab-on-grade thickness: Default: *12* INCHES [*300* MM] Distributed load level: Default: *200* PSF [*10* KN/M2] 1st Section bay width: First bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. 1st Section bay height: First bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Number of bays 1st Section: First bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Default: *1* - Continued on next page -

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Steel Plant Bulks - continued


Description MILL BLDG - continued Number of elevated floors 1st Section: First bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Default: *0* Crane capacity per bay 1st Section: Bay type 1: Load for struct., crane rail, etc.; crane must be specified elsewhere. Default: *0.0* TONS [*0.0* TON] Floor grate per area 1st Section: First bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Default: *100* 2nd Section bay width: Second bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. 2nd Section bay height: Second bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Number of bays 2nd Section: Second bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Default: *1* Number elevated floors 2nd Section: Second bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Default: *0* Crane capacity per bay 2nd Section: Bay type 2: Load for struct., crane rail, etc.; crane must be specified elsewhere. Default: *0.0* TONS [*0.0* TON] Floor per area 2nd Section: Second bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Default: *100* 3rd Section bay width: Third bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. 3rd Section bay height: Third bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Number of bays 3rd Section: Third bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Default: *1* Number of elevated floors 3rd Section: Third bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Default: *0* Crane capacity per bay 3rd Section: Bay type 3: Load for struct., crane rail, etc.; crane must be specified elsewhere. Default: *0.0* TONS [*0.0* TON] Floor grate per area 3rd Section: Third bay type, describes one or more identical, adjacent bays. Default: *100* Elevated access platforms: columns/beams, rail, grate, ladder Elevated access platform, with handrail, toeplate, grating, columns, civil foundations, lighting and electrical. Platform width: *6* FEET [*2* M] Number of ladders: Default: *1* Handrail percent: Default: *100* Floor grate per area: Default: *100* Grating: See Grating Types later in this chapter. PLATFORM Type

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Description Steel gallery structure for pipe, conveyors, walkways Gallery for piping, conveyors, elevated walkways, etc., footings, lighting and electrical included. May be specified in combinations of three section types or as a single section type. Type GALLERY

Gallery height: Max: 15 FEET [4.5 M]; Default: *9.0* FEET [*2.75* M] Distributed load: Default: *100* PSF [*5.0* KN/M2] Height grade section: Grade section has this uniform, nominal height for entire length. Default: *6.0* FEET [*2.0* M]. - Continued on next page -

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Steel Plant Bulks - continued


Description GALLERY - continued Length grade section: Total length is sum of grade, slope and above-grade lengths. At least one is required. Height slope section: Slope section varies from grade section height to this designated height. Length slope section: Total length is sum of grade, slope and above-grade lengths. At least one is required. Above grade height: Above ground section varies from slope section height to this designated height. Above grade length: Total length is sum of grade, slope and above-grade lengths. At least one is required. Gallery enclosure: Default: *OPEN* OPEN- No enclosure ENCLOSED- Enclosed Tower bent spacing: Tower (bent) spacing applies to elevated sections only. Default: *80* FEET [*25* M]. Cantilever length: Cantilever length may be specified only for the end of an elevated section. Default: *0* FEET [*0* M]. Number of walkways: Default: *2* Walkway width: Default: *54* INCHES [*2,370* MM] Grating: See Grating Types later in this chapter. Conveyor transfer tower, square cross-section Steel tower only; conveyors, hoppers and chutes must be specified elsewhere. Grating: See Grating Types later in this chapter. Steel grate, less support steel Grating: Default: *CS*. See Grating Types later in this chapter. Steel ladders Ladders greater than 10 FEET [3 M] are automatically caged. Ladder Type: Default: *CAGED* CAGED- Caged ladder NONE- Ladder without cage Steel stairs, with grate treads, handrail STAIR LADDER GRATE TRNS TOWER Type

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Description Type Columns, beams, bracing, brackets MISC STEEL The steel member size is designated by its weight per foot of length. Steel item types are columns, beams, bracing and brackets. Connections are included; the system increases the cost by about 15% to account for connections. Steel type: COLUM- Column BEAM- Beam BRACE- Bracing BRAKT- Bracket Fabricated, lined, stiffened plate items for chutes, boxes, etc. Fabricated stiffened steel plate items (e.g., boxes, chutes, hoods, skirts, etc.). One or more replaceable abrasion resistant lining types may be specified over portions of the plate area. Material: Default: *CS* CS- Carbon steel SS304- SS304 SS316- SS316 Plate per area item: Total area of plate excluding stiffeners. Lining thickness Type 1: Lining type 1: thickness may not be specified for ceramic linings; Default: *1.0* INCHES [*25* MM]. Lining per plate area Type 1: Lining type 1; Default: *100* Lining material Type 1: Lining type 1. See Abrasion Resistant Linings; Replaceable in Chapter 28. Lining thickness Type 2: Lining type 2: thickness may not be specified for ceramic linings; Default: *1.0* INCHES [*25* MM]. Lining per plate area Type 2: Lining type 2; Default: *0.0* Lining material Type 2: Lining type 2. See Abrasion Resistant Linings; Replaceable in Chapter 28. Lining thickness Type 3: Lining type 3: thickness may not be specified for ceramic linings; Default: *1.0* INCHES [*25* MM]. Lining per plate area Type 3: Lining type 3; Default: *0.0* Lining material Type 3: Lining type 3. See Abrasion Resistant Linings; Replaceable in Chapter 28. FABR PLATE

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Description Siding and roofing for steel structures Siding girts and roof purlins are designated based on column spacing. Corrugated steel siding (18 gauge) is provided with the option of 1 INCH [25 MM] insulation in sandwich panel. Siding area: Siding and/or roofing area is required. Default: *0.0* SF [*0.0* M2] Roofing area: Siding and/or roofing area is required. Default: *0.0 SF [*0.0* M2] Main column spacing: Default: *20* FEET [*6* M] Siding type: Default: *CORR* CORR- Corrugated siding INSUL- Insulated corrugated siding Sanitary platform for equipment access A polished, stainless steel platform built to sanitary standards, e.g., without weld crevices or surfaces that collect standing water. Platform height: MAX: 12.0 FEET [3.60 M] Platform area: Required to enter total platform or length and width for long platforms. If area is given, the program calculates length and width as being the square root of area, and bases its design on this information. Platform length: Required to enter total platform or length and width for long platforms. If area is given, the program calculates length and width as being the square root of area, and bases its design on this information. Platform width: Required to enter total platform or length and width for long platforms. If area is given, the program calculates length and width as being the square root of area, and bases its design on this information. Platform design loading: *100* PSF [*5.00* KN/M2] General platform design load for access/walkway areas. Equipment percent area: Percent of platform area that supports equipment load. Equipment weight: Must be entered for the program to calculate equipment access-sides. Number of equipment access sides: *2*, MAX: 4. Number of sides from which equipment accessed on platform. Grating percent of area: *80.0* SAN PLATFM Type SIDING

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Steel Plant Bulks - continued


Description SAN PLATFM - continued Grating type: FIBER- Fibergrate 1.5 X 1.5 IN [40 X 40 MM] SLIP 2- 1/8 INCH [3 MM] SS304 slipnot plate SLIP 3- 3/16 INCH [5 MM] SS304 slipnot plate *SLIP4*- 1/4 INCH [6 MM] SS304 slipnot plate Number of stairways: *1.00* Number of ladders: *0* Number of columns Length of handrail and toeplate: FEET [M] Type

Grating Types FG S2 S3 S4 CS CM CH CV C2 C3 C4 AS AH AV Fibergrate 1/8 IN [3 MM] SS slipnot plate 3/16 IN [5 MM] SS slipnot plate 1/4 IN [6 MM] SS slipnot plate 1 IN x 3/16 IN [25 MM x 5 MM] CS welded bar 1 1/4 IN x 3/16 IN [32 MM x 5 MM] CS Welded Bar 1 1/2 IN x 3/16 IN [38 MM x 5 MM] CS welded bar 2.0 IN x 3/16 IN [50 MM x 5 MM] CS welded bar 1/8 IN [3 MM] CS checker plate 3/16 IN [5 MM] CS checker plate 1/4 IN [6 MM] CS checker plate 1 IN x 3/16 IN [25 MM x 5 MM] AL welded bar 1.5 IN X 3/16 IN [38 MM X 5 MM] AL welded bar 2.0 IN x 3/16 IN [50 MM x 5 MM] AL welded bar

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20 Steel (G6)

21 Instrumentation

(G10)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Instrumentation Plant Bulks Sensor Loop Descriptions Pressure (P) Differential Pressure (DP) Temperature (T) Flow (F) Level (L) Analyzers (A) Speed (S) Motion (X): Axial, Radial, Vibration Position (PN) Weight (W) Electrical Conductivity (C) Hand (Manual Activation) (H) Field Mounted Solenoid (SL) Typical Pressure Instrument Process Hookup Panel Action Descriptions Panel Option Descriptions Fisher Control Valve Information Control Valve Options Control Valve Configurations Air Supply Piping Remote Control Type Transmitter Type Overview of Instrumentation Report Details Report Details for Analog/Electrical Instrumentation Report Details for Analog/Electrical Pneumatic Instrumentation Report Details for Digital/Electrical Instrumentation Report Details for Digital/Electrical Pneumatic Instrumentation

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-1

Instrumentation Plant Bulks


Description Conduit material: Default: *GALV* GALV- Galvanized rigid steel conduit EMT- Electrical mechanical tubing AL- Aluminum PVC- PVC plastic conduit PBON- PVC coated rigid steel (plasti-bond) PVCA- PVC coated aluminum FRE- Fiberglass Cable Size: *14*, 12, 10 AWG; *1.5*, 2.5, 4.0 MM2. Rigid conduit, galvanized steel, couplings, fittings and seals Type

CONDUIT

Material: Default: *GALV* GALV- Galvanized rigid steel conduit EMT- Electrical mechanical tubing AL- Aluminum PVC- PVC plastic conduit PBON- PVC coated rigid steel (plasti-bond) PVCA- PVC coated aluminum FRE- Fiberglass Conduit diameter: Range: 0.5 - 6.0 INCHES [15 - 150 MM] Number of elbows: Default: *0* Number of fittings: Default: *0* Number of conduit seals: Default: *0* Instrument panel, electronic/pneumatic Panel type: ELC- Electronic panel PNU- Pneumatic panel E/P- Combined electronic/pneumatic INST PANEL

21-2

21 Instrumentation (G10)

Description Instrument cable tray Tray width: Range: 6 - 36 INCHES [150 - 910 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM] Electronic signal wire: wire, armored wire, wire in conduit Material: Default: *IM* IM- Insul., standard wire ARMOR- IM with interlock armor RIGID- IM in rigid conduit (See Chapter 22, Electrical Plant Bulks, CONDUIT, for a schematic of the conduit) PPM- Pluggable Pre-Molded wire (fieldbus only) Number of conductor sets per cable: Optional twisted pair or triad in each wire set. Range: 1 - 50. Conductor set type: Default: *PAIR* PAIR- Pair TRIAD- Triad Instrument pneumatic multi-tube bundle runs Number of tubes per bundle: Range: 7, 12, or 19

Type INST TRAY

INST WIRE

PNU TUBING

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-3

Instrumentation Plant Bulks - continued Description Type THCPL WIRE

Thermocouple wire: wire, armored wire, wire in conduit Material: Default: *TM* TM- Insul., solid wire ARMOR- TM with interlock armor RIGID- TM in rigid conduit Number of conductor sets per cable: Optional number of twisted pairs per cable. Range: 1 - 36. Conductor type: Default: *JX* JX- Iron constantan KX- Chromel alumel TX- Copper constantan Instrument junction boxes: electronic, pneumatic, thermocouple Junction box type: EL50- Electronic - 50 conductor EL36- Electronic - 36 conductor EL24- Electronic - 24 conductor EL20- Electronic - 20 conductor EL16- Electronic - 16 conductor EL12- Electronic - 12 conductor EL6- Electronic - 6 conductor EL4- Electronic - 4 conductor PL4 - 4 Drop pluggable brick (Fieldbus only) PL4S - 4 Drop pluggable brick with short circuit protection (Fieldbus only) PL6 - 6 Drop pluggable brick (Fieldbus only) PL6S - 6 Drop pluggable brick with short circuit protection (Fieldbus only) PL8 - 8 Drop pluggable brick (Fieldbus only) PL8S - 8 Drop pluggable brick with short circuit protection (Fieldbus only)

JUNC BOX

- Continued on next page -

21-4

21 Instrumentation (G10)

Instrumentation Plant Bulks - continued Description JUNC BOX - continued PN19- Pneumatic - 19 tubes PN12- Pneumatic - 12 tubes PN7- Pneumatic - 7 tubes TC50- Thermocouple - 50 conductor TC36- Thermocouple - 36 conductor TC24- Thermocouple - 24 conductor TC20- Thermocouple - 20 conductor TC16- Thermocouple - 16 conductor TC12- Thermocouple - 12 conductor TC4- Thermocouple - 4 conductor SRSC- 3 Drop brick with spring clamp (fieldbus only) SRST- 3 Drop brick with screw terminal (fieldbus only) MB4- 4 Drop brick (fieldbus only) MB4S- Hawke International 4 Drop brick with short-circuit protection (fieldbus only) MB8- 8 Drop brick (fieldbus only) MB8S- Hawke International 8 Drop brick with short-circuit protection (fieldbus only) Enclosure type: Default: *GP* GP- General purpose EXPR- Explosion proof Operator center: Honeywell TDC3000 Operator center type: Universal operator center or local center for one data hiway. Default: *UNIV* UNIV- Universal center LOCAL- Local center Number of operator display units: Number of operator CRT (Cathode-Ray Tube Terminals), includes keyboards Number of Hiway Gateways: Number of gateways for data hiways. Number of Indicating CRT: Number of indicating CRT, no keyboard included. Number of disk drives: Number of dual floppy disk drivers. Number of engineering keyboards: Engineers keyboard for display. - Continued on next page OPER CENT Type

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-5

Instrumentation Plant Bulks - continued Description OPER CENT - continued Number of LCN cables: Number of local control network cables. History module: History module for trend analysis. Default: *NONE* HIST- Add history module NONE- No history module Multifunction controllers: analog/digital I, IC, S, A circuits Multifunction controllers for indicating and control loops, and switch and alarm circuits. The Instrumentation Plant Bulk items referred to as Multifunction controllers, High energy level process interface units, and Low energy level process interface units are based on elements of a Honeywell TDC 2000/3000 process control system. A Multifunction controller consists of a metal cabinet (6 FEET tall [1.83 M] and 19 INCHES [0.48 M] wide, containing 1 or more electronic controllers with a power supply, analog and digital I/O signal processing cards mounted in electronic racks as depicted in the following drawing. MULTI CONT Type

21-6

21 Instrumentation (G10)

Instrumentation Plant Bulks - continued Description MULTI CONT - continued The multifunction controller is programmed from the engineers station in the Operator Center over a redundant, coaxial cable (Data-highway cable). The controller polls the analog and digital input cards which report to it to collect the signals transmitted by the field sensors connected to those cards. The controller either passes the signal up to the Operator Center for permanent storage in a History Module (computer storage) and/or compares the measured signal with the programmed set point and generates a corrective command. This corrective command is sent to output cards which, in turn, generate either an analog (4-20mA for positioning control valves) or digital (for solenoids, on/off valves) control signal which is sent to the appropriate final control element in the field. The signals from and to the field interface to the Multifunction controller through a junction box on the back plane of the unit. Signals are distributed within the unit over a data bus. Electric power is required to support all the electronics and a cooling fan on top of the unit. Battery backup may be specified if it is important that the controller not lose its ability to control the processing in the event of a power outage. Redundant multifunction controllers may be specified to insure continued control even in the event of a failure in the primary controller. High and low energy level PIUs look similar but have no controllers. The High level PIUs are for analog inputs only (4-20mA) and provide simple control; the Low level PIUs collect signals from thermocouple and RTD loops. There are 3 types of temperature transmitters available: RTD: resistance temperature detector. TC: thermocouple; the only time that you can specify a TC transmitter type is when you specify Temperature (T) as the Process Variable. Filled system: liquid-filled. Type

- Continued on next page -

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-7

Instrumentation Plant Bulks - continued Description MULTI CONT - continued The TDC2000/3000 controller handles 16 analog output per controller. The I/O cards handle the following number of signals: Type

Signal Type Analog Digital

No. Input No. Output Signals per Card Signals per Card 8 16 4 8

Number of controllers: One cabinet and power supply provided per two controllers. Redundancy: Redundancy provides 1 backup controller for up to eight primary controllers. Default: *NONE* RED- Redundancy required NONE- No redundancy Number of analog input cards: Number of I/O cards for analog input (indicating). Number of analog output cards: Number of I/O cards for analog output (control). Number of digital input cards: Number of I/O cards for digital input (alarm). Number of digital output cards: Number of I/O cards for digital output (switch). Number of battery backups: Number of backup battery power supplies for multifunction controllers. Default: *0*

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21 Instrumentation (G10)

Instrumentation Plant Bulks - continued Description High energy level process interface units: Indicator, switch, alarm circuits Type HL PIU

Number of digital input cards: Enter number of input cards required. Number of digital output cards: Enter number of output cards required.
Low energy level process interface units: Thermocouple and RTD circuits Data-highway cable, redundant (fiber optic) Coaxial or fiber optic cables connecting digital controllers to operator centers. Material selection: Default: *COAX* COAX- Coax cable FIBER- Fiber optic cable Number of terminations: Min: 1; Default: *2* Enclosure type: Default: *NONE* NONE- None COND- Conduit LL PIU DATA HIWAY

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-9

Sensor Loop Descriptions


Pressure (p)
Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 1 Pressure Gauge, field mounted: Sensor element types (default = ST): pipe fittings to process (ST), gauge valves to process (FT) draft gauge (DG) 3 2 Pressure Controller: field mounted, pipe and tubing. Pressure Transmitter: field mounted, via pipe and tubing. Sensor element types: transmitter without seal (TN) transmitter with seal (TS) standard or microprocessor Pressure Switch: field mounted, via pipe and tubing. *NS*- No chemical seal CS- With chemical seal Additional Control Valve: secondary control valve for adding to another control loop. P P IC I IC RC R1 R2R3 A LC LP or CC P e Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) P I LC none

LP or CC LP or CC

IC

P or e

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

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21 Instrumentation (G10)

Differential Pressure (DP)


Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 1 Differential Pressure Gauge: connected to process via pipe and tubing. Differential Pressure Transmitter: connected to process via pipe and tubing. Sensor element types: transmitter without seal (TN) transmitter with seal (TS) standard or mircoprocessor Differential Pressure Switch: connected to process via pipe and tubing. *NS*- No chemical seal CS- With chemical seal Additional Control Valve: secondary control valve for adding to another control loop Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) DP l LC none

DP

LP or CC

p or e

DP

LP or CC

DP

lC

LP or CC

p or e

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-11

Temperature (T)
Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 1 Temperature indicator Sensor element types: TM- Dial thermometer with thermowell TC- Thermocouple thermowell Temperature Controller: filled system, with thermowell Testwell: thermowell and cap only Temperature transmitter, with thermowell Sensor element types (default = FS): FS- Filled system TC- Thermocouple RT- Resistance temperature WB- Wet bulb temperature SM- Surface mounted Temperature Switch: with thermowell, field-mounted Additional Control Valve secondary control valve for adding to another control loop Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) T l LC none

3 0 2

T T T

lC none l lIC RC R1 R2 R3

LC LC LP or CC

p none p or e

LP or CC LP or CC

lC

p or e

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

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21 Instrumentation (G10)

Flow (F)
Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 1 2 Flow Indicator Flow Transmitter: Sensor element types (default = OP): OP- Orifice plate and DP transmitter OS- Orifice plate, DP transmitter and chemical seals VX- Vortex meter MG- Magnetic meter (standard or microprocessor) MS- Mass flow meter NS- No sensing element, transmitter loop only (NS) UM- Ultrasonic meter TM- Turbine meter MR - Meter run with orifice plate RS- Meter run with orifice plate and chemical seals 3 Flow Controller: orifice plate, field-mounted, connected to process via pipe, valves, tubing F Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) F F l l lC RC R1 R2 R3 LC lP or CC none e or p

lC

LC

Flow Switch with orifice plate: F Sensor element types (default FS): FS- Flow switch (FS), TS- Flow sensing and totalizing switch Additional Control Valve: secondary control valve for adding to another control loop F

LP or CC

LP or CC

p or e

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-13

Level (L)
Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 1 Level Indicators: Sensor element types (default LG): LG- Level glass - reflex type external standpipe SP- Level gauge - reflex type with external standpipe BB- Level indicator - bubble type 3 2 Level Controller: displacement type Level Transmitter: Sensor element types (default = DS): DS- Displacement type DP- Differential pressure (standard or micro-processor) RS- DP with chemical seals TF- Tape/float UL- Single point Ultrasonic level NL- Nuclear level RD- Radar type Level Switch: Sensor element types (default (DS): DS- Displacement level switch-fluids PD- Paddle type level switch-solids VS- Vibrating (tuning fork) switch CD- Conductivity (max/min) detection switch CS- Capacitive type switch Additional Control Valve: secondary control valve for adding to another control loop L L lC l lC RC R1 R2 R3 LC LP or CC p e or p Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) L l LC none

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

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21 Instrumentation (G10)

Analyzers (A)
Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 2 Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) l lC RC R2 R3 LP or CC e

Analyzers: A Sensor element types (default PH): PH- pH indicating transmitter ORORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential) (Redox) transmitter O2- Oxygen analyzer (up to 4 samples) BT- BTU transmitter CS- Consistency analyzer PL- Gas detection% LEL (incl. electronics, rack) HD- Gas detection H2S (incl. electronics, rack C2- C02 (without sample conditioning system) VS- Viscosity (w/o sample conditioning system) CL- Color (without sample conditioning system) FP- Flame point (w/o sample conditioning system) CP- Cloud point SD- Smoke density FL- Flash point SG- Specific gravity (liquid) HV- Heating value (incl. sample conditioning) GC- Gas chromatograph (1 sample point, 6 comp.) HC- H2 and hydrocarbons (w/o sample probe) HS- H2S analyzer H2- Hydrocarbon in water HR- H2S/S02 ratio SO- Sulphur in oil Additional Control Valve: secondary control valve for adding to another control loop. A

lC

LP or CC

p or e

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-15

Speed (S)
Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 2 Speed Indicating Transmitter: electronic, non-contact type Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) S l lC RC R1 R2 R3 A LP or CC e

Speed Switch:

LP or CC

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

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21 Instrumentation (G10)

Motion (X): Axial, Radial, Vibration


Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 2 Motion Transmitter - non contact type, (default AX): Radial (RD) Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) X l lC RC R1 R2 R3 A LP or CC e

Vibration Switch; vibrating read type

LP or CC

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-17

Position (PN)
Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 2 Position Transmitter, (default VP): Variable position (VP): On/Off positions (NF) Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) PN l lC RC R1 R2 R3 A LP or CC e or p

Position Switch

PN

LP or CC

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

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21 Instrumentation (G10)

Weight (W)
Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 2 Load Cells; Sensing element options (Default = 4C): 3 cell configuration (3C) 4 cell configuration (4C) 6 cell configuration (6C) Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) W l lC RC R1 R2 R3 LP or CC e

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

Electrical Conductivity (C)


Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 2 Conductivity Transmitter: Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) C l lC RC R1 R2 R3 LP or CC e

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-19

Hand (Manual Activation) (H)


Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 3 6 Hand Regulator: field-mounted (pneumatic) Manual Controller: panel-mounted, no input signal, output signal only Manual switch: panel-mounted (front of panel) Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) H H lC lC LC LP or CC LP or CC p e or p e

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

Field Mounted Solenoid (SL)


Sensor Loop Description Type Symbol 6 Solenoid: Field-mounted Process Panel Instrument Signal Variable Action Location Type (1) (2) (3) SL none LP or CC e

1 2

For panel action, panel option and control valve option, refer to the applicable section later in this chapter. Instrument Location: LC= local, on equipment or piping LP= local panel CC= control center (analog or digital).

Signal Type: e = electronic, p = pneumatic.

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21 Instrumentation (G10)

Instrument Hookup

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-21

Panel Action Descriptions


Panel Action Symbol l Definition Indicator: field-mounted indicator if local to equipment (LC), or, panel-mounted indicator (receiver type) if on local panel (LP) or in control center (CC) Indicating Controller: field-mounted indicating controller if local to equipment (LC), or, panel-mounted indicating controller (receiver type) if on local panel (LP) or in control center (CC) Recording Controller (LP or CC): panel-mounted, one pen Recorder (LP or CC): panel-mounted, one pen panel-mounted, two pens panel-mounted, three pens Annunciator Point (LP or CC): activated by a field-mounted switch Switch: indicating, front-of-panel mounted (LP or CC) Thermocouple-based Temperature Indicator, panel mounted (LP or CC): complete with back-of-panel mounted EMF converter multi-point Thermocouple-based Temperature Recorder, multi-point, panel mounted (LP or CC)

lC

RC R1 R2 R3 A S Cl Jl JR

In Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, the system automatically generates panel instrumentation (combined control/operator center) required for analog systems. The system includes the control center by default for digital systems, but not the operator center.

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21 Instrumentation (G10)

Panel Option Descriptions


Panel Action Symbol A1 A2 CR SQ FX LR ES BS Definition Panel alarm: one back-of-panel switch Panel alarm: two back-of-panel switches Computation relay: +, -, X, / Square root function Defined function of X Limit regulation: high/low Emergency shutdown (ESD) Bias relay

Fisher Control Valve Information


Control Valve Type Globe Ball Butterfly Size Range Body Type Actuator 585 657 1052 1052 Positioner 3611JP 3582 3610J 3610J < = 4 INCHES CE 6 - 8 INCHES ED all sizes all sizes V100 8532

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-23

Control Valve Options


Type STD Definition Standard positioning - type varies with size: Type Globe Ball Butterfly GLP BAP BUP GLO BVO BVU SGO SGP DIV ANO ANP DVS TKS BUP Size 0.5 - 4 INCH 6 - 12 INCH > 12 INCH [12 - 100 MM] [150 - 300 MM] [>300 MM]

Globe type positioning, usually sizes up to 8 INCH [200 MM] Ball type positioning, usually medium sizes up to 12 INCH [300 MM] Butterfly type position, usually large sizes from 3 INCH [75 MM] On/off globe valve, usually small sizes On/off ball valve, usually medium sizes On/off butterfly valve, usually larger sizes On/off Slide gatte for bin discharge Positioning slide gate for bin discharge Diverter valve for solids handling On/off angle valve, sanitary, max 4 INCH [100 MM] Angle positioning, sanitary, max 4 INCH [100 MM] Diverter, sanitary only, max 4 INCH [100 MM] Tank outlet, sanitary only, max 4 INCH [100 MM] Butterfly position, sanitary, max 8 INCH [200 MM]

Fluid positioning control valves may be specified as line size or reduced size. The default size reductions are as follows:
Line size 0.5 - 4INCH 6INCH 8 - 12INCH 14 - 24INCH > 24INCH [12 - 100MM] [150MM] [200 - 300MM] [350 - 600MM] [>600MM] Control valve Same as line. One size smaller than line. Two sizes smaller than line. Three sizes smaller than line. Four sizes smaller than line.

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21 Instrumentation (G10)

Control Valve Configurations

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-25

Air Supply Piping


Feed

Drop

21-26

21 Instrumentation (G10)

Remote Control Type


Symbol (blank) H M P Description No remote on/off control valves Hydraulic operated remote on/off control valves Motor operated remote on/off control valves Pneumatic operated remote on/off control valves

Transmitter Type
Type S M Definition Standard Microprocessor (Smart)

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-27

Overview of Instrumentation Report Details

21-28

21 Instrumentation (G10)

Report Details for Analog/Electrical Instrumentation

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-29

Report Details for Analog/Electrical Pneumatic Instrumentation

21-30

21 Instrumentation (G10)

Report Details for Digital/Electrical Instrumentation

21 Instrumentation (G10)

21-31

Report Details for Digital/Electricl Pneumatic Instrumentation

21-32

21 Instrumentation (G10)

22 Electrical

(G13)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Electrical Plant Bulks General Electrical Plant Bulks Substation Electrical Plant Bulks Schematic of Transmission Line Substation Schematics Electrical & Control Hook-Ups for Electric Motors Power Distribution Network Wire Sizes US and ME Country Bases UK, JP, and EU Country Bases Electrical Class/Division National Electrical Code (NEC) International Electrical Code (IEC)

22 Electrical (G13)

22-1

Electrical Plant Bulks


Electrical plant bulks are divided into two categories, general and substation plant bulks. A description of each follows.

General Electrical Plant Bulks


General electrical plant bulks include cables, trays, grounding, lighting and tracing.
Description Material: ARMOR- Armored multi-core cable W-C- Single wires in conduit, includes conduit W-NC - Single wires in conduit (less conduit) W-TR- Single wires in tray (less tray) M-C- Multi-core in conduit, includes conduit M-NC- Multi-core in conduit (less conduit) M-TR- Multi-core cable in tray (less tray) LARM- Lead covered armored cable Rated voltage: 600- 600 V at 60 HZ 5000- 5000 V at 60 HZ 15000- 15000 V at 60 HZ 600- 600 V at 50 HZ 3300- 3300 V at 50 HZ 1000- 11000 at 50 HZ Cable size: Default: US: single wires in conduit, else multi-core cable in tray without tray. See Wire Sizes later in this chapter. Cable placement: Default: Project/Area Design Basis ABOVE - Above ground cable/wire BELOW - Buried cable/wire with trenching NOTRN - Buried cable/wire without trenching Conduit material: Default: *GALV* GALV- Galvanized rigid steel conduit EMT- Electrical mechanical tubing AL- Aluminum 1PVC- PVC plastic conduit PBON- PVC coated rigid steel (plasti-bond) PVCA- PVC coated aluminum FRE- Fiberglass Type ELEC CABLE

22-2

22 Electrical (G13)

Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description Electrical control cable runs (LV) Material: ARMOR- Armored multi-core cable W-C- Single wires in conduit, includes conduit W-NC- Single wires in conduit (less conduit) W-TR- Single wires in tray (less tray) M-C- Multi-core in conduit, includes conduit M-NC- Multi-core in conduit (less conduit) M-TR- Multi-core cable in tray (less tray) LARM - Lead covered armored cable Length of cable run: Default: US: multi-core cable in conduit, else multi-core cable in tray w/o tray Cable placement: Default: Project/Area Design Basis ABOVE - Above ground cable/wire BELOW - Buried cable/wire with trenching NOTRN - Buried cable/wire without trenching Number of conductors: Range: 1 - 37 Conduit material: Default: *GALV* GALV- Galvanized rigid steel conduit EMT- Electrical mechanical tubing AL- Aluminum PVC- PVC plastic conduit PBON- PVC coated rigid steel (plasti-bond) PVCA- PVC coated aluminum FRE- Fiberglass Cable Size: *14*, 12, 10 AWG; *1.5*, 2.5, 4.0 MM2. Rigid conduit, galvanized steel, couplings, fittings and seals Type CTRL CABLE

CONDUIT

- Continued on next page -

22 Electrical (G13)

22-3

Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description CONDUIT - continued. Material: Default: *GALV* GALV- Galvanized rigid steel conduit EMT- Electrical mechanical tubing AL- Aluminum PVC- PVC plastic conduit PBON- PVC coated rigid steel (plasti-bond) PVCA- PVC coated aluminum FRE- Fiberglass Conduit diameter: Range: 0.5 - 6.0 INCHES [15 - 150 MM] Number of elbows: Default: *0* Number of fittings: Default: *0* Number of conduit seals: Default: *0* Electrical cable tray Material: *GALV*, FBRGL, SS, AL Tray Width: Range: 6 - 36 INCHES [150 - 910 MM]; Default: *18* INCHES [*450* MM] Number of 90 degree bends: *0* Tray type: *L*, T, C, B Electrical tracing of existing equipment Electrical tracing of equipment; item of equipment and its insulation are assumed specified elsewhere in the project. Heating cable type: Use P, M series cable for process temperature maintenance, and A, P, or M series cable for ambient temperature maintenance. 3A- 3 W/FT [10 W/M] Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 5A- 5 W/FT [16 W/M] Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 8A- 8 W/FT [26 W/M] Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 10A- 10 W/FT [33 W/M] Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 5P- 5 W/FT [16 W/M] Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 10P- 10 W/FT [33 W/M] Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 15P- 15 W/FT [49 W/M] Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 20P- 20 W/FT [65 W/M] Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 40M - 40 W/FT [131 W/M] 300 Volt MI cable - Continued on next page EQPT TRACE ELEC TRAY Type

22-4

22 Electrical (G13)

Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description EQPT TRACE - continued. M2 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 9 OHM/FT [29.5 OHM/M] M4 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 4.14 OHM/FT [13.6 OHM/M] M6 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 1.15 OHM/FT [3.77 OHM/M] M8 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.505 OHM/FT [1.66 OHM/M] M10 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.2 OHM/FT [0.656 OHM/M] M12 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.1 OHM/FT [0.328 OHM/M] M14 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.0561 OHM/FT [0.184 OHM/M] M16 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.0281 OHM/FT [0.0922 OHM/M] M18 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.013 OHM/FT [0.042 OHM/M] M20 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.00516 OHM/FT [0.016 OHM/M] Distance to panel: If the distance to the panel board is not specified, the system defaults to the value defined for Area Electrical Specifications. Thermostat control: Default: *E-AMB* E-AMB -Electric tracing/ambient temperature control Single thermostat, control of electrical tracer based upon low ambient temperature specified for General Area Specifications. E-PRO- Electric tracing/process temperature control Multiple thermostated circuits, control of electrical tracer based upon low ambient temperature specified for General Area Specifications. Electrical tracing of existing piping run Electrical tracing of piping; piping is assumed specified elsewhere. This item also provides insulation of the same size, or one size larger than pipe diameter for pipe diameters of 8 INCHES [200 MM] or smaller. E-trace cable category: Default: *S*, self-regulating cable. Select M for MI tracing cable or S for self-regulating tracing cable. Traced pipe length: The pipe being traced is not included, but must be specified elsewhere. Traced pipe diameter: The pipe being traced is not included, but must be specified elsewhere. Length of tracer cable: Total length of tracer segments, default based on pipe length and diameter. PIPE TRACE Type

- Continued on next page -

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Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE TRACE - continued Heating cable type: Use A series to 120 DEGF[48DEGC], P series to 250 DEGF[120DEGC] and M series to 1049DEGF [565DEGC] over low ambient temperature. 3A- 3 W/FT [10 W/M] Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 5A- 5 W/FT [16 W/M] Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 8A- 8 W/FT [26 W/M] Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 10A- 10 W/FT [33 W/M] Chemelex BTV2-CT cable 5P- 5 W/FT [16 W/ M] Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 10P- 10 W/FT [33 W/M] Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 15P- 15 W/FT [49 W/M] Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 20P- 20 W/FT [65 W/M] Chemelex XTV2-CT cable 40P- 40M W/FT [131 W/M] 300 volt MI cable M2 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 9 OHM/FT [29.5 OHM/M] M4 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 4.14 OHM/FT [13.6 OHM/M] M6 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 1.15 OHM/FT [3.77 OHM/M] M8 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.505 OHM/FT [1.66 OHM/M] M10 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.2 OHM/FT [0.656 OHM/M] M12 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.1 OHM/FT [0.328 OHM/M] M14 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.0561 OHM/FT [0.184 OHM/M] M16 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.0281 OHM/FT [0.0922 OHM/M] M18 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.013 OHM/FT [0.042 OHM/M] M20 - 600V, dual conductor MI cable, 0.00516 OHM/FT [0.016 OHM/M] Maintenance temperature: Process temperature to be maintained. Default: 392 DEG F [200 DEG C] for M series cable and 220 DEG F [105 DEG C] for self-regulating and 40M cable. Max: 250 DEG F [120 DEG C] for self-regulating cable and 1049 DEG F [565 DEG C] for MI cable over low ambient temperature. Thermostat control: Default: *E-AMB* E-AMB -Electric tracing/ambient temperature control Single thermostat, control of electrical tracer based upon low ambient temperature specified for General Area Specifications. E-PRO- Electric tracing/process temperature control Multiple thermostated circuits, control of electrical tracer based upon low ambient temperature specified for General Area Specifications. Type

- Continued on next page -

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Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description PIPE TRACE - continued Distance to panel: Distance -pipe to local panel, feeder run to individual tracers determined by system. Number of thermostats: Default: 1 for ambient control, based on number of watts for process maintenance. Ground grid A system of buried cable and rods provide a grid work for grounding equipment, buildings and structures. Ground cable length: AWG (US only): 6, 2, 1/0, 2/0, 4/0; MM2: 16, 35, 50, 70, 95, 120. Default: *2* AWG [*35* MM2] Ground rod types: *STD*, EL-L, EL-S. Includes direct-buried grid cable brazed to each ground rod. The default rod type, STD, includes manually-driven INCH x 10 FEET [3.05 METER] copper-clad ground rods with studs, clamps, etc. The electrolytic rod types, EL-L (3 FEET vertical x 10 FEET horizontal [0.91 x 3.05 METER]) and EL-S (straight 10 FEET length [3.05 M]), include pipe with weep holes, electrolytic filling material, special conductive backfill material, and protective cover. If the number of ground rods is not specified, 4 rods are generated for the first 1-199 FEET [0.3-60.6 METER] of grid cable, then 1 rod for each 200 FEET [61 METER] thereafter. For example, a 10 FEET [3.05 METER] length generates 4 rods, a 200 FEET [61 METER] length generates 5, and 1,000 FEET [305 METER] generates 9. Does not include trenching and backfill. GRND GRID Type

Ground Grid Diagram and Rod Types:

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Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description Area lighting: includes poles, lights and cable Flood: 400 - 1000 W; Default: *400* Other: 100 - 400 W; Default: *175* Fixture type: Default: Mercury vapor/explosion proof FL1- Fluorescent - 1 bulb FL2- Fluorescent - 2 bulbs FL1E- Fluorescent - 1 bulb, explosion proof FL2E- Fluorescent - 1 bulbs, explosion proofMVPE - Mercury vapor/ explosion proof MVPV- Mercury vapor/vaportite MVCE - Mercury vapor/ceiling/explosion proof MVCV - Mercury vapor/ceiling vaportite MVF- Mercury vapor/flood SVPE-Sodium vapor/explosion proof SVPV- Sodium vapor/vaportite SVCE- Sodium vapor/ceiling/explosion proof SVCV- Sodium vapor/ceiling/vaportite SVF- Sodium vapor/flood INPE- Incandescent/explosion proof INPV- Incandescent/vaportite INCE- Incandescent/ceiling/explosion proof INCV- Incandescent/ceiling/vaportite MHV- Mercury halide flood Electrical cable length: Cable run length from lighting panel. Number of lights: Default: *0* Power per light: Min (flood): 400 W; Max (fluorescent): 120 W; Default: 175 W Support type: See illustrations on following page. *PENDT*- Pendant support BRAKT- Bracket support STAND- Stand and support arm POLE- Pole support (see height entry below) - Continued on next page Type AREA LIGHT

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Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description AREA LIGHT - continued Number of poles: Default: *0*. Pole height: Default: *20* FEET [*6.0* M]. Number of general receptacles: Low voltage (30-50 A). Default: *0*. Number of weld receptacles: 300 A. Default: *0*. Wiring system: Default: *3 wire system* 2- 2 conductor system 3- 3 conductor system 4- 4 conductor system Cable size: Default: US: *12 AWG*, else: 2.5 MM2. 14- 14 AWG - US only 12- 12 AWG - US only 10- 10 AWG - US only 1.5- 1.5 MM2 - other bases 2.5- 2.5 MM2 - other bases 4- 4 MM2 - other bases Cable placement: Default: Project/Area Design Basis ABOVE - Above ground cable/wire BELOW - Buried cable/wire with trenching NOTRN - Buried cable/wire without trenching Electrical cable type: ARMOR- Armored multi-core cable W-C- Single wires in conduit, includes conduit W-NC- Single wires in conduit (less conduit) W-TR- Single wires in tray (less tray) M-C- Multi-core in conduit, includes conduit M-NC- Multi-core in conduit (less conduit) M-TR- Multi-core cable in tray (less tray) - Continued on next page Type

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Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


AREA LIGHT - continued STAND Support Type STAND Support Type with Mast

POLE Support Type

BRAKT and PENDT Support Types

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Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description Type Group of anodes in deep well DEEP A group of anodes in a deep well with connecting leads to an adjacent ANODE junction box. Anode capacity: Based on five amps per anode. Anode depth: Depth should be based on the local soil conditions. The depth is 100 FEET [30 M] plus 7 FEET [2 M] per anode (5 amps per anode). Well casing symbol: Default: *NONE* NONE- No well casing CASED- Cased well Individual galvanic anode An individual galvanic anode for road crossings, etc. Length per cable run: Default: *40* FEET [*12* M] Group of anodes in shallow surface bed A shallow surface anode bed consisting of anodes with underground leads to an adjacent junction box. Type of anode: A- Drilled hole, native backfill B- Drilled hole, coke breeze backfill C- Trench, coke breeze backfill D- Trench, native backfill Number of anodes per bed: *10* Spacing: Anode spacing is the center-to-center distance. Default: *8* FEET [*2.5* M] Potential measurement test station Number of test stations: Enter number of test stations per location. Transformer/rectifier 480 V/60 HZ [415 V/50 HZ] 3 phase input D.C. Output: 50 V/50 A or 100 V/100 A Power pole line must be specified separately. Anode capacity: 50:50A / 50V 150:150A / 100V Length per cable run: Default: *500* FEET [*150* M] RECTIFIER POT TEST SURF ANODE GALV ANODE

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Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description Solar panel with storage batteries Solar panels, adjacent storage batteries, control center, supporting structure, fencing and cable to a junction box. Length per cable run: Default: *500* FEET [*150* M] Emergency light with battery Provides short-term, local lighting for personnel in case of an electric power failure. Indoor, general-purpose type includes selection of light types, 6V battery, battery-recharger, power cable with plug for local outlet, and mounting bracket. Light type: HEPS, HEPR, LEPS, LEPR, STDS, STDR Number of light bulbs: *1*, 2 Underground cable duct Buried depth: Default: *40* INCHES [*1000* MM] Cable duct width: Default: *72* INCHES [*1800* MM] Cable duct type: *TILE*, ENVEL, CONC, PRCST Lighting panelboard and distribution board Local lighting panelboard or distribution board in substation. Lighting panel/distr. board size: 8-36 for panelboard and 6-12 for distribution board. Transformer size: transformer for panelboard, 15-75 KVA. Default: *0* Lighting panel/distr. board opt.: P - Local lighting panelboard D - Distribution board in substation Default: D (distribution board) for UK and EU country bases and P (panelboard) for all other country bases. Panel/distr. board exp. proof opt.: blank - Based on area/project electrical class and division or zone EXPR - Explosion proof enclosure NEXPR - Non-explosion proof enclosure Default: based on area/project specification for electrical class and division or zone. Tracing panelboard for electrical heat tracing Panelboard for electrical heat tracing circuits. Panelboard size: 12-36 TRACE PANL PANEL BRD CABLE DUCT EMER LIGHT Type SOLAR PANL

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Electric Plant Bulks - General Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description Electrical heat tracing controller - single and multi-point Provides control and monitoring of electrical heating cable circuits. Single-circuit, dual-circuit and multi-circuit controllers provide temperature control and monitors temperature, ground fault level and controller failure. Packaged unit is modular-rack design and contains 10 controllers in one panel Single/Multi-point Controller Tracing control points: Default: *0*, Maximum 20 Relay type: EMR - Electromechanical relay SSR - Solid state relay Default: *EMR* Communication option: communication module with 2-wire RS-485 communication. blank -No RS-485 communication interface required (default) X -RS-485 communication interface required. Default: no RS-485 communication interface required. Enclosure material: blank - Fiberglass enclosure SS - Stainless steel enclosure Default: Fiberglass enclosure with window Packaged Controller and Panelboard Tracing control points: Only 10 control points allowed Panelboard size: *24*, 30 and 42 Relay type: EMR - Electromechanical relay SSR - Solid state relay Default: *EMR* Type TRACE CNTR

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22-13

Substation Electrical Plant Bulks


Substation electrical plant bulks include transformers, breakers, transmission lines and bus.
Description Bus duct Continuous Current: Max: 3,000 A Length default elbows: 1 per 20 FEET [6 M] Rated voltage: *600*- 600 V at 60 HZ. 5000- 5000 V at 60 HZ. 15000- 15000 V at 60 HZ. 600-600 V at 50 HZ. 3300- 3300 V at 50 HZ. 11000- 11000 V at 50 HZ. Number of elbows: Default: 1 per 20 FEET [6 M] Termination type: *NONE* NONE- No terminations TRANS- Transformer termination only SWGR- Switchgear termination only BOTH- Switchgear and transformer termination Electrical transformer: 1 or 2 tap Rated load: Range: 10 - 100,000 KVA Transformer type: *DRY*, OIL Oil circuit breakers Rated voltage: Range: 11 - 400 KV Continuous Current: Max: 5 KA [5000 A] Disconnect switches Rated voltage: Range: 4 - 230 KV DISCNCT SW OIL C BRKR TRANSFORM Type BUS DUCT

Overhead transmission line: cables, structures, guys, grounds See Schematic of Project Site Transmission Line Hook-Up Wire size: See Wire Sizes later in this chapter.
Steel for substation structure

POLE LINE

SUBSTN STL

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22 Electrical (G13)

Electrical Plant Bulks - Substation Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description Circuit breakers: main, feeder, tie-breakers Continuous current: Max: 3,000 A Rated voltage: through the maximum HV. Interrupt capacity: LV: 25 - 70 MVA; MV: 250 - 350 MVA; HV: 500 - 1000 MVA Circuit breaker type: *AIR*, SF6, VAC Breaker location: Default: *FEED* FEED- Feeder breaker MAIN- Main breaker TIE- Tie breaker Motor control center Floor-mounted assemblies of one or more enclosed vertical sections principally containing combination motor control/overload protection units (starters). Voltage range: LV: 0.5 - 400 HP [0.33 - 300 KW] MV: 200 - 1000 HP [150 - 3000 KW] MCC type: *S*, I The MCCs described are intended for inside use (i.e., are not for outside use local to the motors). They are unaffected by the electrical class/zone specifications covered later in this chapter. The intelligent MCCs provide more sophisticated electronic control and communication to a control center. The cost for upstream items are not included (e.g., supply bus duct/cable; switchgear [feeder breakers, metering, substation disconnect switch, main breaker]; and substation transformer). MCC Type BREAKER

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Electrical Plant Bulks - Substation Electrical Plant Bulks - continued


Description Switch board Continuous current: 600-4000 A Rated voltage: 3-13.8 KV Switchboard type: VCB- Vacuum circuit breaker VCS1- Vacuum circuit breaker 1 unit stack VCS2- Vacuum circuit breaker 2 unit stack VCS3- Vacuum circuit breaker 3 unit stack Short circuit current: *25*-40 KA AC/DC Transformer Rating: 30-300 ampere-hours Package transformer with panel Rated load: 50-800 KVA Transformer primary voltage: 3000-13800 V Number of phases: 1 or *3* Emergency diesel generator Power output: 5 - 1500 KVA Uninterrupted power supply Rated load: 2-300 KVA. UPS type: *STD*, MULT. Power factor connection capacitor Capacity: 24-2500 KVAR. Voltage: LV (low voltage), MV (medium voltage). PF CORRECT UPS EM PWR SET PKG TRANSF AC DC TRAN Type SWITCH BRD

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22 Electrical (G13)

Schematic of Transmission Line

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Substation Schematics

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22 Electrical (G13)

Electrical & Control Hook-Ups for Electric Motors

Motor Control Center


The MCCs described are intended for inside use (i.e., are not for outside use local to the motors). They are unaffected by the electrical class/zone specifications covered later in this chapter. The intelligent MCCs provide more sophisticated electronic control and communication to a control center. The cost for upstream items are not included (e.g., supply bus duct/cable; switchgear [feeder breakers, metering, substation disconnect switch, main breaker]; and substation transformer). There are two types of MCC available in the system (see diagram below) those with electric motors driven at low voltage (MCC-LV: COA 733) and those with electric motors driven at mid-voltage (MCC-MV: COA 744). Both types of MCCs include starters.

