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COMMUNICATION:Communication is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing,

or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more living creatures. Communicating with others involves three primary steps: Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or feelings. Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols. Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand. Although this is a simple definition, when we think about how we may communicate the subject becomes a lot more complex. There are various categories of communication and more than one may occur at any time. The different categories of communication are:Spoken or Verbal Communication:- Face-to-face, telephone, radio or television or other media. Verbal communication occurs when a person puts across their message by speaking. The person sending the message is expected to be able to convey a message which clearly expresses all of their feelings, needs, wants, dreams, hopes, messages, values, beliefs and thoughts using the English language that we have available to us. The receiver has to be able to listen to the information, understand all that that was communicated to them, and, if need be, act upon any part of the message.If the receiver misunderstands the message, the sender can get upset and feel like they are not being listened to. This can cause friction, tension, conflict, even anger. To avoid misunderstandings, the receiver of the message needs to be skilled enough to know how to understand the sender of the message. This is when reflective listening can be of great assistance. The tone, pitch, volume, timbre and speed of your voice has a significant impact on how the message you are trying to get across to someone is actually received by them. Non-Verbal Communication:- Body language, gestures, how we dress or act - even our scent. The, non-verbal communication is very important.There are different types of non-verbal communication which include but are not restricted to: Body language Physical characteristics and appearance Personal space Environment Body language Body language is the way that we communicate most, if not all, our non-verbal communication. One of the main parts of our body used for non-verbal communication is our face which is very expressive and can communicate many different emotions without the use of words (eg. happiness, sadness, anger, shock). Other parts of the body, such as our arms, legs, hands, fingers, can also be used to communicate (e.g. hugging, pointing, giving directions). Sometimes it is how we choose to use our body that lets others know how we are feeling. For example, if we hit, kick, punch, or pinch someone then we are definitely conveying a very strong message to that person. Our non-verbal communication can either encourage or discourage open channels of communication. Physical appearance The unfortunate reality is that a lot of people judge us by our physical appearance. Our body shape and size, hair, clothing, hygiene, how we hold our self and our persona all communicate something about us. These factors will all influence how people communicate with us. Think about it for a moment - how might you talk to someone who is homeless and living on the streets in ragged clothes? How do you talk to your friends, those people who are very similar to you, and you hang out with a lot? Our physical appearance really does communicate a lot about us and can influence how others communicate with us.

Personal space Personal space refers to the distance that you put between yourself and another person when you are talking to them. Generally one of two messages are being sent, either I want you to be close to me or I want you to keep your distance. There are four settings where personal space can influence the communication that can take place. public - distance in a public meeting. social - distance when speaking to strangers including work colleagues. personal - distance when speaking to someone of equal status. intimate - distance when allowing personal contact and closeness. Environment Here I am referring to the spaces we live, learn or work in or use on a daily basis for sport or other activities. The environment can really affect the way communication is taken or understood. The way a room is organised, the colour, temperature, ventilation and smells all affect communication. The environment can have both a positive and negative effect on you. The message you send is not necessarily the one the other person will receive and respond to. There are three ways we can guard against this sort of distortion. If you are sending a message: 1. Be aware of what you want to say. Especially be aware of what you are feeling about your partner or the situation. 2. Use I messages. That is, say what you want or feel, rather than make a statement about your partner. That way, your partner is more likely to listen to you without feeling attacked. 3. Use reflective listening to clarify any misunderstandings, and to check to see if you have the correct meaning of the other persons message that they are trying to send to you. Written Communication:- Letters, e-mails, books, magazines, the Internet or via other media. Visualizations:- Graphs, charts, maps, logos and other visualizations can communicate messages.

FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION:Communication serves four major functions within a group or organization: Control, motivation, emotional expression, and information.

Communication acts to control member behavior in several ways. Organizations have authority hierarchies and formal guidelines that employees are required to follow. When employees, for instance, are required to first communicate any job related grievance to their immediate boss, to follow their job description, or to comply with company policies, communication is performing a control function. But informal communication also controls behavior. When work

