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REPORT

Date Version No

20 January 2011

Energy consumption in the pulp and paper industry - Model mills 2010 Integrated fine paper mill

F-ENGINEERING AB Market Area Forest Industry

Forsk Reference: 09-163

F-Engineering AB
Frsundaleden 2, SE-169 99 Stockholm, Sweden. Phone +46 10 505 00 00. Fax +46 10 505 00 10. www.afconsult.com VAT No SE556224801201. Registered office Stockholm.
http://km.afconsult.com/projects/10090/documents/reports/fine paper/fine paper final.docx

Contents
Page 1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7.1 3.8 3.9 3.9.1 3.9.2 3.9.3 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.13.1 3.13.2 3.13.3 3.13.4 3.13.5 3.13.6 3.13.7 3.13.8 3.13.9 3.13.10 3.13.11 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 4 INTRODUCTION MODEL MILL - OVERVIEW General Design Criteria Mill production and capacity Energy systems and balances MODEL MILL PROCESS DESCRIPTION Wood Supply Woodyard Digester Brownstock deknotting and screening Oxygen delignification Pulp washing Bleaching System closure and degree of bleach plant filtrate recovery Chlorine dioxide generation Evaporation Handling of condensates Handling of non-condensable gases Tall oil recovery Recovery boiler Causticizing Lime kiln Paper Mill Capacity Stock preparation Bleached kraft supply Broke system Mixing/machine chest Filler supply Short circulation Paper machine Fresh water system White water system and buffer volumes Energy aspects of the paper machine Power boiler Steam turbines and steam distribution Cooling and recovery of low-temperature heat Effluent treatment Spill handling system Water supply and treatment MODEL MILL - ENERGY BALANCE 5 6 6 6 9 13 13 13 13 15 15 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 21 21 23 24 25 25 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 30 30 30 32 33 33 34 35 36 38

5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 5.1.6 5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 5.1.10 5.2 6

COMPARISON OF MODEL MILL AND TYPICAL MILL41 Type mill process description 43 Digester 43 Oxygen stage 44 Pulp washing 44 Bleaching 44 Paper machine 45 Evaporation 46 Recovery boiler 46 Lime kiln 47 Power boiler 47 Steam turbines and steam distribution 47 Energy balance comparison Model mill vs type mill 48 REFERENCES 53

Appendices
Appendix 1 Model mill - Mass balance block diagrams Appendix 2 Model mill - Energy balances Appendix 3 Model mill Secondary heat balance

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1 Introduction
The purpose of this Forsk financed study is to update the hypothetical reference mills developed in the 2005 FRAM project to reflect the technical changes that have occurred in recent years. The main emphasis in this study is on the technical changes which have affected energy consumption and production. Four different types of pulp and paper mills are considered: Bleached market kraft pulp mills one softwood mill (pine), and two hardwood mills (birch and eucalyptus) Integrated fine paper mill, with the pulp mill producing softwood and hardwood pulp in campaigns Kraftliner mill Magazine paper mill, bleached super calendered (SC) TMP

There was no eucalyptus kraft pulp mill in the FRAM project, but such a mill has been included in this study. Each of the reference mills from the FRAM project has been reviewed by F. The kraft pulp mills have also been reviewed by Innventia. Modifications made in this study are based on F/Innventia experience with existing mills, and in some cases data from the major mill equipment suppliers. Material and energy balances have been calculated for the 2010 model mill using spreadsheet models developed by F. The FRAM project also included type mills which represented typical, existing Nordic mills. To help highlight potential energy improvements in existing mills, the type mill is included here for comparison to the model mill. The type mills in this study are identical to the type mills from the FRAM project, In the FRAM project the energy consumption of the type mills considered data from a survey of energy consumption and production in the Swedish pulp and paper industry which was conducted in 2000. This survey was updated in 2007, and indicated that the main development in the existing Nordic pulp and paper mills between 2000 and 2007 has been an increase in cogenerated power, and an increase in biofuel usage.

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2 Model mill - overview


2.1 General Design Criteria
The integrated fine paper mill produces softwood and hardwood pulp in campaigns in the pulp mill. The pulp mill is similar to the bleached kraft market pulp mills in this study except for the dryer and paper machine parts. The mill design is based on best available and commercially proven technology in the Nordic countries. The design of the mill considers: high, consistent paper quality which is competitived on the international market the product is elemental chlorine free (ECF) low specific consumptions of wood, chemicals and water high energy efficiency maximized production of bio-energy, and minimal usage of fossil fuels low environmental emissions; on the level of newer modern mills cost-effective solutions

Different suppliers offer different process equipment. The model mill is not based on equipment from any one supplier. In general the key process data used in the balances in this study are conservative and should not exclude any of the major pulp mill equipment suppliers.