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The MCC-LV is a 12-NEMA space cabinet; the MCC-MV is a 3-NEMA space cabinet. This item is specified by the HP [KW] rating of the motor being supplied- this permits the system to select an appropriately sized starter (see table below). The resulting cost includes both the cost of the starter as well as the cost for the fraction of the cabinet occupied by the starter.

For example, assume that you specify a 20 HP [15 KW] rating- the reported cost for the MCC-LV is the cost of the 3-space starter plus three-twelfths of the whole cost of the cabinet. Specifying four such items would, in effect, completely account for the cost of one 12-space MCC-LV containing four 3space starters.
Motor Size HP < = 10 HP 20 - 50 HP 60 - 100 HP 125 - 200 HP 250 - 400 HP 200 - 400 HP 450 - 4, 000 HP KW < = 7.5 KW 15 - 37.4 KW 44.7 - 75 KW 95 - 150 KW 180 - 300 KW 150 - 300 KW 335 - 3, 1150 KW LV LV LV LV LV MV MV Voltage Starter Size (spaces) 2 3 5 6 9 3 3

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22 Electrical (G13)

Medium Voltage (MV) and Low Voltage (LV) Motor Control Centers (MCC):

Note: When you select the high voltage as 34.5kV (US, ME) / 33kV (UK, EU, JP) in the general electrical specifications, then all the high voltage motors in the project should be powered at the corresponding medium voltage, because all the motors in the system are at the most rated for 15kV (US, ME) / 11kV (UK, EU, JP) only.

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Power Distribution Network

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22 Electrical (G13)

Wire Sizes
Wires sizes must be chosen from one of the following tables.
US and ME Country Bases or AWG Wire Units Wire Size Symbols (guage sizes) -------------- LV ------------------------------------------------ MV --------------------------------------- HV -------------------------14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 4/0 -------- (AWG) --250 350 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 ----- (KCMIL) -----

UK, EU, and JP Country Bases


UK, EU, and JP Country Base or MM2 Wire Units Wire Size Symbols (MM2 sizes) -------------- LV ----------------------------------------------- MV --------------------------------------- HV -------------------------1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 150 ---------------------- (MM2) ------------------------185 240 300 400 500 630 800 1000

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22-23

Electrical Class/Division
National Electrical Code (NEC)
Electrical Class and Division Symbol Single Core or MultiCore Wire In Tray Single Core Armoror Multied Core Wire Cable In Conduit + -

Flammable Gasses or Vapors 11 Highly inflammable gasses and/or vapors. Hazardous atmospheres exist continuously or can occur during course of normal operation for this area. Explosion-proof. Flammable liquids are handled and processed in this area, but they are normally confined (Default). Dust is suspended in air continuously or during course of normal operation for this area. Suspension of dust is not likely in this area, but deposits of dust can occur and be ignited by sparks. Locations exist in this area in which ignitable fibers are handled or used. Locations exist in this area in which easily ignitable fibers are stored. Non-hazardous conditions.

*12*

Combustible Dust 21 + -

22

Combustible Fibers or Particles 31 32 + + -

General Purpose GP + -

+ Indicates cable type consistent with electrical class and division. - Indicates cable type inconsistent with electrical class and division.

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22 Electrical (G13)

International Electrical Code (IEC)


Electrical Zone Single Core or MultiCore Wire In Tray _ _ Single Core Armore or Multid Cable Core Wire In Conduit + + + +

Flammable Gasses or Vapors 0 1 Explosive gas/air mixture is constantly present or is present for long periods. Explosive gas/air mixture is likely to occur under normal operating conditions. Explosive gas/air mixture is unlikely to occur under normal operating conditions. If it does occur, it will be of short duration. Non-hazardous conditions

GP

+ Indicates cable type consistent with electrical class and division. - Indicates cable type inconsistent with electrical class and division.

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22 Electrical (G13)

23 Insulation and Fireproofing


(G8)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Insulation Plant Bulks Insulation Materials Fireproofing Materials Insulation Schedules - System Default Tables Hot Insulation - Light Schedule (L): I-P Units Hot Insulation - Medium Schedule (M): I-P Units Hot Insulation - Heavy Schedule (H): I-P Units Cold Insulation - 1 to 5.5 INCH Thicknesses Cold Insulation - 6 to 10 INCH Thicknesses Hot Insulation - Light Schedule (L): Metric Units Hot Insulation - Medium Schedule (M): Metric Units Hot Insulation - Heavy Schedule (H): Metric Units Cold Insulation - 25 to 165 MM Thicknesses Cold Insulation - 178 to 254 MM Thicknesses Customizing Insulation Specifications

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Insulation Plant Bulks


Description Fireproofing for existing surface area General fireproofing specified as a surface area to be covered. Material: *MAGN*- Magnesium oxychloride CONC- Concrete Fire resistance rating: Range: 2 - 4 The thickness changes according to the Firepr. Rating-Hours: For magnesium oxychlor fireproofing: 2 hours- 9/16 INCHES [14 MM] 3 hours- 7/8 INCHES [22 MM] 4 hours- 1 3/16 INCHES [30 MM] For concrete fireproofing: < 3 hours- 2 1/2 INCHES [64 MM] 3 hours- 3 INCHES [76 MM] 4 hours- 3 1/2 INCHES [88 MM] Fireproofing for existing structural steel Material: *MAGN*- Magnesium oxychloride CONC- Concrete Fire resistance rating: Range: 2 - 4 The thickness changes according to the Firepr. Rating-Hours: For magnesium oxychlor fireproofing: 2 hours- 9/16 INCHES [14 MM] 3 hours- 7/8 INCHES [22 MM] 4 hours- 1 3/16 INCHES [30 MM] For concrete fireproofing: < 3 hours- 2 1/2 INCHES [64 MM] 3 hours- 3 INCHES [76 MM] 4 hours- 3 1/2 INCHES [88 MM] General area insulation. Insulation for existing surface area: hot, cold insulation. General insulation specified as surface area to be covered. Material: *CASIL*- Calcium silicate MWOOL- Mineral wool FOAM- Foam glass - Continued on next page INSUL AREA FIREP SSTL Type FIREP AREA

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23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

Insulation Plant Bulks - continued


Description INSUL AREA - continued Temperature: Temperature for FOAM only, provides cold (default) or hot insulation. Jacket type: AL- Aluminum jacket SS- Stainless steel jacket CS- Painted carbon steel jacket Type

Insulation for existing piping: hot, cold Material: *CASIL*- Calcium silicate MWOOL- Mineral wool FOAM- Foam glass Temperature: Temperature for FOAM only, provides cold (default) or hot insulation. Jacket type:
AL- Aluminum jacket SS- Stainless steel jacket CS- Painted carbon steel jacket Packed bulk insulation Material: *PERL*- Perlite bulk insulation VERM- Vermiculite bulk insulation RWOOL- Rockwool bulk insulation Cable Tray fireproofing Fire resistance rating: Range: 2 - 4

INSUL PIPE

INSUL BULK

FIREP TRAY

23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

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Insulation Materials
Note that insulation is applied to equipment and piping as specified by the user. The default, if no choice is specified, is foam glass insulation for temperatures 50 DEG F [10 DEG C] or lower; calcium silicate insulation is applied for higher temperatures.
Description Calcium silicate Mineral wool Foam glass Ceramic wool Polyisocyanurate/ Plyurethane Maximum Thickness Temperature Range INCHES 12.0 12.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 MM 300.0 300.0 300.0 300.0 300.0 DEG F 51 to 1500 51 to 1200 -450 to 665 51 to 1500 -450 to 250 DEG C 11 to 815 11 to 645 -265 to 350 11 to 815 -265 to 120 Insulation Symbol CASIL MWOOL FOAM CWOOL PURF

Fireproofing Materials
Note that fireproofing is not applied to equipment (skirts/legs, support steel, ladders) and various steel structures by default. The user must specify at least the rating (thickness to use) in project level specifications and separately specify the thickness of fireproofing on each component. The default material is magnesium oxychloride.
Description Magnesium oxychloride Rating (hours) 0 2 3 4 Concrete 0 2 3 4 Pyrocrete 1 2 3 4 Thickness INCHES 0 9----16 41 ----16 31 ----16 0 1 1 -2 3 1 1 -2 3 -4 1 1 1 -4 1 1 -2 MM 0 14 22 30 0 64 76 89 19 25 32 38 PYRO CONC Fireproofing Symbol MAGN

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23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

Insulation Schedules - System Default Tables


Hot Insulation - Light Schedule (L): I-P Units
Nominal Pipe Diameter Inches 0.75 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 36 268 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 460 454 411 305 253 236 216 164 162 162 162 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 790 780 581 558 500 441 389 306 295 90 275 256 250 244 238 238 226 226 225 225 225 Insulation Thickness - INCHES 1 1.5 2 2.5 1170 1161 1049 869 848 679 598 493 475 445 414 392 383 373 365 365 349 349 340 340 340 3 1774 1586 1410 1181 1148 949 848 709 693 628 585 557 542 529 517 517 501 501 501 501 501 3.5 2000 1989 1801 1640 1613 1232 1142 950 914 823 776 748 725 706 696 696 676 676 622 622 622 2000 2000 1836 2000 1778 2000 1558 1887 1406 1737 1237 1520 1133 1385 1008 1268 960 952 928 911 894 894 874 874 850 850 850 1236 1177 1147 1126 1109 1109 1090 1090 1032 1032 1032 2000 2000 1810 2000 1700 2000 1556 1922 2000 1492 1846 2000 1419 1775 2000 1384 1708 2000 1364 1646 2000 1361 1588 2000 1346 1534 2000 1329 1483 2000 1329 1436 2000 1250 1392 1546 1250 1392 1546 1250 1392 2000 4 4.5 5 5.5 6

Temperatures - Degrees F

Notes: Light insulation schedule is typical for average low ambient temperatures above 40 degrees F. Insulation for hot service would be applied to designated surfaces of 51 degrees F or hotter. To use the table: 1 2 3 4 Locate pipe diameter in left column. Read across line to locate the operating temperature (degrees F). Read required insulation thickness at top of column. For intermediate temperatures, use next larger insulation thickness. For large diameter pipe, equipment, or other large flat surfaces, use thicknesses in the last line in the table.

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Hot Insulation - Medium Schedule (M): I-P Units


Nominal Pipe Diameter Inches 0.75 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 36 209 305 520 150 302 498 150 231 389 150 228 369 150 202 332 150 193 296 150 183 270 150 157 228 150 156 223 150 156 220 150 156 213 150 203 150 200 150 197 150 194 150 194 150 188 150 188 150 188 150 188 150 188 758 732 665 565 544 450 392 322 313 298 282 271 267 262 258 258 250 250 245 245 245 Insulation Thickness - INCHES 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5

Temperatures - Degrees F 1185 1457 1051 1399 944 811 777 660 579 479 444 389 368 354 346 340 334 334 326 326 326 326 326 1279 1173 1137 925 838 705 648 571 517 474 438 428 423 423 413 413 386 386 386 1659 1911 2000 1588 1825 2000 1557 1786 2000 1444 1747 2000 1433 1710 1941 2000 1240 1617 1882 2000 1112 1475 1801 2000 977 881 774 710 670 625 585 548 522 512 512 500 500 500 1304 1630 1953 2000 1177 1505 1869 2000 1067 1366 1788 2000 1001 1277 1716 1922 2000 926 860 819 778 739 701 676 613 591 591 1184 1653 1846 2000 1115 1587 1775 2000 1056 1530 1708 2000 1013 1476 1646 2000 963 916 881 809 778 778 1427 1588 2000 1380 1534 1797 1337 1483 1707 1297 1436 1622 1251 1392 1546 1251 1392 1546

Note: Notes: Medium insulation schedule is typical for average low ambient temperatures from 20 degrees F to 40 degrees F. Insulation for hot service would be applied to designated surfaces of 51 degrees F or hotter. To use the table: 1 2 3 4 Locate pipe diameter in left column. Read across line to locate the operating temperature (degrees F). Read required insulation thickness at top of column. For intermediate temperatures, use next larger insulation thickness. For large diameter pipe, equipment, or other large flat surfaces, use thicknesses in the last line in the table.

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23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

Hot Insulation - Heavy Schedule (H): I-P Units


Nominal Pipe Diameter Inches 0.75 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 36 150 150 150 150 150 250 345 215 302 197 280 179 260 164 240 150 220 150 185 150 150 596 516 478 440 405 370 309 248 195 150 150 150 1.5 2 2.5 Insulation Thickness - INCHES 3 3.5 915 808 756 705 661 617 533 459 382 318 258 199 150 150 150 4 1317 1175 1113 1052 987 922 818 717 629 539 460 388 321 259 202 150 150 150 150 4.5 5 5.5 6 7 8

Temperatures - Degrees F 1821 2000 1650 2000 1571 2000 1493 2000 1420 1882 2000 1347 1764 2000 1212 1601 2000 1088 1450 1905 2000 969 865 766 675 572 512 446 368 302 261 194 150 150 1310 1738 2000 1176 1576 2000 1062 1432 1844 2000 949 845 750 661 579 503 432 367 306 306 1305 1692 2000 1174 1550 2000 1059 1416 2000 952 853 760 674 594 502 502 1292 2000 1176 1794 2000 1068 1594 2000 966 872 784 784 1413 2000 1243 1796 1092 1585 1092 1585

Note: Heavy insulation schedule is typical for average low ambient temperatures less than 20 degrees F. Insulation for hot service would be applied to designated surfaces of 51 degrees F or hotter. To use the table: 1 2 3 4 Locate pipe diameter in left column. Read across line to locate the operating temperature (degrees F). Read required insulation thickness at top of column. For intermediate temperatures, use next larger insulation thickness. For large diameter pipe, equipment, or other large flat surfaces, use thicknesses in the last line in the table.

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23-7

Cold Insulation - 1 to 5.5 INCH Thicknesses


Nominal Insulation Thickness - INCHES Pipe Diameter 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Inches 0.75 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 36 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 25 25 30 30 30 30 30 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 -10 -10 15 15 15 15 20 25 25 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 -25 -25 -15 -15 -10 -10 0 0 0 10 15 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 -70 -70 -45 -45 -35 -35 -30 -25 -15 -10 -5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5 10 -135 -130 -100 -90 -60 -60 -55 -45 -35 -25 -25 -25 -25 -25 -25 -25 -25 -10 -10 -10 -5 4 4.5 5 5.5

Temperatures - Degrees F -225 -225 -300 -459 -180 -225 -300 -459 -120 -185 -230 -290 -120 -185 -225 -290 -105 -135 -175 -235 -105 -135 -175 -235 -85 -70 -60 -50 -45 -40 -35 -35 -35 -35 -35 -25 -25 -25 -25 -135 -160 -235 -105 -125 -160 -85 -70 -65 -55 -55 -50 -45 -45 -45 -40 -40 -40 -40 -115 -145 -105 -125 -105 -125 -80 -75 -70 -65 -65 -65 -60 -60 -60 -55 -105 -105 -105 -95 -95 -95 -75 -75 -75 -75

Note: The hot insulation schedule adjustment (L,M, or H) does not apply to cold insulation. Insulation for cold service would be applied to designated surfaces of 50 degrees F or colder. For cold insulation, joints are caulked and a vapor barrier is applied. To use the table: 1 2 3 4 Locate pipe diameter in left column. Read across line to locate the operating temperature (degrees F). Read required insulation thickness at top of column. For intermediate temperatures, use next larger insulation thickness. For large diameter pipe, equipment, or other large flat surfaces, use thicknesses in the last line in the table.

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23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

Cold Insulation - 6 to 10 INCH Thicknesses


Nominal Pipe Diameter Inches 0.75 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 36 -345 -459 -340 -459 -290 -340 -459 -290 -340 -459 -265 -300 -459 -205 -240 -290 -325 -175 -215 -225 -295 -150 -185 -225 -235 -140 -170 -205 -230 -130 -160 -190 -225 -125 -150 -180 -210 -115 -145 -175 -200 -110 -135 -165 -190 -105 -130 -155 -180 -105 -130 -155 -180 -105 -120 -140 -170 -105 -120 -140 -170 -105 -120 -140 -170 -105 -115 -135 -160 -459 -325 -300 -285 -265 -250 -235 -225 -205 -205 -190 -190 -190 -175 -459 -459 -325 -305 -285 -275 -260 -240 -240 -225 -225 -225 -215 -459 -352 -310 -295 -290 -270 -270 -250 -250 -250 -240 -459 -459 -325 -459 -315 -459 -300 -459 -300 -459 -285 -305 -285 -305 -285 -305 -280 -300 6 6.5 Insulation Thickness - INCHES 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10

Temperatures - Degrees F

Note: The hot insulation schedule adjustment (L,M, or H) does not apply to cold insulation. Insulation for cold service would be applied to designated surfaces of 50 degrees F or colder. For cold insulation, joints are caulked and a vapor barrier is applied. To use the table: 1 2 3 4 Locate pipe diameter in left column. Read across line to locate the operating temperature (degrees F). Read required insulation thickness at top of column. For intermediate temperatures, use next larger insulation thickness. For large diameter pipe, equipment, or other large flat surfaces, use thicknesses in the last line in the table.

23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

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Hot Insulation - Light Schedule (L): Metric Units


Nominal Pipe Diameter MM 20 25 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 900 131 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 237 421 234 415 210 305 151 292 122 260 113 227 102 198 73 72 72 72 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 152 146 143 135 124 121 117 114 114 107 107 107 107 107 632 627 565 465 453 359 314 256 246 229 212 200 195 189 185 185 176 176 171 171 171 Insulation Thickness - MM 25 38 50 63 75 967 863 765 638 620 509 453 376 367 331 307 291 283 276 269 269 260 260 260 260 260 88 1093 1087 982 893 878 666 616 510 490 439 413 397 385 374 368 368 357 357 327 327 327 1093 1093 1002 1093 970 847 763 669 611 542 515 511 497 488 478 478 467 467 454 454 454 1093 1030 1093 947 826 751 686 668 636 619 607 598 598 587 587 555 555 555 1093 987 926 846 811 770 751 740 738 730 720 720 676 676 676 1093 1093 1050 1093 1007 1093 968 931 896 864 834 806 780 755 755 755 1093 1093 1093 1093 980 930 883 841 841 841 100 113 125 138 150

Temperatures - Degrees C

Note: Light insulation schedule is typical for average low ambient temperatures from above 4 degrees C. Insulation for hot service would be applied to designated surfaces of 11 degrees C or hotter. To use the table: 1 2 3 4 Locate pipe diameter in left column. Read across line to locate the operating temperature (degrees C). Read required insulation thickness at top of column. For intermediate temperatures, use next larger insulation thickness. For large diameter pipe, equipment, or other large flat surfaces, use thicknesses in the last line in the table.

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23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

Hot Insulation - Medium Schedule (M): Metric Units


Nominal Pipe Diameter MM 20 25 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 900 98 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 151 271 150 258 110 198 108 187 94 89 83 69 68 68 68 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 166 146 132 108 106 104 100 95 93 91 90 90 86 86 86 86 86 403 388 351 296 284 232 200 161 156 147 138 132 130 127 125 125 121 121 118 118 118 Insulation Thickness - MM 25 38 50 63 75 640 566 506 432 413 348 303 248 228 198 186 178 174 171 167 167 163 163 163 163 163 88 791 759 692 633 613 496 447 373 342 299 269 245 225 220 217 217 211 211 196 196 196 100 113 903 864 847 784 778 671 600 525 471 412 376 354 329 307 286 272 266 266 260 260 260 125 138 150 163

Temperatures - Degrees C 1043 1093 996 974 952 932 880 801 706 636 575 538 496 460 437 414 392 371 357 322 310 310 1093 1093 1093 1060 1093 1027 1093 982 887 818 741 691 640 601 568 545 517 491 471 431 414 414 1093 1067 1093 1020 1093 975 935 900 863 832 802 775 748 725 702 677 677 1093 1050 1093 1007 1093 968 931 896 864 834 806 780 755 755 1093 1093 1093 1093 980 930 883 841 841

Note: Medium insulation schedule is typical for average low ambient temperatures from -6 degrees C to 4 degrees C. Insulation for hot service would be applied to designated surfaces of 11 degrees C or hotter. To use the table: 1 2 3 4 Locate pipe diameter in left column. Read across line to locate the operating temperature (degrees C). Read required insulation thickness at top of column. For intermediate temperatures, use next larger insulation thickness. For large diameter pipe, equipment, or other large flat surfaces, use thicknesses in the last line in the table.

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Hot Insulation - Heavy Schedule (H): Metric Units


Nominal Pipe Diameter MM 20 25 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 900 65 65 65 65 65 121 173 101 150 91 81 73 65 65 137 126 115 104 85 65 65 65 313 268 247 226 207 187 153 120 90 158 65 65 Insulation Thickness - MM 38 50 63 75 88 490 431 402 373 349 325 278 237 194 281 125 92 65 65 65 100 713 635 600 566 530 494 436 380 331 462 237 197 160 126 94 65 65 65 65 113 125 993 898 855 811 771 730 655 586 520 635 407 357 300 266 230 186 150 27 90 65 65 1093 1093 1093 1093 1027 1093 962 871 787 710 857 572 509 451 398 349 303 261 222 186 152 152 1093 1093 1040 1093 947 1093 777 707 634 570 511 456 404 356 312 261 261 1006 1093 922 843 768 700 635 575 518 466 417 417 1093 1093 1093 1093 978 867 767 672 588 588 1093 1093 1093 980 862 862 1093 138 150 175 200

Temperatures - Degrees C

Note: Heavy insulation schedule is typical for average low ambient temperatures less than -6 degrees C. Insulation for hot service would be applied to designated surfaces of 11 degrees C or hotter. To use the table: 1 2 3 4 Locate pipe diameter in left column. Read across line to locate the operating temperature (degrees C). Read required insulation thickness at top of column. For intermediate temperatures, use next larger insulation thickness. For large diameter pipe, equipment, or other large flat surfaces, use thicknesses in the last line in the table

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23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

Cold Insulation - 25 to 165 MM Thicknesses


Nominal Pipe Diameter MM 20 25 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 900 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 -3 -3 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 -23 -23 -9 -9 -9 -9 -6 -3 -3 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -31 -31 -26 -26 -23 -23 -17 -17 -17 -12 -9 -9 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 Insulation Thickness - MM 25 38 50 63 75 -56 -56 -42 -42 -37 -37 -34 -31 -26 -23 -20 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -17 -14 -14 -14 -12 88 -92 -90 -73 -67 -51 -51 -48 -42 -37 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -31 -23 -23 -23 -20 100 113 125 138 150 163

Temperatures - Degrees C -142 -159 -184 -273 -117 -159 -184 -273 -84 -84 -76 -76 -64 -56 -51 -45 -42 -39 -37 -37 -37 -37 -37 -31 -31 -31 -31 -120 -145 -178 -209 -273 -120 -142 -178 -206 -273 -92 -92 -92 -76 -64 -56 -53 -48 -48 -45 -42 -42 -42 -39 -39 -39 -39 -114 -148 -178 -206 -114 -148 -178 -206 -106 -131 -164 -184 -87 -81 -76 -76 -62 -59 -56 -53 -53 -53 -51 -51 -51 -48 -106 -131 -151 -98 -87 -87 -76 -76 -76 -70 -70 -70 -59 -59 -59 -59 -114 -137 -101 -120 -95 -89 -87 -81 -78 -76 -76 -76 -76 -76 -76 -112 -106 -101 -98 -92 -89 -89 -84 -84 -84 -81

Note: The hot insulation schedule adjustment (L, M, or H) does not apply to cold insulation. Insulation for cold service would be applied to designated surfaces of 10 degrees C or colder. For cold insulation, joints are caulked and a vapor barrier is applied. To use the table: 1 2 3 4 Locate pipe diameter in left column. Read across line to locate the operating temperature (degrees C). Read required insulation thickness at top of column. For intermediate temperatures, use next larger insulation thickness. For large diameter pipe, equipment, or other large flat surfaces, use thicknesses in the last line in the table.

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Cold Insulation - 178 to 254 Thicknesses


Nominal Insulation Thickness - MM Pipe Diameter 175 188 200 213 225 238 MM 20 25 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 900 -273 -273 -273 -178 -198 -273 -159 -181 -198 -273 -142 -148 -184 -273 -131 -145 -176 -198 -273 -123 -142 -164 -187 -198 -117 -134 -156 -176 -189 -114 -128 -148 -170 -181 -109 -123 -142 -162 -178 -103 -117 -131 -151 -167 -103 -117 -131 -151 -167 -95 -95 -95 -92 -112 -123 -142 -156 -112 -123 -142 -156 -112 -123 -142 -156 -106 -114 -137 -151 -273 -273 -198 -192 -184 -184 -176 -176 -176 -173 -273 -273 -273 -273 -187 -187 -187 -184 Temperatures - Degrees C 250

Note: The hot insulation schedule adjustment (L, M, or H) does not apply to cold insulation. Insulation for cold service would be applied to designated surfaces of 10 degrees C or colder. For cold insulation, joints are caulked and a vapor barrier is applied. To use the table: 1 2 3 4 Locate pipe diameter in left column. Read across line to locate the operating temperature (degrees C). Read required insulation thickness at top of column. For intermediate temperatures, use next larger insulation thickness. For large diameter pipe, equipment, or other large flat surfaces, use thicknesses in the last line in the table.

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23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

Customizing Insulation Specifications


In order to assign an appropriate insulation thickness to a piece of equipment or section of pipe (if thickness is not specified by the user), the system refers to tables that relate thickness to temperature and pipe diameter. External versions of these tables are available for customization in an ASCII format file. This file also includes a table that lets you define how much insulation is allocated for valves and fillings. Template Insulation Specification Files There are three template files (IP units, Metric units, and blank) available in one of the following locations: Aspen Capital Cost Estimator or Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator: C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Documents\AspenTech\Shared Economic Evaluation V7.1\Insulation The files are named INSSPC_IP.DAT, INSSPC_METRIC.DAT, and INSSPC_BLANK.DAT. The files contain identical tables, but the default temperature and equivalent length parameters (alterable fields) are either in IP units, Metric units, or are absent. These files are inactive; the system refers to internal representations of the insulation tables during a project estimate if there are no customized copies of the insulation specs file in the Administrator or project directories. You can copy whichever file is the most convenient as a starting point for your customized insulation specs file(s). In Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and IPM (while no projects are open), view the Libraries view tab on the Palette. In the Customer External Files folder, open the Insulation Thickness and Rules subfolder. Right-click on the template of your choice and click Duplicate. Rename the file. It will be the starting point for your custom insulation specs file. In other products, you must manually copy and rename the file. Customizing the Insulation Specs File You can edit the newly created file by using any ASCII text editor. The editor must not introduce non-printing characters other than a space or CR/LF, that is, no tabs are allowed. The file format is shown on the following page.

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Overall Units Section

Diameter Units Section

The picture above shows the top of the file and the first insulation thickness table. Lines which contain comments start with a #. Lines which are read in by the system during a project run begin with a l. YOu must be sure to avoid shifting any of the vertical pipe sysboles l while altering the fields. The following are the only fields that may be altered: Unit of Measurement option fields at the top of the file

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23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

Temperature values within Tables 1 thru 4 Maximum diameter and A, B, C parameter values in Table 5

Unit of Measurement Basis Options The first choice you must make when customizing an insulation specs table is the overall unit of measurement basis. The available options are IP or METRIC. If you choice IP units by entering IP into the space provided, the temperature values in Tables 1 thru 4 will be read by the system as degrees Fahrenheit. With and IP basis the parameters in Table 5 will be used to calculate equivalent insulation in feet of pipe. Conversely, if you enter METRIC in the units field provided, the temperatures will be read as degrees Centigrade, and the values in Table 5 will be used to calculate equivalent meters of pipe insulation. You must also select a unit of measurement basis for pipe diameter. The available options are INCH or MM. This choice does not affect Tables 1 through 4. It determines whether the maximum pipe diameters in Table 5 are in Inches or Millimeters. The option also determines the equivalent length equations (formed from the A, B, C parameters you provide) are calculated using pipe diameters in Inches or Millimeters. Customizing the Insulation Thickness Tables There are four thickness tables in the file - three for hot insulation and one for cold. Tables 1, 2, and 3 correspond to the Light, Medium, and Heavy schedules from which you may choose in the Project Design Basis menu. (For example, if you select Heavy schedule insulation when defining your project, the system will refer to Table 3 when generating a cost estimate). Table 4 is for cold insulation. The tables are arranged with pipe diameter along the left hand side and insulation thickness along the top. For a given pipe diameter (table row), each temperature value represents the maximum temperature for which the corresponding thickness will be used. The last row of each table (36 inch/900 MM. row) is used for both 36 inch diameter pipe and equipment insulation. Note: You may only adjust the temperature cells in the insulation thickness tables, not the pipe diameters or insulation thickness. You do not have to fill Tables 1 through 4 out completely. If you leave a temperature cell blank, but there are values given somewhere to the left and right, or above and below, the system will interpolate linearly between the given values to fill the blanks. (These values will be maintained internally; the system will not fill the blank values in the external data file). Interpolation is not possible for outer blanks that have no surrounding given values; these spaces are filled by copying the last given value over to fill the remainder of the table. To avoid confusion, it is recommended that you fill out all four insulation thickness tables according to your insulating practices even if you do not intend on using all three schedules. If a table is left completely blank the system will refer to the internal default tables for an estimate requiring that schedule.

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Customizing the Valve and Fitting Insulation Table Table 5 (the valve and fitting insulation table) is shown below.

The table lets you determine how much additional insulation is allotted for valves and fittings. Any parameters you provide for valves will apply to all valves in the project (all valves are considered equal when calculated insulation requirements). Likewise, the fittings correlations will be applied to all fittings in the project (all valves are considered equal when calculated insulation requirements). Likewise, the fittings correlations will be applied to all fittings in the project. You can account for insulation differently for varying pipe diameters by defining three size categories (Small, Medium, and Large). Each range is defined by the maximum diameters you place in the fields provided. For example, in the above picture the Medium correlations would be used to calculate the insulation required for any valve or fitting on a section of pipe with diameter larger than 4 inches but smaller than (and including) 12 inches. Table 5 is designed so you can make your insulation correlation simple or complex. The parameters A, B and C are used in the following equation to calculate the length of pipe which would have to be insulated to account for one valve or one fitting. Equivalent Pipe Length = A + B * (Pipe Diameter)c Any of the three parameters may be set to zero to simplify the correlation. For example, according to the picture of Table 5 above, each fitting on a section of

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23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

2-inch diameter pipe would increase the total insulation length by 4 feet. (B and C are zero - correlation has no dependence on pipe diameter). Enabling the Insulation Specfication File There are two options for enabling customized insulation specs files: You can place a copy in the system administrator directory (as the default for all projects), or you can copy a customized file into the directory of a specific project. When generating a cost estimate, the system will use the specifications in the current project directory if an insulation specs file resides there. Otherwise, the copy in the administrator directory will be used. (The administrator copy is therefore the system default - it will be referred to for any project that does not have its own insulation specs file). To activate your customized file for use in a specific project in Aspen Capital Cost Estimator or IPM, right-click the Insulation Thickness option in the Basis for Capital Cost/Customer External Files directory on the Project Basis Tab. Click the desired file on the menu of choices; then click OK. The file is copied into the directory for the currently open project. In all other cases, the file must be copied and renamed manually to the appropriate folder. These directory locations are described below: Administrator Directory (for use as system default): Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, IPM: C:/Aspen Tech/Aspen Icarus xxx/Data/ PIDS Project Directory (activation for a specific project only): Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, IPM: Right-click/Click desired file as described above In order to enable a customized file in either of the above locations, you must name the file INSSPC.DAT.

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23 Insulation and Fireproofing (G8)

24 Paint

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction to Paint Paint Plant Bulks How Icarus Systems Paint Equipment

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24-1

Introduction to Paint
Icarus systems can calculate default paint areas for piping, equipment and steelwork. The default paint is provided for all piping, but is only provided on equipment and steelwork if specifically requested. Paint is provided typically for carbon steel materials only, but can be obtained for any material if specifically requested. Paint areas and number of coats can be modified or added for any item. Icarus systems do not provide different grades of paint; however, costs can be adjusted appropriately by code of account material indexing.

Paint Plant Bulks


Description Paint for existing surface: printer, final coats Paint for existing piping: primer; final coats Paint for existing structural steel: primer, final coats Type PAINT AREA PAINT PIPE PAINT SSTL

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24 Paint (G6)

How Icarus Systems Paint Equipment

24 Paint (G6)

24-3

Legend: 1. HE: HEATER ELC, HEATER STM, ONE SCREW, SUC HEATER, TWO SCREW 2. HO: HAND NT, 1 SP;EED, 5 SPEED 3. Also: AT: COND CELL. FLOAT CELL & SE: WATER CYCL. Not affected by paint specification for shop fabricated equipment 4. Method determined by specification for paint Application Method: S (spray) or B (brush) 5. Method determined by specification for paint Application Method: S (sandblasting) or B (wire brush) 6. Surface area is calculated by mode; you must enter the number of primer and/or final coats.

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24 Paint (G6)

25 Site Development

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction to Site Development Demolition Drainage Earthwork General Excavation Fencing Landscaping Roads-Slabs-Paving Piling Railroads

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25-1

Introduction to Site Development


Site development may be used to specify items within eight major categories: Earthwork Drainage Fencing Demolition of existing structures Landscaping Roads/slabs/paving Piling Railways

It is important to recognize the two distinctly different applications for which the site development may be used to introduce site development information into a project. The desired application is determined by appropriate selection of the site development item type. The first application is based on the use of site development work item models, which are contained within the system. You describe the type and extent of work to be performed, item-by-item, consistent with the scope of each work item model. The system in turn develops material quantities and manpower resources and their associated costs, and additionally, equipment rental and engineering requirements. The second application allows the introduction of quoted estimates for material and manpower costs into a project as supplemental site development cost items. Item models are not used. Entries of this nature are charged to codes of account in the amounts of material and manpower you specify. Site development items, either developed by the system through work item models or as user-entered costs, may be specified as either project-related items or area-related items.

Site Development Work Items


Within the eight categories of site development, numerous individual work item models are available for selection depending on the desired type and extent of work to be performed. Economy of scale is very important for many site development items (e.g., you can select from bulk excavation, structural excavation or hand structural excavation). In addition, the system addresses a large extent of work, defined by you in a single work item request, differently from the way it addresses several work item requests, each of small extent. That is, work item models re-select an appropriately configured crew, by developing man-hour requirements and by providing the crew members with construction equipment properly sized for the work to be performed. Terrain, soil conditions and other project environment factors significantly affect the quantity and type of site work required. To reflect this, site

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25 Site Development (G6)

development work items are presented to accommodate particular, welldefined tasks. For example, instead of a single site preparation item, you are offered individual items, such as clearing and grubbing, excavation, grading and landscaping. This provides the ability to fine tune the project to actual conditions. Excavation items are assumed to be requirements in excess of the normal excavation required for equipment and building foundations and structural footings, since excavation for these items (when defined as part of a unit area) are ordinarily system-determined.

Demolition
Description Demolish building w/disposal, no salvage Demolition of individual structure without salvage but including disposal. Specify frame type (steel, concrete, masonry, wood). Disposal includes loading and hauling waste from site. Dump charge not included. Demolish building w/disposal and salvage DISPOSAL Demolition of individual structures with separation of reusable materials for specified frame type. Loading and hauling waste material is included. Dump charge not included. Explosive bldg. demol, no salvage/disposal Demolition of structures by explosives. Does not include salvage or disposal. Gutting & disposal of building interior Gutting building interiors and loading and hauling the refuse for either commercial or residential structures. Dump charge not included. Lump sum quotation - demolition Enter Total Cost or Matl and MH. See code of accounts (Civil only). EXPL DEMOL Type DEMOLITION

REMOVAL

DEMOL

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Drainage
Description Catch basin, manhole Catch basins or manholes of either brick, block, poured concrete, or precastconcrete. Includes footing and excavation with an option of slab tops or lightweight frames and covers. All types have 4 FEET [1.25 M] internal diameter. Pump and hose for open excavations Pumping water from open excavations. Unattended pumps except for daily servicing. Suction line to 20 FEET [6 M] and discharge line to 100 FEET [30 M] in length. Drainage piping Installation of selected diameter pipe of asbestos cement, corrugated steel, concrete, or vitrified clay with an adjustment for the percentage of curved or radius pipe. Includes trenching, gravel bed and compacted backfill. Septic tank and drain field No. of distrib'n = no. per tank; Length of drain line = length per tank. Septic tank installation. Precast concrete tanks of specified capacity with the option of 5 outlet concrete distribution boxes. The drainfield, including pipe, trenching, gravel and backfill, is input as total length of drain required. Foundation subdrain with perforated pipe Installation of foundation subdrainage of selected diameter pipe of asbestos cement, corrugated steel, porous wall concrete, or vitrified clay with an adjustment for quantity of curved or radius pipe. All types except concrete are perforated. Includes trenching, gravel bed and compacted backfill. Sump pit Construction of sump pits including excavation and gravel bottom. Option of wood lining to a depth of 4 FEET [1.25 M]. Cased water supply well with pump Domestic water wells drilled and cased. Includes down-hole pump, surface grouting, and utility runs, if specified. Does not include plumbing fixtures and connections. WATER WELL SUMP PIT SUBDRAIN SEPTIC TNK DRAINS DEWATERING Type BASINS

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25 Site Development (G6)

Drainage - continued
Description Wellpoints with header and pump Single stage wellpoint system for deterring to an average 15 FEET [5 M] depth. Includes installation, operation, equipment rental and system removal. Two INCH [50 MM] wellpoints on 5 FEET [1.5 M] centers. Diameter of header is proportional to length: 6 INCHES [150 MM] for 100 FEET [30 M] 8 INCHES [200 MM] for 200-500 FEET [60-150 M] 10 INCHES [250 MM] for 1000 FEET [300 M]. 9 Dewatering wells with pump Dewatering wells; 2 INCH [50 MM] diameter bore with steel casing. Includes 2 INCH [50 MM] centrifugal pump per well for a specified period. 10 Lump sum quotation - drainage Enter Total Cost or Matl and MH. See code of accounts (Civil only). DRAINAGE WELLS Type WELLPOINTS

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Earthwork
General
Description Type Test borings with engineers report BORINGS Includes field stake-out and elevations, 2.5 INCH [65 MM] auger holes with samples of earth, drawings and professional engineers (P.E.) report. Clear brush - manual or dozer BRUSH Brush clearing by hand with saw and rake (HAND) or by dozer with ball and chain (MACH). Clearing and grubbing Mechanized clearing and grubbing. OptionIncludes removal of trees to LIGHT 6 INCH [150 MM] diameter MEDIUM 10 INCH [250 MM] diameter HEAVY 16 INCH [400 MM] diameter Includes on-site cutting, chipping and stump removal. Dike construction including stabilizing Construction of dikes on level grade. Includes placing of fill, soil poisoning with polybor chlorate on grade, slopes, and top; 2 INCHES [50 MM] of sand asphalt on top and slopes. DIKE CLEAR GRUB

Gunite slope protection GUNITE Slope protection using 3 INCH [75 MM] thickness of gunite (air-blown mortar) to finished slopes. Includes bond beam on top, key footing at toe and all reinforcing. Pond with bedding, lining, fencing-no pipe Specify piping with bulk yard pipe item. Evaporation or holding pond. Includes excavation, gravel and sand bedding, fencing and optional lining. Piping not included. Cantilevered concrete retaining wall No embankment cut and fill included, See excavation items. Reinforced concrete cantilevered retaining wall. Includes excavation and backfill for wall footings only. Sprayed asphalt soil stabilization Erosion protection and soil stabilization by spraying with asphalt. Lump sum quotation - earthwork Enter Total Cost or Matl and MH. See code of accounts (Civil only). POND

RETAIN

STABILIZE EARTHWORK

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25 Site Development (G6)

Excavation
Description Type Backfill and compact excavation BACKFILL Backfilling of trenches or footings. Fill material is assumed to be stockpiled locally, with no hauling. For numerous small items, manhours can be adjusted by specifying the number of items in addition to the unit cubic yards. Filling equipment may be wheeled loader/ backhoe (WH-LD), crawler loader or dozer. Compaction, if required, may be hand rammer, manual or self-propelled vibrating drum roller. Drill and blast rock - no disposal Drill and shoot rock in trenches, pits, or open areas; includes crawler trackdrill, compressor, and blasting materials but no disposal of shot rock. Rock types include gypsum, slate, limestone, sandstone and granite. BLASTING

Fill compaction with towed roller COMPACT Compaction of fill in layers by towed sheepsfoot roller. Options available for watering during compaction and for rough spreading of fill by dozer, scraper or grader. For fine grading and surface compaction, see PAVING, BASE PREP. Cut & fill with spreading no compaction Dozer: maximum haul 500 FEET [150 M] Scraper: minimum haul 100 FEET [31M] Bulk site excavation using dozers or scrapers on a cut and fill cycle, including spreading and rough grading but no compaction. Scraper selection varies with volume, material and haul distance. Soil type ROCK refers to already ripped or shot rock. CUT FILL

Hand excavation, no backfill/shoring, etc. HAND EXCV Excavation by hand of trenches or pits, in sand, earth, or clay. Manhours will be adjusted for depth of excavation and for volume per item (pits). If shoring is required, see SHORING. Dewatering for wet conditions, allowance for wet conditions, disposal and/or backfill are not included. Truck haul-disposal or purchased fill HAULING Material cost may be input for purchased fill or dump charge. Hauling by dumptrucks (lorries) with option of loading from stockpiles. Does not include excavation, spreading, or backfill. Soil type will determine bulking factor. For purchased fill or dump charge, the user may specify the cost (in user-defined currency at User Base Index) per loose CY [M3].