groups tease or harass a member who produces too much and makes the rest of the group look bad, they are informally communicating with, and controlling, the members behavior. Communication fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what is to be done, how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance if its subpar. We saw this operating in our review of goal setting and reinforcement theories. The formation of specific goals, feedback on progress toward the goals, and reinforcement of desired behavior all stimulate motivation and require communication. For many employees, their work group is a primary source for social interaction. The communication that takes place within the group is a fundamental mechanism by which members show their frustrations and feelings of satisfaction. Communication, therefore, provides a release for the emotional expression of feelings and for fulfillment of social needs. The final function that communication performs relates to its role in facilitating decision making. It provides the information that individuals and groups need to make decisions by transmitting the data to identify and evaluate alternative choices. The communication Process:Before communication can take place, a purpose, expressed as a message to be conveyed is needed. It passes between a sender and a receiver. The message is encoded (converted to a symbolic form) and passed by way of some medium (channel) to the receiver, who retranslates (decodes) the message initiated by the sender. The result is transference of meaning from one person to another. The key parts of this model are: (1) the sender, (2) encoding, (3) the message, (4) the channel, (5) decoding, (6) the receiver, (7) noise, and (8) feedback. The sender initiates a message by encoding a thought. The message is the actual physical product from the senders encoding. When we speak the speech is the message. When we write, the writing is the message. When we gesture, the movements of our arms and the expressions on our faces are the messages. The channel is the medium through which the message travels. It is selected by the sender, who must determine whether to use a formal or informal channel. Formal channels are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members. They traditionally follow the authority chain within the organization. Other forms of messages, such as personal or social, follow the informal channels in the organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and merge as a response to individual choices. The receiver is the object to whom the message is directed. But before the message can be received, the symbols in it must be translated into a form that can be understood by the receiver. This step is the decoding of the message. Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message. Examples of possible noise sources include perceptual problems, information overload, semantic difficulties or culture differences. The final link in the communication process is a feedback loop. Feedback is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended. It determines whether understanding has been achieved.

Important characteristics of communication are as follows:-

1. Specific objectives: Every work of human being should be specific objective oriented. Aimless work or communication cannot bear any fruitful result. So, the communicator should aware of the objective of communication clearly. 2. Message or information: Message is the set of symbols that the sender transmits to the receiver through the media. It is content of the interaction between sender and receiver. Characteristics of communication. 3. Two or more person/parties: Generally, communication is the two-way process. It happens between or among two or more parties (sender and receiver). Employees need the opportunity to share their feedback, opinions and thoughts with managers and employers. Characteristics of communication. 4.Use of media/channel: Without media or channel message of communication are not possible to send to the receiver. But all media are not equally effective. Suitable media should be selected each time while sending any message. Characteristics of communication. 5.Noise/Barriers: Noise is an interruption or disturbance to the message sent in the communication processes that distort the meaning of the message. Characteristics of communication. 6.Two-way trafficCommunication is a two-way traffic. It is a cooperative process involving two persons. One person cannot communicate. Message, directions, opinions etc . are communicated downward i.e., from superior to subordinates while grievances, complaints, opinions etc. are communicated upward i.e., from subordinates to superior. 7.Proper UnderstandingThere may be numerous medias of communication but the main purpose of conveying the message is the proper understanding of message by others. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:Communication through words may be in writing or oral. Written communication entails transmission of message. It mainly consists of diagrams, pictures, graphs, etc. Reports, policies, rules, orders, instructions, agreements, etc have to be conveyed in written form for proper functioning of the organization. To be effectual, written communication should be understandable, brief, truthful and comprehensive. The main advantages and disadvantages of written communication are as follows: Merits of written communication It ensures transmission of information in uniform manner. It provides a permanent record of communication for future reference. It is an idealistic way of conveying long messages. It ensures little risk of unauthorized alteration in the message. It tends to be comprehensive, obvious and accurate. It is well suited to express messages to a large number of persons at the same time. It can be quoted as legal evidence in case of any disputes. Demerits of written communication It is costly and time consuming. It becomes difficult to maintain privacy about written communication. It is rigid and doesnt provide any scope for making changes for inaccuracies that might have crept in. It is very formal and lacks personal touch. It may be represented in a different way by different people.

HOW TO CREATE A PROFESSIONAL RESUME:Your resume needs to be professional and polished, because if you don't have a professional resume, your application materials probably won't get a second glance from any hiring manager. Use the Best Resume for Your Situation There are several basic types of resumes used to apply for job openings. Depending on your personal circumstances, choose a chronological, a functional, combination, or a targeted resume. Taking the time to target your resume is well worth the effort. Use Resume Writing Resources Here's resume writing advice, cover letters for resumes, how to write a resume, resume posting, resume services, and resume writing tips. Review Professional Resume Formats, Templates and Samples Resume samples that fit a variety of employment situations. These sample resumes and templates provide job seekers with examples of resume formats that will work for almost every job seeker Get Creative Use one of these free resume websites to create an online resume that includes all the facets of a traditional resume, with add-ons like video, images, and links to your accomplishments. Check Your Resume This resume checklist includes the information you need to include on your resume. Use the checklist to make sure you have included all relevant information in your resume. Proof Your Resume Review these proofing guidelines to ensure that your resume is consistent and error free. Get Resume Help Writing a resume is hard work and it's important to get help, or at least have your resume reviewed, before you send it to employers. Here's more information on where to find resume help.