2.2 Mill production and capacity


The pulp mill produces bleached softwood and hardwood pulp in compaigns. The needed capacities of the various departments in the pulp mill are different when producing softwood and hardwood pulp. The main difference between hardwood and softwood is that hardwood has a higher yield. This means that the black liquor dry solids per ton of pulp is higher for softwood than for hardwood, and consequently the required capacity of the chemical recovery line

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is greater for a softwood mill compared to a hardwood mill with the same pulp produciton capacity. The pulp mill has a maximum continuous rate (MCR) of 2000 ADt/d for softwood and 2500 ADt/d for hardwood. At these production rates the load on the recovery boiler is approximately constant. Mass balances have been prepared for the pulp mill at mill MCR conditions to determine the capacity requirements for the main mill areas. The balances cover mainly wood/fibre-, dry solids-, evaporation-, causticizing and lime. Block diagrams which summarize the mass balances for both softwood and hardwood operation are included in Appendix 1. Table 2-1 summarizes the key operating and dimensioning data and for the pulp mill. The fine paper mill has two paper machines with the same design and production. The total production is 3130 t/d at pulp mill MCR. The paper machine furnish consists of 19% bleached softwood pulp, 56% bleached hardwood pulp and 25% filler. The paper is surface sized with starch to improve strength properties of the paper. Table 2-2 summarizes the key operating data for the paper machines.

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Table 2-1. Summary of pulp mill key operating data.


Pulp production Wood yard Wood to digester Bark and wood waste Digester Plant Kappa number Unscreened deknotted digester yield Alkali charge on wood as effective alkali Sulphidity (white liquor) Oxygen Stage Kappa number after oxygen stage Alkali charge as NaOH Oxygen charge Washing Department Dilution factor in the last stage Evaporation Plant Weak black liquor to evaporation, excl.spill ditto dry solids content Strong black liquor, dry solids content incl. ash Total evaporation, including spill Recovery Boiler Estimated higher heating value of virgin DS Strong liquor virgin solids to mixing tank Net useful heat from liquor, virgin solids Net useful heat from liquor Causticizing and Lime Kiln Causticizing efficiency Total white liquor production Lime kiln load Active CaO in lime Lime kiln fuel ADt/24 h Softwood 2 000 Birch 2 500

t/24 h t/24 h

4 072 420 Cont 30 47.0 20,0 35

4 610 642 Cont 17 51.0 18.5 35

% NaOH,% mole-%

kg/ADt kg/ADt

12 25 20

12 18 14

m /ADt unbl.

2.5

2.5

t/h % % t/h

913 16.0 80 771

981 15,7 80 840

MJ/kg t/24 h MJ/kg DS MW

14.0 3 477 10.3 413

13,8 3 668 10.0 426

mole-% 3 m /24 h t/24 h %

82 82 7 831 7 541 534 554 90 90 Bark / wood waste

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Table 2-2. Summary of paper mill key operating data.


Speed at pope Width on pope Grammage Production on pope (100% eff.) Paper dryness PM furnish composition -Hard wood -Soft wood -Filler -Surface size of paper (starch) Paper mill efficiency Operating days per year Paper production net (PM1 + PM2), Kraft mill MCR Paper production net (PM1 + PM2) Bleached hardwood consumption Bleached softwood consumption Filler consumption Starch consumption m/min M 2 g/m t/h % 1 690 9 80 (75-160) 73.1 93

% % % % % Days t/day t/a ADt/a ADt/a t100/a t100/a

56 19 25 3 82 355 3 100 1 022 000 573 000 191 000 235 000 27 600

2.3 Energy systems and balances


The fine paper model mill is very energy efficient and the black liquor alone produces enough steam to satisfy the process steam consumption of the mill during softwood campaigns. During hardwood campaigns the steam from the recovery boiler is not sufficient for the mills requirement, and additional steam from the power boiler is required. The lime kiln is fired with bark powder, or gasified bark, and the remaining bark from the woodyard and chip screening is burned in the power boiler. When all available falling bark is burned in the power boiler there is an excess of steam which is utilized in a condensing turbine to produce in power. In both softwood and hardwood campaigns the power produced is still not sufficient to meet the mills demand, and additional power is purchased.