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Excavation - continued
Description Manual jackhammer work - no disposal Breaking or trimming of rock or concrete by hand-held jackhammer, including compressor and operating crew. Concrete may be plain or reinforced. Rock types include gypsum, slate, limestone, sandstone and granite. Does not include disposal. Rock excavation with tractor and ripper for hauling, Both the haul distance and the loading equipment type must be input Rock excavation by D9 crawler tractor with ripper attachment. In addition, the user may specify truck loading (by crawler backhoe or wheeled front-end leader) and hauling. Rock types are gypsum, slate, limestone, sandstone and granite. Ripping costs may be increased (greater fragmentation) to facilitate truck loading. Shoring of excavations Max shored depth: 40 FEET [12M] - sheet, HPILE; 20 FEET [6M] - close; 10 FEET [3M] - open bracing. Installation, adjustment, accessories, removal, cleaning, rental or owning cost and waste are included. Dewatering not included. Types available: Type J HAMMER

RIP ROCK

SHORING

Steel interlocking sheet piling, 30 PSF [145 KG/M2], including bracing (SHEET). Steel H piles driven on 8 FEET [2.4 M] centers, timber planks and spacers horizontally between flanges, including bracing (HPILE). Solid timber sheeting supported by timber waling and braces (CLOSE). Single vertical planks spaced on 3 FEET [0.9 M] centers with bracing (OPEN).

Excavation with stockpile or disposal SITE EXCVN The haul distance should be input if the disposal option is chosen. Bulk site excavation using crawler loader, dragline, or crawler backhoes. If the disposal and distance fields are not used, it will be assumed that the excavated material is to be stockpiled within 100 FEET [30 M] of the excavation. The disposal options are: HAUL - generates a truck-loading cycle, dumptruck, sizing, off-road hauling the user specified distance and dumping. SPREAD - generates (in addition to truck hauling) spreading in the fill area by D8 dozer and rough grading, with no compaction. Soil type ROCK refers to already ripped or shot rock.

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25 Site Development (G6)

Excavation - continued Description Strip and stockpile soil - no hauling Strip and stockpile site topsoil to a specified average depth. Equipment options include crawler loader, elevating scraper, or dozer. Truck hauling or spreading not included. Man-hours are adjusted for area, depth and equipment used. Machine excavation, no backfill/shoring, etc. Machine excavation (with hand trimming) of basements, footings, etc. Equipment options include: 0.75 CY [0.6 M3] wheeled loader/backhoe (WH-LD), crawler backhoe, or crawler crane with clamshell bucket suitable for excavations deeper than 30 FEET [10 M]. If shoring is required, see SHORING. Soil type ROCK refers to already ripped or shot rock. Dewatering, disposal and/ or backfilling are not included. Ditching no backfill/shoring, etc. Machine excavation (with hand trimming) using wheeled loader/backhoe (WH-LD), crawler backhoe, or trenching machine. If shoring is required, see SHORING. Soil type ROCK refers to already ripped or shot rock. Dewatering, disposal, and/or backfill are not included. TRENCH EXC STRUC EXC Type STRIP SOIL

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25-9

Fencing
Description Type Barbed wire topping for fence BARBED No. of sides = wire on one or both sides of fence; No. of strands = no. each side Installation of barbed wire on chain link, mesh, or security fence. Two or three-strand galvanized or aluminum wire on either 1 or 2 sides. Boundary or Perimeter fencing in which the user can specify both fence and gates has been added. Chain link fence with concrete footing Installation of chain link fence, including excavation and concrete for posts on 10 FEET [3 M] centers and braced and trussed line posts at 100 FEET [30 M] centers. Galvanized or aluminum wire or vinyl-coated steel. Wood fencing Permanent wood fencing of cedar picket, redwood basket-weave, or oak rustic rail with appropriate gates. Lump sum quotation - fencing Enter Total Cost or Matl and MH. See code of accounts (Civil only). Free standing wall Default one course thickness - all types; Double may be input for brick and block. Materials are:4 INCH [100 MM] common brick 8 INCH[200 MM] concrete block 18 INCH[450 MM] decorative random stone 8 INCH[200 MM] concrete. Industrial gate for fence Industrial gates of galvanized steel, aluminum, or vinyl-coated steel with posts excavated and set in concrete. Barbed wire and motor operation are optional. Gates are assumed to be double widths if 8 FEET [2.5 M] or more. Wire mesh fencing Galvanized steel mesh fencing and gates with posts on 5 FEET [1.5 M] centers. No bracing or concrete. Heavy duty security fencing Heavy duty security fence, security grade, set in concrete and trussed and braced. SECURITY MESH FS WALL FENCING FENCE WOOD BOUNDARY CHAIN LINK

GATES

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25 Site Development (G6)

Landscaping
Description Mesh or netting erosion control Erosion control by placing and securing either jute mesh, plastic netting, polypropylene mesh, or tobacco netting. Placing peat or wood chip mulch Placing a 2 INCH [50 MM] deep layer of either wood chips or peat moss as mulch. Planting trees or shrubs Planting either 8-10 FEET [2.5-3 M] trees or 4-5 FEET [1.2-1.5 M] shrubs. Siting, placing, fertilizing, and watering plantings are included. Fine grade, seed, lime, fertilize Fine grading, seeding, liming, fertilization, and final watering. Furnish, place sod on prepared area Furnish, place, and water sod (1 INCH [25 MM) deep) on pregraded area. Polybor chlorate soil sterilization Sterilization of cleared areas using polybor chlorate. Furnish, place and fine grade topsoil Furnish, place and fine-grade topsoil. Lump sum quotation - landscaping Enter Total Cost or Matl and MH. See code of accounts (Civil only). LANDSCAPE TOPSOIL STERILIZE SODDING SEEDING PLANTING MULCH Type EROSION

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25-11

Roads - Slabs - Paving


Description Type Paving - asphalt base and wearing courses ASPHALT either base or wearing course depth must be input; Material option sand topping. Assumes paver for roadways or spreader for parking and other small areas (PARK). A base course and/or a fine aggregate wearing course thickness must be selected. A 0.75 INCH [20 MM] sand finish may be added. Includes hauling to site, grading, and compaction. Grade and compact base for paving Grade and compact areas to correct elevation to plus or minus 0.1 FEET [0.03 M]. Concrete paving - no base preparation Paving with 4500 PSI [31,000 KN/M2] concrete. Preparation of compacted subgrade and/or paving not included. Includes finishing and curing, with optional steel reinforcing mats. Placing by slipform machine may be specified for concrete roadways. Slipformed or manual cross gutter Six INCH [150 MM] thick concrete cross-guttering of selected width and length. Optional forming, pouring, finishing, and expansion joints, or slipforming by machine for widths up to 10 FEET [3 M], if specified. Slipformed or manual placed curb Concrete curb (kerb) only, 14 INCHES [350 MM] deep by 9 INCHES [225 MM] wide overall. Optional either forming, pouring and finishing by hand with expansion joints on 30 FEET [9 M] centers or slipforming by machine, if specified. CURB CROSS GUTT CONC PAVNG BASE PREP

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25 Site Development (G6)

Description Slipformed or manual curb and gutter Monolithic concrete curbing (kerbing) and gutter. Optional forming, pouring, and expansion joints on 30 FEET [9 M] centers or slipform by machine, if specified. Concrete canal or gutter Concrete canal or gutter with concrete cover. Inside length, Inside width and Inside depth must be input. If not specified, system calculates Cover (default: 8 IN [200 MM] prefab concrete slab); Hand Excavation; Machine Excavation; Blinding slab; Concrete; Formwork; Rebar; Anchors and embedments. Excavation Material (Default: EARTH); End Wall Requirement (Default: *B*, O, N); Sealcoat or Liner area (Default: 0); and Liner Type (Default: GM, C1, C2, * NO*) can be also specified. The material and manhour per volume of concrete will be calculated based on the factors used for BASIN (Type 10). If civil external file is used, the factors from the external file will be used.

Type CURB GUTT

CANALGUTTR

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Roads - Slabs - Paving - continued


Description Coal tar pitch emulsion (2 coats) Application of sealcoating. Includes cleaning and preparing the existing surface and applying two coats of coal tar pitch emulsion. Sidewalk base and paving Installation of concrete or asphalt sidewalks or pavements with an option of a bank run gravel base. Gravel base course - no base prep Soil cement treatment option available for subgrade. Subpaving base course. Options include crushed stone, bank run gravel, and macadam penetration. Soil cement treatment may also be selected. Subgrade preparation is not included. Resurfacing with sealant and gravel Tar and chip. Placing sealant and binder on an existing surface and covering with screened gravel. Includes surface cleaning and rolling following treatment. Parking Area Paving, Sub Paving and Excavation. Optional Shoulder, Sidewalk, Median, Concrete Curb, Guard Rail, Lining and compaction. Paving material can be Asphalt, Concrete, Concrete Block, Prefabricated concrete tile, or Stone pavers. Lump sum quotation - paving/roads Enter Total Cost or Matl and MH. See code of accounts (Civil only). Main, secondary and minor Roads Paving, Sub Paving, Shoulder and Excavation. Optional Sidewalk, Median, Concrete Curb, Guard Rail, Lining and compaction. Default is Main Road with Asphalt paving, Gravel Base course, and One side Shoulder. The width and depth are based on the road type. Paving options - Asphalt, Concrete, Concrete Block, Prefabricated concrete tile, or Stone pavers. Shoulder options - Asphalt, Gravel or Crushed stone. Sidewalk options - Asphalt, Concrete, Tiles, or Stone pavers. Site Preparation for paving has been added. This includes Grubbing and cleaning, Hand and Machine Excavation, Fill of Subgrade and Compaction. SITEPREP ROAD PAVING PARKING TAR CHIP SUBPAVING SIDEWALKS Type SEALCOAT

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25 Site Development (G6)

Piling
Description Type CAISSON

Drilled bell-type caisson


Open-style machine-drilled bell-caissons, including mobilization, concrete, reinforcement, drilling equipment rental, and load testing, in the following ground conditions: OptionDescription EARTH Dry, stable soils CLAY Wet, unstable soils ROCK Soft, weathered rock. Driven pipe piles Driving set pipe piles of selected diameter with an option of concrete filling. Equipment rental includes rental of drilling equipment. Drilled and cast-in-place concrete piles Cast-in-place concrete piles with 4000 PSI[27.5 N/MM2] concrete. Includes equipment setup and breakdown and load testing. Pile Types: POUR - Poured 12"[300MM] to 20"[500MM], capacity: 72 Tons [65 Tonne] Cast-in-place constant diameter concrete piles. FRNK - Frank 16"[400MM] to 24"[600MM], capacity: 220 Tons[200 Tonne] Bored large size piles, enlarged base, reinforced with steel cages. AUGR - Auger-Cast 12"[300MM] to 24"[600MM], capacity 250 Tons[225 Tonne] Auger drilled and then grouted under pressure as the auger is withdrawn. Rebar installed when grout is fluid. Driven precast concrete piles Driving precast concrete piles, either solid square shaped or, optionally, hollow cylindrical shaped. Includes equipment rigging and derigging, splicing, if required, and cutoff. Capacity: 90 Tons Driven Raymond step-taper piles Driving Raymond step-taper piles. Piles furnished and installed on a subcontract basis by Raymond International, Inc. Testing not included.

PIPE

POURED

PRECAST

RAYMOND

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Piling - continued
Description Type Driven steel H-PILES STEEL H Example: heavy duty pile - 57 LB/FT [85 KG/M] instead of 42 [62] for 10 INCH [250 MM] pile Driving steel H-section piles of selected cross-section including equipment rigging and derigging, points, splicing, if required, and cutoff. Heavy duty option available (e.g., for 10 x 10 INCHES [250 MM x 250 MM], heavy duty, 57 LB/FT [85 KG/M] is used instead of standard 42 LB/FT [62 KG/M] for steel). Driven wood piles WOOD Driving wood piling either friction or point bearing. Includes rigging and derigging equipment, boots, points, and splices, if required. Creosote treated or concrete and mesh encased piles may be selected. Cutoff included. Load testing is not included. Lump sum quotation - piling Enter Total Cost or Matl MH. See code of accounts (Civil only). PILING

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25 Site Development (G6)

Railroads
Description Bumper at siding end Installation of bumpers on a siding end. Heavy duty bumpers available as an option. Single line siding crossing Single line siding crossing including special track mat, timber, and crossing signal installed on level grade. Single track yard siding Installation of a single track yard siding on level ground, including rails, hardware, timber ties and ballast. New or relay rail and rail weight option available. Heavy duty siding for mining application Heavy duty single track for mining applications. Six INCH [150 MM] steel WF ties set in 10 INCH [250 MM] concrete bed, 9 FEET [2.7 M] wide. Includes fasteners, plates, rebar and 100 LB/YD [50 KG/M] new rail. Crossing signal with barrier, etc. Track crossing signal with road barrier and flashing light. Wheel stops on siding Installation of wheel stops on a yard siding. #8 turnout, switch-hitting, etc. Installation of #8 turnouts, including rails, plates, bars, frogs, switchpoints, timbers and ballast. Lump sum quotation - railroads Enter Total Cost or Matl MH. See code of accounts (Civil only). RAILROADS TURNOUT STOPS SIGNAL SIDING CROSSING Type BUMPER

SIDING HVY

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25 Site Development (G6)

26 Buildings

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction to Buildings Adding a Building Building Types and Defaults Default Floor Heights/Levels Building Construction Range Adjustment Calculating Building Costs and Labor Figure 1 Figure 2

26 Buildings (G6)

26-1

Introduction to Buildings
Building data is used to incorporate a number of independent buildings and/or their associated services into the project. Enclosed buildings are distinguished from steel structures (areas, plant bulks) in that they are not designed to support equipment loads. An enclosed building may house equipment, but this does not affect the resulting building design or cost. The cost of a building is based upon its size, type, structural style and the requested services. The default costs and electrical load for each building type are indicated in the Building Types and Defaults table on the following page. You may revise the level of each service (none, L, M, H or V) and/or the cost of that service. All costs are assumed to be direct field costs assigned to the prime contractor, except in the case of contract jobs, in which they are assigned to the contractor specified.

Adding a Building
A building can be added under Plant Bulks, Civil, or under Buildings. Defaults are identical and material costs, man-hours and labor costs are calculated the same way. If you are using Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, the underlying data for these costs can be defined in an external file under Administrator control. See Aspen Capital Cost Estimator Users Guide, Chapter 10, Administrative Operations, for details. Buildings are not designed items, but are developed as costs per surface area (Unit Cost) items. You can specify your building using one of three general approaches: 1 2 3 Select any Total cost adjust. value that uses some default value, then accept the resulting unit costs. 2.Select the in Total cost adjust., then enter your unit costs for each of the five general categories. 3.Start with method (1), above, then override selected categories (e.g., Total super-structure cost) or elements of a category (e.g., Frame, etc.) with your unit cost.

If you specify the unit cost for any element in a category, this suppresses all other elements in that same category, but does not affect other categories. For example, if you specify the unit cost for the Floor element in the Total super-structure category, all other elements in that category are set to zero cost -- if you want to generate a cost for the Stair element, then you must specify a unit cost for that element. If you specify a value for both a category and one or more elements in that category, the costs are not additive- only the unit cost specified for the category is used and the elements are ignored. Costs are split between material and labor according to percentages in the internal (system defaults) or in the external (Administrator specified) file. The split for the internal table varies from a high of 62% to a low of 38% for

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26 Buildings (G6)

material. Building overhead and profit are separately specifiable for each building type. The fields Explosion Pressure, Foundation Type, and Roof Type have no effect on the design and cost of the building; they are included for informational purposes only.

Field Descriptions:
Gross floor area: Default: calculated from length, width, height, number of levels, and building type. Building type: see Building Types earlier in this chapter. Building height: Default: determined from number of levels and building type. Number of levels: Default: calculated from length, width, height, area, and building type. Explosion gauge pressure: For control buildings only, design pressure for explosion resistance. Default: *0.0* PSIG; MAX: 30.0 PSIG. Electrical load: W/SF Total cost adjustment symbol: Invokes either the built-in system values for a Medium item (blank or M), a down-adjustment (L), an up-adjustment (H or V), or suppresses the default costs (). (blank)System Defaults No System Defaults, user data only L - Low adjustment for system defaults (range varies from 45-98% of M) M - Medium adjustment for system defaults (the default value= 100%) H - High adjustment for system defaults (range varies from 106-216% of M) V - Very high adjustment for system defaults (range varies from 159-324% of M) Foundation type: *NORMAL*- Spread footings. PIERS- 10 FEET [3M] deep piers to footings. PILES- Floors on piles Roof type: *FLAT*- Flat roof. TRUSS- Truss roof. SAW- Sawtooth roof. Labor adjustment required: When calculating the labor hours and costs to report, the system can take a variety of parameters into account: wage rate in external file or in project; time and currency difference between external file and project; user man-hour indexing and productivity adjustments. Specify in this field which of these to take into account. If you are using an external file, it is best to select YES. *YES*- Adjust labor cost by system rate, productivity; use external file wage rates.

26 Buildings (G6)

26-3

NO- No adjustment of labor cost. Total substructure cost: foundation cost per unit area. Total superstructure cost: enter either total super-structure or individual structure component cost for the following: Exterior door and window Exterior wall Floor Frame Int door and window Roof Stair internal table varies from a high of 62% to a low of 38% for material. Building overhead and profit are separately specifiable for each building type. Total interior finish cost: enter either total internal finish cost or individual finish component cost. Total fitting and furniture cost: either total fittings, furniture cost. Total services cost: enter either total services cost or individual service component cost. Overhead and Profit: enter total overhead and profit cost.

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26 Buildings (G6)

26 Buildings (G6) SHOP OFFICE COMPR CAFE WARE CONTRL GARAGE LAB 4 0.00 21.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.17 0.00 4.40 8.11 2.78 3.67 1.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.95 5.68 3.00 5.10 1.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.40 3.19 2.78 3.67 1.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.41 8.11 3.00 5.10 1.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.40 5.68 2.78 3.67 1.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.21 12.17 18.25 12.17 48.67 0.00 7.41 8.11 3.00 5.60 1.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.21 0.00 6.95 8.11 3.00 5.10 1.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.40 5.47 2.78 3.79 1.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.17 0.00 4.40 5.68 2.78 4.51 1.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17.69 0.00 6.95 8.11 3.00 5.10 1.87 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 31.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 24.88 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 26.88 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 18.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 31.56 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 19.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 32.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 21.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 30.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 21.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.17 0.00 4.40 5.68 2.78 4.51 1.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5 4 2 0.5 4 0.5 5 1 1 1 1 0.00 21.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.17 0.00 4.40 5.68 2.78 4.51 1.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 19.12 19.12 19.12 19.12 19.12 19.12 19.12 19.12 19.12 19.12 19.12 19.12 19.12 18.64 21.33 20.77 22.59 21.64 20.31 21.36 22.59 22.59 18.64 18.64 0 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 CLOSED SANTRY EXIST SHELL WAGE YEAR

ELECTRICAL UNIT LOAD

SUBSTRUCTURE TOTAL

SUBSTRUCTURE TOTAL - Frame - Floor - Roof - Stairs - External Walls - External Doors & Windows - External Doors & Windows

INTERNAL FINISH TOTAL - Wall Finishes - Floor Finishes - Ceiling Finishes

FITTING & FURNISHING TOTAL 12.71

SERVICE TOTAL - Air Conditioning - Lighting and Electrical - Heating/Ventilation - Plumbing & Fixtures - Fire Protection - Lift Installation - Security Installation - Special Installation - Builders Work

Building Types and Defaults

OVERHEAD AND PROFIT

26-5

Default floor Heights/Levels


Building Type Cafeteria Enclosed Building Compressor Building Control Room Existing Building Garage Laboratory Office Building Sanitary Enclosed Building Shell* Shop Warehouse Type Symbol CAFE CLOSED COMPR CONTRL EXIST GARAGE LAB OFFICE SANTRY SHELL SHOP WARE Height per Floor or Level FEET 12.0 20.0 20.0 10.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 10.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 3.5 6.0 6.0 3.0 6.0 4.5 3.0 3.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 M

Building Construction Range Adjustment


Adjustment Construction Frame Symbol Type L Pre-Fabricated Light Steel Roof Walls Floors Finishes Light Steel Transite or metal sheet Concrete Minimum

Pre-fabricated Medium Concrete steel frame and trusses Custom designed Heavy steel, heavy sidings Concrete

Concrete Concrete Average walls or good brick Face brick on concrete block Concrete Expensive

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26 Buildings (G6)

Calculating Building Costs and Labor


When calculating the cost of a building, the system uses either the internal file conditions or those specified in the external file. If the external file is used, the system first reads in that file, then:
Converts all the costs in the external file to the currency of the project base country location using the Currency Conversion in the external file. Escalates these to the same time point as the cost base of the system using the yearly cost indices by country location, by major account. A summary of these is reported in the Release Notes for each version. Converts these into the reporting currency units for the current project using the Conversion Rate specified in the project.

This allows you to use an external file built using any currency and at any date known to the system (see Chapter 33, Base Indices) in a project with any reporting currency. For analytical purposes, you may want to Year in the external file to be the same as the base year of your system to allow you to trace your numbers through a complete computation. In order to calculate the various hours and costs, the system must first adjust all items to be at the same basis: same currency and same time point. The costs for each element and/or category are calculated according to the methodologies indicated in Figure 1 (How Building Costs are Calculated Using the External File- general procedures that focus on adjusting for currency and time differences); Figure 2 (How Building Material Costs are Calculated Using the External File); and Figure 3 (How Building Labor Hours & Costs are Calculated Using the External File). The following generalizations are important:
The critical item to understand is that it is necessary for the system to move all costs to the same currency (one of the three known to the system: USD, PS or KY) and to the same time point (SBI is the time at which all the system-generated costs are valid). Because of this, you must thoroughly understand the escalation concepts used by the system (SBI, UBI and EI) and be very consistent in your use of dates and parity rates valid at those dates. It follows from this that it is very important for you to enter at least the UBI for your project. When used with systems where these escalation concepts do not apply, or if you do not use them in Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, it is important to appreciate potential time-based discrepancies between user-entered numbers that are valid now and those computed by the system that are valid at the base year of the system being used. It is usually best to let the system pick the unit costs based on your inputs and set Labor adjust=YES. Since the numbers in the external file are always adjusted to the year of the current version, the final numbers reported are rarely, if ever, the same as those entered in the external file.

26 Buildings (G6)

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Figure 1

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26 Buildings (G6)

Figure 2

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26 Buildings (G6)

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26 Buildings (G6)

27 Quoted Equipment and Libraries


(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction Quoted Equipment User Libraries

27 Quoted Equipment and Libraries (G6)

27-1

Introduction
There are two methods for specifying specialty items or items not included in system: Quoted equipment User libraries

Quoted Equipment
Quoted equipment items can be used for unique, special, non-standard and proprietary types of process equipment. Since quoted equipment items are unknown to the system, an account code must be provided when entering the quote. If you enter a COA that is known to the system as one containing rotating equipment (COAs 150-179 and 220-229), then the system calculates an allowance for spares and adds it to COA 107. This does not happen if you are using your own complete COA set in a project.

User Libraries
User libraries are meant to hold your important personalized cost data. There are two kinds of libraries: Unit Cost Library - Holds information related to material and labor costs (per unit quantity) for equipment, bulks or indirects. Equipment Model Library (EML) - Holds information related to the process equipment. You can store cost vs. capacity data for special kinds of process equipment. You can add Piping and Instrumentation drawings to the EML in Aspen Capital Cost Estimator. For instructions, see Tutorial: Assigning Default P&IDs to User Entered Equipment on page 10-20 of the Aspen Capital Cost Estimator Users Guide. If your library requirements are extensive, you should consider building several libraries, placing like items in the same library. All items in a library share the same currency basis and are converted as appropriate when added to a project.

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27 Quoted Equipment and Libraries (G6)

28 Material Selections

(G10)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: ASME Design Code - Plate Materials ASME Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steel ASME Ferrous Plate Materials - Heat Treated Steel ASME Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel ASME Ferrous Plate Materials - High Alloy Steel ASME Non-Ferrous Plate Materials ASME Design Code - Clad Plate Materials ASME Design Code - Tube Materials ASME Ferrous Tube Materials - Carbon Steel ASME Ferrous Tube Materials - Low Alloy Steel ASME Ferrous Tube Materials - High Alloy Steel ASME Non-Ferrous Tube Materials BS Design Code - Plate Materials BS Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steel BS Ferrous Plate Materials - Heat Treated Steel BS Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel BS Ferrous Plate Materials - High Alloy Steel BS Non-Ferrous Plate Materials BS Design Code - Clad Plate Materials BS Design Code - Tube Materials BS Ferrous Tube Materials - Carbon Steel BS Ferrous Tube Materials - Heat Treated Steel BS Ferrous Tube Materials - Low Alloy Steel BS Ferrous Tube Materials - High Alloy Steel BS Non-Ferrous Tube Materials JIS Design Code - Plate Materials JIS Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steel JIS Ferrous Plate Materials - Heat Treated Steel JIS Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-1

JIS Ferrous Plate Materials - High Alloy Steel JIS Non-Ferrous Plate Materials JIS Design Code - Clad Plate Materials JIS Design Code - Tube Materials JIS Ferrous Tube Materials - Carbon Steel JIS Ferrous Tube Materials - Low Alloy Steel JIS Ferrous Tube Materials - High Alloy Steel JIS Non-Ferrous Tube Materials DIN Design Code - Plate Materials DIN Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steel DIN Ferrous Plate Materials - Heat Treated Steel DIN Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel DIN Ferrous Plate Materials - High Alloy Steel DIN Non-Ferrous Plate Materials DIN Design Code - Clad Plate Materials DIN Design Code - Tube Materials DIN Ferrous Tube Materials - Carbon Steel DIN Ferrous Tube Materials - Low Alloy Steel DIN Ferrous Tube Materials - High Alloy Steel DIN Non-Ferrous Tube Materials EN 13445 Design Code - Plate Materials EN Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steels EN Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steels EN Ferrous Plate Materials - High Alloy Steels EN 13445 Design Code - Tube Materials EN Ferrous Tube Materials - Carbon Steels EN Ferrous Tube Materials - Low Alloy Steels EN Ferrous Tube Materials - High Alloy Steels Lining Materials Brick: Acid-Resistant Applied Over Membrane-Lined Carbon Steel Brick: Firebrick Monolithic Lining Abrasion Resistant Linings: Replaceable Linings: Organic, Glass, Metallic Casting Materials Packing Materials

28-2

28 Material Selections (G10)

ASME Design Code - Plate Materials


ASME Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steel
ASTM Spec (Grade) A-36 A-283 (c) (Structural Steel) Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates of structural quality Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels Carbon-manganesesilicon steel plates for plates for pressure vessels Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, high strength manganese A 36 A 283C Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. F 650 650 C 343 343 F 900 900 C 482 482

A-285 (C)

A 285 or A 285 C or CS A 299

900

482

900

482

A-299

1000

537

900

482

A-455 (A) A-515 (70)

A 455

650

343

650

343

Carbon steel plates for A 515 pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service: C-Si Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for moderate and lower temperature service C-Si A 516

1000

537

900

482

A-516 (70)

1000

537

900

482

A-537

Carbon steel plates for A 537 pressure vessels for low temperature service C-Mn-Si

1292

700

300

148

na = Material not selectable for vacuum design

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-3

ASME Ferrous Plate Materials - Heat Treated Steel


ASTM Spec (Grade) A-353 Nine percent nickel alloy A353 steel plates, double normalized and tempered for pressure vessels: 9Ni Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. F 250 C 121 F 900 C 484

A-553

Eight and nine percent A553 nickel alloy steel plates, (Type 1) quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: 9Ni A-517 High strength alloy steel plates, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: Cr-Mn-Si Cr-Mn-Si Cr-Mn-Si Cr-Mn-Si A517A A517B A517E A517F

250

121

900

484

(A) (B) (E) (F)

650 650 650 650

343 343 343 343

650 650 650 650

343 343 343 343

na = Material not selectable for vacuum design

28-4

28 Material Selections (G10)

ASME Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel


ASTM Spec A-202 Description and Nominal (Grade) Composition Chromiummanganese-silicon alloy steel plates for pressure vessels System Internal Pressure External Pressure Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. F C F C

(A) (B)

A202A A 202 or A202B

1000 1000

537 537

900 900

482 482

A-203

(A) (B) (D) (E) A-204

Nickel alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: 2.5Ni 2.5Ni 3.5Ni 3.5Ni Molybdenum alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: C-.5Mo C-.5Mo C-.5Mo Manganesemolybdenum and manganesemolybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: Mn-.5Mo Mn-.5Mo Mn-.5Mo-Ni Mn-.5Mo-Ni

A203A A203B A203D A203E

1000 1000 1000 1000

537 537 537 537

900 900 900 900

482 482 482 482

(A) (B) (C) A-302

A204A A204B A 204 or A204C

1000 1000 1000

537 537 537

900 900 900

482 482 482

(A) (B) (C) (D)

A302A A 302 or A302B A302C A302D

1000 1000 1000 1000

537 537 537 537

900 900 900 900

482 482 482 482

- continued on next page -

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-5

ASME Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel - continued


ASTM Spec A-387 Description and Nominal (Grade) Composition Pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, chromiummolybdenum: .5Cr-.5Mo .5Cr-.5Mo 1Cr-.5Mo 1Cr-.5Mo 1.25Cr-.5Mo-Si 1.25Cr-.5Mo-Si 2.25Cr-1Mo 2.25Cr-1Mo 3Cr-1Mo 3Cr-1Mo 5Cr-.5Mo 5Cr-.5Mo Manganesemolybdenum and manganesemolybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: C-Mn-Mo C-Mn-Mo-Ni C-Mn-Mo-Ni A387A A387G A387B A387H A387C A387J A387D A387K A387E A387L A387F A387M 1000 1000 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 537 537 648 648 648 648 648 648 648 648 648 648 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 482 System Internal Pressure External Pressure Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. F C F C

(2 CL 1) (2 CL 2) (12 CL 1) (12 CL 2) (11 CL 1) (11 CL 2) (22 CL 1) (22 CL 2) (21 CL 1) (21 CL 2)

A-533

(A CL 1) (B CL 1) (C CL 1)

A533A A533B A533C

1000 800 800

537 426 426

650 650 650

343 343 343

na = Material not selectable for vacuum design

28-6

28 Material Selections (G10)

ASME Ferrous Plate Materials - High Alloy Steel


ASTM Spec (Grade) A-240 Chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for fusion-welded unfired pressure vessels: 8Cr - 8Ni 18Cr - 8Ni 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo-Ti 18Cr - 10Ni - 3Mo 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb 20 Cr - 18 Ni - 6 Mo Duplex 22Cr - 5Ni - 3Mo 13Cr 17Cr 304L SS304 (or SS) 316L SS316 316TI SS317 SS321 SS347 SS348 SS6MO S2205 SS410 SS430 800 1500 850 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1382 600 1200 1200 426 815 454 815 815 815 815 815 815 750 315 648 648 800 1200 800 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 400 900 1200 426 648 426 648 648 648 648 648 648 648 204 482 648 Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. F C F C

(304L) (304) (316L) (316) (316Ti) (317) (321) (347) (348) (648) (2205) (410) (430)

na = Material not selectable for vacuum design

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-7

ASME Non-Ferrous Plate Materials


ASTM Spec (Grade) B-209 (1100) (3003) (5052) (5083) (5086) (6061) B-171 (464) B-11 (110) B-96 Copper plates for locomotive fireboxes Cu Copper-silicon alloy plate and sheet for pressure vessels: Cu - Zn Copper sheet, strip, plate, and rolled bar: Cu Copper-nickel alloy plate and sheet for pressure vessels: Cu - Ni 70/30 CA715 700 371 700 371 CA122 400 204 150 66 CA655 350 176 350 176 CU or CA110 400 204 150 66 Aluminum-alloy sheet and plate: Al Al Al Al Al Al Copper and copper alloys - Naval brass CA464 400 204 350 177 A1100 A3003 A5052 A5083 A5086 A6061 400 400 400 150 150 204 204 204 204 66 66 204 400 400 400 150 150 400 204 204 204 66 66 204 Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. F C F C

(655) B-152 (122) B-171

(715)

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28-8

28 Material Selections (G10)

ASME Non-Ferrous Plate Materials - continued


ASTM Spec (Grade) B-333 (B) B-575 (C-276) B-409 Hastelloy: Ni - Mo Hastelloy: Ni - Mo - Cr Specification for nickeliron-chromium alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni - Fe - Cr Nickel-iron-chromiummolybdenum-copper alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni - Fe - Cr - Mo - Cu Carpenter 20 alloy plate, sheet and strip: Cr-Ni-Fe-Mo-Cu-Cb Nickel-chromium-iron alloy plate, sheet, and strip, Inconel: Ni - Cr - Fe Nickel plate, sheet, and strip: Ni Ni-Low C Nickel-copper alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni - Cu NI or NI200 NI201 600 600 1200 315 315 648 600 600 1000 315 315 537 INCNL or I600 1200 648 800 426 C 20 800 426 800 426 I825 1000 537 700 371 I800 1500 815 800 426 HAST or HASTB HASTC Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. F 800 C 426 F 800 C 426

1000

537

1000

537

(800) B-424

(825) B-463 (20Cb) B-168

(600)

B-162

(200) (201) B-127 (400)

MONEL or M400

900

482

800

426

B-265

Titanium and titanium alloy strip, sheet, and plate: Ti Ti TI35A Tl or TI50A 600 600 600 315 315 315 600 600 600 315 315 315

(1) (2)

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-9

ASME Design Code - Clad Plate Materials


Material Classification Description* Vessel Base (Backing Material)** ASTM A-285 ASTM A-285 A-204 A-515 A-516 A-387 A-387 A-387 A-387 A-387 A-387 Grade System Material Symbol

C B C 70 70 12 12 11 11 22 22

CL CL CL CL CL CL

1 2 1 2 1 2

A285C A204B A204C A 515 A 516 A387B A387H A387C A387J A387D A387K

Cladding Material (Process Side)


Stainless steel type 304 304L 316 316L 321 347 410 430 200 201 400 600 800 825 20Cb 2 B C-276 SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347 SS410 SS430 NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL I800 I825 C 20 Ti HASTB HASTC

Nickel alloy Monel Inconel

Ni-Fe-Cr
Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Carpenter 20 Titanium Hastelloy B Hastelloy C

See Plate Materials (ASME Code) for further material descriptions.

** Only these base materials may be used with the above list of cladding materials. No other combination may be selected.

28-10

28 Material Selections (G10)

ASME Design Code - Tube Materials


ASME Ferrous Tube Materials - Carbon Steel
ASTM Spec Description and System Internal External System Nominal Composition MaterialSymb Pressure Pressure Default ol Maximu Maximu Tubesheet (Grade) m Temp. m Temp. Material F C F C (Plate) A-179 Seamless cold-drawn low-carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes. Seamless carbon steel boiler tubes for highpressure service Seamless medium carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes A210A A210C 100 0 A-214 Electric-resistancewelded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes 100 537 900 482 A515 0 537 900 482 A515

CS (seamless) A - 179

900 482 900 482 A285C 900 482 900 482 A285C

A-192

A 192

100 537 900 482 A 515 0

A-210

(A-1) (C)

CS (welded) A 214

100 537 900 482 A515 0 537 900 482 A515 100 0

A-334 (1) (6)

Seamless carbon steel tubes for low temperature service

A334A A334B

650 343 650 343 A 442 650 343 650 343 A 442

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-11

ASME Ferrous Tube Materials - Low Alloy Steel


ASTM Spec Description and Nominal (Grade) Composition System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F A-199 Seamless cold-drawn intermediate alloy steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes: 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si 2.5Cr - 1Mo 3Cr - .9Mo 5Cr - .5Mo Seamless carbonmolybdenum alloy steel boiler and superheater tubes: C - .5Mo C - .5Mo C - .5Mo Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes: .5Cr - .5Mo 1Cr - .5Mo 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si 2.25Cr - 1Mo 3Cr - .9Mo 5Cr - .5Mo A 209 A209A A209B 1000 1000 1000 537 537 537 900 900 900 482 482 482 A 204 A 204 A 204 A199C A199D A199E A199F 1200 1200 1200 1200 648 648 648 648 900 900 900 900 482 482 482 482 A387C A387D A387E A387F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

(T11) (T22) (T21) (T5) A-209

(T1) (T1A) (T1B) A-213

(T2) (T12) (T11) (T22) (T21) (T5)

A213A A213B A213C A213D A213E A213F

1000 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200

537 648 648 648 648 648

900 900 900 900 900 900

482 482 482 482 482 482

A387A A387B A387C A387D A387E A387F

28-12

28 Material Selections (G10)

ASME Ferrous Tube Materials - High Alloy Steel


ASTM Spec Description and Nominal (Grade) Composition System Material Symbol Internal Pressure Maximum Temp. F A-213 Seamless Ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes: 18Cr - 8Ni 18Cr - 8Ni 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb Welded austenitic steel boiler superheater, heat exchanger, and condenser tubes: 18Cr - 8Ni 18Cr - 8Ni 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

TP304 TP304L TP316 TP316L TP321 TP347 A-249

304S (or SS) 304LS 316S 316LS 321S 347S

1500 800 1500 850 1500 1500

815 426 815 454 815 815

1000 800 1000 850 1000 1000

537 426 537 454 537 537

SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347

TP304 TP304L TP316 TP316L TP321 TP347 A-268 TP410 TP410

18Cr - 8Ni 1500 304LW 800 316W 1500 316LW 321W 347W 850 1500 1500

815 426 815 454 815 815

1000 1000 1000 815 1000 1000

537 426 537 426 537 537

SS304 SS304 SS316 316L SS321 SS347

Seamless tubes 13C Welded tubes 13C

410S 410W

1200 1200

-648 648

900 900

482 482

SS410 SS410

A-789 Welded duplex (S31803) austenitic steel tubes: 22Cr - 5Ni - 3Mo 2205W 600 315 400 204 S2205

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-13

ASME Non-Ferrous Tube Materials


ASTM Spec Description and Nominal (Grade) Composition System Material Symbol Internal Pressure Maximum Temp. F B-111 Seamless copper and copper alloy tubes for use in surface condensers, evaporators and heat exchangers: Cu Cu - Al Cu - Ni 90/10 Cu - Ni 70/30 Admiralty Brass CA122 CA687 CA706 CA715 CA443 CA444 CA445 Seamless colddrawn nickel tubes for general corrosive service: Ni Ni-Low C Monel Ni - Cu Inconel Ni - Cr - Fe NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL or I600 I800 I825 600 1200 800 1200 315 648 426 648 600 1000 800 1000 315 537 426 537 NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL 400 450 600 700 450 450 450 204 232 315 371 232 232 232 150 150 150 100 350 350 350 66 66 66 37 176 176 176 A285C A285C A285C A285C A285C A285C A285C C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

(122) (687) (706) (715) (443) (444) (445) B-163

(200) (201) B-163 (400) B-163 (600)

B-163 (800) (825) B-619 (B) (C-276) B-468 (20Cb) B-338 (2)

Incoloy Ni - Fe - Cr Ni - Fe - Cr - Mo Cu Hastelloy Ni - Mo Ni - Mo - Cr Carpenter 20 Cr - Ni - Fe - Mo Cu - Cb Titanium Ti

1500 1000

815 537

1000 700

537 371

I800 I825

HAST or HASTB HASTC C 20

800 1000 800

426 537 426

800 800 800

426 426 426

HASTB HASTC C 20

TI50A

600

315

600

315

TI50A

28-14

28 Material Selections (G10)

BS Design Code - Plate Materials


BS Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steel
BS* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. Symbol F C F C

A-36
A-283 154430*

(Structural steel)

A 36

650

343

Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates of structural A 283C quality

622

327

na

na

A-285

Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels
A 285 or A 285C or CS 752 400 752 400

151400* 161400*
A-299 Carbon-manganesesilicon steel plates for pressure vessels: C - Mn - Si Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, high strength manganese

164400* A-455

A 299

752

400

752

400

225460* A-515 Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service:C Si Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for moderate and lower temperature service: C - Si

A 455

752

400

752

400

224460* A-516

A 515

752

400

725

400

224490*

A 516

725

400

725

400

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-15

BS Ferrous Plate Materials - Heat Treated Steel


BS* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) A-353 Nine percent nickel alloy steel plates, double normalized and tempered for pressure vessels: 9Ni Eight and nine percent nickel alloy steel plate, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: 9Ni High strength alloy steel plates, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: Cr Cr Cr Cr Mn Mn Mn Mn Si Si Si Si A517A A517B A517E A517F 650 650 650 650 343 343 343 343 650 650 650 650 343 343 343 343 A 353 250 121 na na Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. Symbol F C F C

510N* A-553

510* A-517

A 553

250

121

na

na

(A) (B) (E) (F)

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28-16

28 Material Selections (G10)

BS Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel


BS* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) A-202 (A) (B) Chromium-manganesesilicon alloy steel plates for pressure vessels A202A A 202 or A202B Nickel alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: 2.5Ni 2.5Ni 3.5Ni 3.5Ni Molybdenum alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: C - .5Mo C - .5Mo C - .5Mo Manganesemolybdenum and manganesemolybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: Mn - .5Mo Mn - .5Mo Mn - .5Mo - Ni Mn - .5Mo - Ni A 204 A204C A204A A204B 1000 752 752 537 400 400 900 752 752 482 400 400 A203A A203B A203E A203D 1000 1000 1000 122 537 537 537 50 900 900 900 122 482 482 482 50 Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. Symbol F C F C

1000 1000

537 537

900 900

482 482

A-203 (A) (B) (E) 503* A-204

(C) 240* 261* A-302

(A) (B) (C) (D)

A302A A 302 or A302B A302C A302D

1000 1000 1000 1000

537 537 537 537

900 900 900 900

482 482 482 482

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-17

BS Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel (continued)


BS* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) A-387 Pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, chromiummolybdenum: .5Cr - .5Mo .5Cr - .5Mo Description and Nominal Composition System Internal Pressure External Pressure Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. Symbol F C F C

(2 CL 1) (2 CL 2)

A387A A387G A387B A387H A387C A387J

842 842 842 896 842 896

450 450 450 480 450 480

842 842 842 896 842 896

450 450 450 480 450 480

620* 1Cr - .5Mo (12 CL 2) 1Cr - .5Mo 621* 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si (11 CL 2) 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si 622515* 2.25Cr - 1Mo (22 CL 2) 2.25Cr - 1Mo (21 CL 1) 3Cr - 1Mo (21 CL 2) 3Cr - 1Mo (5 CL 1) (5 CL 2) A-533 5Cr - .5Mo 5Cr - .5Mo Manganesemolybdenum and manganesemolybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: C - Mn - Mo C - Mn - Mo - Ni C - Mn - Mo - Ni

A387D A387K A387E A387L A387F A387M

842 896 896 896 896 896

450 480 480 480 480 480

842 896 896 896 896 896

450 480 480 480 480 480

(A CL 1) (B CL 1) (C CL 1)

A533A A533B A533C

1000 800 800

537 426 426

650 650 650

343 343 343

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28-18

28 Material Selections (G10)

BS Ferrous Plate Materials - High Alloy Steel


BS* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) A-240 Chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for fusion-welded unfired pressure vessels: 18Cr - 10Ni - 3Mo 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb Duplex 22Cr - 5Ni - 3Mo 13Cr 17Cr Description and Nominal Composition System Internal Pressure External Pressure Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. Symbol F C F C

(317) (348) 318-S13* (410) (430)

SS317 SS348 S2205 SS410 SS430

1292 1292 600 1200 1200

700 700 315 648 648

1200 1200 400 900 1200

648 648 204 482 648

304-S31* 304-S11* 316-S31* 316-S11* 320-517* 321-S31* 347-S31*

18Cr - 8Ni 18Cr - 8Ni 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 16Cr 16Cr 18Cr 18Cr 12Ni 12Ni 10Ni 10Ni - 2Mo - 2Mo - Ti - Ti - Cb

SS304 304L SS316 316L 316TI SS321 SS321

1292 752 1292 752 1292 1292 1292

700 400 700 400 700 700 700

1200 752 1200 752 1200 1200 1200

648 400 648 400 648 648 648

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-19

BS Non-Ferrous Plate Materials


BS* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) 1470* (1100)* (3003)* (5052)* (5083)* (5086)* (6061)* B-171 (464) B-11 (110) Copper plates for locomotive fireboxes: Cu Copper-silicon alloy plate and sheet for pressure vessels: Cu - Zn Copper sheet, strip, plate, and rolled bar: Cu Copper-nickel alloy plate and sheet for pressure vessels: Cu - Ni 70/30 CA715 700 371 200 93 CA122 400 204 150 66 CA655 350 176 200 93 Aluminum-alloy sheet and plate: Al Al Al Al Al Al Copper and copper alloys - Naval brass CA464 400 204 200 93 A1100 A3003 A5052 A5083 A5086 A6061 400 400 400 150 150 400 204 204 204 66 66 204 na na na na na na na na na na na na Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. Symbol F C F C

CU or CA110

400

204

150

66

B-96

(655) B-152 (122) B-171

(715)

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28-20

28 Material Selections (G10)

BS Non-Ferrous Plate Materials (continued)


BS* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) B-333 (B) B-575 (C-276) B-409 Hastelloy: Ni - Mo Hastelloy: Ni - Mo - Cr Specification for nickeliron-chromium alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni - Fe - Cr Nickel-iron-chromiummolybdenum-copper alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu I825 500 260 400 204 I800 1292 700 800 426 HAST or HASTB HASTC 800 426 800 426 Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. Symbol F C F C

1000

537

800

426

(800) B-424

NA15* B-463 (20Cb) B-168

Carpenter 20 alloy plate, sheet and strip: Cr - Ni - Fe - Mo - Cu - C 20 Cb Nickel-chromium-iron alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni-Cr-Fe INCNL or I600

800

426

800

426

(600)

1200

648

800

426

B-162 (200) (201) B-127 (400)

Nickel plate, sheet, and strip: Ni Ni-Low C Nickel-copper alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni - Cu NI or NI200 NI201 600 600 1200 315 315 648 600 600 800 315 315 426

MONEL or M400

900

482

800

426

B-265 (1) (2)

Titanium and titanium alloy strip, sheet, Ti Ti

TI35A TI or TI50A

600 600 600

315 315 315

na 600 600

na 315 315

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-21

BS Design Code - Clad Plate Materials


Material Classification Description Grade System Material Symbol

Vessel Base (Backing Material)**


161-400 261 224-460 224-490 620 620 621 621 622-515 622-515 304-S31 304-S11 316-S31 316-S11 321-S31 347-S31 ASTM A-285 A-204 A-204 A-515 A-516 A-387 A-387 A-387 A-387 A-387 A-387 C B C 70 70 12 CL 1 12 CL 2 11 CL 1 11 CL 2 22 CL 1 22 CL 2 304 304L 316 316L 321 347 410 430 Nickel alloy Monel Inconel Ni-Fe-Cr Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Carpenter 20 Titanium Hastelloy B Hastelloy C 200 201 400 600 800 825 20Cb 2 B C-276 A285C A204B A204C A 515 A 516 A387B A387H A387C A387J A387D A387K SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347 SS410 SS430 NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL I800 I825 C 20 TI HASTB HASTC

Cladding Material (Process Side)

See Plate Materials (BS Code) for further material descriptions.