TOP 10 RESUME MISTAKES:Misspellings and grammatical errors are killers. Spell check then proofread by placing a finger on each word and then have your document reviewed by a career coach or a friend or family member. It's hard to catch your own mistakes, so having someone else read your resume for you will help. Reading it out loud is another option for catching mistakes. Not including keywords that match the job posting. Your resume should include the same keywords that appear in the job listing. If your resume doesn't have the right keywords, it most likely won't get noticed because you won't appear to be a fit for the job. An outdated resume will make you look obsolete. Your resume should be updated for every job you apply for. Be sure to update your skills section as well as your work history. Check to be sure that the computer, and the other, skills you list are current. Including too much information. Don't tell your readers everything about each job. Focus on the highlights; keep your document to 1 - 2 pages in cases outside of academic and research settings. Use formatting techniques like bullets and short paragraphs to enhance readability. Limit your resume to the last 10 - 15 years of work experience. You don't need to include everything you ever did. Writing a resume objective which doesn't match the job. Avoid using an objective statement which doesn't correspond well with the focus of the target job. Many job seekers now leave an objective off their resume or use a profile instead. If you include either, make sure it underscores your interest in the type of work for which you are applying. Including a career summary that doesn't match the job requirements. Don't use a mismatched summary of qualifications at the top of your resume. Your key assets in the summary should match many of the key job requirements or else leave it off. Writing position descriptions that don't show what you accomplished. Avoid job descriptions which simply list your duties or responsibilities. Instead write active statements which showcase relevant skills and accomplishments. Make sure the employer can easily see how you added value in your role. Leading your paragraphs with mundane or irrelevant duties. Start with the hardest hitting statement which shows that you have key skills related to the job at hand. Otherwise your reader might just skim by that description. Not quantifying accomplishments. Avoid empty self-congratulatory phrases by quantifying accomplishments or providing other concrete evidence to support your assertions. Being too modest. Share any awards or recognition you have received in a matter-of-fact manner i.e. "Promoted to associate director after increasing annual donations by 25%."

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THE STRUCTURE OF AN EFFECTIVE RESUME:The key to creating a high-impact resume is to look at the document from the employers point of view. From this point of view, the purpose of the resume review is to screen out applicants who dont fit the job requirements. Your objective is not to include anything that will get your resume stacked on the "rejects". A resume typically has three main sections: Introduction, Background, and Supporting Information (you can find a complete example of a well structured resume at in the Appendix). Lets look at each of these three in more detail. The Introduction The Introduction is like the headline of your personal ad. Usually, the Introduction has its own three sections: Heading, Job Objective, and Highlights. Heading The Heading is as brief as it is important, in that it lays out your contact information. The Heading typically includes the following:

Name Address Email contact information Phone number Web page (optional)

Job Objective There is a case to be made for and against including an explicitly stated Job Objective as a section in the Introduction. An explicit Job Objective can demonstrate better alignment with some jobs, clarify your interests, and alert the reader to your key qualifications. On the other hand, an explicit Job Objective can narrow your options if its not completely aligned with the job in question, and can send the wrong message to the reader, especially if the Job Objective is vague or unclear. A well-written Job Objective describes the kind of job you want in terms of:

The industry you want to work in The chemical discipline you want to specialize in The role you would like to play.

An example of a well-written Job Objective might sound something like this: "A position as an organic chemist taking advantage of my knowledge of medicinal chemistry and organic synthesis." Highlights You can think about the Highlights as the executive summary of your resume. You will also see the Highlights section referred to as Accomplishments or Key Qualifications. This section of the resume guides the readers attention as he or she reviews the resume, brings some of your skills or experiences to the forefront, and offers you the chance to present the "entire package." Here are some well-written examples of a Highlights section:

"Experienced in the synthesis, purification and characterization of organic compounds." "Skilled in identifying and preparing novel materials for use in fuel cells." "Adept at preparing fuel cells having high efficiency and extended shelf-life." "Originated techniques for detecting energy loss sites in photo-electric membranes."

The Background The Background section is the "body" of the resumeits the longest section. The most important information in the Background section is your education and your previous research and work experience. You always lead with your strongest material, so work experience should come first if youve been in the work force for a time. Otherwise, lead with education. Education

List degrees in reverse chronological order Format: degree, field, university, location, year For graduate degrees, list thesis title and name of advisor

Work experience

List positions in reverse chronological order Separate post-doc and thesis research Format: Dates, position title, organization, key accomplishments State accomplishments concisely: Begin with a verb, then describe impact or results.

