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CHAP 8 : SALT

Preparation of Soluble Salts

Soluble salts

Method 1 Method 2
Neutralisation Process Acid + Metal  Salt +H2
Acid + Alkali  Salt +H2O Method 3
Titration Process Acid + Metal Oxide  Salt +H2O
Procedure Method 4
-3
1. Fill burette with 2.0 mol dm acid Acid + Metal Carbonate  Salt +H2O + CO2
(can be HCl, HNO3 or H2SO4)
2. Record initial burette reading. Procedure
3. Using pipette to transfer 25.0 of 1.
3 -3
Pour 50 cm of 2.0 mol dm acid (can
-3
2.0 mol dm alkali (can be NaOH, be HCl, HNO3, H2SO4) into a beaker.
KOH or NH4OH) solution in conical 2. The acid heated gently
flask. 3. Add he metal powder bit a bit into the
4. Add two to three drops of acid until some of it no longer
indicator(phenolphthalein or dissolves.
methyl orange). 4. The contents are filtered to remove
5. Slowly adding the acid into conical the excess of metal powder.
flask and swirl the conical flask. 5. Gently heat the solution to produce
Continue adding until the indicator saturated solution.
change from pink to colourless 6. Allow the saturated solution to cool it
(phenolphthalein). to room temperature to crystalize it.
6. Record the final burette reading. 7. Filter out the crystals
Determine the volume of acid 8. Dry the crystals by pressing between a
3
used, V cm . few pieces of filter paper/ or can be
3 -3
7. Pipette 25.0 cm of 2.0 mol dm of dry in oven.
the same alkali into conical flask.
Do not add indicator.
3 -3 Note :
8. Add V cm of 2.0 mol dm nitric
Method 2 only can be used to prepared
acid into the conical flask. Magnesium Salts, Aluminium Salts, Zinc Salts
9. Pour the contents into evaporating and Iron Salts.
dish.
10. Gently heat the solution to Method 3 and 4 can be used to prepared all
produce saturated solution. soluble salts other than Sodium Salts,
11. Allow the saturated solution to Potassium Salts and Ammonium Salts
cool it to room temperature to
crystalize it.
12. Filter out the crystals
13. Dry the crystals by pressing
between a few pieces of filter Example :
paper/ or can be dry in oven. Preparation Sodium Chloride salts
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O (method 1)

Note : Preparation Magnesium Sulphate salts


Method 1 can be use only for preparation Mg + H2SO4  MgSO4 + H2 (method 2)
Sodium Salts, Potassium Salts and
Ammonium Salts
Preparation Copper (II) Sulphate salts
CuO + H2SO4  CuSO4 + H2O (method 3)

Preparation Calcium Nitrate salts


CaCO3 + 2HNO3  Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2 (method 4)

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CHAP 8 : SALT

Preparation of Insoluble Salts

Insoluble salts

Method 1
PRECIPITATION REACTION

Definition : Reaction that involve two different aqueous


solutions mutually exchange their ions to produce
insoluble salts

Example :
Formation of Barium Sulphate, BaSO4
Solution required :
1. Solution that contains Ba2+ ions (BaCl2)
2. Solutions that contains SO42- ions (Na2SO4/H2SO4)

BaCl + Na2SO4  BaSO4 + 2NaCl

For ionic equation : Ba2+ + SO42-  BaSO4

Procedure :
1. Measure 50 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 Barium chloride and
pour into beaker.
2. Add 50 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 Sodium sulphate into the
beaker.
3. Stir the mixture with glass rod.
4. Filter the mixture and rinse the precipate with distilled
water.
5. Dry the residue (precipate BaSO4) between a few pieces
of filter paper.

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