** Only these base materials may be used with the above list of cladding materials. No other combination may be selected.

28-22

28 Material Selections (G10)

BS Design Code - Tube Materials


BS Ferrous Tube Materials - Carbon Steel
BS* Description and or ASTM Nominal Spec and Composition (Grade) A-179 Seamless cold-drawn low-carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes A 179 Seamless carbon steel boiler tubes for highpressure service A 192 Seamless medium carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes 752 400 752 400 A 515 752 400 752 400 A285C System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

320* A-192

410* A-210

(A-1) (C) A-214

A210A A210C

1000 1000

537 537

900 900

482 482

A 515 A 515

360* A-334

Electric-resistancewelded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes

A 214

842

450

842

450

A 515

Seamless carbon steel tubes for low 410-LT50* temperature service A334A (6) A334B

122 650

50 343

122 650

50 A 442 343 A 442

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-23

BS Ferrous Tube Materials - Low Alloy Steel


BS* Description and or ASTM Nominal Spec and Composition (Grade) A-199 Seamless cold-drawn intermediate alloy steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes: 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si 2.5Cr - 1Mo 3Cr - .9Mo 5Cr - .5Mo Seamless carbonmolybdenum alloy steel boiler and superheater tubes: C - .5Mo C - .5Mo C - .5Mo Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes: .5Cr - .5Mo 3Cr - .9Mo 1Cr - .5Mo 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si 2.25Cr - 1Mo 5Cr - .5Mo A213A A213E A213B A213C A213D A213F 1000 537 1022 550 1022 1022 1022 1022 550 550 550 550 900 900 900 900 900 900 482 482 482 482 482 482 A387A A387E A387B A387C A387D A387F A 209 A209A A209B 1000 537 752 400 1000 537 900 752 900 482 400 482 A 204 A 204 A 204 A199C A199D A199E A199F 1022 1022 1022 1022 550 550 550 550 900 900 900 900 482 482 482 482 A387C A387D A387E A387F System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

(T11) (T22) (T21) (T5) A-209

(T1) 245-450* (T1B) A-213

(T2) (T21) 620-460* 620-460* 622-490* 625-450*

28-24

28 Material Selections (G10)

BS Ferrous Tube Materials - High Alloy Steel


BS* or Description and ASTM Nominal Spec and Composition (Grade)
A-213

System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C

External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C

System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

304-S18* 304-S14* 316-S18* 316-S14* 321-S18* 347-S18* A-249

Seamless Ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes: 18Cr - 8Ni 18Cr - 8Ni 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb Welded austenitic steel boiler superheater, heat exchanger, and condenser tubes: 18Cr - 8Ni 18Cr - 8Ni 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb Seamless tubes 13 Cr Welded tubes 13 Cr Welded duplex austenitic steel tubes: 22Cr - 5Ni - 3Mo

304S 304LS 316S 316LS 321S 347S

842 752 842 842 842 842

450 400 450 450 450 450

842 752 842 800 842 842

450 400 450 426 450 450

SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347

304-S25* 304-S22* 316-S26* 316-S22* 321-S22* 347-S17* A-268 TP410 TP410 A-789 (S31803)

304W 304LW 316W 316LW 321W 347W 410S 410W

842 752 842 842 842 842 752 752

450 400 450 450 450 450 400 400

842 752 842 800 842 842 752 752

450 400 450 426 450 450 400 400

SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347 SS410 SS410

2205W

600

315

400

204

S2205

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-25

BS Non-Ferrous Tube Materials


BS*or Description and ASTM Nominal Spec and Composition (Grade) B-111 Seamless copper and copper alloy tubes for use in surface condensers, evaporators and heat exchangers: Cu Cu - Al Cu - Ni 90/10 Cu - Ni 70/30 Admiralty Brass CA122 CA687 CA706 CA715 CA443 CA444 CA445 400 450 600 700 450 450 450 204 230 315 371 232 232 232 150 200 150 200 200 200 200 66 93 66 93 93 93 93 A285C A285C A285C A285C A285C A285C A285C System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

(122) (687) (708) (715) (443) (444) (445) B-163

Seamless cold-drawn nickel tubes for general corrosive service: Ni Ni - Low C Monel (Seamless) Ni - Cu Inconel (Welded) Ni - Cr - Fe NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL or I600 I800 I825 600 1200 900 1200 315 648 482 648 600 800 800 800 315 426 426 426 NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL

(200) (201) B-163 (400) B-163 (600)

B-163 (800) (825) B-619 (B) (C-276) B-468 (20Cb) B-338 (2)

Incoloy Ni - Fe - Cr (Welded) Ni - Fe - Cr - Mo - Cu (Seamless) Hastelloy (Welded) Ni - Mo Ni - Mo - Cr

1292 1000

700 537

800 500

426 260

I800 I825

HAST or HASTB HASTC

800 1202 800 600

426 650 426 315

800 800 800 600

426 426 426 315

HASTB HASTC C 20 TI50A

Carpenter 20 (Welded) Cr - Ni - Fe - Mo- Cu - C 20 Cb Titanium (Welded) Ti TI50A

28-26

28 Material Selections (G10)

JIS Design Code - Plate Materials


JIS Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steel
JIS*or Description and Nominal ASTM Composition Spec and (Grade) G-3101* SS400* G-3106* SM520C* G-3115* SPV355* (structural steel) A 36 Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates of structural quality Low and intermediate strength steel plates for pressure vessels A 285 or A 285C or CS Carbon-manganese-silicon steel plates for pressure vessels: C - Mn - Si Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, high strength manganese A 455 Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service C - Si Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for moderate and lower temperature service: C - Si A 516 662 350 662 350 A 515 662 350 662 350 650 343 650 343 A 299 662 350 662 350 662 350 662 350 650 343 System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F C External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

A 283 C

662

350

na

na

G-3115* SPV450* A-455 (A) G-3118*

SGV480* G-3126*

SLA360*

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-27

JIS Ferrous Plate Materials - Heat Treated Steel


JIS*or Description and Nominal ASTM Composition Spec and (Grade) G-3127* Nine percent nickel alloy steel plates, double normalized and tempered for pressure vessels: A 353 392 200 na na Eight and nine percent nickel alloy steel plate, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: A 553 392 200 na na High strength alloy steel plates, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: Cr Cr Cr Cr Mn Mn Mn Mn Si Si Si Si A517A A517B A517E A517E 650 650 650 650 343 343 343 343 650 650 650 650 343 343 343 343 System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F C External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

SL9N520* 9Ni G-3127*

SL9N590* 9Ni A-517

(A) (B) (E) (E)

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28-28

28 Material Selections (G10)

JIS Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel


JIS*or ASTM Spec and (Grade) Description and Nominal Composition System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F C External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

A-202
(A) (B) G-3127*

Chromium-manganese-silicon alloy steel plates for pressure vessels

A202A A 202 or A202B

1000 1000

537 537

900 900

482 482

Nickel alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: 2.5Ni 2.5Ni 3.5Ni 3.5Ni A203A A203B A203D A203E 392 1000 392 392 200 537 200 200 392 900 122 392 200 482 50 200

SL2N255* (B) SL3N255* SL3N275* G-3103* SB450M* SB480M* (C) G-3119*

Molybdenum alloy steel plates for pressure vessels:


C - .5Mo C - .5Mo C - .5Mo Manganese-molybdenum and manganese-molybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: Mn - .5Mo Mn - .5Mo Mn - .5Mo - Ni Mn - .5Mo - Ni A302A A 302 or A302B A302C A302D 977 1022 1022 1022 525 550 550 550 900 900 900 900 482 482 482 482 A204A A204B A204 or A204C 1022 1022 1000 550 550 537 752 752 900 400 400 482

SBV1A* SBV1B* SBV2* SBV2*

- Continued on next page -

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-29

JIS*or ASTM Spec and (Grade) G-4109*

Description and Nominal Composition

System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F C

External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

Pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, chromium-molybdenum: A387A A387G A387B A387H A387C A387J A387D A387K A387E A387L A387F A387M 1022 1022 1157 1157 1157 1157 1067 1067 1157 1157 1157 1157 550 550 625 625 625 625 575 575 625 625 625 625 900 900 842 842 896 896 896 896 896 896 896 896 482 482 450 450 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480

SCMV1(A)* .5Cr - .5Mo SCMV1(N)* .5Cr - .5Mo SCMV2(A)* 1Cr - .5Mo SCMV2(N)* 1Cr - .5Mo SCMV3(A)* 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si SCMV3(N)* 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si SCMV4(A)* 2.25Cr - 1Mo SCMV4(N)* 2.25Cr - 1Mo SCMV5(A)* 3Cr - 1Mo SCMV5(N)* 3Cr - 1Mo SCMV6(A)* 5Cr - .5Mo SCMV6(N)* Cr - .5Mo G-3120* Manganese-molybdenum and manganese-molybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: C - Mn - Mo C - Mn - Mo-Ni C - Mn - Mo-Ni

SQV1A* SQV2A* SQV3A*

A533A A533B A533C

1022 797 797

550 425 425

na na na

na na na

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28-30

28 Material Selections (G10)

JIS Ferrous Plate Materials - High Alloy Steel


JIS*or Description and Nominal ASTM Composition Spec and (Grade) G-4303* G-4304* G-4305* Chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for fusion-welded unfired pressure vessels: 304L SS304 316L SS316 SS316TI SS317 SS321 SS347 SS348 S2205 SS410 SS430 797 1472 842 1472 1472 1472 1472 1472 1500 600 1202 1202 425 800 450 800 800 800 800 800 815 315 650 650 752 1200 752 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 400 900 1200 400 648 400 648 648 648 648 648 648 204 482 648 System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F C External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

SUS304L* 18Cr - 8Ni SUS304* 18Cr - 8Ni SUS316L* 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo SUS316* 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo SUS316* 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo-Ti SUS317* SUS321* SUS347* (348) (2205) SUS410* SUS430* 18Cr 18Cr 18Cr 18Cr 10Ni 10Ni 10Ni 10Ni 3Mo Ti Cb Cb

Duplex 22Cr - 5Ni - 3Mo 13Cr 17Cr

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-31

JIS Non-Ferrous Plate Materials


JIS*or Description and Nominal ASTM Composition Spec and (Grade) H-4000* A1100P* A3003P* A5052P* A5083P* A5086P* A6061P* H-3100* C4640P* H3100* C1100P* B-96 (B55) H-3100* C1220P* H-3100* C7150P* Aluminum-alloy sheet and plate: Al Al Al Al Al Al System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F A1100 A3003 A5052 A5083 A5086 A6061 392 392 392 150 150 392 392 C 200 200 200 66 66 200 200 External Pressure Temp. Degrees F na na na na na na 350 C na na na na na na 177

Copper and copper alloys - Naval CA464 brass Copper plates for locomotive fireboxes: Cu Copper-silicon alloy plate and sheet for pressure vessels: Cu - Zn Copper sheet, strip, plate, and rolled bar: Cu Copper-nickel alloy plate and sheet for pressure vessels: Cu - Ni 70/30 CA715 CA122 CA655 CU or CA110

392

200

150

66

350

176

350

176

392

200

150

66

662

350

662

350

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28-32

28 Material Selections (G10)

JIS Non-Ferrous Plate Materials - continued


JIS*or Description and Nominal ASTM Composition Spec and (Grade) B-333 (B) B-575 (C-276) G-4902* Hastelloy: Ni - Mo Hastelloy: Ni - Mo - Cr Specification for nickel-ironchromium alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni - Fe - Cr Nickel-iron-chromiummolybdenum-copper alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni - Fe - Cr - Mo - Cu Carpenter 20 alloy plate, sheet and strip: Cr - Ni - Fe - Mo - Cu - Cb Nickel-chromium-iron alloy plate, sheet, and strip, Inconel: Ni - Cr - Fe INCNL or I600 NI or NI200 NI201 1202 650 1000 537 C 20 800 426 800 426 I825 1000 537 700 371 I800 1472 800 1000 537 System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F HAST or HASTB HASTC 800 C 426 External Pressure Temp. Degrees F 800 C 426

1000

537

1000 537

NCF800* B-424

(825) B-463 (20Cb) G-4902* NCF600*

B-162 (200) (201) H-4551* NCuP*

Nickel plate, sheet, and strip: Ni Ni-Low C Nickel-copper alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni - Cu

600 600 1200

315 315 648

600 315 600 315 1000 537

MONEL or M400

932

500

800

426

H-4600* TP28* TP35*

Titanium and titanium alloy strip, sheet, and plate: Ti Ti TI35A TI or TI50A 662 662 662 350 350 350 na 600 600 na 315 315

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-33

JIS Design Code - Clad Plate Materials


Material Classification Description Grade System Material Symbol A285C A204B A204C A 515 A 516 A387B A387H A387C A387J A387D A387K

Vessel Base (Backing Material)**


SPV350 SB480M SGV480 SLA360 SCMV2(A) SCMV2(A) SCMV3(A) SCMV3(A) SCMV4(A) SCMV4(A) Stainless steel type SUS304 SUS304L SUS316 SUS316L SUS321 SUS321 SUS321 SUS430 Nickel alloy Monel NCUP Inconel NCF600 Ni-Fe-CR Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Carpenter 20 Titanium Hastelloy B Hastelloy C ASTM A-285 A-204 A-204 A-515 A-516 A-387 A-387 A-387 A-387 A-387 A-387 C B C 70 70 12 12 11 11 22 22

CL CL CL CL CL CL

1 2 1 2 1 2

Cladding Material (Process Side)


304 304L 316 316L 321 347 410 430 200 201 400 600 800 825 20 CB 2 B C-276 SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347 SS410 SS430 NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL I800 I825 C 20 Ti HASTB HASTC

See Plate Materials (JIS Code) for further material descriptions.

** Only these base materials may be used with the above list of cladding materials. No other combination may be selected.

28-34

28 Material Selections (G10)

JIS Design Code - Tube Materials


JIS Ferrous Tube Materials - Carbon Steel
JIS* Description and or ASTM Nominal Spec and Composition (Grade) G-3461* Seamless cold-drawn low-carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

STB340* A-192

A 179

1022 1000

550 537

752 900

400 482

A285C A 515

Seamless carbon steel A 192 boiler tubes for highpressure service Seamless medium carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes A210A A210C Electric-resistancewelded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes A 214 Seamless carbon steel tubes for low temperature service A334A A334B

G-3461* STB510* STB410* G-3461*

1022 1022

550 550

900 900

482 482

A 515 A 515

STB340* G-3464*

1022

550

900

482

A 515

(1) STBL380*

650 392

343 200

650 392

343 200

A 442 A 442

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-35

JIS Ferrous Tube Materials - Low Alloy Steel


JIS* Description and System Internal Nominal Composition Material Pressure or ASTM Spec and Symbol Maximum Degrees (Grade) F C G-3462* Seamless cold-drawn intermediate alloy steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes: A199C A199D A199E A199F 1202 1202 1200 1202 650 650 648 650 900 900 900 900 482 482 482 482 A387C A387D A387E A387F External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

STBA23* STBA24* (T21) STBA25* G-3462*

1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si 2.5Cr - 1Mo 3Cr - .9Mo 5Cr - .5Mo Seamless carbonmolybdenum alloy steel boiler and superheater tubes: C - .5Mo C - .5Mo C - .5Mo Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes:

STBA12* STBA13* (T1B) G-3462*

A 209 A209A A209B

1022 1022 1000

550 550 537

900 900 900

482 A 204 482 A 204 482 A 204

STBA20* STBA20* (T11) (T22) (T21) (T5)

.5Cr - .5Mo 1Cr - .5Mo 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si 2.25Cr - 1Mo 3Cr - .9Mo 5Cr - .5Mo

A213A A213B A213C A213D A213E A213F

1022 1202 1200 1200 1200 1200

550 650 648 648 648 648

900 900 900 900 900 900

482 482 482 482 482 483

A387A A387B A387C A387D A387E A387F

28-36

28 Material Selections (G10)

JIS Ferrous Tube Materials - High Alloy Steel


JIS* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) G-3463* Description and Nominal Composition System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

Seamless Ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes: SUS304TB* 18Cr - 8Ni 304S SUS304LTB* 18Cr - 8Ni 304LS SUS316TB* 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 316S SUS316LTB* 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo SUS321TB* 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti SUS347TB* 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb G-3463* Welded austenitic steel boiler superheater, heat exchanger, and condenser tubes: 304W 304LW 316W 316LW 321W 347W 410S 316LS 321S 347S

1472 797 1472 842 1472 1472

800 425 800 450 800 800

842 752 842 842 842 842

450 450 450 450 400 450

SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347

SUS304TB* 18Cr - 8Ni SUS304LTB* 18Cr - 8Ni SUS316TB* 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo SUS316LTB* 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo SUS321TB* 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti SUS347TB* 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb A-268 TP 410 Seamless tubes 13Cr Welded tubes 13Cr Welded duplex austenitic steel tubes: 22Cr - 5Ni - 3Mo

1472 797 1472 842 1472 1472 752

800 425 800 450 800 800 400

842 752 842 842 842 842 752

450 400 450 450 450 450 400

SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347 SS410

TP 410 A-789

410W

752

400

752

400

SS410

(S31803)

2205W

600

315

400

204

S2205

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-37

JIS Non-Ferrous Tube Materials


JIS*or ASTM Spec and (Grade) H-3300* Seamless copper and copper alloy tubes for use in surface condensers, evaporators and heat exchangers: Cu Cu - Al Cu - Ni 90/10 Cu - Ni 70/30 Admiralty Brass CA122 CA687 CA706 CA715 CA443 CA444 CA445 392 392 572 662 437 450 450 200 200 300 350 225 232 232 150 150 150 700 350 350 350 66 66 66 371 176 176 176 A285C A285C A285C A285C A285C A285C A285C Description and Nominal Composition System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

C1220T* C6871T* C7060T* C7150T* C4430T* (444) (445) B-163

Seamless cold-drawn nickel tubes for general corrosive service: Ni Ni-Low C Monel Ni - Cu NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL or I600 I800 I825 HAST or HASTB HASTC 600 1200 887 1202 315 648 475 650 600 1000 752 1000 315 537 400 537 NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL

(200) (201) H-4552* NCuT*

G-4904* Inconel NCF600TB* Ni - Cr - Fe

G-4904* Incoloy NCF800TB* Ni - Fe - Cr NCF825TB* Ni - Fe - Cr - Mo - Cu B-619 (B) (C-276) B-468 (20Cb) H-4650* TB35* Hastelloy Ni - Mo Ni - Mo - Cr

1472 1000 800 1000 800

800 537 426 537 426

1000 700 800 1000 800

537 371 426 537 426

I800 1825 HASTB HASTC C 20

Carpenter 20 Cr - Ni - Fe - Mo - Cu - C 20 Cb Titanium Ti TI50A

662

350

600

315

TI50A

28-38

28 Material Selections (G10)

DIN Design Code - Plate Materials


DIN Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steel
DIN*or ASTM Spec and (Grade) Description and Nominal System Internal Composition Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F DIN EN 1002591* S235JRG1* DIN EN 1002591* S235JRG2* DIN 17155* HII* Low and intermediate strength steel plates for pressure vessels (structural steel) A 36 650 C 343 External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C -

Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates of structural quality A 283C 662 350 na na

A 285 or A 285C or CS

1022

550

896

480

DIN 17102*

Carbon-manganese-silicon steel plates for pressure vessels: C - Mn - Si A 299 662 350 662 350 Pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, high strength manganese A 455 Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service: 19Mn5* A 515 662 350 662 350

St E 355* A-455 (A) DIN 17155*

650

343

650

343

DIN 17102*

Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for moderate and lower temperature service: C - Si A 516 662 350 662 350

SIE315*

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-39

DIN Ferrous Plate Materials - Heat Treated Steel


DIN* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) SEW 680* Nine percent nickel alloy steel plates, double normalized and tempered for pressure vessels: X8Ni9* SEW 680* Eight and nine percent nickel alloy steel plate, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: X8Ni9* A-517 High strength alloy steel plates, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: Cr Cr Cr Cr Mn Mn Mn Mn Si Si Si Si A517A A517B A517E A517E 650 650 650 650 343 343 343 343 650 650 650 650 343 343 343 343 A 553 392 200 na na A 353 392 200 na na Description and Nominal Composition System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F C External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

(A) (B) (E) (F)

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28-40

28 Material Selections (G10)

DIN Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel


DIN*or ASTM Spec and (Grade) A 202 (A) (B) SEW 680* Description and Nominal Composition System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F Chromiummanganese-silicon alloy steel plates for pressure vessels C External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

A202A 1000 A 202 or 1000 A202B

537 537

900 900

482 482

(D) (E) DIN 17155*

Nickel alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: 14Ni6* 10Ni14* 3.5Ni 3.5Ni Molybdenum alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: 15Mo3* C - .5Mo C - .5Mo Manganesemolybdenum and manganesemolybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates for pressure vessels:

A203A A203B A203D A203E

392 1000 392 392

200 537 200 200

392 900 122 392

200 482 50 200

(B) (C)

A204A 1022 A204B 1022 A 204 or 1000 A204C

550 550 537

752 752 900

400 400 482

VdTUV Wbl.376 WB35* 17Mn Mo V64* VdTUV Wbl.377 WB36* 15Ni Cu Mo Nb5* VdTUV Wbl.378* VdTUV Wbl384 WB34* 12Mn Ni Mo55* 13Mn Ni Mo54*

977 A 302 or 1022 A302B 1022 A302C 1022 A302D A302A

525 550 550 550

900 900 900 900

482 482 482 482

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-41

DIN*or ASTM Spec and (Grade)

Description and Nominal Composition

System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F C

External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

Pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, chromiummolybdenum: (A) (G) DIN 17155* DIN 17155* (C) (J) DIN 17155* VdTUV Wbl.404* VdTUV Wbl.007* VdTUV Wbl.007* (F) (M) SEW 640* .5Cr - .5Mo .5Cr - .5Mo 13Cr Mo44* 13Cr Mo44* 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si 1.25Cr - .5Mo - Si 10Cr Mo910* 12Cr Mo910* 12Cr Mo195* 12Cr Mo195* 5Cr - .5Mo Cr - .5Mo Manganesemolybdenum and manganesemolybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates, quenched and tempered, for pressure vessels: C - Mn - Mo 20 Mn Mo Ni55* 12 Mn Ni Mo55* A387A A387G A387B A387H A387C A387J A387D A387K A387E A387L A387F A387M 1022 1022 1157 1157 1157 1157 1067 1067 1157 1157 1157 1157 550 550 500 625 625 625 500 575 625 625 625 625 900 900 842 842 896 896 896 896 896 896 896 896 482 482 450 450 480 480 480 480 480 480 480 480

(A)

A533A A533B A533C

1022 797 797

550 425 425

na na na

na na na

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28-42

28 Material Selections (G10)

DIN Ferrous Plate Materials - High Alloy Steel


DIN* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) DIN 17440* Chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for fusion-welded unfired pressure vessels: X2 Cr Ni1911* X5 Cr Ni1810* X2 Cr Ni Mo17132* X5 Cr Ni Mo17122* X6 Cr Ni Mo Ti 17122* X2 Cr Ni Mo18164* X6 Cr Ni Ti1810* X6 Cr Ni Nb1810* (348) (2205) DIN 17440* Duplex 22Cr - 5Ni - 3Mo X10 Cr13* X6 Cr17* 304L SS304 316L SS316 316TI SS317 SS321 SS347 SS348 S2205 SS410 SS430 797 1472 842 1472 1472 1472 1472 1472 1500 600 1202 1202 425 800 450 800 800 800 800 800 815 315 650 650 752 1200 752 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 400 900 1200 400 648 400 648 648 648 648 648 648 204 482 648 Description and Nominal Composition System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F C External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-43

DIN Non-Ferrous Plate Materials


DIN*or Description and Nominal ASTM Spec Compostion and (Grade) DIN 1745 A1100P* Aluminum-alloy sheet and plate: Al Al Al Al Al Al Mn Mg Mg Mg Mg Cu* 2.5* 4.5* Mn* 4 Mn* 7.5 Si Cu* A1100 A3003 A5052 A5083 A5086 A6061 392 392 392 150 150 392 200 200 200 66 66 200 na na na na na na na na na na na na System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F C External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

DIN 17660* Copper and copper alloys Naval brass Cu Zn38 Sn1* DIN 1787* Copper plates for locomotive fireboxes: E Cu58* or E Cu59* Copper-silicon alloy plate and sheet for pressure vessels: Cu - Zn Copper sheet, strip, plate, and rolled bar: SF-Cu

CA464

392

200

350

177

CU or CA110

392

200

150

66

B-96 (655) DIN 1787*

CA655

350

176

350

176

CA122

392

200

150

66

DIN 17664* Copper-nickel alloy plate and sheet for pressure vessels: Cu Ni 30 Mn1 Fe* B-333 (B) B-575 (C-276) Hastelloy: Ni - Mo Hastelloy: Ni - Mo - Cr

CA715 HAST or HASTB HASTC

662 800

350 426

662 800

350 426

1000

537

1000

537

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28-44

28 Material Selections (G10)

DIN Non-Ferrous Plate Materials -continued


DIN*or ASTM Spec and (Grade) Description and Nominal System Internal Compostion Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Degrees F VdTUV Wbl.412* Specification for nickeliron-chromium alloy plate, sheet, and strip: NCF800* B-424 X10 Ni Cr Al Ti 3220* Nickel-iron-chromiummolybdenum-copper alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni - Fe - Cr - Mo - Cu Carpenter 20 alloy plate, sheet and strip: Cr - Ni - Fe - Mo - Cu - Cb I825 1000 537 700 371 I800 1472 800 1000 537 C External Pressure Temp. Degrees F C

(825) B-463 (20Cb)

C 20

800

426

800

426

VdTUV Wbl.305* Nickel-chromium-iron

alloy plate, sheet, and strip, Inconel:


INCNL or I600 1202 650 1000 537

Ni Cr15 Fe

B-162 (200) (201) DIN 17750*

Nickel plate, sheet, and strip: Ni Ni-Low C Nickel-copper alloy plate, sheet, and strip: Ni Cu 30 Fe F45*

NI or NI200 NI201

600 600 1200

315 315 648

600] 600 1000

315 315 537

MONEL or M400

932

500

800

426

DIN 17860* 3.7025.10* 3.7035.10*

Titanium and titanium alloy strip, sheet, and plate: Ti TI35A Ti TI or TI50A

662 662 662

350 350 350

na 600 600

na 315 315

na = material not selectable for vacuum design

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-45

DIN Design Code - Clad Plate Materials


Material Classification Description Vessel Base (Backing Material)** DIN 17102 A-204 (B) DIN 17155 DIN 17102 DIN 17155 DIN 17155 A-387 (C) A-387 DIN 17155 DIN 17155 Stainless steel type DIN 17440 X5 Cr Ni189* X2 Cr Ni189* X5 Cr Ni Mo1810* X2 Cr Ni Mo1810* X10 Cr Ni Ti189* X10 Cr Ni Nb1810* X10 Cr13* X8 Cr17* Nickel alloy Monel NCUP VdTUV Wbl.305* Ni Cr15 Fe Ni-Fe-Cr Ni-Fe-Cr-Mo-Cu Carpenter 20 Titanium Hastelloy B Hastelloy C St E 355 ASTM A-204 ASTM A -204 19 Mn5 SIE 315 13Cr Mo44 13Cr Mo44 ASTM A-387 ASTM A-387 10Cr Mo 910 10Cr Mo 910 C B C 70 70 12 12 11 11 22 22 A285C A204B A204C A 515 A 516 A387B A387H A387C A387J A387D A387K Grade System Material Symbol

CL CL CL CL CL CL

1 2 1 2 1 2

Cladding Material (Process Side)

304 304L 316 316L 321 347 410 430 200 201 400

SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347 SS410 SS430 NI200 NI201 MONEL

600 800 825 20Cb 2 B C-276

INCNL I800 I825 C 20 Ti HASTB HASTC

See Plate Materials (German Code) for further material descriptions.

** Only these base materials may be used with the above list of cladding materials. No other combination may be selected.

28-46

28 Material Selections (G10)

DIN Design Code - Tube Materials


DIN Ferrous Tube Materials - Carbon Steel
DIN* or ASTM Spec and (Grade) Description and System Internal Nominal Compostion Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

DIN 2391* Seamless cold-drawn low-carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes St 35GBK NBK*

A 179

1022

550

752

400

A285C

DIN 1629* Seamless carbon steel boiler tubes for highpressure service St 37.0* A 192 DIN 1629* Seamless medium carbon steel boiler and superheater tubes St 44.0* A210A St 52.0* A210C DIN 2393* Electric-resistancewelded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes St 37-2 NBK* SEW 680* TTSt 35N* (B)

1000

537

900

482

A 515

1022 1022

550 550

900 900

482 482

A 515 A 515

A 214

1022

550

900

482

A 515

Seamless carbon steel tubes for low temperature service A334A A334B

650 392

343 200

650 392

343 200

A 442 A 442

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-47

DIN Ferrous Tube Material - Low Alloy Steel


DIN*or Description and ASTM Spec Nominal and Compostion (Grade) Seamless cold-drawn intermediate alloy steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes: DIN 17175* DIN 17175* (T21) VdTUV007* 13Cr Mo44* 10Cr Mo910* 3Cr - .9Mo 12Cr Mo195G Seamless carbonmolybdenum alloy steel boiler and superheater tubes: DIN 17175* 15 Mo3* (T1A) C - .5Mo (T1B) C - .5Mo Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes: (T2) DIN17175* DIN17175* DIN17175* (T21) VdTUV007* .5Cr - .5Mo 13Cr Mo44* 13Cr Mo44* 10Cr Mo910* 3Cr -.9Mo 12Cr Mo195G* A213A A213B A213C A213D A213E A213F 1022 1202 1200 1200 1200 1200 550 650 648 648 648 648 900 900 900 900 900 900 482 482 482 482 482 482 A387A A387B A387C A387D A387E A387F A 209 A209A A209B 1022 1022 1000 550 550 537 900 900 900 482 482 482 A 204 A 204 A 204 A199C A199D A199E A199F 1202 1202 1200 1202 650 650 648 650 900 900 900 900 482 482 482 482 A387C A387D A387E A387F System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

28-48

28 Material Selections (G10)

DIN Ferrous Tube Materials - High Alloy Steel


DIN*or Description and ASTM Spec Nominal and Compostion (Grade) DIN 17458* Seamless Ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes: X5Cr Ni1810* X2Cr Ni1911* X5Cr Ni Mo17122* X2Cr Ni Mo18143* X6Cr Ni Ti1810* X6Cr Ni Nb1810* X10 Cr13* DIN 17457* Welded austenitic steel boiler superheater, heat exchanger, and condenser tubes: X5Cr Ni1810* X2Cr Ni1911* X5Cr Ni Mo17122* X2Cr Ni Mo18143* X6Cr Ni Ti1810* X6 Cr Ni Nb 1810* X10 Cr 13* A-789 (S31803) 304W 304LW 316W 316LW 321W 347W 410W 1472 797 1472 842 1472 1472 752 800 425 800 450 800 800 400 842 752 842 842 842 842 752 450 400 450 450 450 450 400 SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347 SS410 304S 304LS 316S 316LS 321S 347S 410S 1472 797 1472 842 1472 1472 752 800 425 800 450 800 800 400 842 752 842 842 842 842 752 450 400 450 450 450 450 400 SS304 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347 SS410 System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

Welded duplex austenitic steel tubes: 22Cr - 5Ni - 3Mo 2205W

600

315

400

204

S2205

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-49

DIN Non-Ferrous Tube Materials


DIN*or ASTM Description and Spec and Nominal Compostion (Grade) System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F Seamless copper and copper alloy tubes for use in surface condensers, evaporators and heat exchangers: SF Cu* Cu Zn20 Al2* Cu Ni10 Fe1 Mn* Cu Ni30 Mn1 Fe* C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

DIN DIN DIN DIN

1787* 1785* 17664* 17664*

CA122 CA687 CA706 CA715

392 392 572 662

200 200 300 350

150 150 150 700

66 66 66 371

A285C A285C A285C A285C

DIN 1785* (444) (445)

Admiralty Brass Cu Zn28 Sn1* Seamless colddrawn nickel tubes for general corrosive service:

CA443 CA444 CA445

437 450 450

225 232 232

350 350 350

176 176 176

A285C A285C A285C

DIN 17752* (201) DIN 17751* VdTUV Wbl.305*

LC Ni 99F34* Ni-Low C Monel Ni Cu30 Fe F45 Inconel Ni Cr15 Fe*

NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL or I600 I800 I825

600 1200 887 1202

315 648 475 650

600 1000 752 1000

315 537 400 537

NI200 NI201 MONEL INCNL

VdTUV Wbl.412 VdTUv Wbl.432* B-619 (B) (C-276) B-468 (20Cb) B-338 (2)

Incoloy X10 Ni Cr Al Ti 3220* Ni Cr21 Mo* Hastelloy Ni - Mo Ni - Mo - Cr

1472 1000

800 537

1000 700

537 371

I800 I825

HAST or HASTB HASTC

800 1000 800

426 537 426

800 1000 800

426 537 426

HASTB HASTC C 20

Carpenter 20 Cr - Ni - Fe - Mo - C 20 Cu - Cb Titanium Ti T150A

662

350

600

315

T150A

28-50

28 Material Selections (G10)

EN 13445 Design Code - Plate Materials


EN Ferrous Plate Materials - Carbon Steel
EN or Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure ASTM Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. Specific F C F C ation EN 10028-2 P235GH 1.0345 N EN 10028-2 P235GH 1.0345 N EN 10028-2 P235GH 1.0345 N Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates of structural quality Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels Carbon-manganesesilicon steel plates for plates for pressure vessels A 36 752 400 752 400

A 285 or A 285 C or CS

752

400

752

400

A 299

752

400

752

400

Pressure vessel plates, EN 10028-2 carbon steel, high P235GH strength manganese 1.0345 N EN 10028-3 P355NH 1.0565 n EN 10028-3 P355NH 1.0565 EN 10028-2 P235GH 1.0345 N

A 455

752

400

752

400

Carbon steel plates for A 515 pressure vessels for intermediate and higher temperature service: C-Si Carbon steel plates for pressure vessels for moderate and lower temperature service C-Si A 516

752

400

752

400

752

400

752

400

Carbon steel plates for A 537 pressure vessels for low temperature service C-Mn-Si

752

400

752

400

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-51

EN Ferrous Plate Materials - Low Alloy Steel


EN or Description and ASTM Nominal Specific Composition ation Manganese molybdenum and manganesemolybdenum-nickel alloy steel plates for pressure vessels: EN Mn - .5Mo 10028-2 16Mo3 1.5415 N EN Mn - .5Mo 10028-2 16Mo3 1.5415 N Pressure vessel plates, ally steel. chromium molybdenum: EN .5Cr - .5Mo 10028-6 P460QH 1.8871 QT EN .5Cr - .5Mo 10028-6 P460QH 1.8871 QT EN .1Cr - .5Mo 10028-2 13CrMo4 -5 1.7335 NT EN .1Cr - .5Mo 10028-2 13CrMo4 -5 1.7335 NT A387A 572 300 572 300 A302A 932 500 932 500 System Internal Pressure External Pressure Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. F C F C

A302B

932

500

932

500

A387G

572

300

572

300

A387B

932

500

932

500

A387H

932

500

932

500

28-52

28 Material Selections (G10)

EN or Description and ASTM Nominal Specific Composition ation EN 2.25Cr - .1Mo 10028-2 10CrMo9 -10 1.7380 NT EN 2.25Cr - .1Mo 10028-2 10CrMo9 -10 1.7380 NT

System Internal Pressure External Pressure Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. F A387D 932 C 500 F 932 C 500

A553K

932

500

932

500

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-53

EN Ferrous Plate Materials - High Alloy Steel


EN or Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure ASTM Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. Specific F C F C ation Chromium and chromium-nickel stainless steel plate, sheet, and strip for fusion-welded unfired pressure vessels: EN 18Cr -8Ni 10028-7 X2CrNi 18-10 1.4301A T 18Cr -8Ni EN 10028-7 X2CrNi 18-10 1.4301A T EN 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 10028-7 X5CrNiM o 17-122 1.4401 AT EN 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 10028-7 X5CrNiM o 17-122 1.4401 AT EN 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti 10028-7 X6CrNiTi 18-10 1.4541 AT EN 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb 10028-7 X6CrNiN b18-10 1.4550 AT 340L 1022 550 1022 550

SS304

1022

550

1022

550

316L

1022

550

1022

550

SS316

1022

550

1022

550

SS321

1022

550

1022

550

SS347

1022

550

1022

550

28-54

28 Material Selections (G10)

EN or Description and System Internal Pressure External Pressure ASTM Nominal Composition Material Maximum Temp. Maximum Temp. Specific F C F C ation EN 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb 10028-7 X6CrNiN b18-10 1.4550 AT EN 22Cr - 5Ni - 3Mo 10028-7 (Duplex) X2CrNiM oN22-53 1.4462 AT SS348 1022 550 1022 550

S2205

482

250

482

250

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-55

EN 13445 Design Code - Tube Materials


EN Ferrous Tube Materials - Carbon Steel
EN or Description and System ASTM Nominal Composition MaterialSymb Specific ol ation EN 10216-2 P235GH 1.0345 N Seamless cold-drawn low-carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes. A-179 Internal Pressure Maximu m Temp. F C External Pressure Maximu m Temp. F System Default Tubesheet Material C (Plate)

842 450 842 450 A 516

EN Seamless carbon steel 10216-2 boiler tubes for highP235GH pressure service 1.0345 N EN Seamless medium 10216-2 carbon steel boiler and P235GH superheater tubes 1.0345 N EN 10216-2 P235GH 1.0345 N Electric-resistancewelded carbon steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes

A-192

842 450 842 450 A 516

A-210

842 450 842 450 A 516

A-214

752 400 752 400 A 516

EN Seamless carbon steel 10216-2 tubes for low P235GH temperature service 1.0345 N

A-334

842 450 842 450 A 516

28-56

28 Material Selections (G10)

EN Ferrous Tube Materials - Low Alloy Steel


EN or Description and ASTM Nominal Specific Composition ation Seamless cold-drawn intermediate alloy steel heat exchanger and condenser tubes: EN 1.25Cr - .5 Mo - Si 10216-2 X11CrMo 5 1.7362 I EN 3Cr-.9Mo 10216-2 10CrMo9 -10 1.7380 NT or QT Seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes: EN .5Cr 10216-2 14MoV63 1.7715 NT or QT EN 1Cr 10216-2 13CrMo4 -5 1.7335 NT or QT - .5Mo A213A 1022 550 1022 550 A387A A-199C 932 500 932 500 A387C System Internal Material Pressure Symbol Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

A199E

932

500

932

500

A387E

- .5Mo

A213B

932

500

932

500

A387B

EN 2.25Cr - 1Mo 10216-2 10CrMo9 -10 1.7380 NT or QT EN 5Cr 10216-2 X11CrMo 5 1.7362 I - .5Mo

A213D

932

500

932

500

A387D

A213F

932

500

932

500

A387F

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-57

EN Ferrous Tube Materials - High Alloy Steel


EN or Description and ASTM Nominal Specific Composition ation Seamless Ferritic and austenitic alloy steel boiler, superheater, and heat exchanger tubes: EN 18Cr - 8Ni 10216-5 X5CrNi18 -10 1.4301 AT EN 10216-5 X5CrNi 19-11 1.4306 AT 18Cr - 8Ni 304S 1022 550 1022 550 SS304 System Material Symbol Internal Pressure Maximum Temp. F C External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

304LS

1022

550

1022

550

304L

EN 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 10216-5 X5CrNiM o17-12-2 1.4401 AT EN 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 10216-5 X2CrNiM o17-12-2 1.4404 AT EN 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti 10216-5 X6CrNiTi 18-10 1.4541 AT EN 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb 10216-5 X6CrNiNb 18-10 1.4550 AT