Other relevant skills Toward the end of the Background section, you can mention any other skills you have that are relevant to the Job Objective youve described. For chemistry professionals, those skills might include things like special techniques, instrumentation, unusual computer programs, or languages. The Background The Background section is the "body" of the resumeits the longest section. The most important information in the Background section is your education and your previous research and work experience. You always lead with your strongest material, so work experience should come first if youve been in the work force for a time. Otherwise, lead with education. Education

List degrees in reverse chronological order Format: degree, field, university, location, year For graduate degrees, list thesis title and name of advisor

Work experience

List positions in reverse chronological order Separate post-doc and thesis research Format: Dates, position title, organization, key accomplishments State accomplishments concisely: Begin with a verb, then describe impact or results.

Other relevant skills Toward the end of the Background section, you can mention any other skills you have that are relevant to the Job Objective youve described. For chemistry professionals, those skills might include things like special techniques, instrumentation, unusual computer programs, or languages. THE SUPPORTING INFORMATION:The third and final section of the resume presents your Supporting Information. This information is not be in the body of the resume because it would interrupt the readers "flow" through your resume. Publications List publications using accepted citation protocol. State number of publications in peer-reviewed journals, U.S. patents granted, and presentations. Awards Include name of award, date, granting organization, effort acknowledged. Presentations List the presentations you have made to professional associations and other meetings, with the title of the presentation, the organization, and the date. Again, use reverse chronological order. Professional affiliations Mention volunteer positions in professional organizations (like ACS), and "non-scientific" activities that demonstrate leadership and skills relevant to your job search. References Many experts recommend against including references on your resume, because some employers contact references

before talking with you. If you identify references, contact potential references ahead of time and select only strong advocates, send a copy of your resume to each reference, and provide them regular updates on your job search. What Not to Include What not to include in a resume is often as important as what to include. You want to leave out information about age, marital status, number of children, religion or political party affiliation, national origin, past salary history, and hobbies (except one reflecting an exceptional skill) because its against the law in the United States for employers to discriminate based on these attributes. ORAL COMMUNICATION:Oral Communication is the ability to talk with others to give and exchange information & ideas, such as: ask questions, give directions, coordinate work tasks, explain & persuade. How we use this skill

greeting people and taking messages reassuring, comforting or persuading seeking information & resolving conflicts facilitating or leading a group

When messages or information is exchanged or communicated is orally is called oral communication. It is word based communication system but in oral form. Most of the time, we use oral communication. Executive spend 60 to 90 percent of their time talking to people. Face to face conversations, group discussions, counseling, interview, radio, television, telephone calls etc. is used to express meaning in oral communication. Some definitions of oral communication are as follows: According to Ricky W. Griffin, Oral communication takes place in face-to-face conversations, group discussions, telephone calls and other circumstances in which spoken word is used to express meaning. According to Bovee and others, Oral communication expresses ideas through the spoken word. According to S. K. Kapur, Oral communication takes place when spoken words are used to transfer information and understanding form on person to another. 9 TIPS FOR A GREAT INTERVIEW:You have just been invited to an interview with your dream company. It does not matter where you went to school, the number of degrees you may hold, the experience you have or whom you know; if you are unable to do the nterview successfully, you will not get the job. Try following the tips below and you will not only be well prepared but also present yourself as a true professional. 1. Research the Company Do your homework, e.g. go to the company's website and read about their vision, mission, strategy, products, finances, departments, competitive advantages, competitors etc.etc. If the company does not have a web presence look them up at the library, call the Chambers of Commerce, and find out everything you can about them. 2. Prepare your Introduction & Key points The introductory speech is your two minute opportunity to enlighten the interviewer about yourself and what you have to offer.