316S

1022

550

1022

550

SS316

316LS

1022

550

1022

550

316L

321S

1022

550

1022

550

SS321

347S

1022

550

1022

550

SS347

28-58

28 Material Selections (G10)

EN or Description and ASTM Nominal Specific Composition ation Welded austenitic steel boiler superheater, heat exchanger, and condenser tubes: EN 18Cr - 8Ni 10217-7 X5CrNi18 -10 1.4301 AT EN 18Cr - 8Ni 10217-7 X2CrNi19 -11 1.4306 AT EN 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 10217-7 X5CrNiM o17-12-2 1.4401 AT EN 16Cr - 12Ni - 2Mo 10217-7 X5CrNiM o17-12-2 1.4404 AT EN 18Cr - 10Ni - Ti 10217-7 X6CrNiTi 18-10 1.4541 AT

System Material Symbol

Internal Pressure Maximum Temp. F C

External Pressure Maximum Temp. F C

System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate)

304W

1022

550

1022

550

SS304

304LW

1022

550

1022

550

304L

316W

1022

550

1022

550

SS316

316LW

1022

550

1022

550

316L

321W

1022

550

1022

550

SS321

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-59

EN or Description and ASTM Nominal Specific Composition ation EN 18Cr - 10Ni - Cb 10217-7 X6CrNiNb 18-10 1.4550 AT EN 10217-7 X2CrNiM olN22-53 1.4462 AT Welded duplex austenitic steel tubes: 22Cr - 5Ni - 3Mo

System Material Symbol

Internal Pressure Maximum Temp. F C 550 1022

External Pressure Maximum Temp. F 1022 C 550

System Default Tubesheet Material (Plate) SS347

347W

2205W

482

250

482

250

S2205

28-60

28 Material Selections (G10)

Lining Materials
Brick: Acid-Resistant Applied Over Membrane-Lined Carbon Steel
Lining Material Description Inches MM System Material Symbol 25RSB 45RSB 80RSB 25AFC 45AFC 45AFC

Red shale brick

2.5 4.5 8.0 2.5 4.5 9.0

62 112 200 62 112 225

Fireclay, 30 percent alumina

Brick: Firebrick
Lining Material Description Inches MM System Material Symbol

Insulating firebrick

2.5
4.5 9.0

62 112 225 62 112 225 62 112 225

25IFB 45IFB 90IFB 25FB6 45FB6 90FB6 25FB9 45FB9 90FB9

60 percent alumina firebrick

2.5 4.5 9.0 2.5 4.5 9.0

90 percent alumina firebrick

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-61

Monolithic Lining
Lining Material Description System Material Symbol

Applied to surface with anchors on 12 INCH [300 MM] centers 50 percent alumina refractory gunning mix GUNA5 90 percent alumina refractory gunning mix GUNA9 90 percent alumina castable refractory CASA9 Applied to bare surface 50 percent alumina refractory gunning mix 90 percent alumina refractory gunning mix 90 percent alumina castable refractory Applied over wire mesh reinforcement Gunite GUNIT GUN50 GUN90 CAS90

Abrasion Resistant Linings; Replaceable


Only for use with:
equipment items water cyclones and linings plant bulk items steel fabricated plate System Material Symbol

Lining Material Description

Replaceable ceramic liner backed with urethane elastomer for CERML light abrasion and light impact Replaceable ceramic liner backed with urethane elastomer for CERMM medium abrasion and light impact Replaceable ceramic liner backed with urethane elastomer for CERMH heavy abrasion and light impact Replaceable ceramic liner backed with urethane elastomer for CERMV heavy abrasion and heavy impact Replaceable abrasion-resistant steel plate lining (1 INCH [25 MM] thick unless otherwise specified) Replaceable rubber lining (1 INCH [25 MM] thick unless otherwise specified) Replaceable SS304 plate lining (1 INCH [25 MM] thick unless otherwise specified) Replaceable SS316 plate lining (1 INCH [25 MM] thick unless otherwise specified) ABRPL REPRB LS304 LS316

28-62

28 Material Selections (G10)

Linings: Organic, Glass, Metallic


Lining Material Description System Material Symbol ASRSN EPLCS PHRSN PVDF TFELS GSLCS BUTYL NEPNE NATRB NITRL HYPLN EBONT CLEAD I-ZN ZNMZL

Asphaltic Resin Lining (over Carbon Steel) Epoxy Resin Lining (over Carbon Steel) Phenolic Resin Lining (over Carbon Steel) Kynar Sheet Lining (over Carbon Steel) Teflon Sheet Lining (over Carbon Steel) Glass Lining (over Carbon Steel) 1/4 INCH [6 MM] Butyl Rubber Lining (over Carbon Steel) 1/4 INCH [6 MM] Neoprene Sheet Lining (over Carbon Steel) 1/4 INCH [6 MM] Soft Natural Rubber Sheet Lining (over Carbon Steel) 1/4 INCH [6 MM] Nitrile Rubber Lining (over Carbon Steel) 1/4 INCH [6 MM] Hypalon Rubber Lining (over Carbon Steel) 1/4 INCH [6 MM] Ebonite Lining (over Carbon Steel) 16 PSF [80 KG/M2] Chemical Lead Lining Inorganic Zinc Coating applied by brush to 3 M [0.08 MM] thickness Flame sprayed Zinc Coating 8 MIL [0.20 MM] thickness

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-63

Casting Materials
Material Classification Aluminum Alloys Casting Material Description System Material Symbol Aluminum Low-Alloy Low-Alloy Low-Alloy Low-Alloy Steel Grade B Steel Grade E Steel Grade C Steel AL A203B A203E A 204 A 283 A 299 A 302 A387A A387B A387C A387D A387E A 442 A 455 A 515 A 516 A533A A533B A533C A 553 A285S or CS CI SS304 or SS 304L SS316 316L SS321 SS347 SS410 SS430

Iron and Steel Alloys

Carbon Steel Low-Alloy Steel Low-Alloy Steel Low-Alloy Steel Low-Alloy Steel

Grade Grade Grade Grade

B A B C

Low-Alloy Steel Grade D Low-Alloy Steel Grade E Carbon Steel Grade 60 Carbon Steel Carbon Steel Grade 70 Carbon Steel Grade 70 Low-Alloy Steel Grade 1A Low-Alloy Steel Grade 1B Low-Alloy Steel Grade 1C 9 Percent Nickel Steel Carbon Steel Cast Iron Stainless Steel Alloys Type 304 Stainless Steel Type 304L Stainless Steel Type 316 Stainless Steel Type Type Type Type Type 316L Stainless Steel 321 Stainless Steel 347 Stainless Steel 410 Stainless Steel 430 Stainless Steel

- continued next page -

28-64

28 Material Selections (G10)

Material Classification

Casting Material Description System Material Symbol Nickel Inconel Monel Titanium Carpenter 20 SS304 Impeller, CS Casing SS316 Impeller, CS Casing Goulds Alloy 20 High Nickel Alloy High Nickel Alloy Cast Steel NI INCNL MONEL TI C 20 304SF 316SF GAL20 ISO B ISO C CASTS

Other Alloys

Other Materials Available Only On Pumps Where Designated

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-65

Packing Materials
Packing Type Activated carbon Alumina Berl saddles 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 Size Inches 15 20 25 40 15 20 25 40 15 25 40 50 15 25 40 50 15 25 40 50 15 25 40 50 15 20 25 40 50 75 MM Carbon Alumina Ceramic Packing Material Packing Type Symbol ACT-C ALMNA 0.5CBS .75CBS 1.0CBS 1.5CBS 0.5PBS .75PBS 1.0PBS 1.5PBS CACL COKE LIME STONE DIRT GRAVEL 0.5CIS 1.0CIS 1.5CIS 2.0CIS 0.5PIS 1.0PIS 1.5PIS 2.0PIS 0.5PPR 1.0PPR 1.5PPR 2.0PPR 0.5SPR 1.0SPR 1.5SPR 2.0SPR 0.5CRR .75CRR 1.0CRR 1.5CRR 2.0CRR 3.0CRR

Berl saddles

Porcelain

Calcium chloride Coke Crushed limestone

Calcium chloride Coke Limestone Stone Earth Gravel Ceramic

Crushed stone
Dirt (earth) Gravel

INTALOX saddles

INTALOX saddles

Porcelain

Pall rings

Polypropylene

Pall rings

Stainless steel

Raschig rings

Ceramic

- Continued on next page-

28-66

28 Material Selections (G10)

Packing Type Raschig rings 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 1.0 1.0

Size Inches MM 25 40 50 75 25 40 50 75 25 40 50 75 25 25

Packing Material Porcelain

Packing Type Symbol 1.0PRR 1.5PRR 2.0PRR 3.0PRR 1.0SRR 1.5SRR 2.0SRR 3.0SRR 1.0FRR 1.5FRR 2.0FRR 3.0FRR RESIN SAND S-GEL HD-P-T LD-P-T 13XMS 68PVC 68CPVC 1.0CCR 2.0CCR 3.0CCR 1.0PCR 2.0PCR 3.0PCR 1.0SCR 1.5SCR 2.0SCR 3.0SCR 4.0SCR M107YA M76YA M62YA M35YA M107YB M76YB M62YB M35YB M107YC M76YC M62YC M35YC

Raschig rings

Stainless steel

Raschig rings

Carbon steel

Resin Sand Silica gel Tellerettes H.D. Tellerettes L.D. 13X Molecular Sieve

Resin Sand Silica gel Polyethylene Polyethylene

PVC Structured Packing 68 SF/CF [223 M2/M3]


CPVC Structured Packing 68 SF/CF [223 M2/M3] Cascade rings 1.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 107 76 62 35 107 76 62 35 107 76 62 35 25 50 75 25 50 75 25 40 50 75 100 350 250 205 115 350 250 205 115 350 250 205 115 Ceramic

Cascade rings

Polypropylene

Cascade rings

Stainless steel

Steel structured packing 45 angle of vertical orientation Steel structured packing 45 angle of vertical orientation Steel structured packing 45 angle of vertical orientation

410S Stainless steel

304 Stainless steel

316L Stainless steel

- continued on next page -

28 Material Selections (G10)

28-67

Packing Type Steel structured packing 60 angle of vertical orientation Steel structured packing 60 angle of vertical orientation Steel structured packing 60 angle of vertical orientation 76 35

Size Inches MM 250 115

Packing Material 410S Stainless steel

Packing Type Symbol M76XA M35XA

76 35

250 115

304 Stainless steel

M76XB M35XB

76 35

250 115

316L Stainless steel

M76XC M35XC

28-68

28 Material Selections (G10)

29 Units of Measure

(G6)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction to Units of Measure Units of Measure Length Area Volume Mass Mass per Length Mass per Volume Pressure Velocity Flow Rates Electric Power Viscosity Angular Other Miscellaneous Useful Constants Project Specifications and their Use of Units of Measure Special Units of Measure Length and Area Units Volume Units Mass and Unit Mass Pressure Units Velocity and Flow Rate Units Power Units Viscosity Units

29 Units of Measure (G6)

29-1

Introduction to Units of Measure


Icarus systems provide a choice of two sets of units of measure: I-P (Inch-Pound) METRIC (Metric).

The user must select the desired set indirectly (by specifying the country base location) or directly. Once the appropriate set is selected, the user may wish to redefine one or more variables from the base units of measure to some other measure. The Units of Measure Data provides the means of identifying the conversion. The user should refer to units of measure later in this chapter for the basic definitions of variables and their associated units of measure for I-P and METRIC sets. Along with these definitions are conversion multipliers for relating I-P to METRIC units. Each line bearing a two-digit Type Number is a candidate for user redefinition. The type number is used to identify the specific unit of measure to be redefined. The user would then provide a new name for that unit of measure and the appropriate conversion multiplier to convert from the base unit of measure to the desired unit of measure. The following special units of measure are not characterized by a Type Number and simple conversion multiplier: Temperature - User may define temperature to be in DEG C, DEG F or DEG K. Process Pipe Size (diameter and thickness dimensions only) - User may specify process pipe to be designed in INCH or MM units of measure, independently of other linear units of measure. Driver Power - User may specify drivers to be specified, sized, selected, reported in HP or KW.

Notes of Caution
All user-provided numeric values for dimensions, sizes, extents, intensities, flows, etc., are considered by the system to conform to those units of measure selected and/or defined by the user. It is the users responsibility to be constantly aware of the units of measure so selected throughout the entire exercise of preparing project data for the system. The user is cautioned that variable redefinition from system base to a user unit of measure could have unpredictable downstream effects, for example, in selection of plates, wire, tubing, pipe, etc. Further, the user is cautioned that each base set of units, I-P and METRIC, has its own special set of default values; the pair of default values are not necessarily related to one another by usual conversion relationships; each is established by itself as a reasonable value in the base unit of measure. Once the users set of units of measure is established, default values are evaluated as follows: Unit of Measure Conversion: are used to convert the base unit of measure default value by the users numeric value to obtain the value of the revised default value in the desired units of measure.

29-2

29 Units of Measure (G6)

No Unit of Measure Conversion: the system uses the default value as tabulated.

Example
METRIC base set selected in Project Title Data, and Unit of measure data used to convert pressure in KPA (METRIC) to PSIG using 0.14504 = 1/6.894757 as conversion for Type No. 18. Turbine steam pressure METRIC default is 2000 KPA, which, converted to PSIG, is 290.047549 PSIG. The PSIG value is used in sizing the turbine if the user does not enter the pressure value. Contrast this value with the I-P default value printed in the turbine table as 300 PSIG.

Another Example
The METRIC base user will have all length variables defined in terms of millimeters, meters, etc. As a consequence, pipe sizes (diameters) and wall thicknesses will be expected to be specified, sized, selected and reported in MM. Should the METRIC base user desire pipe to be specified, sized, selected and reported in MM. Should the METRIC base user desire pipe to be specified, sized, selected and reported as INCH values, the user must enter the designator INCH in the field labelled Pipe Size. This note of caution is tendered for temperature and driver power a well as pipe sizing.

Final Note of Caution


The user of this section should exercise extreme care and deliberation in redefining units of measure. Since, once established: All user input is expected in the defined units of measure. Default values subject to conversions will not be in rounded numbers but will be conversions from base default values. Selection and design criteria may be impacted and affected by user redefinition of units of measure. All reporting by the system will conform to the selected units of measure. The trial of consequences of redefinitions of the units of measure is one expectedly difficult to backtrack, especially if that variable affects size selection of materials in a non-standard way.

29 Units of Measure (G6)

29-3

Units of Measure
Type No. Length 01 02 03 04 Area 05 06 Square feet Square yards SF SY x 0.092903 x 0.836127 = Square meters = Square meters M2 M2 Inches Feet Mesh INCHES FEET MESH x 25.4 x 0.3048 x 1.60934 x 1.0000 = Millimeters = Meters = Kilometers = Mesh MM M KM MESH Inch/Pound Description Symbol Conversion Metric Description Symbol

Miles (statute) MILES

Volume 07 08 09 Cubic feet Cubic yards US Gallons (231 cubic inches, no units for UK imperial gallons) Barrels (42 gallons) Bags (94 pounds) Board feet CF CY GALLONS x 0.028317 x 0.76455 = Cubic meters = Cubic meters M3 M3 M3

x 0.00378541 = Cubic meters

10 11 48 Mass 12 13

BARRELS BAGS BDFT

x 0.1589873 x 0.852749 x 0.0023597

= Cubic meters = Bags (50 kilograms) = Cubic meters

M3 BAG-50KG M3

Pounds Tons (2000 pounds)

LBS TONS

x 0.45359 x 0.907185

=Kilograms = 1000 Kilograms

KG TON

Mass per Length 14 15 Pounds per foot Pounds per yard LB/FT LB/YD x 1.488156 x 0.496052 = Kilograms/ meter = Kilograms/ meter KG/M KG/M

29-4

29 Units of Measure (G6)

Type No.

Inch/Pound Description Symbol

Conversion

Metric Description Symbol

Mass per Volume 16 17 Pounds per batch Pounds per cubic foot LB/BATCH PCF x 0.45359 x 16.01829 = Kilograms per batch = Kilograms per cubic meter KG/BATCH KG/M3

Pressure 18 Pounds (force) PSIG per square inch, gauge Inches of mercury IN HG x 6.894757 = Kilopascals KPA (1000 newtons per square meter) = Kilopascals KPA (1000 newtons per square meter) = Pascals =Pascals PA PA

19

x 3.38638

20 21

Inches of water Millimeters of mercury (TORR)

IN H2O MM HG

x 249.082 x 133.322

22

Pounds (force) PSF per square foot (loading)

x 0.0478802

= Kilonewtons KN/M2 per square meter (1 newton = 1 KG mass under 1 meter/sec2 acceleration)

Velocity 23 24 25 na Feet per minute FPM x 18.2880 x 1.60934 x 1.0000 = Meters/hour M/H = Kilometers/ hour = Revolutions per minute = Hertz KM/H RPM HZ

Miles per hour MPH Revolutions per minute Cycles per second RPM

HZ x 1.0000 (HZ is frequently used to refer to local power frequency)

29 Units of Measure (G6)

29-5

Type No.

Inch/Pound Description Symbol

Conversion

Metric Description Symbol

Flow Rates 26 Cubic feet per CFM minute Cubic feet per CFH hour Cubic feet per CFM/SF minute per square foot of surface Gallons per minute Gallons per hour Pounds per hour GPM GPH LB/H x 1.69901 = Cubic meters per hour = Cubic meters per hour = Cubic meters per hour per square meter of surface Litres per second Cubic meters per hour Kilograms/ hour = Tons per hour M3/H

27

x 0.028317

M3/H

28

x 18.28800

M3/H/M2

29 30 31 32

x 0.063090 x 0.003785 x 0.45359 x 0.907185

L/S M3/H KG/H TON/H

Tons per hour TPH (short tons, no unit for long tons) Tons per day TPD

33

x 0.037799

= Tons per hour

TON/H

Electric 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Volts Kilovolts (1000V) Amperes Kiloamperes (1000A) Watts Kilowatts (1000W) Kilovoltamperes (1000V-A) V KV A KA W KW KVA x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 = Volts = Kilovolts = Amperes V KV A

= Kiloamperes KA = Watts = Kilowatts = Kilovoltamperes W KW KVA

Power na 41 Horsepower Tons, refrigeration (12000 BTU per hour) BTU per hour HP TONS-REF x 0.74570 x 3.51685 = Kilowatts = Kilowatts KW KW

42

BTU/H

x 0.293071

= Watts

29-6

29 Units of Measure (G6)

Type No. 43 44

Inch/Pound Description Symbol Millions of BTU MMBTU/H per hour BTU per hour per square foot BTU/H/SF

Conversion x 0.293071 x 3.15460

Metric Description = Megawatts = Watts per square meter = Kilojoules per kilogram Symbol MEGAW W/M2

45

BTU per pound BTU/LB

x 2.32601

KJ/KG

Viscosity 46 47 Centipoise Centistoke CPOISE CSTOKE x 1.0 x 1.0 = Millipascalseconds = Millimeters squared per second MPA-S MM2/S

Angular na Other na na Fahrenheit temperature Fahrenheit temperature difference DEG F DEG F (F-32)/1.8 x 0.55555 = Celsius temperature = Celsius temperature difference DEG C DEG C Degrees DEGREE x 1.0 = Degrees DEGREE

na

Nominal pipe INCH size (diameter and thickness) Driver power HP

not applicable size not applicable

Nominal pipe MM size (diameter and thickness) Driver power KW

na

Miscellaneous Useful Constants


1 Gravitational Constant: 2 3 Inch-Pound Metric Rankine Kelvin 32.174 lb-ft/lb(force)-sec2 9.80665 kg-m/kg(force)-sec2 DEG R = 459.67 + DEG F DEG K = 273.15 + DEG C

Absolute temperatures:

Gas Constant, R (basis: 22.4140 liters at 0 degrees C, 1 atm. for the volume of 1 gram-mole of gas and PV=ZnRT) R = 10.732 psia-ft3/lb-mole degrees R R = 8.3145 KPA-m3/kg-mole degrees K

29 Units of Measure (G6)

29-7

Project Specifications and their Use of Units of Measure


Special Units of Measure
Unit of Measure Name for Temperature: F (INCH-POUND) or C or K (METRIC) Use to specify: All items specifying temperature Unit of Measure Name for pipe size: INCH (INCH-POUND) or MM (METRIC) Use to specify: Pipe, valves, fittings Unit of Measure Name for driver power: HP (INCH-POUND) or KW (METRIC) Use to specify: Electric motors, turbines

Length and Area Units


Unit of Measure Name for: INCHES (INCH-POUND) or MM (METRIC) Use to specify: Vessel components wall/plate thickness tube diameter cladding thickness

Conveyor belts - width Conveyors/vibrating - width of pan Centrifuge bowl/basket diameter Dryers, pan type - depth Dust collectors, cyclone diameter Filters, plate/frame size Feeders, rotary - diameter Feeders, vibrating - width Heat exchangers, shell diameter Mills, product, feed size Reboilers, port area Stacks - diameter Towers - tray spacing

29-8

29 Units of Measure (G6)

Insulation thickness Manhole diameter Steel, walkway width Vibrating screens - sifter screen diameter

Unit of Measure Name for: FEET (INCH-POUND) or M (METRIC) Use to specify: Vessel size span, length, height, diameter, tube length

Fluid head- pumps

Unit of Measure Name for: MILES (INCH-POUND) or KM (METRIC) Use to specify: Site development Unit of Measure Name for: MESH (INCH-POUND) or MESH (METRIC) Use to specify: Crushers Filter, tubular

Unit of Measure Name for: SF (INCH-POUND) or M2 (METRIC) Use to specify: Dryers - tray surface area Dust collectors - cloth area Drum dryers - peripheral area Evaporators - heated surface area Flakers - area Heat exchangers Linings Rotary dryers Tray drying systems, tray surface Vibrating screen

Unit of Measure Name for: SY (INCH-POUND) or M2 (METRIC) Use to specify: Site development

Volume Units
Unit of Measure Name for: CF (INCH-POUND) or M3 (METRIC) Use to specify: Centrifuges - capacity

29 Units of Measure (G6)

29-9

Filters, plate/frame capacity Mixers Rotary dryers, working capacity Vertical tanks, gas holders, live bottom

Unit of Measure Name for: CY (INCH-POUND) or M3 (METRIC) Use to specify: Site development Unit of Measure Name for: GALLONS (INCH-POUND) or M3 (METRIC) Use to specify: Vessel volume, liquids Kneaders Packings Vertical tanks

Unit of Measure Name for: BARRELS (INCH-POUND) or M3 (METRIC) Use to specify: Vertical tanks Unit of Measure Name for: BAGS (INCH-POUND) or BAGS-50KG (METRIC) Use to specify: Field-mixed concrete components Unit of Measure Name for: BD FT (INCH-POUND) or M3 (METRIC) Use to specify: Foundation formwork (shuttering)

29-10

29 Units of Measure (G6)

Mass and Unit Mass


Unit of Measure Name for: LBS (INCH-POUND) or KG (METRIC) Use to specify: Cranes Scales

Unit of Measure Name for: TONS (INCH-POUND) or TON (METRIC) Use to specify: Elevators Cranes, hoists

Unit of Measure Name for: LB/FT (INCH-POUND) or KG/M (METRIC) Use to specify: Steel member sizes Pile sizes

Unit of Measure Name for: LB/YD (INCH-POUND) or KG/M (METRIC) Use to specify: Site development - railroad rails Unit of Measure Name for: LB/BATCH (INCH-POUND) or KG/BATCH (METRIC) Use to specify: Centrifuges, batch type Filters

Unit of Measure Name for: PCF (INCH-POUND) or KG/M3 (METRIC) Use to specify: Density of solids, fluids Blenders

29 Units of Measure (G6)

29-11

Pressure Units
Unit of Measure Name for: PSIG (INCH-POUND) or KPA (METRIC) Use to specify: Gauge pressure Unit of Measure Name for: IN HG (INCH-POUND) or KPA (METRIC) Use to specify: Vacuum pumps Unit of Measure Name for: IN H2O (INCH-POUND) or PA (METRIC) Use to specify: Draft pressure measurement, ductwork Dust collector, cyclone - pressure drop

Unit of Measure Name for: MM HG (INCH-POUND) or PA (METRIC) Use to specify: Ejectors, absolute pressure Vacuum pumps, absolute pressure

Unit of Measure Name for: PSF (INCH-POUND) or KN/M2 (METRIC) Use to specify: Civil - soil bearing capacity

29-12

29 Units of Measure (G6)

Velocity and Flow Rate Units


Unit of Measure Name for: FPM (INCH-POUND) or M/H (METRIC) Use to specify: Conveyors, belt speed Unit of Measure Name for: MPH (INCH-POUND) or KM/H (METRIC) Use to specify: Wind velocity Unit of Measure Name for: RPM (INCH-POUND) or RPM (METRIC) Use to specify: Agitators, agitated tanks Motors Blenders

Unit of Measure Name for: CFM (INCH-POUND) or M3/H (METRIC) Use to specify: Air, gas compressors Air dryers Dust collectors, washers, precipitators, cyclone Fans Vacuum pumps

Unit of Measure Name for: CFH (INCH-POUND) or M3/H (METRIC) Use to specify: Feeders Unit of Measure Name for: CFM/SF (INCH-POUND) or M3/H/M2 (METRIC) Use to specify: Dust collectors Unit of Measure Name for: GPM (INCH-POUND) or L/S (METRIC) Use to specify: Centrifugal pumps Barometric condenser - water flow rate Filter, cartridge, tubular Gear pumps Positive displacement pumps Towers, cooling Water treatment systems

Unit of Measure Name for: GPH (INCH-POUND) or M3/H (METRIC) Use to specify: Water treatment systems

29 Units of Measure (G6)

29-13

Unit of Measure Name for: LB/H (INCH-POUND) or KG/H (METRIC) Use to specify: Dryers, evaporative capacity Drum dryers Evaporators Ejectors - air flow rate Filters Feeders Flakers, drum type Heat exchangers Reactors Rotary dryers Tray drying systems Towers, packed, trayed Water treatment systems - boilers Wiped film evaporators

Unit of Measure Name for: TPH (INCH-POUND) or TON/H (METRIC) Use to specify: Conveyors Bucket conveyors Crushers Feeders Filters Mills

Unit of Measure Name for: TPD (INCH-POUND) or TON/H (METRIC) Use to specify: Crystallizers Feeder, vibrating Mills

Electrical Units
Unit of Measure Name for: V (INCH-POUND) or V (METRIC) Use to specify: Electrical plant bulks Unit of Measure Name for: KV (INCH-POUND) or KV (METRIC) Use to specify: Electrical plant bulks

29-14

29 Units of Measure (G6)

Unit of Measure Name for: A (INCH-POUND) or A (METRIC) Use to specify: Electrical plant bulks Unit of Measure Name for: KA (INCH-POUND) or KA (METRIC) Use to specify: Electrical plant bulks Unit of Measure Name for: W (INCH-POUND) or W (METRIC) Use to specify: Electrical plant bulks Unit of Measure Name for: KW (INCH-POUND) or KW (METRIC) Use to specify: Electric generators, portable Heat exchangers - tank heaters

Unit of Measure Name for: KVA (INCH-POUND) or KVA (METRIC) Use to specify: Electric generators Electrical substation equipment

29 Units of Measure (G6)

29-15

Power Units
Unit of Measure Name for: TONS-REF (INCH-POUND) or KW (METRIC) Use to specify: Refrigeration units Unit of Measure Name for: BTU/H (INCH-POUND) or W (METRIC) Use to specify: Heat transfer rate Unit of Measure Name for: MMBTU/H (INCH-POUND) or MEGAW (METRIC) Use to specify: Furnaces Heating units Reboilers

Unit of Measure Name for: BTU/H/SF (INCH-POUND) or W/M2 (METRIC) Use to specify: Flarestacks Unit of Measure Name for: BTU/LB (INCH-POUND) or KJ/KG (METRIC) Use to specify: Reboilers Flarestacks

Viscosity Units
Unit of Measure Name for: CPOISE (INCH-POUND) or MPA-S (METRIC) Use to specify: Pumps Agitated vessels

Unit of Measure Name for: CSTOKE (INCH-POUND) or MM2/S (METRIC) Use to specify: Pumps, gear

29-16

29 Units of Measure (G6)

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates


(G13)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: US Country Base UK Country Base JP Country Base EU Country Base ME Country Base

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

30-1

The rates in this chapter are escalated by the Construction Index value specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data

US Country Base
Craft Code 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 *Electrician - Line *Electrician - Wiring 30.80 28.80 67.20 62.70 *Instrument Fitter 30.80 67.20 Welder - Special *Welder - Fabricator *Boilermaker 30.30 27.70 27.50 66.10 60.50 60.10 Ironworker - Structural Welder - Structural 28.80 29.80 62.70 65.00 Cement Finisher Carpenter Bricklayer Ironworker - Rebar 24.60 23.90 25.70 27.70 53.80 52.20 56.00 60.50 *Pipefitter *Pipe Welder 29.30 33.90 63.90 74.00 Light Equipment Oper Medium Equipment Oper Heavy Equipment Oper 27.70 28.80 29.80 60.50 62.70 65.00 Oiler Mechanic 27.70 27.70 60.50 60.50 Light Vehicle Driver Heavy Vehicle Driver 18.30 20.30 39.90 44.40 *Millwright Rigger 30.80 28.80 67.20 62.70 US Craft Name Unloaded Wage Rate ($/MH) 16.70 Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate ($/MH) 1 36.50 Laborer

30-2

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

Craft Code 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
1

US Craft Name

Unloaded Wage Rate ($/MH) 26.30 21.10 21.10

Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate ($/MH) 1 57.40 45.90 45.90

*Sheetmetal Worker Insulator Painter

Craft Helper Foreman

18.50 **

40.30 **

Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate excludes equipment rental.

* Principal Crafts. ** Foremans rate is 110% of the highest paid craft in the crew in which the foreman works. Base Construction Index Value (1Q 2009) = 2010.

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

30-3

UK Country Base ***


Craft Code 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 *Sheetmetal Worker Insulator 16.90 16.90 37.10 37.10 *Electrical Technician *Electrician 18.60 16.90 40.90 37.10 *Instrument Fitter 16.90 37.10 Welder - Special *Welder - Fabricator *Boilermaker 17.40 17.30 16.90 38.20 38.00 37.10 Steel Erector Welder - Structural 16.90 16.90 37.10 37.10 Cement Finisher Joiner Bricklayer Steel Fixer 15.10 17.10 15.30 15.10 33.30 37.50 33.70 33.30 *Plater/Pipefitter *Welder 16.90 17.20 37.10 37.80 Light Equipment Oper Medium Equipment Oper Heavy Equipment Oper 15.10 15.30 16.90 33.30 33.70 37.10 Plant Fitter 16.90 37.10 Light Vehicle Driver Heavy Vehicle Driver 15.10 15.10 33.30 33.30 *Fitter/Millwright Rigger 16.90 16.90 37.10 37.10 UK Craft Name Unloaded Wage Rate (PS/MH) 13.00 Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate (PS/MH) 1 28.50 Laborer

30-4

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

Craft Code 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
1

UK Craft Name

Unloaded Wage Rate (PS/MH) 15.10

Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate (PS/MH) 1 33.30

Painter

Craftsmans Mate Foreman

13.80 **

30.40 **

Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate excludes equipment rental.

* Principal Crafts. ** Foremans rate is 110% of the highest paid craft in the crew in which the foreman works. *** Wage Rate Basis: National Agreement for the Engineering Construction Industry, 2008-2009 Update. Rates include measured incentive bonus appropriate to large process industry sites. Rates for civil work reflect "comparability" with rates for engineering trades on large process industry sites. Base Construction Index Value (1Q 2009) = 4290 Note: PS indicates Pounds Sterling

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

30-5

JP Country Base
Craft Code 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 *Sheetmetal Worker Insulator 2.00 2.10 4.10 4.50 *Electrician - Line *Electrician - Wiring 2.50 2.50 5.30 5.30 *Instrument Fitter 2.30 4.90 Welder - Special *Welder - Fabricator *Boilermaker 2.60 2.60 2.50 5.50 5.50 5.30 Ironworker - Structural Welder - Structural 2.40 2.50 4.90 5.40 Cement Finisher Carpenter Bricklayer Ironworker - Rebar 2.20 2.30 2.70 2.20 4.70 4.90 5.60 4.60 *Pipefitter *Pipe Welder 2.70 2.80 5.60 5.80 Light Equipment Oper Medium Equipment Oper Heavy Equipment Oper 2.20 2.20 2.20 4.60 4.60 4.60 Oiler Mechanic 1.90 2.20 4.10 4.50 Light Vehicle Driver Heavy Vehicle Driver 1.90 2.20 4.00 4.60 *Millwright Rigger 2.10 2.10 4.30 4.30 JP Craft Name Unloaded Wage Rate (KY/MH) 1.60 Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate (KY/MH) 1 3.40 Laborer

30-6

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

Craft Code 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
1

JP Craft Name

Unloaded Wage Rate (KY/MH) 2.20

Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate (KY/MH) 1 4.60

Painter

Craft Helper Foreman

1.70 **

3.60 **

Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate excludes equipment rental.

* Principal Crafts. ** Foremans rate is 110% of the highest paid craft in the crew in which the foreman works. Base Construction Index Value (1Q 2009 = 1150). Note: KY indicates thousand Yen.

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

30-7

EU Country Base
Craft Code 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 *Sheetmetal Worker Insulator 23.40 23.40 55.60 55.60 *Electr: Line *Electr: Wire 23.60 23.40 55.90 55.60 *Instru.Fitter 23.40 55.60 Welder: Special *Welder: Fabr *Boilermaker 24.00 24.00 23.40 57.00 57.00 55.60 Ironworker: Struct Welder: Struct 23.40 23.40 55.60 55.60 Cement Finisher Carpenter Bricklayer Ironworker - Rebar 20.90 23.60 23.60 20.90 49.60 55.90 55.90 49.60 *Pipefitter *Pipe Welder 23.40 23.80 55.60 56.40 EquipOp: Light EquipOp: Medium EquipOp: Heavy 20.90 21.10 23.40 49.60 50.20 55.60 Oiler Mechanic 23.40 55.60 Driver: Light Driver: Heavy 20.90 20.90 49.60 49.60 *Millwright Rigger 23.40 23.40 55.60 55.60 EU Craft Name Unloaded Wage Rate (EUR/MH) 18.00 Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate (EUR/MH) 1 42.80 Laborer

30-8

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

Craft Code 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
1

EU Craft Name

Unloaded Wage Rate (EUR/MH) 20.90

Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate (EUR/MH) 1 49.60

Painter

Helper Foreman

19.20 **

45.50 **

Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate excludes equipment rental.

* Principal Crafts. ** Foremans rate is 110% of the highest paid craft in the crew in which the foreman works. Base Construction Index Value (1Q 2009 = 1840).

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

30-9

ME Country Base
Note: SAR = Saudi Arabian Riyals
Craft Code 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 *Sheetmetal Worker Insulator 21.00 22.50 52.50 56.30 *Electr: Line *Electr: Wire 23.00 23.00 57.50 57.50 *Instru.Fitter 23.00 57.50 Welder: Special *Welder: Fabr *Boilermaker 21.00 22.00 22.00 52.50 55.00 55.00 Ironworker: Struct Welder: Struct 21.00 21.00 52.50 52.50 Cement Finisher Carpenter Bricklayer Ironworker - Rebar 20.00 19.00 19.00 21.00 50.00 47.50 47.50 52.50 *Pipefitter *Pipe Welder 23.00 34.00 57.50 85.00 EquipOp: Light EquipOp: Medium EquipOp: Heavy 18.00 20.70 23.80 45.00 51.80 59.50 Oiler Mechanic 23.00 34.00 57.50 85.00 Driver: Light Driver: Heavy 19.60 19.60 49.00 49.00 *Millwright Rigger 23.00 23.00 57.50 57.50 ME Craft Name Unloaded Wage Rate (SAR/MH) 18.00 Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate (SAR/MH) 1 45.00

Laborer

30-10

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

Craft Code 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99
1

ME Craft Name

Unloaded Wage Rate (SAR/MH) 20.00

Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate (SAR/MH) 1 50.00

Painter

Helper

15.50

38.80

Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator Loaded Wage Rate excludes equipment rental.

* Principal Crafts. ** Foremans rate is 110% of the highest paid craft in the crew in which the foreman works. Base Construction Index Value (1Q 2009 = 1930).

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

30-11

30-12

30 Field Manpower Titles and Wage Rates (G13)

31 Engineering

(G13)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Design and Construction Engineering Disciplines and Wage Rates US Country Base UK Country Base JP Country Base EU Country Base ME Country Base Engineering Expenses and Indirects Standard Engineering Drawing Types User-Specified Drawing Classifications

31 Engineering (G13)

31-1

Design and Construction Engineering Disciplines and Wage Rates


US Country Base
Note: $ indicates US dollars
No. Design* Discipline $/MH No. Construction** Discipline Home Office 65.80 57.90 57.30 56.70 57.30 57.10 54.00 46.90 47.00 43.70 46.20 44.60 38.30 51.00 53.20 24.00 65.80 57.90 57.30 56.70 57.30 57.10 54.00 46.90 47.00 43.70 46.20 44.60 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 01 02 Project Management Cost Accounting Construction Dept. Planning, Scheduling Tools, Equipment Industrial Relations Subcontract Admin. Support, Clerical 65.40 44.00 38.90 49.90 39.40 39.50 39.60 24.00 $/MH

Basic Engineering: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 Project Engineering Process Engineering Piping Design Instrument Design Mechanical Design Electrical Design Civil Design Piping Drafting Instrument Drafting Mechanical Drafting Electrical Drafting Civil Drafting General Drafting Planning, Scheduling Cost Estimating Support, Clerical Project Engineering Process Engineering Piping Design Instrument Design Mechanical Design Electrical Design Civil Design Piping Drafting Instrument Drafting Mechanical Drafting Electrical Drafting Civil Drafting

Field Office: Project Constrn. Supt. 53.10 Area Superintendents 42.90 Field Superintendents: Piping Instrumentation Electrical Civil Mechanical QC&A, Inspection Subcontract Admin Cost Engineering Field Engineering Planning, Scheduling Safety & Medical Field Accounting Materials Control General Drafting Support, Clerical 40.10 40.10 40.10 40.10 40.10 39.40 41.20 44.00 43.90 49.90 38.60 35.70 40.40 38.50 20.40

Detail Engineering:

Construction Management (Home): 01 Project Management 65.40

31-2

31 Engineering (G13)

No. 13 14 15 16 17 01 02 01

Design* Discipline General Drafting Planning, Scheduling Cost Estimating Support, Clerical Model Building Procurement Support, Clerical Project Engineering

$/MH 38.30 51.00 53.20 24.00 33.00 42.40 24.00 79.40

No. Construction** Discipline 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 01 Cost Accounting Construction Dept. Subcon. Admin. (Field) Area Managers Subcon. Coordinator Field Inspector Cost Engineering Field Engineering Planning, Scheduling Safety & Medical Support, Clerical Commissioning Staff

$/MH 44.00 38.90 39.60

Construction Manager 70.70 41.90 39.60 40.40 43.80 41.20 46.80 36.30 24.00 50.30

Procurement:

Eng'g Management:

* These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Design Engineering Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data. Base Design Engineering Index = 1620

Start-up, Commissioning:

02 03

Start-up Staff Performance Testing

40.90 40.90

** These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Construction Management Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data. Base Construction Management Index = 1660

31 Engineering (G13)

31-3

UK Country Base
Note: PS indicates Pounds Sterling
No. Design* Discipline PS/MH No. Construction** Discipline Home Office: 29.30 29.90 27.80 27.80 27.80 27.80 27.80 20.60 20.60 20.60 20.60 20.60 20.60 22.80 20.60 11.90 29.30 29.90 27.80 27.80 27.80 27.80 27.80 20.60 20.60 20.60 20.60 20.60 20.60 22.80 20.60 11.90 23.80 20.00 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 01 02 Project Management Cost Accounting Construction Dept. Planning, Scheduling Tools, Equipment Industrial Relations Subcontract Admin. Support, Clerical 34.30 19.90 26.50 23.90 26.50 26.50 26.50 11.90 PS/MH

Basic Engineering: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 01 Project Engineering Process Engineering Piping Design Instrument Design Mechanical Design Electrical Design Civil Design Piping Drafting Instrument Drafting Mechanical Drafting Electrical Drafting Civil Drafting General Drafting Planning, Scheduling Cost Estimating Support, Clerical Project Engineering Process Engineering Piping Design Instrument Design Mechanical Design Electrical Design Civil Design Piping Drafting Instrument Drafting Mechanical Drafting Electrical Drafting Civil Drafting General Drafting Planning, Scheduling Cost Estimating Support, Clerical Model Building Procurement

Field Office: Project Constrn. Supt. 34.80 Area Superintendents Field Superintendents Piping Instrumentation Electrical Civil Mechanical QC&A, Inspection Subcontract Admin. Cost Engineering Field Engineering Planning, Scheduling Safety & Medical Field Accounting Materials Control General Drafting Support, Clerical 25.60 25.60 25.60 25.60 25.60 25.60 25.60 22.90 23.70 22.90 19.60 18.20 18.20 19.10 11.50 25.60

Detail Engineering:

Construction Management (Home): 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Project Management Cost Accounting Construction Dept. Construction Manager Area Managers Subcon. Coordinator Field Inspector 34.30 19.90 26.80 37.10 28.50 26.50 26.80

Subcon. Admin. (Field) 26.80

Procurement:

31-4

31 Engineering (G13)

No. 02 01

Design* Discipline Support, Clerical Project Engineering

PS/MH 11.90 29.30

No. Construction** Discipline 09 10 11 12 13 01 Cost Engineering Field Engineering Planning, Scheduling Safety & Medical Support, Clerical Commissioning Staff

PS/MH 23.90 24.80 23.90 20.40 11.90 26.50

Eng'g Management: Note: PS indicates Pounds Sterling * These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Design Engineering Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data. Base Design Engineering Index = 4450

Start-up, Commissioning:

02 03

Start-up Staff Performance Testing

26.50 26.50

** These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Construction Management Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data. Base Construction Management Index = 4190

31 Engineering (G13)

31-5

JP Country Base
Note: KY indicates thousand Yen
No. Design* Discipline KY/MH No. Construction** Discipline Home Office: 4.6 5.0 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.6 3.6 2.0 4.6 5.0 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.6 3.6 2.0 2.4 4.2 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 01 02 Project Management Cost Accounting Construction Dept. Planning, Scheduling Tools, Equipment Industrial Relations Subcontract Admin. Support, Clerical 6.2 3.9 4.2 3.6 3.8 3.8 3.3 2.0 KY/MH

Basic Engineering: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 01 Project Engineering Process Engineering Piping Design Instrument Design Mechanical Design Electrical Design Civil Design Piping Drafting Instrument Drafting Mechanical Drafting Electrical Drafting Civil Drafting General Drafting Planning, Scheduling Cost Estimating Support, Clerical Project Engineering Process Engineering Piping Design Instrument Design Mechanical Design Electrical Design Civil Design Piping Drafting Instrument Drafting Mechanical Drafting Electrical Drafting Civil Drafting General Drafting Planning, Scheduling Cost Estimating Support, Clerical Model Building Procurement

Field Office: Project Constrn. Supt. 4.8 Area Superintendents Field Superintendents: Piping Instrumentation Electrical Civil QC&A, Inspection Mechanical Subcontract Admin. Cost Engineering Field Engineering Planning, Scheduling Safety & Medical Field Accounting Materials Control General Drafting Support, Clerical 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.9 3.4 2.0 3.7

Detail Engineering:

Construction Management (Home): 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Project Management Cost Accounting Construction Dept. Construction Manager Area Managers Subcon. Coordinator Field Inspector 6.2 3.9 4.2 4.9 4.9 3.3 3.7

Subcon. Admin. (Field) 3.8

Procurement:

31-6

31 Engineering (G13)

No. 02 01

Design* Discipline Support, Clerical Project Engineering

KY/MH 2.0 6.2

No. Construction** Discipline 09 10 11 12 Cost Engineering Field Engineering Planning, Scheduling Safety & Medical

KY/MH 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4

Eng'g Management:

Note: KY indicates thousand YEN * These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Design Engineering Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data. Base Design Engineering Index = 1900

13 01 02 03

Support, Clerical Commissioning Staff Start-up Staff Performance Testing

2.0 4.2 3.9 3.9

Start-up, Commissioning:

** These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Construction Management Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data. Base Construction Management Index = 1780

31 Engineering (G13)

31-7

EU Country Base
Note: EUR indicates Euros
No. Design* Discipline EUR/MH No. Construction** Discipline Home Office: 48.80 37.50 31.90 31.90 36.90 31.90 31.90 25.00 26.30 26.30 26.30 26.30 24.10 34.40 35.70 20.00 48.80 37.50 31.90 31.90 36.90 31.90 31.90 25.00 26.30 26.30 26.30 26.30 24.10 34.40 35.70 20.00 24.50 01 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 01 02 Project Management Cost Accounting Construction Dept. Planning, Scheduling Tools, Equipment Industrial Relations Subcontract Admin. Support, Clerical 47.10 34.50 27.70 33.20 27.70 27.70 27.70 19.30 EUR/ MH

Basic Engineering: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 01 Project Engineering Process Engineering Piping Design Instrument Design Mechanical Design Electrical Design Civil Design Piping Drafting Instrument Drafting Mechanical Drafting Electrical Drafting Civil Drafting General Drafting Planning, Scheduling Cost Estimating Support, Clerical Project Engineering Process Engineering Piping Design Instrument Design Mechanical Design Electrical Design Civil Design Piping Drafting Instrument Drafting Mechanical Drafting Electrical Drafting Civil Drafting General Drafting Planning, Scheduling Cost Estimating Support, Clerical Model Building Procurement

Field Office: Project Constrn. Supt. 39.30 Area Superintendents Field Superintendents: Piping Instrumentation Electrical Civil QC&A, Inspection Mechanical Subcontract Admin. Cost Engineering Field Engineering Planning, Scheduling Safety & Medical Field Accounting Materials Control General Drafting Support, Clerical 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 27.70 34.50 30.00 33.20 27.70 27.60 27.60 23.30 19.30 34.60

Detail Engineering:

Construction Management (Home): 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 Project Management Cost Accounting Construction Dept. Construction Manager Area Managers Subcon. Coordinator Field Inspector 47.10 34.50 27.70 47.10 34.60 27.70 31.10

Subcon. Admin. (Field) 27.70

Procurement:

31-8

31 Engineering (G13)

No. 02 01

Design* Discipline Support, Clerical Project Engineering

EUR/MH 20.00 48.80

No. Construction** Discipline 09 10 11 12 Cost Engineering Field Engineering Planning, Scheduling Safety & Medical

EUR/ MH 34.50 30.00 33.20 27.70

Eng'g Management:

* These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Design Engineering Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data. Base Design Engineering Index = 1790

13 01 02 03

Support, Clerical Commissioning Staff Start-up Staff Performance Testing

19.30 47.60 36.50 36.50

Start-up, Commissioning:

** These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Construction Management Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data. Base Construction Management Index = 1720

31 Engineering (G13)

31-9

ME Country Base
Note: SAR indicates Saudi Arabian Rials
No. Design* Discipline SAR/ MH 230.00 230.00 190.00 190.00 190.00 190.00 190.00 160.00 160.00 160.00 160.00 160.00 160.00 170.00 170.00 65.00 260.00 245.00 205.00 205.00 205.00 205.00 205.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 170.00 65.00 77.00 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 No. Construction** Discipline Home Office 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 01 02 Project Management Cost Accounting Construction Dept. Planning, Scheduling Tools, Equipment Industrial Relations Subcontract Admin. Support, Clerical 310.00 65.00 65.00 170.00 67.30 65.00 65.00 65.00 SAR/ MH

Basic Engineering: 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Project Engineering Process Engineering Piping Design Instrument Design Mechanical Design Electrical Design Civil Design Piping Drafting Instrument Drafting Mechanical Drafting Electrical Drafting Civil Drafting General Drafting Planning, Scheduling Cost Estimating Support, Clerical Project Engineering Process Engineering Piping Design Instrument Design Mechanical Design Electrical Design Civil Design Piping Drafting Instrument Drafting Mechanical Drafting Electrical Drafting Civil Drafting General Drafting Planning, Scheduling Cost Estimating Support, Clerical Model Building

Field Office: Project Constrn. Supt. 86.50 Area Superintendents 68.50 Field Superintendents: Piping Instrumentation Electrical Civil Mechanical QC&A, Inspection Subcontract Admin Cost Engineering Field Engineering Planning, Scheduling Safety & Medical Field Accounting Materials Control General Drafting Support, Clerical 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 170.00 52.00 170.00 65.00 65.00 65.00 75.00 65.00

Detail Engineering:

Construction Management (Home): 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Project Management Cost Accounting Construction Dept. Subcon. Admin. (Field) Area Managers Subcon. Coordinator 310.00 65.00 65.00 65.00

Construction Manager 310.00 68.50 65.00

31-10

31 Engineering (G13)

No.