- Be prepared to talk about any career changes you may have had. - Make a list of your main strengths and the things you are currently working on towards your professional growth, with examples of each. - Be also prepared to talk about your weaknesses and how you are trying to overcome them. Smile, be natural and speak with confidence. Practice in front of the mirror if necessary. 3. Identify Achievements Employers want to know how hiring you will make their organisation better and contribute to their overall success. (Assuming you did your homework as suggested in point 1 you can offer examples of innovations, process improvements or revenue saving ideas that may be of interest). 4. Dress for Success The way you dress makes a statement about yourself. Avoid bright colours and loud jewellery. Regardless of the job that you are applying for, it is a good idea to wear a neat and clean suit, even in a casual business environment. 5. Good Timekeeping is Essential Arrive at least 15 minutes early for your appointment. Besides ensuring you are not rushed, use this time to learn more about the company . Observe the company's employees as you sit in the lobby. How do they look? Do they greet one another and say hello to you? Are they smiling and happy or frazzled and frustrated? 6. Engage in a Dialogue Remember, a conversation is a two-way exchange. Be curious and ask lots of questions to get a good understanding of how the company, department and management operate. Ask about the job responsibilities and company culture, e.g. Employee Recognition Programmes, opportunities for Personal and Professional development, current and future challenges of the position, etc. etc. 7. Be Open and Honest When responding to the employer's questions, tell the truth! If you made a mistake, say it in a positive way, accept responsibility for it, and explain how you have benefited from the experience & what you have learnt. Do not pretend to be something that you are not, it will not work! 8. Do not talk Salary or Benefits The goal is to get as many options going as possible so do not talk about compensation at this stage, as it can be a knockout factor. Sell to the employer all that you can do for them. If they are interested they will make an offer and it is at that stage that you start negotiating those issues. 9. Take Responsibility! Remember, 50% of the responsibility for the right job match is yours. You are interviewing the employer just as they are interviewing you. After all if you are selected, you will be spending at least half of your waking day in this environment. So ensure that this is what you really want!

Tips to crack tricky questions

Tip 1. Be relaxed, authentic and confident Just relax. Why should you relax? Because, you have educational qualification, training and experience to work in your favor. Therefore, take a deep breath and remember the achievements you did in your past job. Recall the value you provided to your past employer. Be confident about your worthiness to be selected for the job position. Who knows you may even be overqualified for the job position. Tip 2. You are interviewing the interviewer too! It is true that you are going to be tested by the employer. But, at the same time, you are going to test the employer too; it is your chance as well to ensure whether the employer's work culture fits in with what your personal values are. Interviewing is not a one-way affair. One of the most important tips, therefore, is be ready to ask questions from the interviewer as well. By asking questions, you will weigh your options and know what you are actually getting into. Tip 3. Prepare yourself, know the whereabouts of the company Doing some research about the employer plays a key role in being successful at interviews. And how do you show your sincere interest in the company you have applied to? You can show your interest in the employer by knowing about its whereabouts. So, one of the most important job interview tips is to go to the company's website, know about its services and the industry in which it operates. By doing some research about the employer's business, you will not only make a well informed decision about taking a job position there but will also be in a strong position to answer related questions and ask questions that you may have about the employer and its services. Tip 4. Let the pressure go...there are more options A job interview is not a contest or a do-or-die situation. There are many more jobs you can apply for and get interviewed. So, take the pressure off you. If you are going to attend an interview it does not mean it is the only option. Much better job opportunities may be waiting just round the corner. Tip 5. Be honest, don't be shy speaking of your weaknesses Everyone of us has some strong points as well as weaknesses. While being interviewed by the interviewer, speak with honesty. By being honest, you will be able to find a career that best suits your skills and abilities. However, when you tell the employer about your weakness, also tell them how you overcome those weak points. Tip 6. Prepare a list of your achievements to tell the interviewer Advance preparation is key to becoming successful in job interviewing. Before you appear at the venue, be advised to prepare a list of the qualities and skills you possess and achievements you have made in the past. When the interviewer offers you to express your thoughts, you can use this opportunity to your benefit. You can then speak of your accomplishments and achievements that you made in your past job. Speak about how you can bring value to the employer. Tip 7. Prepare a list of intelligent questions you want to ask Recall the gaps where your last employer fell short. Prepare some questions regarding this. In addition, get ready with some intelligent questions or things you would like to know about this employer. When provided the opportunity, ask the questions to remove doubts and confusions that you may have about the company. By asking these questions from the interviewer, you will not only show your enthusiasm to work for the company but will also ensure that this is the right job you are looking for. Tip 8. Find out who the interviewer is Another important piece of advice is to know who you are interviewing with. Is it the head of the Human Resources? Or is it the boss or the Head of the Department? If it is the Human Resource head, expect to be asked general interview questions. While answering, talk about your career history, personal values, working style etc. If it is the Head of the Department, you can ask questions like what your day-to-day job responsibilities would be and what the demand of the job position is.

Tip 9. A quick mini-visualization in advance would work well Create a quick picture of how you want the interview to happen and what ideal outcome you want from it. As per your intentions, do a quick mini visualization of the entire procedure. Be ready what qualities you would like to express during the job interview to beat out the competition. Visualize closing the interview with a warm smile and a firm handshake. Tip 10. Dress appropriately What does dressing appropriately means? It means you look professionals, show your personality and dress in regard to the job you have applied for. Remember, you will create your first impression by what you look like when you reach the venue of the interview. Right from head to toe, you should look put together and cleaned up.