Design* Discipline

SAR/ MH 135.00 65.00 310.00

No. Construction** Discipline 08 09 10 11 12 13 01 02 03 Field Inspector Cost Engineering Field Engineering Planning, Scheduling Safety & Medical Support, Clerical Commissioning Staff Start-up Staff Performance Testing

SAR/ MH 178.50 170.00 52.00 170.00 65.00 65.00 155.00 155.00 155.00

Procurement: 01 02 01 Procurement Support, Clerical Project Engineering

Eng'g Management: * These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values.

Start-up, Commissioning:

Base Design Engineering Index = 1580

** These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values.. Base Construction Management Index = 1580

31 Engineering (G13)

31-11

Engineering Expenses and Indirects (Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer )
US Country Base Phase % Eng'ng Manpower Expense Rate ($/ MH)* Basic Engineering Detail Engineering Procurement Engineering Management Home Office Construction Services Field Office Supervision Construction Management Start-up, Commissioning 5.00 3.90 8.90 0.00 ($/MH)** 3.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 25 25 25 25 75 75 75 75 Payroll Business 25 25 25 25 Cost Indirects 75 75 75 75

UK Country Base Phase % Eng'ng Manpower Expense Rate (PS/ MH)* Basic Engineering Detail Engineering Procurement Engineering Management Home Office Construction Services Field Office Supervision Construction Management Start-up, Commissioning 3.80 3.20 6.80 0.00 (PS/MH)** 2.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 40 40 40 40 90 90 90 90 Payroll Business 40 40 40 40 Cost Indirects 90 90 90 90

31-12

31 Engineering (G13)

Engineering Expenses and Indirects - continued


Japan Country Base Phase % Eng'ng Manpower Expense Rate (KY/ MH)* Basic Engineering Detail Engineering Procurement Engineering Management Home Office Construction Services Field Office Supervision Construction Management Start-up, Commissioning 0.49 0.38 0.87 0.00 (KY/MH)** 0.36 0.00 0.00 0.00 25 25 25 25 75 75 75 75 Payroll Business Cost Indirects 25 25 25 25 75 75 75 75

31 Engineering (G13)

31-13

Engineering Expenses and Indirects - continued


EU Country Base Phase % Eng'ng Manpower Expense Rate (EUR/ MH)* Basic Engineering Detail Engineering Procurement Engineering Management Home Office Construction Services Field Office Supervision Construction Management Start-up, Commissioning 5.90 4.90 10.50 0.00 (EUR/MH)** 4.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 40 40 40 40 90 90 90 90 Payroll Business Cost Indirects 40 40 40 40 90 90 90 90

*These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Design Engineering Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data. **These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Construction Management Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data.

31-14

31 Engineering (G13)

Engineering Expenses and Indirects - continued


ME Country Base Phase % Eng'ng Manpower Expense Rate (SAR/ MH)* Basic Engineering Detail Engineering Procurement Engineering Management Home Office Construction Services Field Office Supervision Construction Management Start-up, Commissioning 21.20 16.50 38.20 0.00 (SAR/MH)** 15.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 25 25 25 25 75 75 75 75 Payroll Business 25 25 25 25 Cost Indirects 75 75 75 75

*These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Design Engineering Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data. **These rates are the current (1Q 2009) System base values, which are escalated by the Construction Management Index specified by the user in the Indexing/Escalation data.

Base Design Engineering Index = 1620 (US), 4450 (UK), 1900 (JP), 1790 (EU), 1580 (ME) Base Construction Management Index = 1660 (US), 4190 (UK), 1780 (JP), 1720 (EU), 1580 (ME) Note: $ indicates U.S. Dollars PS indicates Pounds Sterling KY indicates thousand YEN EUR indicates Euros SAR indicates Saudi Arabian Riyals Explanation of Expense Rate The Expense rate is used to calculate the Basic Engineering Report's "Overhead Items," which consist of the following:
Reproduction Communications Travel Computation

31 Engineering (G13)

31-15

Engineering Expenses and Indirects - continued These four line items collectively comprise engineering expenses. They result from a fixed percentage split of this expense by phase. Multiply the Total Manhours for the phase by this rate to calculate the total expenses. The system then allocates these to various categories by percentage as follows:
Basic Reproduction Communications Travel Computation 23% 3% 17% 57% Detail 30% 4% 12% 54% Procure 14% 12% 50% 24% Home 42% 8% 50% 0%

The amount of the expense is user-adjusted, but how it is split into these categories is not. Both the Payroll Burdens/Fringes and Indirects are Percentages of the Total Engineering Cost in the Basic Engineering Report. The relationship among the wage rates, expense rate, and cost indirect are as follows:
Wage rates are the wages paid to a specific disciplines (see page 31-3). The Expense rate is used to calculate the Overhead items in the Basic Engineering Report. Indirects are typically office expenses. Indirect office expenses includes rent, heat, electricity and other operating expenses not specifically covered in other engineering accounts.

31-16

31 Engineering (G13)

Standard Engineering Drawing Types (Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer)
Basic Engin eering Drawin Description g No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Process Flow Diagrams Detailed Engineering Drawing No. Description 1 Piping Arrangements (Plans & Elevns.) Piping Isometrics Special Hanger/Support Drawings Steam Tracing Drawings

Piping & Instrument Diagrams 2 Interconnecting Piping Diagrams Utility Flow Diagrams Utility Piping & Instrument Dgs Electrical One Line Diagrams Elec. System Distribution General Equipment Arrangements Other (Plot Plants, Etc.) 7 8 9 10 11 12 3 4

Instrument Location Drawings Control Cable Schedules Control Room/Console Drawings Control Systems Schematics Instrument Loop Diagrams Connection Diagrams/Junction Box Drwgs Electrical One Line Diagrams Substation Layout Drawings Electrical Schematics Power Distribution Drawings Circuit Scheds, Connection Diagrams Cable Tray Drawings Lighting Drawings Grounding Drawings Electrical Tracing Drawings Equipment Foundation Drawings Steelwork Foundation Drawings Area Paving Drawings Misc. Concrete, Supports, Etc.

13 14 15 16 17 18 User-specified Drawings 19 20 Up to nine user-specified drawings (or 21 other tasks, such as models) may be added to the system drawings by using a drawing number from the range 91- 23 99. Note: Only the drawing numbers 24 shown in this table and 91-99 are accepted. 25 26

31-17

31 Engineering (G13)

Basic Engin eering

Detailed Engineering 27 28 29 30 32 33 34 35 36 38 Underground Piping Drawings Structural Steel (Plans & Elevns.) Ladders & Platforms, Misc. Steel Grating Drawings Building Arrangement Plans, Elevns. Architectural Details Facilities Plot Plans Area Equipment Layouts Site Development Other Detail Drawings, Lists

31-18

31 Engineering (G13)

31 Engineering (G13)

31-19

31-20

31 Engineering (G13)

32 Construction Equipment

(G4)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction to Construction Equipment Rental Construction Equipment

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

32-1

Introduction to Construction Equipment Rental


An Equipment Rental Report is prepared for project estimates when the Construction Equipment Rental report option is selected. The report identifies both user and system-selected rental items, durations and rental rates. This report is deleted upon specific user entry of equipment/plant rental either as a total cost or as a percentage of field manpower. The user can revise the systems evaluation of equipment rental requirements on an item-by-item basis, and by contractor, by defining Equipment Rental Data. Options are available for specifying the applicable contractor, adding days or additional construction equipment to the account, changing days and rental rates or deleting construction equipment from the account This chapter includes an indexed list of several hundred rental equipment items contained within the system base and directly related to work items for equipment and bulk installation. For Prime Contractor reporting, equipment rental applies to the project in its entirety. For contract reporting, equipment rental applies to the responsible contract and must be provided for each contract if required.

Construction Equipment
(Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, Aspen Process Economic Analyzer , Aspen InPlant Cost Estimator) Rental days and monthly rates may be adjusted for construction equipment items.
Equip No. Equipment Class Description 21 26 27 28 31 32 33 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 AUTOMOTIVE AUTOMOTIVE AUTOMOTIVE AUTOMOTIVE AUTOMOTIVE AUTOMOTIVE AUTOMOTIVE TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK AMBULANCE CAR 2-DOOR CAR 4-DOOR CAR 4-DOOR MINIBUS BUS BUS PICKUP PICKUP PICKUP PICKUP - CREW CAB PICKUP HIGHWAY FLATBED HIGHWAY FLATBED SUBCOMPACT COMPACT STANDARD BUS 25 PASSENGER 40 PASSENGER .5 TONS - 4 X 2 .75 TONS - 4 X 2 .75 TONS - 4 X 4 .75 TONS - 4 X 4 1.0 TONS - 4 X 4 2 TONS - 4 X 2 2 TONS - 4 X 2 1.3 LITER 1.6 LITER 2.0 LITER 10 PASSENGER 25 PASSENGER 40 PASSENGER .50 TON - 4 X 2 75 TON - 4 X 2 .75 TON - 4 X 4 .75 TON - 4 X 4 1 TON - 4 X 4 2 TON - 4 X 2 6 TON - 4 X 2 Size Metric Units I-P Units

32-2

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 48 49 51 56 57 58 61 62 TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK HIGHWAY FLATBED HIGHWAY FLATBED OFF-ROAD FLATBED A-FRAME LUBE/GREASE FUEL/WATER POWERLINE, BUCKET CHERRY PICKER

Size Metric Units 2 TONS - 4 X 2 30 TONS - 6 X 4 6 TONS - 6 X 6 4X4 5000 GALLONS INSULATED NON-INSULATED I-P Units 14 TON - 4 X 2 27 TON - 6 X 4 6 TON - 6 X 6 4X4 18 M3 INSULATED NONINSULATED 5 M3 9 M3 15 M3 23 M3 2 TON 9 TON 0.6 M3 CAT930 1.3 M3 CAT950 2.3 M3 0.75 M3 CAT955 CAT977 3.4 M3 CAT966 2.5 M3 CAT988 4.5 M3

66 67 68 69 71 72 76 77 78 81 82 83 84 86 87 88

TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK TRUCK EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING

DUMP TRUCK DUMP TRUCK DUMP TRUCK DUMP TRUCK FORKLIFT FORKLIFT WHEEL LDR. W/ BACKHOE WHEEL LOADER WHEEL LOADER CRAWLER LOADER CRAWLER LOADER CRAWLER LOADER CRAWLER LOADER WHEEL ARTICUL LOADER WHEEL ARTICUL LOADER WHEEL ARTICUL LOADER MOTOR GRADER MOTOR GRADER TRENCHER, DITCHWITCH

6 CY 12 CY 20 CY 30 CY 2 TONS 10 TONS 0.75 CY CAT930 1.75 CY CAT950 3.0 CY 1.0 CY CAT955 1.75 CY CAT977 2.75 CY 4.50 CY CAT966 3.50 CY CAT988 6.00 CY

CAT980 PIPELOAD CAT980 PIPELOAD CAT 12 CAT 14 12 IN X 3 FT CAT 12 CAT 42 300 MM X 1.0 M

91 92 95

EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

32-3

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING EARTHMOVING TRENCHER, WHEEL TRENCHER, WHEEL TRENCHER, WHEEL SCRAPER-ELEVATING SCRAPER-ELEVATING SCRAPER-ELEVATING SCRAPER,WHEEL TRACTR SCRAPER,WHEEL TRACTR SCRAPER,WHEEL TRACTR SCRAPER, TOWED SCRAPER, TOWED CRAWLER TRACT. DOZER CRAWLER TRACT. DOZER CRAWLER TRACT. DOZER CRAWLER TRACT. DOZER BACKHOE CRAWLER HYDR BACKHOE CRAWLER HYDR BACKHOE CRAWLER HYDR BACKHOE CRAWLER HYDR BACKHOE CRAWLER HYDR

Size Metric Units I-P Units 16 IN X 7 FT 6 IN 400 MM X 2.0 M 28 IN X 8 FT 6 IN 700 MM X 2.5 M 48 IN CAT613 CAT621J CAT633C 11 CY 21 CY 1200 MM CAT613 8 M3 CAT621J 16 M3 TWIN627 11-15 M3 CAT631C 16-23 M3 CAT651B 24-33 M3 CAT435F 11-14 M3 CAT D4 CAT D6 CAT D7 CAT D8 CAT D9 .40 M3 .60 M3 75 M3 1.1 M3 1.9 M3 G660 0.4 M3 0.6 M3 W/ BREAKER

32 CY CAT633C 24 M3

TWIN627 14-20 CY CAT631C 21-30 CY CAT651B 32-44 CY CAT435F 14-18 CY CAT D4 68 HP CAT D6 120 HP CAT D7 180 HP CAT D8 270 HP CAT D9 385 HP .50 CY .75 CY 1.0 CY 1.5 CY 2.5 CY

TRUCK-MTD GRADALL 5/8 CY G660 BACKHOE, SELF-PROP .50 CY BACKHOE, WHEEL .75 CY W/ BREAKER

121 122 123 124

DRILLING DRILLING DRILLING DRILLING

ROTARY ROCK DRILL TRACK DRILL,SWG BOOM TWIN ROCK DRILL AUGER,FLATBEDMOUNTD

CRAWLER MTD 12 CRAWLER MTD IN 4.5 INCHES SUSP. VERTICAL 2.5 TONS,OFFROAD 115 MM SUSP. VERTICAL 2 TON, OFFROAD

32-4

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 125 126 127 128 DRILLING COMPACTION COMPACTION COMPACTION DRILL QUAD,SWG BOOM ROLLER SELFPROPELLD ROLLER SELFPROPELLD ROLLER SELFPROPELLD ROLLER,TOWED, 1 DRUM ROLLER,TOWED, 1 DRUM ROLLER, MANUAL GUIDE RAMMER, HANDHELD

Size Metric Units 4.5 INCHES VIBR DRUM 7 TONS I-P Units 115 MM VIB DRUM 6.5 TON 14 9

9 WHEEL 15 TONS 9 WHEEL TON SMOOTH TONS 10 SMOOTH TON

131 132 133 134

COMPACTION COMPACTION COMPACTION COMPACTION

SHEEPSFT 40X60 SHEEPSFT 1 IN X1.5 M VIBRATNG 30X54 VIBRG.8 X1.4 M IN VIB DRUM 1.0 TONS VIB DRUM 1 TON

350-700SPM, 130 350-700SPM, 60 KG 20 TONS 4X2 30 TONS 4X2 60 TONS 4X2 20 TONS 4X4 40 TONS 6X6 50 HP 105 HP 15 TONS 25 TONs 40TONs 50 TONs 60 TONs 75 TONs 100 TONs 6 TONS 15 TONS 30 TONS 30 TONS 60 TONS 600 GALLONS 2000 GALLONS 18 TON 4X2 27 TON 6X4 54 TON 6X4 18 TON 4X4 36 TON 6X6 40 KW 80 KW 15 TON 25 TON 35 TON 45 TON 55 TON 70 TON 90 TON 5 TON 15 TON 25 TON 35 TON 55 TON 2.25 M3 7.50 M3

136 137 138 139 140 141 142 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 155 156 157 158 159 161 162

TRACTOR TRACTOR TRACTOR TRACTOR TRACTOR TRACTOR TRACTOR TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER

TRUCK TRACTOR TRUCK TRACTOR TRUCK TRACTOR OFF-ROAD TRACTOR OFF-ROAD TRACTOR WHEEL, W/TOW HITCH WHEEL, W/TOW HITCH LOWBOY, PLATFORM LOWBOY, PLATFORM LOWBOY, PLATFORM LOWBOY, PLATFORM LOWBOY, PLATFORM LOWBOY, PLATFORM LOWBOY, PLATFORM FLATBED - 4 WHEEL FLATBED FLATBED FLOAT, OFFROAD FLOAT, OFFROAD DIESEL BOWSER FUEL/WATER

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

32-5

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 163 164 166 16 168 169 171 172 173 176 177 178 181 182 183 184 185 186 TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE X-RAY DARKROOM STORAGE VAN PIPE POLE PIPE DOLLY/5TH WHEEL CABLE REEL TRAILER TRAILER TRAILER FUEL/WATER FUEL/WATER MOBILE OFFICE

Size Metric Units 5000 GALLONS 8000 GALLONS 8 X 35 FEET I-P Units 18.00 M3 30.00 M3 2.5 X 10 M

8 X 28 FEET 30 TONS 2 AXLE

2.5 X 8.5 M 27 TON 2 AXLE

TELESCOPIC JIB, SELF PROP. 5 TONS TELESCOPIC JIB, SELF PROP. 10 TONS TELESCOPIC JIB, SELF PROP. 15 TONS TELESCOPIC JIB TELESCOPIC JIB TELESCOPIC JIB TELESCOPIC JIB TELESCOPIC JIB TELESCOPIC JIB

PROP 5 TON PROP 9 TON PROP 14 TON

TRUCK - 15 TONS TRUCK - 14 TON TRUCK - 20 TONS TRUCK - 18 TON TRUCK - 25 TONS TRUCK - 23 TON TRUCK - 30 TONS TRUCK - 27 TON TRUCK - 40 TONS TRUCK - 35 TON TRUCK - 50 TONS TRUCK - 45 TON TRUCK - 70 TONS TRUCK - 65 TON TRUCK - 80 TONS TRUCK - 70 TON TRUCK - 110 TONS TRUCK - 200 TONS TRUCK - 100 TON TRUCK - 180 TON

187 188 189 190 191 192 193

CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE

TELESCOPIC JIB TELESCOPIC JIB TELESCOPIC JIB TELESCOPIC JIB FIXED JIB FIXED JIB FIXED JIB

TRUCK - 15 TONS TRUCK - 14 TON TRUCK - 20 TONS TRUCK - 18 TON TRUCK - 30 TONS TRUCK - 27 TON

32-6

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 194 195 196 197 198 CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE FIXED JIB FIXED JIB FIXED JIB FIXED JIB FIXED JIB

Size Metric Units I-P Units TRUCK - 40 TONS TRUCK - 35 TON TRUCK - 50 TONS TRUCK - 45 TON TRUCK - 60 TONS TRUCK - 55 TON TRUCK - 90 TONS TRUCK - 80 TON TRUCK - 120 TONS 15 TONS 20 TONS 30 TONS 40 TONS 50 TONS 60 TONS 90 TONS 120 TONS 165 TONS 200 TONS 400 TONS MAX 4190LB@164FT MAX 9260LB@213FT MAX 6500LB@247FT 1 CY 2 CY 4 CY 1 CY 2 CY 4 CY 6 CY BTM DUMP 1 CY MAX 1900KG @ 50M MAX 4200KG @ 65M MAX 2950KG @ 75M 0.75 M3 1.50 M3 3.00 M3 0.75 M3 1.50 M3 3.00 M3 4.50 M3 BTM DUMP 0.75 M3 TRUCK - 110 TON

201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214

CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE CRANE

FIXED JIB, CRAWLER FIXED JIB, CRAWLER FIXED JIB, CRAWLER FIXED JIB, CRAWLER FIXED JIB, CRAWLER FIXED JIB, CRAWLER FIXED JIB, CRAWLER FIXED JIB, CRAWLER FIXED JIB, CRAWLER FIXED JIB, CRAWLER FIXED JIB, CRAWLER TOWER-HORIZ. JIB 10T TOWER-HORIZ. JIB 20T TOWER-HORIZ. JIB 40T CLAMSHELL GRAB CLAMSHELL GRAB CLAMSHELL GRAB DRAGLINE BUCKET DRAGLINE BUCKET DRAGLINE BUCKET DRAGLINE BUCKET CONCRETE BUCKET

216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223

CRANE ATTACHMENT CRANE ATTACHMENT CRANE ATTACHMENT CRANE ATTACHMENT CRANE ATTACHMENT CRANE ATTACHMENT CRANE ATTACHMENT CRANE ATTACHMENT

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

32-7

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 224 CRANE ATTACHMENT GIN POLE GIN POLE GIN POLE GIN POLE GIN POLE DERRICK DERRICK DERRICK PILING PILING PILING PILING PILING PILING COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR CONCRETE BUCKET

Size Metric Units BTM DUMP 3 CY I-P Units BTM DUMP 2.50 M3 45 TON 90 TON 135 TON 200 TON 540 TON 225 TON 200 TON 360 TON

226 227 228 229 230 231 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243

W/HOIST W/HOIST W/HOIST W/HOIST W/HOIST GUY DERRICK CRAWLER GUY DERRICK CRAWLER GUY DERRICK PILE DRIVING HAMMER PILE DRIVING HAMMER PILE DRIVING HAMMER DRIVER/EXTRACTOR DRILLING FRAME DIESEL(SLIDING VANE) DIESEL(SLIDING VANE) DIESEL(SLIDING VANE) DIESEL(ROTARY SCREW) DIESEL(ROTARY SCREW) DIESEL(ROTARY SCREW) DIESEL(ROTARY SCREW) DIESEL(ROTARY SCREW) DIESEL(ROTARY SCREW)

50 TONS 100 TONS 150 TONS 2250 TONS 600 TONS 250 TONS 225 TONS 400 TONS

20 KFTLB DIESEL 27 KNM DIESEL 40 KFTLB DIESEL 55 KNM DIESEL 75 KFTLB DIESEL 100 KNM DIESEL 70 HP VIBRO AUGER 125 CFM 250 CFM 315 CFM VIBRO 50 KW 10 M AUGER 210 M3/H 420 M3/H 540 M3/H

PILING FRAME, LEADS 30 FEET

246 247 248

COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR

250 CFM 365 CFM 600 CFM

420 M3/H 620 M3/H 1000 M3/H

249 250 251

COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR COMPRESSOR

750 CFM 900 CFM 1200 CFM

1250 M3/H 1500 M3/H 2000 M3/H

32-8

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 256 257 258 261 261 263 264 CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE BATCHPLANT, DEMOUNT. CONCRETE MIXER CONCRETE MIXER VIBRATOR GASOLINE VIBRATOR, AIR CURB BUILDR, SLIPFORM POWER TROWEL, 4 BLADE MIXER TRUCK SITE DUMPER STATIC PUMP TRUCK-MTD PUMP&BOOM CONVEYOR REBAR BENDER REBAR SHEAR SLIPFORM PAVER PORTABLE GASOLINE PORTABLE GASOLINE PORTABLE GASOLINE

Size Metric Units 20 CY/H 6 SACK 16 SACK (1 CY) I-P Units 15 M3/H .25 M3 .75 M3

2.4 HP, 2 IN HEAD 1.8 KW, 50MM HEAD 2.5 IN HEAD 75 HP, DIESEL 36 IN DIA 65 MM HEAD 55 KW, DIESEL 1 M DIA

266 267 268 269 270 271 272 274 276 277 278

CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE CONCRETE WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMEN WELDING EQUIPMEN WELDING EQUIPMEN WELDING EQUIPMEN WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT

6 CY .75 CY, DIESEL

5 M3 0.5 M3, DIESEL

60 CY/H, 4IN LINE 45 M3/H, 100 MM 16 IN X 40 FEET HYDRAULIC HYDRAULIC 10-24 FEET 200 AMPERES 300 AMPERES 400 AMPERES 400 MM X 12 M HYDRAULIC HYDRAULIC 3-7 M WIDE 200 AMPERES 300 AMPERES 400 AMPERES

281 282 283 284

PORTABLE DIESEL PORTABLE DIESEL PORTABLE DIESEL PORTABLE DIESEL

200 AMPERES 300 AMPERES 400 AMPERES

200 AMPERES 200 AMPERES 200 AMPERES

650 A, TWIN ARC 650 A, TWIN ARC 200 AMPERES 300 AMPERES 200 AMPERES 300 AMPERES

286 287

STATIC RECTIFIER STATIC RECTIFIER

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

32-9

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 288 289 290 291 WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT WELDING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT STATIC RECTIFIER STATIC RECTIFIER STATIC RECTIFIER STATIC RECTIFIER

Size Metric Units 400 AMPERES 500 AMPERES 600 AMPERES 650 AMPERES I-P Units 400 AMPERES 500 AMPERES 600 AMPERES 650 AMPERES

293 294

PIPE SEMI-AUTO. CO2 PIPE AUTOMATIC SUBMERGED ARC SUBMERGED ARC BASE PLATE WALL HORIZONTAL WALL VERTICAL

296 297 298

AUTO. SUB-ARC TANK BASE PLATE AUTO. SUB-ARC TANK WALL HORIZONTAL AUTO. SUB-ARC TANK WALL VERTICAL

301 302

OXY./ACT. WELD & CUT. PROPANE GAS SE T & TRCH ELECTRODE DRYING OVN SIDEBOOM SIDEBOOM SIDEBOOM SIDEBOOM

COMB. UNIT PROPANE GAS SE T & TRCH

COMB. UNIT

306

311 312 313 314

(CAT 571) (CAT 572) (CAT 583) (CAT 594)

(CAT 571) (CAT 572) (CAT 583) (CAT 594)

316

CRAWLER TACK TRACTOR BENDING MACHINE BENDING MACHINE

QUAD ARCS

QUAD ARCS

318 319

6 - 20 INCHES 22 - 36 INCHES

150 - 500 MM 550 - 900 MM

32-10

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT BENDING MACHINE TAPESTER, HAND WRAP CLEAN PRM TAPE MACH. CLEAN PRM TAPE MACH. CLEAN PRM TAPE MACH. CLEAN PRM TAPE MACH. CLEAN PRM TAPE MACH. INTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP INTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP INTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP INTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP INTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP INTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP INTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP INTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP EXTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP EXTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP EXTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP EXTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP EXTRNL LINE-UP CLAMP CUTTING & BEVELLING CUTTING & BEVELLING CUTTING & BEVELLING

Size Metric Units 38 - 48 INCHES 2 - 12 INCHES 8 - 16 INCHES 16 - 26 INCHES 26 - 36 INCHES 36 - 42 INCHES 42-52 INCHES I-P Units 950 - 1250 MM 50 - 300 MM 200 - 400 MM 400 - 650 MM 650 - 900 MM 900 - 1050 MM 1050 - 1300 MM 400 - 450MM 500 - 550MM 600 - 650MM 750 - 800MM 850 - 900MM 1000 - 1050MM 1100 - 1150MM OVER 1200MM 400 - 450MM 400 - 650MM 700 - 900MM 900 - 1100 MM OVER 1100 MM 25 - 100 MM 150 - 500 MM 550 - 750 MM

328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343

16 - 18 INCHES 20 - 22 INCHES 24 - 26 INCHES 30 - 32 INCHES 34 - 36 INCHES 40 - 42 INCHES 44 - 46 INCHES OVER 48 INCHES 8 - 14 INCHES 16 - 26 INCHES 28 - 36 INCHES 36 - 44 INCHES OVER 42 INCHES 1 - 4 INCHES 6 - 20 INCHES 22 - 30 INCHES

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

32-11

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 344 PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. CUT & BEVEL, TORCH

Size Metric Units 10 - 48 INCHES I-P Units 250 - 1200 MM

346 347 348 349

PIPE/CONDUIT BENDER HYDRAUL PIPE BENDER BENDER (MECHANICAL) CUT & THREAD MACHINE DOUBLE JOINTING YARD X-RAY EQUIPMENT

0.5-2IN RATCHET UP TO 6 INCHES 1.25-4 INCHES 2.5-6 IN DIA UP TO 6 INCHES 30 - 100 MM 65 - 150 MM UP TO 150 MM

351 352

C/W RACK CONVYRS

C/W RACK CONVYRS

354 355 356

INDUCTION HEATER HOLIDAY DETECTOR ELECTRIC THREADER UP TO 2 INCHES UP TO 50 MM

358

BORING MACHINE

ROAD BORER

ROAD BORER

361 362 363 364 364

POTENTIOMETER12 POINT STRESS RELIEVER

12 POINT TRIPLE RELIEVER TRIPLE RELIEVER 10 KVA 250 - 300 MM 20 LITER, 15 M3/H 6 M3/H

POWER DIST. CENTER 10 KVA BENCH SAW PAINT PRESSURE SPRAY GUNITE CABLE PULLER UNIT AIR RECEIVING TANK CHAIN SAW 10 - 12 INCHES 5 GAL. 8CFM

367 368 369 370

8 CY/H

5000 LBF. ELEC. E LEC. 60 CF 20 INCHES 2 M3 500 MM

32-12

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 371 MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. MISCELLANEOUS EQUIP. PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP PUMP TELEPHONES & STATION TENSIOMETER WIRE ROP TENSIOMETER WIRE ROP CENTRIFUGAL CENTRIFUGAL INJECTION PUMP SUBMERSIBLE, DEWATERG SUBMERSIBLE, DEWATERG HYDROSTATIC TEST WATER FILL WELLPOINTS & HOSE WELLPOINT, DIAPHRAGM DIAPHRAGM

Size Metric Units I-P Units

374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388

200000 LB CAP 40000 LB CAP 1.5 INCHES 2.0 INCHES INHIBITOR 4 INCHES, 9 HP 6 INCHES, 27 HP 4000 PSI 4 IN, 110 GPM 8 IN, PER 100 FT 8 INCHES SUCTION 4 INCHES SUCTION 1.25 IN DRIVE 65 LBS

90000 KG CAP 18000 KG CAP 40 MM 50 MM INHIBITOR 100 MM, 7 KW 150 MM, 20 KW 27500 KPA 100 MM, 7L/S 200 MM, PER 30 M 200 MM SUCTION 100 MM SUCTION 30 MM DRIVE 30 KG 275 KG, 0.2 M3

PNEUMATIC PORT. AIR WRENCH TOOL PNEUMATIC PORT. JACK HAMMER TOOL

PNEUMATIC PORT. SAND BLAST MACHINE 600 LBS, 7CF TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ LIGHT PLANT TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ DRILL PRESS TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ DRILL TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ GENERATOR SET TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ GENERATOR SET TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ GENERATOR SET TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ GENERATOR SET TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ GENERATOR SET TOOL 3000 WATT 1.5 INCHES

391 392

3000 WATT 40 MM

395 396 397 398 399 400

1.0 INCH 6 KW 10 KW 20 KW 60 KW 100 KW

25 MM 6 KW 10 KW 20 KW 60 KW 100 KW

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

32-13

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 401 402 ELECTRIC EQUIP/ GENERATOR SET TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ GENERATOR SET TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ SAW, CIRCULAR TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ ELECTRIC GRINDER TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ PEDESTAL GRINDER TOOL ELECTRIC EQUIP/ LATHE TOOL HOIST HOIST HOIST HOIST HOIST HOIST HOIST HAND-CHAIN HAND-CHAIN HAND-CHAIN HAND-CHAIN SINGLE DRUM DOUBLE DRUM PORTABLE MATL. TOWER PORTABLE MATL. TOWER PAVER/FINISHER SPREADER TRAILER, GAS BITUMEN TANKER ASPHALT HEATER TRANSIT THEODOLITE

Size Metric Units 150 KW 200 KW I-P Units 150 KW 200 KW

404

6 INCHES

150 MM

406 407 408

6 INCHES 12 INCHES 9 INCHES

150 MM 300 MM 225 MM

411 412 413 414 416 417 419

1.5 TONS 4.5 TONS 10 TONS 2.0 TONS 22 HP 32 HP 1.0 TONS

1.5 TON 4 TON 9 TON 2 TON 16 KW 24 KW 1 TON

419

HOIST

1.0 TONS

1.0 TONS

421 422

ASPHALT EQUIPMENT ASPHALT EQUIPMENT ASPHALT EQUIPMENT ASPHALT EQUIPMENT SITE/OFFICE EQUIP SITE/OFFICE EQUIP SITE/OFFICE EQUIP.

10 FEET WIDE

3 M WIDE

2000 GAL, SPRAY 7.50 M3, SPRAY

424 425 426 427

2000 GALLON

7.50 M3

PORTABLE BUILDINGS PER 1000 SF

PER 100 M2

430

SPACE HEATR, OIL, AUTO

150 MBTU

40 KW

32-14

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

Equip No. Equipment Class Description 435 436 437 438 439 PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT PIPING EQUIPMENT ROLI CRADLE ROLI CRADLE ROLI CRADLE ROLI CRADLE ROLI CRADLE

Size Metric Units 4 - 12 INCHES 12 - 24 INCHES 24 - 36 INCHES 36 - 42 INCHES OVER 42 INCHES I-P Units 100 - 300MM 300 - 600MM 300 - 600MM 900 - 1050 MM OVER 1050 MM

440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448

HOT TAP MACHINE HOT TAP MACHINE HOT TAP MACHINE HOT TAP MACHINE BUTT FUSION MACHINE BUTT FUSION MACHINE BUTT FUSION MACHINE BUTT FUSION MACHINE BUTT FUSION MACHINE

2 - 4 INCHES 6 - 12 INCHES 14 - 20 INCHES 24 - 48 INCHES 2 - 4 INCHES 6 - 8 INCHES 10 - 18 INCHES 20 - 30 INCHES 36 - 48 INCHES

50 - 100 MM 150 - 300 MM 350 - 500 MM 600 - 1200 MM 50 - 100 MM 150 - 200 MM 250 - 450 MM 500 - 750 MM 900 - 1200 MM

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

32-15

32-16

32 Construction Equipment(G4)

33 Base Indices

(G13)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Base Indices

33 Base Indices (G13)

33-1

Base Indices
These indices are generated by Icarus after updating the system costs (engineering disciplines, wage rates, material costs, shop and field labor rates, construction equipment rental rates, etc.). We run estimates on our benchmark projects using the updated system and then use the results to calculate the indices. Since our benchmark projects contain a variety of component types fabricated from a variety of materials, these indices are a composite of the individual cost adjustments that are made. These indices do not derive from public sources and they may not accurately reflect how the update will affect your typical projects. To evaluate this, you should run benchmark projects and develop your own adjustments. Note: 1Q represents first quarter, 3Q represents third quarter.
Country Base Data Base for System Costs System Base Index by Category General Materials 2040 2200 2060 1900 1840 1630 1540 1510 1520 1520 1510 1525 1500 1485 1460 1390 1370 1360 1350 Construction Labor 2010 1960 1890 1820 1750 1690 1630 1590 1550 1510 1460 1430 1400 1365 1340 1320 1310 1290 1270 Design Engineering Labor US Current:1Q2009 Prior:1Q-2008 1Q-2007 1Q-2006 1Q-2005 1Q-2004 1Q-2003 1Q-2002 1Q-2001 1Q-2000 1Q-1999 1Q-1998 1Q-1997 1Q-1996 1Q-1995 1Q-1994 1Q-1993 1Q-1992 1Q-1991 1620 1620 1540 1490 1480 1460 1480 1470 1450 1440 1450 1450 1450 1460 1480 1460 1450 1420 1390 Construction Management Labor 1660 1630 1540 1490 1480 1480 1460 1480 1470 1450 1440 1450 1450 1450 1460 1480 1460 1450 1420 1390

33-2

33 Base Indices (G13)

Country Base Data Base for System Costs

System Base Index by Category General Materials 2910 2830 2630 2500 2420 2290 2230 2190 2140 2080 2140 2100 2050 1990 1910 1850 1780 1670 1500 1750 1760 1450 1410 1330 1220 1210 1230 1260 1370 1350 1255 1250 1250 1390 Construction Labor 4290 4020 3830 3670 3510 3360 3220 3120 2980 2850 2700 2550 2410 2310 2200 2160 2110 2050 1930 1150 1150 1160 1170 1180 1200 1250 1300 1330 1350 1370 1350 1340 1350 1350 1320 Design Engineering Labor 4450 4420 4190 3970 3810 3670 3540 3480 3360 3210 2950 2780 2620 2470 2380 2280 2210 2140 2020 1900 1930 1960 1460 1440 1380 1370 1350 1360 1360 1360 1360 1350 1360 1390 1460 Construction Management Labor 4190 4080 3890 3790 3670 3570 3510 3410 3250 3110 3050 2880 2660 2470 2380 2280 2210 2140 2020 1780 1820 1840 1470 1460 1400 1380 1370 1370 1370 1350 1350 1350 1360 1390 1460

UK

Current:1Q2009 Prior:1Q-2008 1Q-2007 1Q-2006 1Q-2005 1Q-2004 1Q-2003 1Q-2002 1Q-2001 1Q-2000 1Q-1999 1Q-1998 1Q-1997 1Q-1996 1Q-1995 1Q-1994 1Q-1993 1Q-1992 1Q-1991 Current:1Q2009 Prior:1Q-2008 1Q-2007 1Q-2006 1Q-2005 1Q-2004 1Q-2003 1Q-2002 1Q-2001 1Q-2000 1Q-1999 1Q-1998 1Q-1997 1Q-1996 1Q-1995 1Q-1994

JP

33 Base Indices (G13)

33-3

Country Base Data Base for System Costs

System Base Index by Category General Materials 2180 2170 2030 1780 1700 1640 1580 1560 1520 Construction Labor 1840 1790 1720 1700 1670 1650 1630 1600 1550 1930 1970 1890 Design Engineering Labor 1790 1730 1660 1590 1560 1550 1530 1510 1450 1580 1610 1540 Construction Management Labor 1720 1670 1600 1580 1560 1540 1520 1490 1450 1580 1610 1540

EU

Current:1Q2009 Prior:1Q-2008 1Q-2007 1Q-2006 1Q-2005 1Q-2004 1Q-2003 1Q-2002 1Q-2001

ME

Current:1Q2160 2009 Prior:1Q-2008 2200 1Q-2007 2060

33-4

33 Base Indices (G13)

34 Code Accounts

(G10)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction to Code Accounts Indirect Codes and Descriptions Direct Codes and Descriptions Equipment and Setting Piping Civil Steel Instrumentation Electrical Insulation Paint

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

3434-1

Introduction to Code Accounts


Aspen Icarus systems contain a 3-digit standard code of account set to which costs and manhours are allocated in developing the project estimate. This is referred to as the ICARUS code of accounts. The code of accounts form can be used either to modify the ICARUS standard code of accounts or to create a completely new set of accounts. The resulting user-developed code of accounts is termed as the user code of accounts. In addition, the user may develop two sets of code of accounts, namely, a user-reporting code of accounts, and an user-internal code of accounts, where the reporting code of accounts represent the level of granularity that user wishes to see in the output reports, and the internal code of accounts refers to the allocation and grouping of the standard ICARUS system code of accounts to a level of detail intended for the user, for the purposes of indexing and contract scope definition. If new codes of account are defined, account codes must be supplied and all references to the account codes in subsequent codes must reference the new codes of account (exceptions to this rule will be discussed subsequently). If modifications are made to existing code of accounts, the account code must not be specified, since the account code is implicitly defined based on the account number that is used. The Code of Accounts input data is composed of three types. The code of account Definitions are used to define either a name for a new account number or a new name for a standard ICARUS account. The code of account allocations are used to reassign costs and manhours from one or more standard system accounts into either another ICARUS account or a newly defined user code of account. Costs and manhours may be assigned directly into a current account or into a new account with a supplemental cost item. The code of account reporting is used to further group a very detailed userdeveloped code of accounts into a smaller set of accounts that can be displayed in output reports. The users internal code of accounts must be used on indexing and contract scope input forms, if the user code of accounts is developed. However, for the ease of exchange of components between multiple projects, the user may switch between the user-internal code of accounts and ICARUS system code of account numbers by using the appropriate switch between user/ICARUS code of accounts. However, the users reporting code of accounts is never used in the input forms, and displayed only the output reports. In the absence of reporting code of accounts, output reports use the user (internal) code of accounts.

Modifying the System Code of Accounts


The ICARUS standard code of accounts may be transformed into a new code of accounts in one or more of the following ways: An ICARUS account name can be changed. A new account can be created by defining it. This must be in the range 1-999 and must not already be defined as a standard account. Costs and manhours can be reassigned from one account to another.

3434-2

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

The account code for the modified code of accounts must not be specified and is determined by the system (e.g., PIPING account code includes all accounts from 300 to 399).

Creating a Different Code of Accounts


A new code of accounts may be created that is different from the ICARUS system standards code of accounts. A new code of accounts is the one in which one or both of the following conditions are met: Account numbers are created outside the range of the ICARUS system code of accounts (i.e., outside the range of 1-999, e.g., 1000-99999999). The account type (piping, civil, etc.) must be specified, thus changing the account number range to which the account type is applied.

To develop a different code of accounts, every required code of account must be specified, and the account type must be specified to designate its allocation in various summary reports. This caveat applies to the indirect codes of account, where all indirect account types P1 through PB must be specified. Thus, these accounts, as defined, will constitute the entire code of accounts (direct and indirect) for the estimate. While modifying the ICARUS code of accounts, or creating a completely new user code of accounts, the user may specify the currency symbol of procurement. This currency symbol refers to direct material procurement cost, and to a limited set of indirect, and allows the user to develop a multi-currency procurement strategy. The symbols and conversion rates (in terms of a multiplier to one of the four country basis currencies in the system) ate stored in a central CURRENCY.DAT file. When a particular, direct material code of account is defined as being procured in the selected currency, special procurement output reports display the currency exposure of the given project in terms of that selected currency, in addition to the project basis currency. However, all other reports are always in the project currency. Transfers from the ICARUS system standard code of accounts to the Userinternal code of accounts can be very simple or complex, depending on the desire of breakdown. Breakdown can be very complex, by material, subtype, size (for piping), equipment symbol and equipment type. Thus, a single code of account can be broken into multiple codes. This transfer is performed using the code of account allocation, together with exceptions. User-internal code of accounts are referred to, in the user input, in the indexing and contractor scope input. As already mentioned, the user may choose either the userinternal code of account or the ICARUS system code of accounts on the component forms, using the user/ICARUS switch. Example The allocations are one step transfers from one account to a second account. They should not be interpreted as sequential transfers. For example, if the following costs were calculated by the system in the designated codes of account:
COA 315 417 591 Cost 1000 10000 100000

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

3434-3

From ICARUS COA

To ICARUS COA

Allocate to ICARUS User Matl COA

315 417 591

blank blank blank

4178325 5911234 4178325

The following resulting allocations would be reported, if no further reporting COAs are specified:
COA 315 4178325 5911234 Cost 0 1000 110000

However, allocations have been specified in a different sequence, the same result will be reported.

Reporting Code of Accounts


Creating complex user code of accounts is important for proper indexing, contract scope allocation, and procurement strategy. But, it may be necessary to summarize the results in a simple form for easy understanding of results. In other cases, the results may be summarized in to ways, one for the use of the client, and another way for the use of the management. The reporting code of account layer provides a method of summarizing the user-internal code of accounts into a simpler set for reporting use. The only place that the reporting code of accounts is used, is in reporting. The reporting COA form allows the user to group the user-internal or ICARUS Codes of account to a more manageable subset, for reporting purposes. Example
COA 3154 3191 3300 Cost 1000 10000 100000

From ICARUS COA

To ICARUS COA

Allocate to ICARUS User Matl COA

3100

3300

The following resulting allocations would be reported:


COA 3 Cost 111000

3434-4

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

There are several useful applications for the Code of Accounts input: Multiple Codes of account files can created for different clients in the code of accounts library. Each file can represent the clients COA structure. Appropriate COA file can be selected at the project level and used. Costs can be moved from one account group to other. For example, the system reports electrical trenching in the electrical account, and the user may wish to report trenching as a civil item. The system maintains fidelity in account groups, in three distinct categories, indirects, bulks and equipment. Codes can be transferred inside the three categories, but not between them. This applies to both, reporting and the user-internal code of accounts. A special supplemental item is to be added to the estimate. The user may wish to create a new account to maintain visibility of the supplemental cost. On the contrary, an entirely new set of code of accounts can be created. This may be useful in clarifying the costs of the project to the management, in addition to indexing and defining the contractor scope. Use of reporting codes of account allow the separation of reporting structure from the user-internal COA structure. More importantly, it simplifies reporting the estimate results to the client. Currency selection at the account definition level allows the user to develop a procurement strategy for the project.

Output Reports
The Code of Accounts Summary reflects the user-specified account numbers and names. The Master Summary, Contract Summaries and Area Summaries allocate the estimated costs according to the account type (piping, civil, etc.). It is incumbent upon the user when defining an entirely different code of accounts to specify account types that correspond with the chosen account number groups. An inconsistency would occur, for example, if, within a series of account numbers for piping (P), one of the accounts were assigned an instrumentation account type (I). This account would be grouped numerically with the piping accounts in the Code of Accounts Summary, but it would be summarized with instrumentation in the other summaries. This inconsistency could be avoided by allocating this account into a numbered account in the Instrumentation group. Then the estimated costs and man-hours for this item would appear both in a numbered instrumentation account and in the instrumentation summary. In the Bulk Detail and Bulk Summary Appendices of the system output report the user-specified account numbers are reported, but the account names are the system names and not the user-specified names. The system account name forms an integral part of the detailed item description. It is necessary, therefore, to retain the system account name in these appendices for clarity and for Aspen Icarus to provide technical support.

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

3434-5

Indirect Codes and Descriptions


Field Indirects (P1)
01 -09 Titles not assigned 10 LUMP SUM CONST. INDIRECT 11 FRINGE BENEFITS 12 BURDENS 13 CONSUMABLES, SMALL TOOLS 14 MISC. (INSURANCE, ETC) 15 SCAFFOLDING 16 EQUIPMENT RENTAL 17 VENDOR REPRESENTATIVES 18 FIELD SERVICES 19 TEMP. CONST., UTILITIES 20 MOBILIZATION, DEMOBILIZE 21 CATERING, ACCOMODATION 22 TRAVEL 23 OVERTIME PREMIUM

Engineering Indirects (PA)


80 LUMP SUM CONST. MGMT 81 HOME OFFICE CONST. SUPP. 82 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT 83 -84 Titles not assigned

Special Indirects (P2


24 SPECIAL INDIRECT ITEM 1 25 SPECIAL INDIRECT ITEM 2 26 - 49 Titles not assigned

Contractor Indirects (PB)


85 FIELD CONST. SUPERVISION 86 STARTUP, COMISSIONING

Freight (P3)
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 LUMP SUM FREIGHT DOMESTIC FREIGHT OCEAN FREIGHT AIR FREIGHT MODULE FREIGHT OTHER FRIEGHT - 59 Tittles not assigned

G & A Overheads (P6)


90 G AND A OVERHEADS

Taxes (P4)
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 LUMP SUM TAXES, PERMITS PERMITS MATERIALS TAXES CONSTRUCTION TAXES ENGINEERING TAXES OTHER TAXES - 69 Titles not assigned

Contractor Fee (P7)


91 CONTRACT FEE

Engineering (P5)
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 LUMP SUM ENGINEERING BASIC ENGINEERING DETAIL ENGINEERING MATERIAL PROCUREMENT SUBCONTRACT PROCUREMENT ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT 79 Titles not assigned

Escalation (P8)
97 ESCALATION

3434-6

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

Field Indirects (P1)

Engineering Indirects (PA) Royalty, Miscellaneous Charges (P9)


98 ROYALTY, MISC. CHARGES 92 - 96 Titles not assigned

Contingencies (P0)
99 CONTINGENCY

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

3434-7

Direct Codes and Descriptions


Equipment and Setting
100 103 104 105 106 107 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 130 131 132 133 134 150 151 152 153 154 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 EQUIPMENT AND SETTING SPECIAL PLANT ITEM SPECIAL EQUIPMENT ITEM MISC. ITEM ALLOWANCE OTHER EQUIPMENT ITEMS WAREHOUSE SPARES EQUIPMENT DEMOLITION PROCESS VESSELS TRAY TOWERS & TRAYS PACKED TOWERS & PACKING VERTICAL VESSELS HORIZONTAL VESSELS VACUUM VESSELS CRYSTALLIZERS EVAPORATORS STORAGE VESSELS ATMOSPHERIC STORAGE TANK PRESSURIZED STORAGE TANK SILOS BINS AND HOPPERS GAS HOLDERS STOCK CHESTS REACTION,MIXING EQUIP. REACTORS & AUTOCLAVES AGITATED VESSELS BLENDERS MIXERS COMPRESSORS & BLOWERS CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR TURBO-EXPAND. COMPRESSOR FANS AND BLOWERS PUMPS CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS RECIPROCATING PUMPS VACUUM PUMPS ROTARY,GEAR PUMPS VERTICAL PUMPS SUMP & WELL PUMPS SLURRY PUMPS 200 201 202 203 204 205 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 220 221 222 223 224 FLUID SEPARATION EQUIP. DUST COLLECTORS SCRUBBERS BAG HOUSES PRECIPITATORS SEPARATORS MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIP CONVEYORS FEEDERS CRANES,HOISTS,ETC ELEVATORS SCALES MAGNETS CAR DUMPERS & SHAKERS ELECTRICAL GENERATORS GAS TURBINE GENERATORS DIESEL GENERATORS STEAM TURBINE GENERATORS PORTABLE GENERATORS

240 241 242 243 244 250 251 252 253 254 255 260 261 262 263 264 265 266

BOILER PLANT EQUIPMENT BOILERS PACKAGE BOILER ECONOMIZERS PREHEATERS PROCESS HEATERS FURNACES,HEATERS WASTE HEAT BOILERS INCINERATORS KILNS STACKS HEAT EXCHANGERS SHELL & TUBE EXCHANGERS REBOILERS DOUBLE PIPE EXCHANGERS AIR COOLERS COOLING TOWERS MISC. HEAT EXCHANGERS

3434-8

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

170 171 172 173 174 175 180 181 182 183 184 185 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197

DRIVERS & GEAR REDUCERS ELECTRIC MOTORS STEAM TURBINES GAS TURBINES GAS & DIESEL ENGINES GEAR REDUCERS SIZE REDUCTION EQUIP CRUSHERS,BREAKERS MILLS PULVERIZERS CUTTERS,FLAKERS STOCK TREATMENT SOLIDS SEPARATION EQUIP. SCREENS AND GRIZZLIES FILTERS CENTRIFUGES DRYERS LIQUID CYCLONES FLOATATION CELLS THICKENERS,CLARIFIERS

270 271 272 273 274 275 280 281 282 283 284 285 290 291 292 293

LININGS REFRACTORY LININGS ACID BRICK LININGS CAST LININGS POND LININGS OTHER LININGS MISC. PACKAGE UNITS REFRIGERATION UNITS HVAC EQUIPMENT WATER TREATING UNITS INSTRUMENT AIR SYSTEMS MODULE SETTING MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT EJECTORS PROPRIETARY EQUIPMENT FLARES

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

3434-9

Piping
300 302 303 304 305 306 307 309 PIPING SUBCONTRACT PIPING SPECIAL PLANT PIPING SPECIAL EQUIP. PIPING OTHER EQUIPMENT PIPE PIPING SYSTEM TESTING PREFAB PIPE REWORK PIPING DEMOLITION 350 351 352 353 354 355 NON-METAL PIPE/FITTINGS NON-METAL FIELD MATL NON-METAL FIELD SHOP FAB NONMETAL REMOTESHOP MATL NONMETAL REMOTESHOP FAB NON-METAL VALVES

310 CARBON STL PIPE/FITTINGS 311CS FIELD MATL 312CS FIELD SHOP FAB 313CS REMOTE SHOP MATL 314CS REMOTE SHOP FAB 315CS VALVES: FLANGED 316CS VALVES: NON-FLANGED 317CS PIPE ERECTION 320 STAINLESS PIPE/FITTINGS 321SS FIELD MATL 322SS FIELD SHOP FAB 323SS REMOTE SHOP MATL 324SS REMOTE SHOP FAB 325SS VALVES: FLANGED 326SS VALVES: NON-FLANGED 327SS PIPE ERECTION 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 340 341 342 343 344 345 MISC.METAL PIPE/FITTINGS MISC. METAL FIELD MATL MISC.METAL FIELDSHOP FAB MISC.METAL RMT SHOP MATL MISC. METAL RMT SHOP FAB MISC.METAL VALVE:FLANGED MISC.METAL VALVE:NOFLANG MISC.METAL PIPE ERECTION LINED LINED LINED LINED LINED LINED PIPE/FITTINGS PIPE FIELD MATL FIELD SHOP FAB REMOTE SHOP MATL REMOTE SHOP FAB VALVES

357 NON-METAL PIPE ERECTION

360 361 362 363

PIPING SPECIALTIES TRAPS & VACUUM BREAKERS TRACING TUBING & FITTING JACKET INTERCONNECTIONS

365 HAND CONTROLS 366 PIPE HANGERS, SHOES ETC.

368 MECHANICAL CONNECTIONS 369 FLOW DIVERSION PANELS

347 LINED PIPE ERECTION

370 371 372 373 374 376 377 378

FIREWATER, BURIED PIPE FIREWATER PIPING HYDRANTS,HOSE,NOZZLE,ETC DELUGE SYSTEMS SHOWER, EYEWASH, ETC. BURIED PIPE INSTALLATION PIPE TRENCH & BACKFILL COAT AND WRAP PIPE

3434-10

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

380 381 382 383 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399

DUCTWORK/LAUNDERS PROCESS DUCTWORK HVAC DUCTWORK LAUNDERS PIPELINES PIPELINE-MAINLINE PIPE PIPELINE-VALVES,FITTINGS PIPELINE-FAB. & INSTALL PIPELINE-SCRAPER L/R PIPELINE-DBL JOINT/COAT PIPELINE-SUPPORTS PIPELINE-RADIOGRAPH TEST PIPELINE-MARINE WORK PIPELINE-MISC. PIPING

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

3434-11

Civil
400 402 403 404 405 409 CIVIL SUBCONTRACT CIVIL SPECIAL PLANT CIVIL SPECIAL EQUIP. CIVIL SCAFFOLDING CIVIL DEMOLITION 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 REBAR, FORMWORK, ETC. REBAR FOUNDATION ACCESSORIES INSTALL REBAR FORMWORK MATERIALS FIELD FABRICATE FORMWORK INSTALL FORMWORK STRIP & CLEAN FORMWORK BACKFILL

410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449

EARTHWORK CLEAR SITE BULK EXCAVATION ROCK EXCAVATION BLASTING HAULING & DUMPING SITE FILL & COMPACT DEWATERING STABILIZATION CONTAINMENT,EMBANKMENTS ROADS,RAILROADS GRADE,COMPACT BASE ROADS PAVING RAILROADS BOARD ROADS OTHER SITEWORK TEST BORINGS DEMOLITION & RELOCATION LANDSCAPING FENCING RETAINING WALLS PILING SHORING DRILLED WELLS DRAINAGE CONCRETE AGGREGATE CEMENT SAND POURED CONCRETE GROUT CONCRETE POUR AND FINISH EXCAVATION & BACKFILL MISCELLANEOUS CONCRETE OTHER EQUIP. CONCRETE

460 PRECAST CONCRETE 461 PRECAST PIPERACK 462 PRECAST BEAMS & COLUMNS

470 471 472 473 474 475 476

BUILDINGS SUBCONTRACT BUILDINGS BLDG STRUCTURE/FINISHES BUILDING FURNISHINGS BUILDING ELECTRICAL BUILDING PLUMBING BUILDING HVAC

480 MISCELLANEOUS CIVIL 481 LININGS AND COATINGS 485 OFFSHORE CIVIL

490 491 492 493 494 499

PIPELINE CIVIL WORK PIPELINE-ROW & SITE WORK PIPELINE-ROW CROSSINGS PIPELINE-DITCHING PIPELINE-ANCHORS/SUPPORT PIPELINE-MISC. CIVIL

3434-12

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

Steel
500 502 503 504 509 510 511 512 513 519 520 521 522 523 530 531 532 533 534 535 STEEL SUBCONTRACT STEEL SPECIAL PLANT STEEL SPECIAL EQUIP. STEEL STEEL DEMOLITION EQUIPMENT STEEL EQUIPMENT SUPPORT STEEL LADDERS PLATFORMS OTHER EQUIPMENT STEEL STRUCTURAL STEEL STEEL STRUCTURES PIPERACK STEEL PIPE SUPPORTS OTHER STEEL ITEMS FLOORING & STAIR TREADS HANDRAIL AND TOE PLATE OTHER BLDG/STRUCT STEEL BUILDING SIDING MISCELLANEOUS STEEL ITEM 540 TOWERS AND TRUSSES 541 STEEL TOWERS 542 STEEL TRUSSES

550 STEEL PLATE ITEMS 551 FABRICATED PLATE

580 OFFSHORE STEELWORK

590 591 592 593

OTHER STEELWORK STEEL UNLOAD & HANDLING THRUST ANCHORS DEFLECTION ANCHORS

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

3434-13

Instrumentation
600 602 603 604 609 INSTRUMENTATION SUBCONTRCT INSTMENTATION SPECIAL PLANT INSTRUMENT SPECIAL EQUIP INSTRUMENT INSTRUMENT DEMOLITION 640 641 642 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 653 659 INSTR. SUPPORT & ENCL. TRAYS & SUPPORT CONDUIT & FITTINGS INSTRUMENT HOUSING PNEU. JUNCTION BOXES ELEC. JUNCTION BOXES T/C JUNCTION BOXES MULTIPLEX JUNCTION BOXES OTHER SUPPORTS INSTRUMENT ELECTRICAL WIRE/CABLE ETC. SOLENOIDS OTHER INSTR. ELECTRICAL

610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639

FIELD INSTRUMENTATION FLOW INSTRUMENTS LEVEL INSTRUMENTS PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS TEMPERATURE INSTRUMENTS ANALYZERS MOTION INSTRUMENTS BURNER INSTRUMENTS ORIFICE PLATES OTHER EQUIPMENT INSTR. PANELS, PANEL DEVICES CONTROL CENTER PANELS CONTROL CTR CONNECTIONS BACK OF PANEL INSTRUMENT EMERGENCY SHUT-DOWN BOP ALARM SWITCH BOP EQUIP. CONTROL PANEL EQUIP. PANEL DEVICES OTHER PANEL DEVICES INSTRUMENT RUNS AIR SUPPLY PIPING INSTRUMENT PIPING TERMINATIONS PNEUMATIC TUBING PNEUMATIC MULTI-TUBE INSTRUMENT SIGNAL WIRING MULTI-COND. INSTR. WIRE T/C EXTENSION WIRING T/C MULTI-COND. WIRING

660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 669

COMPUTER CONTROL CONTROLLER INTERFACES INDIC./RECORD INTERFACES T/C INTERFACES OPERATOR STATIONS CABLE/DATA HIGHWAYS BARRIERS & TRANSDUCERS PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS OTHER COMPUTER CONTROL

670 MISC. INSTRUMENTATION 671 Q.C. EQUIPMENT

680 681 682 683 684 685 686

FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS CONTROL VALVES SAFETY VALVES RUPTURE DISCS MOTOR OPERATED VALVES REGULATING VALVES DIVERTER VALVES

690 OTHER INSTRUMENT WORK 691 INSTRUMENT TESTING

3434-14

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

Electrical
700 702 703 704 709 ELECTRICAL SUBCONTRACT ELECTRICAL SPECIAL PLANT ELECTRICAL SPECIAL EQUIP ELECTRICAL ELECTRICAL DEMOLITON 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 SUBSTATION STEEL SWITCHRACK RECTIFIERS BLDG/AREA ELECTRICAL BLDG/AREA LIGHTING LIGHTING FIXTURES RECEPTACLES/SWITCHES HVAC ELECTRICAL MISC. SMALL TRANSFORMERS PANELBOARDS WIRE/CABLE - LIGHTING

710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746

WIRE, CABLE, ETC. WIRE/CABLE - LOW VOLTAGE WIRE/CABLE -HIGH VOLTAGE PILOT LIGHT PUSH BUTTON STATION TERMINATORS/CONNECTORS JUNCTION BOXES WIRE/CABLE - MV WIRE/CABLE - CV OTHER EQUIPMENT WIRING CONDUIT, TRAYS, ETC. CONDUIT CONDUIT FITTINGS CABLE TRAYS OTHER ELEC. EQUIPMENT VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE CAPACITORS MOTOR CONTROL CENTER - LV TRANSFORMERS - MV TRANSFORMERS - LV SWITCHGEAR - MV SWITCHGEAR - LV BUS DUCT - LV DISCONNECT SWITCH

760 BURIED CABLE 761 ELECTRICAL TRENCHING 762 UNDERGROUND CABLE DUCT

770 GROUNDING, CATH. PROTEC. 771 GROUNDING SYSTEMS 772 CATHODIC PROTECTION 780 781 782 783 COMMUNICATION,ALARMS,ETC TELEPHONE INTERCOM ANNUNCIATORS

MAJOR ELEC. EQUIPMENT 790 OTHER ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMERS - HV 791 ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT TSTNG SWITCHGEAR - HV 792 ELECTRICAL TRACING MCC EQUIPPED SPACE 794 SOLAR PANELS MOTOR CONTROL CENTER - MV 795 BATTERY PACKS BUS DUCT - MV/HV 796 UPS TRANSMISSION LINES 797 EMERGENCY GENERATOR

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

3434-15

Insulation
800 802 803 804 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 819 820 821 822 823 INSULATION, FIREPROOFING SUBCONTRACT INSULATION SPECIAL PLANT INSULATION SPECIAL EQUIP INSULATION INSULATION DEMOLITION INSULATION PIPE INSULATION EQUIP INSULATION MODULE INSULATION SHOP MODULE INSULATION FIELD PERSONNEL PROTECTION OTHER EQUIP. INSULATION FIREPROOFING STRUCTURAL FIREPROOFING SKIRT/LEG FIREPROOFING CABLE TRAY FIREPROOFING

830 SPECIAL COATINGS 831 ACID TILE PAVING

Paint
900 902 903 904 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 918 919 920 921 922 923 PAINT SUBCONTRACT PAINT SPECIAL PLANT PAINT SPECIAL EQUIP PAINT PAINT DEMOLITION PAINTING PAINT - EQUIPMENT PAINT - PIPING PAINT - STRUCTURES PAINT MODULE EQUIPMENT PAINT MODULE PIPING PAINT MODULE STRUCTURES OTHER COATINGS OTHER EQUIPMENT PAINT SURFACE SURFACE SURFACE SURFACE PREPARATION PREP - EQUIPMENT PREP - PIPING PREP - STEEL

3434-16

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

3434-17

3434-18

3434 Code Accounts (G10)

35 Database Relations

(G10)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Sequence Numbers of Attributes in Relations Relationship of Database Relations DETAILS Relation DESIGN Relation REMARKS Relation PROJDATA Relation NEWCOA Relation CERATE Relation EQRENT Relation CRWSCH Relation CSTCTRL Relation CUSSPC Relation REPGRP Relation CNTRCT Relation COMPONENT Relation INDIRECTS Relation Aspen Capital Cost Estimator Indirect Codes and Descriptions QSUM Relations STORED REPORTS Relation STORED QUERIES Relation K (CUSSPC)-TABLE Relation R-Table Relation S-Table Relation T-Table Relation U-Table Relation V-Table Relation W-Table Relation X-Table Relation Y-Table Relation

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-1

Z-Table Relation Attribute Descriptions

35-2

35 Database Relations (G10)

Sequence Numbers of Attributes in Relations


COMPONENT (N) DETAILS (A) INDIRECTS (P) 2 1 PROJDATA (D) REMARKS (C) CRWSCH (G) NEWCOA (E) CSTCTRL (J)

DESIGN (B)

CNTRCT (M)

EQRENT (H)

CUSSPC (K)

REPGRP (L)

Attribute Name ACCOUNT ACTCOA ACTSEQ ACTSRT ACTTYP AMOUNT APPTYPE AREA AREAWBS ATYPE BTSEQ CATLNO CCOA COADES CEAMT CEDESC CEFLAG CENUM CESEQ CLASS CNTRBY CNTRNM CNTRNO CNTWKF COA CCOAACT CCOADES COAIND COAMOD Type INT INT INT INT INT REAL INT INT TEXT INT INT TEXT INT TEXT REAL TEXT TEXT INT INT INT INT TEXT INT INT INT TEXT TEXT INT INT 2 24 24 60 2 24 20 2 Width

11 12 3 31 20 1 14

2 16 -

2 -

5 1 -

1 3 2 -

4 5 1 2 3 -

5 3 4 2 1 -

1 -

5 3 4 2 1 -

6 1 -

5 1 -

2 3 1 -

5 -

35 Database Relations (G10)

RTABLE (R) 1 2 -

CERATE (F)

35-3

COMPONENT (N)

DETAILS (A)

DESIGN (B)

INDIRECTS (P) 3 6 9 5 4 -

PROJDATA (D)

REMARKS (C)

CRWSCH (G)

NEWCOA (E)

CSTCTRL (J)

CNTRCT (M)

EQRENT (H)

CUSSPC (K)

REPGRP (L)

Attribute Name COMCOD COMPWBS CONTRACT DAYPWK DESCR DIAM DUPITEMS DUPQTY EXTRA1 EXTRA2 EXTRA3 HOURRRAT HRSPDA ICACOA ICUNIT INDDES INDHOURS ITEM ITEMDES ITEMCOD INTREF IUMVAL LCODE LDESC LCOST LCOSTRAT LHOURS LINELOOP LOCID Type TEXT TEXT INT INT TEXT REAL INT INT INT REAL TEXT FLOAT REAL INT INT TEXT INT TEXT TEXT INT INT REAL INT TEXT REAL FLOAT REAL INT TEXT 8 24 24 28 32 4 76 Width 36 3

37 35 13 24 33 21 22 23 32 4 34 9 8 25 16

1 12 -

4 1 -

2 -

7 9 -

7 -

4 6 -

36 11

INDAMOUNT INT

35-4

35 Database Relations (G10)

RTABLE (R) 4 5

CERATE (F)

Sequence Numbers of Attributes in Relations - continued

COMPONENT (N)

DETAILS (A)

DESIGN (B)

INDIRECTS (P) 8 7 -

PROJDATA (D)

REMARKS (C)

CRWSCH (G)

NEWCOA (E)

CSTCTRL (J)

CNTRCT (M)

EQRENT (H)

CUSSPC (K)

REPGRP (L)

Attribute Name MATL MCODE MCOST MDESC NOITEM NPCT01 NPCT02 NPCT03 NPCT04 NPCT05 NPCT06 NPCT07 NPCT08 NPCT09 NPCT010 NPCT011 NPCT012 NPCT013 NPCT014 NPCT015 ORIGIN PARAM PCLASS PCTOF PERCENT PIPSPC PIPTYP PRCURC PROPNAM PROPNUM Type TEXT INT REAL TEXT INT INT INT INT INT INT INT INT INT INT INT INT INT INT INT INT TEXT TEXT TEXT INT REAL TEXT INT TEXT TEXT INT 36 8 6 32 4 Width 5

10 7 2 15 38 -

3 4 13 10

3 -

4 3 -

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

6 7 -

4 2 -

MCOSTRAT FLOAT

18 10 19 11 20 12 21 13 22 14 15 16 17 -

35 Database Relations (G10)

RTABLE (R) 3 -

CERATE (F)

35-5

COMPONENT (N)

DETAILS (A)

DESIGN (B)

INDIRECTS (P) -

PROJDATA (D)

REMARKS (C)

CRWSCH (G)

NEWCOA (E)

CSTCTRL (J)

CNTRCT (M)

EQRENT (H)

CUSSPC (K)

REPGRP (L)

Attribute Name QUANT REFID REPGRP RESULT RPGSEQ SCHAREA SCHED SHIFTS SOURCE SUBAREA SUBTYPE SUMCODE TITLE TYPSCT UNIT UNITIN UNITS USERDES USERTAG VALUER VALUET VALUEU WGT WUNIT Type REAL INT INT REAL INT INT TEXT INT TEXT INT INT INT TEXT INT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT REAL TEXT TEXT REAL TEXT 4 12 12 8 8 8 25 12 32 2 4 Width

5 -

6 -

6 8 -

3 5 -

2 3 4 -

1 2 3 -

28 14 17 30 29 6 26 27 18 19 7 9 6 5 8 -

35-6

35 Database Relations (G10)

RTABLE (R) -

CERATE (F)

Relationship of Database Relations

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-7

DETAILS Relation
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Column Name COA ORIGIN COADES ITEMDES QUANT UNITS MCOST LHOURS LCOST MATL ACCOUNT AREA CONTRACT COAMOD PIPTYP LOCID SOURCE WGT WUNIT CLASS EXTRA1 EXTRA2 EXTRA3 DIAM LINELOOP Type of Data integer text 6 text 24 text 28 real text 8 real real real text 5 integer integer integer integer integer text 8 text 2 real text 4 integer integer real text 4 real integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Code of Account (COA) 3 characters each of Item Type + Item Ref No. (HE 101) Title of cost element which is assigned to account code Detailed description of cost element, material or labor Quantity Unit of measure associated with quantity Material cost for total quantity Man-hours of field labor for total quantity Cost of field labor for total quantity Material symbol (five character string) Major account for this item. Area ID/report group, assigned an integer value of unity Contract ID Code of account (COA) modifier Class of material for piping Sub-description related to ORIGIN (LINE 03, LOOP 02) Symbol used to characterize direct, subcontract or remote shop costs Weight Unit of measure associated with weight Class Your use, for integer values, filled with 0 Your use, for decimal values, filled with 0.00 Your use, for text, filled with blanks Pipe diameter, decimal (e.g., 2.0) For piping - the line number (01-40) For instrumentation - the loop number (01-50)

35-8

35 Database Relations (G10)

No. 26

Column Name USERDES

Type of Data text 25

Description of Data Stored under each Column For instrumentation - the loop number (01-50) For components - Item description For Matl/Man-hour Additions - Item description For Pipe Bulk - Item Details - Item description For Instrument Bulk Items - Item description User Tag Number or Pipe Specs if custom pipe specs are used The 4-digit Item reference number for the component For Equipment - cost basis For Piping - type of valve or fitting For Civil - type of foundation For Instrumentation - type of loop main component For Insulation - type of insulation or fireproofing Subsidiary area number, within AREA Sequence number for records in Details relation Icarus code of account for item Duplicate quantity flag Internal reference identification Component Work Breakdown Structure identifier Internal Unit of Measure unit Commodity code for materials (Future use) Procurement Currency

27 28 29

USERTAG REFID SUBTYPE

text 12 integer integer

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

SUBAREA CESEQ ICACOA DUPQTY INTREF COMPWBS ICUNIT COMCOD PRCURC

integer integer integer integer integer text 3 integer text 36 text 33

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-9

DESIGN Relation
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Column Name ITMCOD AREA ORIGIN PARAM VALUET VALUER UNIT VALUEU Type of Data integer integer text 6 text 25 text 12 real text 8 text 12 Description of Data Stored under each Column Item code. Area ID, assigned integer value of unity. 3-characters: Item Type + Item Reference No. (HE 101). Description of design element. Value of design parameter, as text. Value of design parameter, decimal value. Unit of measure associated with numeric design value Value of design parameters specified by user as text. (For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only.) Unit of measure associated with VALUEU Reserved for future use Internal Unit of Measure identifier System value in internal units of measure System property name Integer value of 3-digit component number Indicates indent level for reports Sequence number for DESIGN table

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

UNITIN PROPNUM ICUNIT IUMVAL PROPNAM REFID INDLVL BTSEQ

text 8 integer integer real text 36 integer integer integer

REMARKS Relation
No. 1 2 3 4 Column Name ITMCOD AREA ORIGIN DESCR Type of Data integer integer text 6 text 76 Description of Data Stored under each Column Item code. (Two digits.) Area reference number defined by user. (Two digits, default is 01.) Responsible item for the data in the record (e.g., "HE 101"). Description of ITEM as specified by user (for example, PROPANE STORAGE TANK"). Integer value of 3-digit component number

REFID

integer

35-10

35 Database Relations (G10)

PROJDATA Relation
No. 1 2 Column Name COA ITEM Type of Data integer text 24 Description of Data Stored under each Column System code of account or user's account code as revised (3 digits). System-generated or user-defined description for this item (e.g., "CONSUMABLES/SMALL TOOLS"). System-generated or user-defined description for this item (e.g., "CONSUMABLES/SMALL TOOLS"). System-calculated code representing the portion of the project estimate to be precentaged (1 digit) Lump sum value specified by user. The value calculated when PERCENT is applied to PCTOF, where appropriate.

PERCENT

real

PCTOF

integer

AMOUNT RESULT

real real

NEWCOA Relation
No. 1 2 Column Name CCOA CCOADES Type of Data integer text 24 Description of Data Stored under each Column User-changed code of account User-changed code of account description (e.g.,SPECIAL COMPANY ITEMS"). COA category (EQ, P, C, ST, I, E, IN, PT)

CCOAACT

text 2

CERATE Relation (F-Table)


No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Column Name CEFLAG CENUM CNTWKF CEAMT CEDESC CEDUR Type of Data text 2 integer integer real text 60 integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Record type (CR = craft, ER = equipment rental) Item number (CR = 51 - 99, ER = 1 450) Contract or work force Rate (CR = CUR/HR, ER = CUR/Month) Description of item Total Hours for Item for Contractor Total Hours for Craft for Contractor OR Total Equipment Rental Cost for Equipment Item for Contractor

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-11

No. 7

Column Name CEAMOUNT

Type of Data integer

Description of Data Stored under each Column Total Indirect Cost for Item for Contractor Total Labor Cost for Craft for Contractor OR Total Equipment Rental Cost for Equipment Item for Contractor Allocated Rental Days for Equipment Item for Contractor (DAYS)--Only for Equipment Rental

CEALLOC

integer

EQRENT Relation
Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Column Name CESEQ NOITEM NPCT1 NPCT2 NPCT3 NPCT4 NPCT5 NPCT6 NPCT7 NPCT8 NPCT9 NPCT10 NPCT11 NPCT12 NPCT13 NPCT14 NPCT15 Type of Data integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Key - relates to DETAILS relation Number of items in list List item 1 List item 2 List item 3 List item 4 List item 5 List item 6 List item 7 List item 8 List item 9 List item 10 List item 11 List item 12 List item 13 List item 14 List item 15

CRWSCH Relation
Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only
No. 1 2 3 Column Name CESEQ ACTTYP ACTSEQ Type of Data integer integer integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Key - relates to DETAILS relation Activity level (area, project, proc.) Activity ID at component level

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35 Database Relations (G10)

No. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Column Name ACTSRT ACTCOA SCHAREA DAYPWK SHIFTS HRSPDA NOITEM NPCT01 NPCT02 NPCT03 NPCT04 NPCT05 NPCT06 NPCT07 NPCT08 NPCT09 NPCT10 NPCT11 NPCT12

Type of Data integer integer integer integer integer real integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer

Description of Data Stored under each Column Activity ID at area level Scheduling code of account Display flag Working days per week Number of shifts per day Working hours per day Number of items in list List item 1 List item 2 List item 3 List item4 List item 5 List item 6 List item 7 List item 8 List item 9 List item 10 List item 11 List item 12

CSTCTRL Relation
Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Column Name CESEQ ACTTYP ACTSEQ ACTSRT ACTCOA NOITEM NPCT01 Type of Data integer integer integer integer integer integer integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Key - relates to DETAILS relation Activity level (area, project, proc.) Activity ID at component level Activity ID at area level Scheduling code of accounts Number of items in list List item 1

CUSSPC Relation
Aspen Capital Cost Estimator only
No. 1 2 Column Name CESEQ PIPSPC Type of Data integer text 8 Description of Data Stored under each Column Key - relates to DETAILS relation Custom piping spec

35 Database Relations (G10)

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No. 3 4 5 6 7

Column Name SCHED PCLASS TYPSCT CATLNO CONTYP

Type of Data text 4 text 4 text 4 text 20 text 2

Description of Data Stored under each Column Pipe schedule Flange class Type of data (1 = class, 2=schedule, 3 = thickness) Item designation Type of Fitting Connection (one of the following: SW, SC, SB, WW, WF. VC, PF, VS) Pipe Type (S or W or )

PIPTYP

text 1

REPGRP Relation
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Column Name ATYPE REPGRP RPGSEQ TITLE AREAWBS SCHAREA Type of Data integer integer integer text 32 text 2 integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Report group designation (1 = report group, 2 = sub-group) Report group number Report group sequence (sub-group) Report group title Area Work Breakdown Structure identifier Scheduling Area for this report group

CNTRCT Relation
Aspen Capital Cost Estimator only
No. 1 2 3 Column Name CNTRNO CNTRBY CNTRNM Type of Data integer integer text 24 Description of Data Stored under each Column Contractor number Contracted by (parent contractor) Contractor name

COMPONENT Relation
Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only
No. 1 2 3 Column Name REFID USERDES USERTAG Type of Data integer text 25 text 12 Description of Data Stored under each Column The integer value of the 4-digit internal reference number Item description User Tag Number

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35 Database Relations (G10)

No. 4 5 6 7 8

Column Name DUPITEMS APPTYPE INTREF COMPWBS STRUCTAG

Type of Data integer integer integer text 3 text 12

Description of Data Stored under each Column Number of duplicate items Component type Internal reference identification Component Work Breakdown Structure identifier User Tag of Structure where component is mounted

INDIRECTS Relation
Aspen Capital Cost Estimator only
No. 1 2 Column Name COA COADES Type of Data integer text 24 Description of Data Stored under each Column Code of Account (COA) (See list on following page). Title of cost element which is assigned to account code (See list on following page). Contract ID Indirect hours for this account Indirect cost for this account Icarus code of account for item Percent value entered by user or calculated by system System-calculated code representing the portion of the project estimate to be percentaged (1 digit) User indirect description or SYSTEM GENERATED

3 4 5 6 7 8

CONTRACT INDHOURS INDAMOUNT ICACOA PERCENT PCTOF

integer integer integer integer real integer

INDDES

text 32

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-15

K (CUSSPC)-TABLE Relation
No. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Column Name XRAYS PDEGF PPSIG TRACEM NPRIMR NFINAL INSMTL INSTHK Type of Data real real real text4 text4 text4 text5 text5 Description of Data Stored under each Column Weld X-Rays Pipe Temperature in Deg Fahrenheit Pipe Pressure in psi Tracing Type Number of Primary Paint Coats Number of Final Paint Coats Insulation Material Insulation Thickness

R-TABLE Relation
No. 1 2 Column Name CESEQ COAIND Type of Data integer integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Key- relates (links) to the DETAILS relation (A table or AprojID) Title of cost element which is assigned to account code (See list on following page) Ratio of MCOST output to MCOST system Ratio of HOURS output to HOURS system Ratio of LCOST output to LCOST system

3 4 5

MCOSTRAT HOURRRAT LCOSTRAT

float float float

QSUM Relations
No. 1 2 Column Name ACCOUNT CODEGROUP Type of Data integer integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Major account for this item. A.ACCOUNT Sub-Group of Icarus cod of account for item. Evaluated from Xref_ICACOA.ICACOA_Group Icarus code of account for item. Evaluated from P.ICACOA and A.ICACOA Icarus Title of cost element which is assigned to account code. Evaluated from Xref_ICACOA.ICACOA_Det_Desc_USA1

3 4

ICACOA ICACOADES

integer text 25

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35 Database Relations (G10)

No. 5

Column Name FULLDES

Type of Data text 50

Description of Data Stored under each Column Major account title for this item. (10) Indirects. Evaluated from Xref_Account.[Full Description] Code of Account (COA). P.COA, A.COA Title of cost element which is assigned to account code. Evaluated from Xref_ICACOA.ICACOA_Det_Desc_USA1, E.CCOADES, Icarus sub-account for this item. Evaluated from Xref_ICACOAInd.ICACOA_Group, Xref_QSUMCOA_Criteria.QSUMCOA Title of sub-account which assigned to sub-account code. Evaluated from Xref_QSumCOA.QSUMCOADES Detailed description of cost element, material or labor. Evaluated from A.ITEMDES Item Description. Evaluated from A.ORIGIN, A.SUBAREA Quantity. Evaluated from A.QUANT Unit of measure associated with quantity. Evaluated from A.UNITS Internal Unit of Measure unit. Evaluated from A.ICUNIT Key Quantity Characteristic quantity for group of items Key Quantity Characteristic quantity for group of items Unit of measure associated with key quantity Man-hours of field labor or total quantity. Evaluated from Sum of P.INDHOURS Cost of field labor for total quanity. Evaluated from A.LCOST Material cost for total quantity. Evaluated from A.MCOST Class. Evaluated from A.CLASS Weight. Evaluated from A.WGT

6 7

COA COADES

integer text 25

QSUMCOA

integer

QSUMCOADES

text 255

10

ITEMDES

text 30

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

COMPONENT QUANT UNITS ICUNIT KEYQUANT KEYUNITS HOURS LCOST

text 40 real text 10 integer real text 255 real real

19 20 21 22

MCOST TOTCOST CLASS WGT

real real integer real

35 Database Relations (G10)

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No. 23 24 25

Column Name WUNIT DIAM USERDES

Type of Data text 255 integer text 30

Description of Data Stored under each Column Unit of measure associated with weight. Evaluated from A.WUNIT Pipe diameter, decimal (e.g., 2.0). Evaluated from A.DIAM For instrumentation - the loop number (01-50) For components - Item description For Matl/Man-hour Additions - Item description For Pipe Bulk - Item Details - Item description For Instrument Bulk Items - Item Description Evaluated from A.USERDES

26 27 28

MATL PIPTYP LOCID

text 10 integer text 10

Material Symbol (five character string). Evaluated from A.MATL Class of material for piping. A.PIPTYP Sub-description related to ORIGIN (LINE 03, LOOP 02). Evaluated from A.LOCID For piping the line number (01-40) For instrumentation the looop number (01-50). Evaluated from A.LINELOOP

29

LINELOOP

integer

30 31

COAMOD LOCATION

integer text 255

Code of account (COA) modifier. Evaluated from A.COAMOD Location Description Above Ground/ Under Ground. Evaluated from Xref_QSUMCOA_Criteria.LOCATION For Equipment - cost basis For Piping - type of valve or fitting For Civil - type of foundation For Instrumentation - type of loop main component For Insulation - type of insulation or Fireproofing Evaluated from A.SUBTYPE

32

SUBTYPE

integer

33

SOURCE

text 5

Symbol used to characterize direct, subcontract or remote shop costs. Evaluated from A.SOURCE

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35 Database Relations (G10)

No. 34

Column Name REFID

Type of Data integer

Description of Data Stored under each Column The 4-digit Item reference number for the component. Evaluated from A.REFID

35

ORIGIN

text 10

3 characters each of Item Type + Tem Ref No. (HE 101). Evaluated from A.ORIGIN Area ID/report group, assigned an integer value of unity. Evaluated from A.AREA Subsidiary area number, within AREA. Evaluated from A.SUBAREA Component Work Breakdown Structure Identifier. Evaluated from A.COMPWBS Contract ID. Evaluated from Table P, A.CONTRACT Contractor Name. Evaluated from M.CNTRNM Duplicate quantity flag. Evaluated from A.DUPQTY Sequence number for records in Details Relation. Evaluated from A.CESEQ Internal reference identification. Evaluated from A.INTREF

36

AREA

integer

37 38

SUBAREA COMPWBS

integer text 5

39 40 41 42

CONTRACT CONTRACTOR DUPQTY CESEQ

integer text 30 integer integer

43

INTREF

integer

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35 Database Relations (G10)

STORED REPORTS Relation


No. 1 2 3 4 5 Column Name ID Name TreeView1 Prompt KbaseFlag Type of Data integer Text 100 text 255 text 255 text 50 Description of Data Stored under each Column Unique ID for Query Constant cross releases Unique Text Name Composite Tree (See Name - Lev below) Text Description for Display List of Products for the Report 3 Capital Cost Report E Process Economic Analyzer M In-Plant Cost Estimator 6 UserGroupNo text 50 User Group Number 0: All Reports / All Disciplines 1: Process 2: Equipment / Insul / Paint 3: Piping / Insul / Paint 4: Civil / Structural / Arch / Insul / Paint 5: Management / Project Level 6: Electrical / Instrumentation / Insul / Paint 7: Quantity Info Only 8: Unit Cost Info Only 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ImportType LicMgrGroupNo BaseRT Type TemplName SheetName SubQueries PostProcedure text 50 text 50 text 50 text 50 text 50 text 50 text 50 text 50 Type of the Import. Use Full if you creating a custom report inside reporter. Reserved. Not used Reserved. Not used Type of Report, Excel or Crystal Type of Report, Excel or Crystal Name of the template Sub queries to be used in the Excel Worksheet (Excel Only) MacroSet to be used. MacroSet_1 MacroSet_2 MacroSet_3 MacroSet_4 15 16 17 18 19 Executable Name-Lev1 Name-Lev2 Name-Lev3 Name-Lev4 text 50 text 100 text 100 text 100 text 100 Reserved. Not used Report List Tree Text Level 1 Report List Tree Text Level 2 Report List Tree Text Level 3 Report List Tree Text Level 4

35 Database Relations (G10)

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No. 20 21 22

Column Name Name-Lev5 AutoFilter MultiSheetID

Type of Data text 100 Yes/No text 128

Description of Data Stored under each Column Report List Tree Text Level 15 Auto Filter Turn ON/OFF (Excel Only) Used for new feature where number of reports and sheet names are determined by number of contractors/identifiers in the project. For example, for report Project Summary by Contractor, the value in this column is QSUM.CONTRACTOR (TableName.Column name)

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35 Database Relations (G10)

STORED QUERIES Relation


No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Column Name ID Name Generate TreeView1 Prompt KbaseFlag Type of Data text 10 text 255 Yes/No text 255 text 255 text 255 Description of Data Stored under each Column Unique ID for Query Constant cross releases Unique Text Name Create MS Access Query from Row Composite Tree (See Lev below) Text Description for Display (Management and UOD reports only) List of Products for the Report 3 Capital Cost Report E Process Economic Analyzer M In-Plant Cost Estimator 7 UserGroupNo text 255 User Group Number 0: All Reports / All Disciplines 1: Process 2: Equipment / Insul / Paint 3: Piping / Insul / Paint 4: Civil / Structural / Arch / Insul / Paint 5: Management / Project Level 6: Electrical / Instrumentation / Insul / Paint 7: Quantity Info Only 8: Unit Cost Info Only 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 ImportType LicMgrGroupNo BaseRT SQLStr fStr Lev_1 Lev_2 Lev_3 Lev_4 Lev_5 text 50 text 255 text 255 Memo text 255 text 255 text 255 text 255 text 255 text 255 Type of the Import. Use Full if you are creating a custom report inside reporter. Reserved. Not used Reserved. Not used Query stored as text Format String (Management and UOD reports only) Report List Tree Text Level 1 Report List Tree Text Level 2 Report List Tree Text Level 3 Report List Tree Text Level 4 Report List Tree Text Level 5

35 Database Relations (G10)

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CERATE Relation (F-Table)


No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Column Name CEFLAG CENUM CNTWKF CEAMT CEDESC CEDUR Type of Data text 2 integer integer real text 60 integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Record type (CR = craft, ER = equipment rental) Item number (CR = 51 - 99, ER = 1 450) Contract or work force Rate (CR = CUR/HR, ER = CUR/Month) Description of item T'otal Hours for Item for Contractor Total Hours for Craft for Contractor (HOURS) OR Total Rental Duration Days for Equipment Item for Contractor (DAYS) 7 CEAMOUNT integer Total Indirect Cost for Item for Contractor Total Labor Cost for Craft for Contractor OR Total Equipment Rental Cost for Equipment Item for Contractor 8 CEALLOC integer Allocated Rental Days for Equipment Item for Contractor (DAYS) Only for Equipment Rental

S-Table Relation
No. 1 2 3 Column Name CESEQ INTREF LINELOOP Type of Data integer integer integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Sequence number for records in Details relation Internal reference identification For piping the line number (01-40) For instrumentation the loop number (01-50) To differentiate between branch and main line

LTYPE

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35 Database Relations (G10)

No. 5

Column Name USERDES

Type of Data text 30

Description of Data Stored under each Column For instrumentation - the loop number (01-50) For components - Item description For Matl/Man-hour Additions - Item description For Pipe Bulk - Item Details - Item description For Instrument Bulk Items - Item Description

LINETAG

text 36

For Piping Bulk User Tag For Pipe Bulk - Item Details Pipe Line Tag Item reference number of the connected equipment. Pipe Bulk - Item Details Pipe Line Flow Direction Pipe Bulk - Item Details Connected Equipment Line Number Pipe Bulk - Item Details - Stream properties to be used for this line Material symbol (five character string) Pipe diameter, decimal (e.g., 2.0) Pipe Length, decimal (e.g. 2.0) Custom Pipe Spec

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

LNDESEQ DIRECT LNDESLN STREAM MATL DIAM LINLEN PIPSPC

integer text 3 integer text 30 text 5 integer integer text 10

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-24

T-Table Relation
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Column Name DUMMYCOL STREAM TEMP PRESS MWGT TOTMFLOW LIQMFLOW LIQMDEN LIQVISC LIQSTEN VAPMFLOW VAPMDEN VAPVISC SOLMFLOW SOLMDEN Type of Data text 2 text 36 integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer integer Description of Data Stored under each Column Dummy only Stream Name Temperature Pressure Molecular Weight Total Mass Flow Liquid Mass Flow Liquid Mass Density Liquid Viscosity Liquid Surface Tension Vapor Mass Flow Vapor Mass Density Vapor Viscosity Solid Mass Flow Solid Mass Density

U-Table Relation
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Column Name ITMCOD AREA ORIGIN PARAM VALUET VALUER UNIT VALUEU Type of Data integer nteger text 10 text 35 text 80 real text 10 text 15 Description of Data Stored under each Column Item code (Two digits) Area ID, assigned integer value of unity. 3-characters: Item Type + Item Reference No. (HE 101). Description of design element. Value of design parameter, as text. Value of design parameter, decimal value. Unit of measure associated with numeric design value Value of design parameters specified by user as text. (For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only.) Unit of measure associated with VALUEU Reserved for future use. It should be more than 900000 Internal Unit of Measure unit. Same as VALUER

9 10 11 12

UNITIN PROPNUM ICUNIT VALUES

text 10 integer integer real

35-25

35 Database Relations (G10)

No. 13 14 15

Column Name PROPNAM REFID INDLVL

Type of Data text 40 integer integer

Description of Data Stored under each Column System property name Integer value of 3-digit component number Indicates indent level for reports

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-26

V-Table Relation
No. 1 2 Column Name Index Field1 Type of Data integer text 80 Description of Data Stored under each Column Sequence Number Constains Aspen Process Economic Analyzer related useful information. Project Name, Capacity, Plant Location, Brief Description, Schedule, Investment, Project Information, Simulator information etc. Contains the data value for field1 Reserved.

3 4

Field2 Field3

text 80 text 30

W-Table Relation
No. 1 2 3 4 Column Name Index Item Units Year1-Year20 Type of Data integer text 60 text 20 real Description of Data Stored under each Column Sequence Number Item (Sales, Expenses, Operating Costs etc.) Units Contains cost spread over 20 years

X-Table Relation
No. 1 2 3 4 5 Column Name Field1 Field2 Field3 Field4 Field5 Type of Data integer text 30 text 30 text 30 text 30 Description of Data Stored under each Column Sequence Number Area Name Component Name Component Type Total Direct Cost

35-27

35 Database Relations (G10)

Y-Table Relation
No. 1 2 Column Name Type of Data Description of Data Stored under each Column

SeqNo Field2

integer text 60

Sequence Number ITEM. Contains useful information about Project, Capital Cost Evaluation Basis, Time Period, Schedule, Capital Costs Parameters, Operating Costs Parameters, General Investment Parameters, Escalation, Project Results Summary, Project Capital Summary, Engineering Summary, Raw Materials Costs and Product Sales, Operating Labor and Maintenance Costs etc. Measure of Unit for the Field2 Value stored for Field2. Design, Eng, Procurement Cost for Project Capital Summary Manhours for Engineering Summary Construction Material (Applicable to Project to Project Cost Summary only) Construction Manhours (Applicable to Project to Project Cost Summary only) Construction Manpower Manhours (Applicable to Project to Project Cost Summary only) Construction Indirects Manhours (Applicable to Project to Project Cost Summary only) Reserved Reserved

3 4 5

Field3 Field4 Field5

text 30 text 255 text 30

Field6

text 30

Field7

text 30

Field8

text 30

Field9

text 30

10 11

Field10 text 30 Field11-Field 21 text 10

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-28

Z-Table Relation
No. 1 2 3 4 5 Column Name REFID COMPTYPE ORIGIN FULLNAME DISPNAME Type of Data integer text 10 text 10 text 60 text 74 Description of Data Stored under each Column The 4-digit Item reference number for the component Character Component Type 3 characters each of Item Type + Item Ref No. (HE 101) Object name in the Object database User specified name in GUI along with model name

Aspen Capital Cost Estimator Indirect Codes and Descriptions


Field Indirects 01 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 -09 Titles not assigned LUMP SUM CONST. INDIRECT FRINGE BENEFITS BURDENS CONSUMABLES, SMALL TOOLS MISC. (INSURANCE, ETC.) SCAFFOLDING EQUIPMENT RENTAL VENDOR REPRESENTATIVES FIELD SERVICES TEMP. CONST., UTILITIES MOBILIZATION, DEMOBILIZE CATERING, ACCOMODATION TRAVEL OVERTIME PREMIUM

Engineering
70 71 72 73 74 75 76 LUMP SUM ENGINEERING BASIC ENGINEERING DETAIL ENGINEERING MATERIAL PROCUREMENT SUBCONTRACT PROCUREMENT ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT - 79 Titles not assigned

Special Indirects
24 SPECIAL INDIRECT ITEM 1 25 SPECIAL INDIRECT ITEM 2 26 - 49 Titles not assigned

Engineering Indirects
80 81 82 83 LUMP SUM CONST. MGMT HOME OFFICE CONST. SUPP. CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT -84 Titles not assigned

Freight
50 51 52 53 54 55 56 LUMP SUM FREIGHT DOMESTIC FREIGHT OCEAN FREIGHT AIR FREIGHT MODULE FREIGHT OTHER FRIEGHT - 59 Tittles not assigned

Contractor Indirects
85 FIELD CONST. SUPERVISION 86 STARTUP, COMISSIONING

35-29

35 Database Relations (G10)

Taxes
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 LUMP SUM TAXES, PERMITS PERMITS MATERIALS TAXES CONSTRUCTION TAXES ENGINEERING TAXES OTHER TAXES - 69 Titles not assigned

G & A Overheads
90 G AND A OVERHEADS

Contractor Fee 91 CONTRACT FEE 92 - 96 Titles not assigned Escalation 97 ESCALATION Royalty, Miscellaneous Charges 98 ROYALTY, MISC. CHARGES

Contingencies
99 CONTINGENCY

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-30

Attribute Descriptions
Attribute ACCOUNT Description Major account for this item, leading digit taken from system code of accounts to characterize the account class:

Account 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Description Other, indirects Equipment, Code of Account (COA) 100 - 199 Equipment, Code of Account (COA) 200 - 299 Piping Civil Steel Instrumentation Electrical Insulation Paint

ACTCOA ACTSEQ ACTSRT ACTTYP

Scheduling code of account. For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Activity ID at component level. For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Activity ID at area level. For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Activity level (area, project, proc.). For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Icarus Project Manager only. Lump sum value specified by user for indirect costs. Component Type Component Type Equipment 58 60 62 63 64 65 66 68 69 70 72 TDS TW VP VS VT WFE WTS MOT RB FU AG PAK Tray drying systems Towers Vacuum pumps Vibrating screens Vertical tanks Wiped film evaporators Water treatment systems Motors Reboilers Furnaces Turbines Agitators Linings Packings Equipment 0 Not applicable 1 AC 3 AD 4 AT 6 BL 7C 9 CE 10 CO 11 CP 12 CR 14 CT 16 D Air compressors Air dryers Agitated tanks Blenders Condensers Cranes Conveyors Centrifugal pumps Crushers Centrifuges Dryers

AMOUNT APPTYPE

8 CTW Cooling towers

71 TUR 73 LIN

13 CRY Crystallizers

15 DDT Double diameter towers 74

35-31

35 Database Relations (G10)

Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute APPTYPE Description 17 DC 18 DD 19 E 20 EG 21 EJ 22 EL 24 F 26 FE 27 FL 29 FN Dust collectors Drum dryers Evaluators Electrical generators Ejectors Elevators Filters Feeders Flakers Fans Plant Bulks and Buildings 80 81 Buildings PIP Piping Known Cost 76 Cost known equipment 77 Cost known bulks

82 CIV Civil 83 STL Steelwork 84 INS 85 ELC 86 INL 88 Instrumentation Electrical general Insulation

28 FLR Flares 32 GC Gas compressors 34 GP Gear pumps 36 HE Heat exchangers 37 HO Hoists 38 HT Horizontal tanks 39 HU Heating units 42 K 43 M 45 P 48 R 50 RU 52 S 53 ST 54 SE Kneaders Mills Pumps Reactors Refrigeration units Scales Stock treatment Separation equipment

87 PNT Paint ELC Electrical substation

Site Development 91 DEMOL Demolition 92 DRAINS Drainage 93 EARTH 94 FENCE Earthwork general Fencing

44 MX Mixers

95 LANDSP Landscaping 96 PAVING Paving 97 PILING Piling 98 RAILRD Railroads 99 EARTH Earthwork excavation Library Items 100 Library items 101 Equipment model library

49 RD Rotary dryers

55 STK Stacks 56 STB Steam boiler 57 T AREA ATYPE AREAWBS BTSEQ CATLNO CATLNO CCOA Thickeners

Area reference number defined by user. Default is 01. Reference number 00 refers to project data in the C relation. Report group designation (1 = report group, 2 = sub group). Area level Work Breakdown Structure -- 2 characters. Unique sequence number to define the order of records in the DESIGN table for design reports. Item designation. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Item designation. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. User-changed code of account.

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-32

Attribute CCOAACT CCOADES

Description COA category (EQ, P, C, ST, I, E, IN, PT). User-changed code of account description (text, 24 characters).

Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute Description CEAMT CEDESC CEFLAG CENUM CESEQ Rate (CR = CUR/HR, ER = CUR/Month). For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Description of item. Record type (CR = craft, ER = equipment rental). For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Item number (CR = 51 - 99, ER = 1 - 450). For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Sequence number for records in Details relation. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Class as defined below:

CLASS

Class 0 01 10 20 30 31 40 50 60 70 80 90

Description Other Site Development Process Equipment Bulk Items Area components, testing Buildings Area Site Development Unit Substation Main Substations Control (CTL) Centers OPS Centers Project Items (rotating equipment, spare parts, transmission lines, testing).

CNTRBY CNTRNM CNTRNO CNTWKF COA

Contracted by (parent contractor). For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator only. Contractor name. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator only. Contractor number. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator only. Contract or work force. For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. System code of account or users account code as revised. For Aspen InPlant Cost Estimator, COA is 3-digits. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, COA is 4-digits. System code of account description or user's description as revised (text, 24 characters).

COADES

35-33

35 Database Relations (G10)

Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute COAMOD Description Code of account (COA) modifier COAMOD 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 1 2 COA Range 1 - 999 100 - 299 100 - 299 300 - 399 300 - 399 300 - 399 422 - 423 422 - 423 400 - 459 400 - 459 400 - 459 400 - 459 400 - 459 400 - 459 400 - 459 400 - 459 400 - 459 500 - 599 500 - 599 500 - 599 500 - 599 500 - 599 500 - 599 500 - 599 500 - 599 641 641 Description Default if not shown below Equipment Direct Hire Subcontract Equipment Piping Above Ground Piping Underground Piping Chemical Sewer Civil - Site Development Site Development Paving (Roads) Site Development Paving (Other) Civil - Concrete Small blocks: <3 CY[< 2.3 M3] Medium blocks:3-10 CY[2.3-7.65 M3] Large blocks:10-25 CY[7.65-19.1 M3] Mass pours: 25-50CY[19.2-38.2 M3] Mass pours:50-100 CY[38.2-76.5 M3] Mass pours: >100CY[>76.5 M3] Piling Conduit Envelopes Elevated slabs Steel Extra light:<12 LB/FT[< 18 KG/M] Light:12-< 20 LB/FT[ 18-< 30 KG/M] Medium20-< 40 LB/FT[ 30-< 60 KG/M] Heavy40-80 LB/FT[ 60-122 KG/M] Extra Heavy> 80 LB/FT[>122 KG/M] Stairs and Ladders Ladders Misc. (Fab. Plate) Instrumentation Pneumatic Instrument Cable Tray Electronic Instrument Cable Tray Electrical

35 Database Relations (G10)

35-34

Attribute

Description 0 1 700 - 799 700 - 799 Above Ground Electrical. Underground Electrical.

Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute COAIND COMCOD Description Title of cost element which is assigned to account code.

Commodity code to uniquely identify materials used in the Icarus Evaluation Engine (IEE). The Commodity Code COMCOD is a 30 Character code. Each major bulk type has an individual a coding sequence. Currently only piping has a coding sequence defined. For Piping: To decode use the following column breakdown: Column: 1 2 3 123456789012345678901234567890 AMMMMMUDDDDPEECFFFFFGWRSSS####

Column A M U D P E C F G W R S #

Position 1 2-6 7 8-11 12 13-14 15 16-20 21 22 23 24-26 27-30

Description Account Code Indicator - 3=Piping Pipe material code Units of measure Indicator - I/P(I) or Metric(M) Diameter in units indicated Material Type indicator - Pipe (P), Valve (V) or Fitting (F) Subtype extension (e.g. Trim on Valve, Flange type, etc) (Currently Not Used) Class/Schedule Indicator - Schedule (S), Flange Class (F), Din designation (D) or Thickness (T) Class/Schedule designation as indicated in above units Location - Above Ground (A)/Underground Code(U) Pipe Fabrication - Welded(W)/Seamless(S) Fabrication Type - Remote Shop(R)/Field Shop(F) ICARUS Subtype(See Subtype attribute) Reserved for future use

COMPWBS

Component level Work Breakdown Structure -- 3 characters.

35-35

35 Database Relations (G10)

Attribute

Description

CONTRACT Reference number of contractor assigned to purchase/install this item. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator, the default is one. For all other systems, the default is zero. DAYPWK DESCR DIAM DUPITEMS DUPQTY Working days per week. For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Description of item as specified by user (text, 76 characters). Pipe diameter, decimal (for example, 2.0). Number of duplicate items. Duplicate quantity flag. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen InPlant Cost Estimator only. 0 = standard (unique quantity field) 1 = QUANT field of this record duplicated elsewhere. Integer. Not assigned. This is a spare attribute for the user to allocate values asnecessary. The system will initialize to integer zero. The attribute name can be changed and values calculated as a function of other numeric data. Real. Not assigned but initialized to a real number of the value 0.0. Text. Not assigned but initialized to a value of four blank characters ( "). Ratio of HOURS output to HOURS system. Working hours per day. For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Icarus code of account for item. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only.

EXTRA1

EXTRA2 EXTRA3 HOURRAT HRSPDA ICACOA

Attribute Description ICUNIT Icarus Internal Units of Measure identifier. Unit No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 I/P Conversion Description I/P Metric INCHES FEET MILES MESH FT SF SY SQ IN IN THK IN DIAM CF CY GALLONS BARRELS BD FT 2.5400E+01 3.0480E-01 1.6093E+00 1.0000E+00 3.0480E-01 9.2903E-02 8.3613E-01 6.4516E+02 2.5400E+01 2.5400E+01 2.8317E-02 7.6455E-01 3.7854E-03 1.5899E-01 2.3597E-03 Metric Notes Description MM M KM MESH M M2 M2 MM2 MM THK MM DIAM M3 M3 M3 M3 M3 Piping Diameters

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Attribute Description ICUNIT Icarus Internal Units of Measure identifier. (Continued) 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 BAGS cur/CY cur cur/LB LB LBS TONS LB/FT LB/YD cur/SF LB/BATCH LB/MMBTU PCF W/SF PSIG PSI IN H2O IN HG MM HG PSF LBF FT-LB IN/S FPM RPM MPH HERTZ RPM CFH CFM MINUTE TPD/SF GPM GPH LB/H TPH TPD CFM/SF V 4.5359E-01 7.5066E+00 1.6018E+01 1.0753E+01 6.8948E+00 6.8947E-03 2.4908E+02 3.3864E+00 1.3332E+02 4.7880E-02 4.4482E+00 1.3558E+00 2.5400E+00 1.8288E+01 1.0000E+00 1.6093E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 2.8317E-02 1.6990E+00 1.0000E+00 4.0689E-01 6.3090E-02 3.7854E-03 4.5359E-01 9.0718E-01 3.7799E-02 1.8288E+01 1.0000E+00 4.5359E-01 4.5359E-01 9.0718E-01 1.4882E+00 4.9605E-01 8.5275E-01 BAG-50KG cur/M3 cur cur/KG KG KG TONNE KG/M KG/M cur/M2 KG/BATCH KG/MW-HR KG/M3 W/M2 KPA PA PA KPA PA KN/M2 N N-M CM/S M/H RPM KM/H HERTZ RPM M3/H M3/H MINUTE TPH/M2 L/S M3/H KG/H TONNE/H TONNE/H M3/H/M2 V Country Based Motor RPM Vessel pressure Currency/Unit Area Currency Units/Unit Volume Currency Units Currency/Unit Weight

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Attribute Description ICUNIT Icarus Internal Units of Measure identifier. (Continued) 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 W A KV KW KA KVA HP MVA OHM-IN DEG F DEG F FC TONS-REF GPM/SF BTU/H/SF BTU/H BTU/LB MMBTU/H BTU/CF CPOISE CSTOKE BTU/LB/F DEGREE PERCENT GAUGE PAIR BWG LOOP(S) COATS wire size MCM AWG CUTS SECTION CLASS SPACES CIRCUITS CIRCUITS STAGES 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 7.4570E-01 1.0000E+00 2.5400E+00 1.0000E+00 5.5556E-01 1.0764E+01 3.5169E+00 6.7909E-01 3.1546E+00 2.9307E-01 2.3260E+00 2.9307E-01 3.7250E+01 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 4.1868E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 W A KV KW KA KVA HP MVA OHM-CM DEG C DEG C LUX KW L/S/M2 W/M2 W KJ/KG MEGAW KJ/M3 MPA-S MM2/S KJ/KG/K DEGREE PERCENT GAUGE PAIR BWG LOOP(S) COATS wire size MCM AWG CUTS SECTION CLASS SPACES CIRCUITS CIRCUITS STAGES Electrical Electrical Electrical Compressors Duct, HEX tubing Instrumentation HEX tubing Instrumentation Paint Electrical Electrical Electrical Piping Slope Temperature Temperature Difference Lighting Tons of Refrigeration Motor Power

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Attribute Description ICUNIT Icarus Internal Units of Measure identifier. (Continued) 96 97 98 99 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 IN IN DIA IN LG IN THK IN DP IN WD IN SZ IN HT IN WL FT FT DIA FT LG FT DP FT WD FT HT FT MHOLE HOURS WEEKS FLOORS EACH BAYS 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 2.5400E+01 2.5400E+01 2.5400E+01 2.5400E+01 2.5400E+01 2.5400E+01 2.5400E+01 2.5400E+01 2.5400E+01 3.0480E-01 3.0480E-01 3.0480E-01 3.0480E-01 3.0480E-01 3.0480E-01 3.0480E-01 1.0000E+00 1.0000E+00 MM MM DIA MM LG MM THK MM DP MM WD MM SZ MM HT MM WL M M DIA M LG M DP M WD M HT M MHOLE HOURS HOURS FLOORS EACH BAYS Buildings, Air Coolers Blank Units

Attribute INDDES INDHOURS INTREF ITEM ITEMDES

Description Indirects description. Either user-supplied or SYSTEM GENERATED. Indirect hours for this account. Internal reference identification. System-generated or user-defined description for this item (text, 24 characters) System-generated or user-defined description for this item (text, 28 characters).

INDAMOUNT Indirect cost for this account.

Attribute Description ITMCOD Item code: ITMCOD DESIGN 0 10 Other For equipment design data brief Description

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Attribute Description ITMCOD Item code: 11* 19 20 21* 30* 40 96 97 98 REMARKS 10 11 12 13 20 21 23 30 31 For equipment design data full (10 is a subset of 11 with the provision that it must be a design item) For driver power only (where applicable). For brief plant bulk, area bulk and area site development items For plant bulk items full For project site development items For library items Custom pipe specs Project or area data sheets For design and project estimate basis Equipment Items: For user's description For equipment symbol For first 2 lines of remarks For user's tag number Plant Bulk Items: For user's description For equipment symbol For first 2 lines of remarks Project Site Development: For user's description For equipment symbol

Attribute IUMVAL LCOST LCOSTRAT LHOURS LINELOOP LCODE LDESC

Description System value in internal Units of Measure. Does not apply when ICUNIT is 0 or 99 and may be incorrect for items containing costs. Field manpower cost for this item. Ratio of LCOST output to LCOST system. Field man-hours associated with this item. Piping line number (01 - 40) or instrument loop number (01 - 50). O if not applicable. Not assigned. Used in cost tracking programs to identify a category of labor costs. Not assigned. Used in cost tracking programs to describe a category of labor costs

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Attribute LOCID

Description Identifier to help qualify the part associated with this item (text, 8 characters). Examples: Piping Line 1 PLT AIR DRAINS Instrumentation LOOP 1 UNIV AIR SUP LOCAL Civil TYPE 15 Electrical MOTOR PUSHB FEEDER

MATL MCODE MCOST MCOSTRAT MDESC NOITEM NPCTnn

System material symbol characteristic of the material of construction for this item (text, 5 characters; e.g., "SS304"). Not assigned. Used in cost tracking programs to identify a category of material costs Material cost for this item. Ratio of MCOST output to MCOST system. Not assigned. Used in cost tracking programs to describe a category of material costs. Number of items in list. List item for number nn. For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. The CRWSCH relation includes nn for 1 to 12. The EQRENT relation incudes nn for 1 to 15. The CSTCTRL relation includes nn for 1.

ORIGIN

Responsible item for the data in this record (text, 6 characters). Example: CP 100 GRADE PIP001 USS110 (unit substation) DDT222 PAD CIV001 MSS001(main) BLD001 OPEN STL001 CTL 60 AREA EXOPEN INS001 SUBSTN (project testing - all substations) UT HDR MILBLD ELC001 UT STN INL001 PNT001 Parameter description (text, 32 characters). Flange class. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. A system-allocated code representing the portion of the project estimate to be percentaged, as follows. For IPM only. (In other systems, PCTOF is reserved for future use.

PARAM PCLASS PCTOF

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Attribute PCTOF

Description Description 1 Direct materials plus direct field labor costs 2 Direct material costs 3 Direct field labor cost 4 Direct material plus labor, and construction indirect costs 5 All project costs 6 Unit Cost Library Item(s) Booked to COA 1-48 7 Unit Cost Library Item(s) Booked to COA 49-98 8 Unit Cost Library Item(s) Booked to COA 99 Percentage value specified by the user. Custom piping spec. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen InPlant Cost Estimator only. Class of material for piping. PIPTYP Piping Material 0 Pipe labor 1 Carbon steel 2 Stainless steel 3 Titanium 5 Aluminum 6 Monel/Inconel 7 Copper 8 Hastelloy 9 Lined pipe, miscellaneous pipe Procurement Currency symbol for alternate material sources. System Property Name Property number used to describe the field description Quantity, used in conjunction with "UNITS" attribute. For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator and COST 3-digit component number. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator 4-digit internal reference number. Report group number. The value calculated when PERCENT is applied to the values, represented by PCTOF, where appropriate. Report group sequence (sub-group). In Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator: Display flag In Aspen Capital Cost Estimator: For concurrent scheduling within the project used for reporting and schedule tracking. Pipe schedule. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Number of shifts per day. For Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only.

PERCENT PIPSPC PIPTYP

PRCURC PROPNAM PROPNUM QUANT REFID

REPGRP RESULT RPGSEQ SCHAREA

SCHED SHIFTS

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Attribute SOURCE

Description Symbol used to characterize direct, subcontract or remote shop costs (text, 2 characters): SOURCE Description RS Remote shop IT User input total direct cost lM User input direct material costs lL User input direct manpower cost IS User input total subcontract cost SS User input direct costs, system-prepared subcontract cost ST User input subcontract total cost SM User input subcontract material cost SL User input subcontract manpower cost. Indicates structure to which the component is assigned. Subsidiary area number, within AREA. For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only.

STRUCTAG SUBAREA

Attribute SUBTYPE

Description For Equipment cost basis 0 System calculated 1 User specified 2 Remote shop paint For Piping type of valve or fitting 0 2 80 99 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 120 121 122 Other Remote shop paint Steam tracing Pipe 90 DEG elbow Flange Reducer (to next lower size) Tee Blind Union (also Couplings) Spectacle blind Strainer Threadolet Expansion joint Transition joint WYE for HDPE only Steam trap Clamp 45 DEG elbow Ferrule

- Continued on next page -

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Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute SUBTYPE continued Description For Piping type of valve or fitting - continued 123 Cross 124 Eccentric reducer 125 Hose adapter 126 Pipe adapter 127 Swivel joint 128 Caps 129 Screwable Plugs 130 Weldolet 131 Sockolet 201 Globe valve 202 Ball valve 203 Butterfly valve 204 Gate valve 205 Knife gate valve 206 Plug valve 207 Angle valve 208 Check valve 311 Rotameter 314 Meterrun 332 Vortex flow meter 333 Mag meter 334 Mass flow meter 390 Orifice flange-union 391 Orifice plate 401 Control valve GLO 402 On/off ball valve 403 Control valve BUO 411 Control valve GLP 412 Control valve BAP 413 Control valve BUP 421 Control valve ANO 422 Control valve ANP 423 Control valve DVS 424 Control valve TKS 431 Control valve (no reducers) 432 Control valve 433 3-way valve 434 Regulating valve 481 Slide gate on/off 482 Slide gate positioning 483 Diverter valve 501 TSV 502 Relief valve 503 Rupture disk 801 Victaulic coupl. - Continued on next page -

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Attribute Descriptions - continued

Attribute SUBTYPE continued

Description For Piping type of valve or fitting - continued 802 899 900 950 Insul. flange Vent/drain Gaskets Bolts

Attribute SUBTYPE continued

Description For Piping - Field Labor Subtype STRESS RELIEF FIELD ERECTION MISC FIELD FABRICATION CUT PIPE BEVEL PIPE WELD PIPE PIPE TESTING ERECT VALVES BOLT-UP CONNECTIONS FIELD X-RAY Bend Pipe threadolets weldolets JUMPER CONNECTIONS SWAGE AND WELD JACKET Shop Handling Small Pipe Cut & Thread Pipe 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

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Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute Description SUBTYPE - For Civil type of foundation Continued 0 Other 1 OCT+PROJ 2 OCTAGONL 3 PAVING 4 MASSPOUR 5S M BLOCK 6 LG BLOCK 7 PILECAP 8 CONDUIT 9 RING 10 BASIN 11 EL SLAB 12 COLM/BM 13 WALL 14 GRAD BM 15 PIER 16 FOOTING 17 BOX 18 SLAB GRD 30 Rectangular - Above grade and below grade concrete tanks, and tile chests 31 Cylindrical - Above grade and below grade concrete tanks, and tile chests 50 User defined excavation in Bulk Adjustment Civil entry 71 SHEET PILING 72 HPILE 80 User defined piles in Bulk Adjustment Civil entry or in Site Design. 81 RAYMOND 82 WOOD 83 PIPE 84 PRECAST 85 POURED 86 STEEL-H 87 CAISSON

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Attribute Descriptions - continued

Attribute

Description

SUBTYPE - For Civil type of foundation Continued For Civil Miscellaneous 30 Rectangular - Above grade and below grade concrete tanks, and tile chests 31 Cylindrical - Above grade and below grade concrete tanks, and tile chests 50 User defined excavation in Bulk Adjustment Civil entry Subtype Piling 88 FRANKI 89 AUGUR 2 11 12 13 For Steel Remote shop paint Remote shop CONC Fireproof Remote shop MAGN Fireproof Remote shop Pyrocrete FPR

For Electrical Type of wire/cable and cable termination

Where xx = position of the wire size in the Wire Sizes table. For example: Wire size 14 AWG is in Position 1 on the Wire Sizes table for US Country Base; therefore, a low voltage (LV) 14 AWG wire would be expressed as 101. Wire size 35 MM2 is in Position 8 on the Wire Sizes table for UK, JP, and EU Country Bases; therefore, a medium voltage (MV) 35MM2 wire would be expressed as 208. Note that the position of the wire size on the table is determined by counting down, not across.1xx Low voltage (LV) cable/wire2xx Medium voltage (MV) cable/wire3xx High voltage (HV) cable/wire4xx Control voltage (CV) cable/wire5xx Lighting (LT) cable/wire Type of wire/cable and cable termination 100 LV conduit 200 MV conduit 300 HV conduit 400 CV conduit 500 LT conduit 551 Low Voltage Feeder Cable - Lighting 552 Low Voltage Feeder Cable - Electrical Tracing - Continued on next page -

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Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute Description SUBTYPE - For Electrical (continued) Continued Type of termination 611 LV termination 612 MV termination 613 HV termination 614 CV termination 615 LT termination Cathode Protection 701 Bonding Station 702 Pipeline Cathodic Protection 703 Install Anode 704 Coke Breeze Backfill 705 Anode Bed Watering Pipe 706 Galvanic Anodes 707 Install Surface Casing 708 Anode Support Pipe 709 Termin Junction Box 710 Transformer/Rectifier 711 Solar Panels 712 Solar Panel Connection 713 Underground Cable 714 Potential Measure Test Station Tracing 800 Electrical tracing 801 Self-Regulating Heating Cable 811 Mineral Insulated Alloy 821 Tracing Panelboard 825 Heating Cable 831 Tracing Controller

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Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute Description SUBTYPE - For Instrumentation type of main loop component construction Continued continued 110 111 112 120 121 130 140 160 170 171 190 200 210 211 230 231 232 233 234 250 270 310 311 312 313 314 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 350 360 361 390 391 410 411 412 430 PI Gauge PI Gauge PI Draft PIT PT W/ Seal PIC Local PS Switch DPI Gauge DPIT DPT W/ Seal DPS Switch Testwell TE/TC TI Dial TT/TC TIT/FILL TT/RTD TT Wet Bulb TT Surface TIC Local TS Switch FI Gauge FI ROT FI DP Cell FQI FI Meterrun FIT DP Cell FIT W/O SEN FIT Vortex FIT Magnet. FIT Mass FL FIT Ultras FIT Turbine FIC Local FS Switch FQIS Orifice Flange Orifice Plate LI Gauge LI Gauge LI Bubbler LIT DP - Continued on next page -

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Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute Description SUBTYPE - For Instrumentation type of main loop component construction Continued continued 431 432 433 434 435 450 460 461 462 463 464 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 600 620 621 622 640 650 660 661 LIT Tape FL. LIT DISP LIT Ultras. LIT Nuclear LIT Radar LC DISP LS Wet LS Dry LS Vibrating LS Cond. LS CAP. AT (PH) AT (ORP) AT (O2) AET BTU Density Inst. Consistency AT%LEL AT H2S DET. AT CO2 AT VIST. AT Color AT Flame AT Cloud AT Smoke AT Flash AT Gravity AT Heating AT GC. AT H2&HC AT H2S PHY. AT HC AT H2S/SO2 AT Sulphur CT Conduct. W LD 4 Cell W LD 3 Cell W LD 6 Cell SIT SS XE Axial XE Radial - Continued on next page -

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Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute Description SUBTYPE - For Instrumentation type of main loop component construction Continued continued 670 680 681 690 691 700 701 710 720 740 999 XS VIB PNT Variable PNT ON/OFF PNS EL Position HIC Local HIC HSW BS Infrared Solenoid CV CNTRL VLV

For Insulation type of insulation or fireproofing 0 Other 1 CASIL (Hot insulation) 2 MWOOL 3 FOAM (Hot insulation) 4 FOAM (Cold insulation) 5 CWOOL 6 PURIF (Cold insulation) 7 PURIF (Hot insulation) 8 CASIL (Cold insulation) 11 CONC Fireproof 12 MAGN Fireproof 13 Pyrocrete FPR For Piping: Pipeline Note: For Cathodic Protection Subtypes, see Electrical 601 Haul pipe to R-O-W 602 Stringing pipe on R-O-W 603 Launcher 604 Receiver 605 Main road/RR crossing 606 Minor/Dirt road crossing 607 Clearing and Grading 608 Clean up R-O-W 609 R-O-W blasting 610 Build BERM through marsh 611 Build BERM on trench 613 Concrete Anchor, Weld Plate 614 Haul Concrete Pipe Support 615 String, Set Pipe Support 616 Ditch Blasting

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Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute Description SUBTYPE - For Piping: Pipeline Continued 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 643 644 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 Ditch, Sand & Softsoil Ditch, Rocky Soil Ditch, Weathered Shale Ditch, Weathered Rock Ditch, Hard Rock Rework after Blasting Rock Ditch By Hand Ditch Trimming Haul, Place Sand Haul Piles String Piles Drive Support Piles Drive Thrust Anchor Drive Deflection Anchor Drilled Piles Concrete Fill, Drilled Piles Cut Off Piles Anode Trench Surface Bed Vertical Anode Anode Surface Casing Drill Cased Anode Well Drill Uncased Anode Well Cement Plug Access Roads to R-O-W Concrete Valve Boxes Double Joint FBE External Coat Internal Coating Coating Inspection Line Up & Connect Pipe Tie-in Connection Line Up & Weld Tie-in Welds X-Ray Field Inspection Epxoy Shrink Sleeves Hydrotest Aerial KM Markers KM Markers Warning Signs Pipeline Vents Pipeline Drains Place Pipe in Support Lower In, Backfill, Clean Haul Ring Girder String Ring Girder

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Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute Description SUBTYPE - For Piping: Pipeline Continued 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 690 691 692 699 Dress & Grind Pile Head Weld Pipe Pile Cap Plate Weld Tee Weld Ring Girder Place Pipe In Support Install Insulation & Bolt Down Guide Bars for Tee Welding Miscellaneous Drains Relief Line Steel Support Shoes Steelwork Thrust Anchor Steelwork Deflection Anchor Solar Panel Steel Pipeline Instruments

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Attribute Descriptions - continued


Attribute SUMCODE TITLE TYPSCT UNIT UNITIN UNITS USERDES USERTAG VALUER Description Not assigned. Used in cost tracking programs to group costs into cost centers. Report group title. Type of data (1 = schedule, 2 = class). For Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator only. Unit of measure associated with numeric design value. Unit of measure associated with user specified design value. Units of measure associated with QUANT (ity) (text, 8 characters; for example, FEET, CY, M3). User specified description for component, installation material/manhour additions, installation pipe or installation instrumentation. Equipment component user tag or pipe specs if custom pipe specs are used. The value of the design parameter (PARAM) as a real number (useful in calculations). For parameter (PARAM) "ITEM TYPE", VALUER contains the number of items. Value of design parameters, as text. Value of design parameter specified by user as text. Weight of this item. Unit of measure associated with item weight (WGT) attribute (text, 4 characters; for example, "LBS ", "KG ").

VALUET VALUEU WGT WUNIT

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36 Icarus Technology

(G10)

This chapter contains information on the following topics: Introduction to Areas Area Specifications Report Groups Icarus Systems are Based on Craft Labor How Questimate Develops Material Costs Project Schedule Equipment Fabricate/Ship Items Barchart Report Format Equipment Procurement Schematic Process Control Overview of System Input Specifications for Power Distribution Power Distribution Mode of Supply and Distribution Power Distribution Components Redundancy Usage Instructions Reporting of Results Project Definition Workforce Construction Overhead - Prime Contractor Basis Contracts: Description/Scope

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Introduction to Areas
In Aspen Capital Cost Estimator and Aspen Process Economic Analyzer, areas can be defined as a way to describe the construction methodology that prevails for that section of the project. Specifications are defined for each area. These specifications include mechanical design specifications for each of the major accounts along with dimensions and indexing.

Reasons for Areas


Areas are defined for the following reasons: Cost accounting: Project components arranged into areas are easier to review. Many of the cost reports are arranged by area. Site conditions: Different sections of the plant site may contain different site conditions. The user can define these site conditions, such as soil type, instrumentation type, electrical class and division, or area type (on-grade, in-steel, and so on.), in the area specifications. As a result, the site conditions will impact the area bulk quantities, costs, and man-hours developed for an area. Contractor assignments: As contractors and contractors scope of work (CONSETs) are defined, areas are then assigned to the defined scope of work. Areas can affect the flexibility of assigning work to contractors. For example, if different contractors are responsible for above grade and below grade piping, each of these can be defined in separate areas and assigned to the appropriate contractors. Without these being defined in separate areas, it would be impossible to assign above grade and below grade pipe to different contractors. Process control and power distribution: Once the user defines the major process control and power distribution elements in the estimate, the user must assign areas to defined control centers and unit substations. For example, the total instrumentation developed for an area would be used to size that areas Control Center. Details of process control and power distribution are developed and reported in the last area sections of the Detailed Bulk report and Area Bulk section of the Equipment List report for the last area. It is suggested that users define one last area as an OFFSITES/PROCESS & POWER area to separate the numerous details developed for Process Control and Power Distribution from all other detail. Importing: When defining areas, keep in mind that whole areas and their components can be imported into other projects with matching country base, currency and units of measure. Checklist areas can be created as a way to prevent from forgetting typical project components in a new project estimate. An example of this would be a steelwork Checklist Area that would include all typical sitework items. Once imported into a project, sitework items that are not needed in a project would be deleted and design specifications for the different sitework components would be revised.

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36 Icarus Technology (G10)

Area Types
There are several different area types to select from. Each area type has its own set of default area bulks that will be developed. The different area types that may be defined are: On-Grade (with or without concrete pad). This is the default area type. By default the system develops the following bulks for an on-grade area: Perimeter lights every 50 feet. Lights are supplied from 1 or more area panelboards, supplied from a disconnect switch in the MCC for this area. A ground grid the length of the perimeter. A concrete pad will be developed based on the dimensions of the area if the PAD option is selected.

Open-Steel (OPEN) The following area bulks will be developed for an OPEN type area: A multi-level, open-steel structure developed based on the dimensions of the area. One in-steel level for every 15 feet [4.5 M] of height. 75% of each level is floor grating for steel structure and concrete slab for concrete structure, with perimeter toe-plate and handrail. Pendant lights supplied from a local panelboard developed just to supply the lights in the structure. Structural members are sized for both dead and live loads based on the weight of equipment hung in the structure. See section below for information on hanging equipment. Note: Equipment items that are hung lose their foundations and support steel is provided to tie the item into the structure. Bracing is provided according to wind and seismic requirements. A ground grid the length of the perimeter.

Open-Structure (OPEN) Open structure type can be steel, pre-cast concrete, or cast-in-place concrete. Steel is the default structure type. The following area bulks will be developed for an OPEN type area: A multi-level, open-steel structure developed based on the dimensions of the area. One in-steel level for every 15 feet [4.5 M] of height. 75% of each level is floor grating for steel structure and concrete slab for concrete structure, with perimeter toe-plate and handrail. Pendant lights supplied from a local panelboard developed just to supply the lights in the structure. Structural members are sized for both dead and live loads based on the weight of equipment hung in the structure. See section below for information on hanging equipment. Note: Equipment items that are

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hung lose their foundations and support steel is provided to tie the item into the structure. Bracing is provided according to wind and seismic requirements. A ground grid the length of the perimeter.

Existing Open-Steel (EX-OPEN) The following area bulks are developed for an EX-OPEN type area: All bulks that were developed for the OPEN type area will be developed except for the OPEN STEEL STRUCTURE as it is assumed to exist. Support steel is provided.

Logic for Hanging Equipment Equipment Loaded Automatically Loaded when Skirt/ Leg is set to 0

Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger Horizontal Tank Thermosiphon reboiler Other reboilers Agitated Tank Double-Diam. Tower Packed Tower Trayed Tower Vertical Tank All Others (pumps, and so on)
Module

Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No or N/A No or N/A

See also: Chapter 20: Steel - Logic for Hanging Equipment in Steel Structures These area bulks are developed for a MODULE type area: A SKID (flat base structural model) module is developed by default or the user can select from the following module types: - Cylindrical 1-b