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Some key items which have been changed in the model mill compared to the reference mill in the FRAM study include: HP steam data 100 bar(g), 505oC (increased from 80 bar(g) and 490oC in the FRAM project) Feed water preheating to 175oC to increase HP steam generation (increased from 146oC in the FRAM project) Recovery boiler flue gas cooler to reduce LP steam consumed in air preheating Top preheating of all recovery boiler combustion air to 205oC (85% of combustion air heated to 165oC in the FRAM project) Latest technology for pulp digesting which has a lower cooking temperature than other systems 7 effect evaporation plant (6 effect evaporation plant in the FRAM project) Digester steam consumption has increased increased slightly with the new liquor extraction Steam consumption in the bleach plant is reduced; more chlorine dioxide and less hydrogen peroxide allow a lower bleaching temperature Dryness the papermachine press section to the dryer has been increased from 50% in the FRAM project to about 52%, based on mill experience Paper machine power consumption has been reduced from 600 kWh/t to 550 kWh/t, based on mill experience A net reduction in mill steam demand compared to the FRAM study makes a condensing turbine a feasible option.

Additional factors (which were also relevant in the FRAM project) which make the model mill energy efficient include: Recovery boiler sootblowing steam is extracted at 25 bar(g) from the turbine instead of using HP steam Low pressure steam used in the paper ,machine Pressurized condensate system High temperature of hot water, 85 - 90oC, and maximum use of hot water instead of steam in the bleach plant, and paper machine Bark press for bark to the power boiler Table 2-4 compares the overall steam and power balances for the 2010 model mill and the FRAM reference mill.

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Table 2-3. Summary of steam and power balances FRAM reference.


STEAM BALANCE Generation Recovery boiler Power boiler Secondary heat Total steam generation Consumption Process steam Back pressure turbine Condensing turbine Total steam consumption POWER BALANCE Generation Back pressure power Condensing power Purchased power Total power generation Consumption Total power consumption Softwood GJ/ADt pulp GJ/t paper 17.97 1.38 0.39 19.74 11.46 0.88 0.26 12.60 Hardwood GJ/ADt pulp GJ/t paper 14.78 1.64 0.35 16.77 11.74 1.30 0.27 13.31

15.51 4.23 19.74

9.90 3.57 12.60

13.20 2.70 16.77

10.48 2.83 13.31 kWh/t paper 769 142 911

kWh/ADt pulp kWh/t paper kWh/ADt pulp 1139 236 1375 728 151 879 1203 222 1425

1375

879

1425

911

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Table 2-4. Summary of steam and power balances- Model mills 2010.
STEAM BALANCE Generation Recovery boiler Power boiler Secondary heat Total steam generation Consumption Process steam Back pressure turbine Condensing turbine Total steam consumption POWER BALANCE Generation Back pressure power Condensing power Purchased power Total power generation Consumption Total power consumption Softwood GJ/ADt pulp GJ/t paper 17.82 1.53 0.35 19.69 11.39 0.98 0.22 12.59 Hardwood GJ/ADt pulp GJ/t paper 14.71 2.43 0.36 17.50 11.75 1.94 0.29 13.98

13.61 4.30 1.78 19.69

8.70 2.75 1.14 12.59

11.80 3.72 1.98 17.50

9.42 2.97 1.58 13.98 kWh/t paper 797 155 0 951

kWh/ADt pulp kWh/t paper kWh/ADt pulp 1152 174 128 1455 736 111 82 930 998 194 0 1191

1455

930

1191

951

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3 Model mill process description


3.1 Wood Supply
The softwood raw material consists of 50% pine (Pinus sylvestris) and 50% spruce (Picea abies). The relation between roundwood with bark and sawmill chips is 70% roundwood and 30% sawmill chips. The birch is mainly Betula spp. with about 10% other hardwoods, mainly aspen. The supply is 100% as roundwood, with bark.

3.2 Woodyard
The debarking is performed in dry debarking drums which are designed for a barking efficiency of 95%. There is a closed re-circulation of sprinkling and deicing water. The de-icing water is heated by the means of heat exchanging with surplus hot water. The effluent is collected together with the press water from the bark presses in a sedimentation basin for re-circulation. The sludge from the sedimentation basin is burned in the power boiler. A portion of the bark is utilized as fuel for the lime kiln; the rest is burned in the power boiler. After debarking the logs are transported to a metal detector and a water stone trap. In the chipper, logs are cut to chips. Consistent chip thickness is important for uniform cooking and a low pins fraction is important for the runnability of the digester. The chips are therefore screened to get an optimal chip size. Accepted chips are transported to a chip silo. Over-thick, over-sized chips are taken to a re-chipper and then back to chip screening. Fines are stored and burned in the power boiler.

3.3 Digester
Either continuous or batch digesting can be used, and both alternatives have pros and cons. Continuous digesters are the dominant technology for both existing and new mills. Also, in general the batch processes, as marketed today have higher steam consumption than the continuous processes. Thus the continuous cooking process has been selected for this study. The Metso Compact Cooking concept, see Figure 3-1, is one example of a modern cooking system. Chips are presteamed and impregnated with white

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liquor and black liquor at atmospheric conditions in a vessel, and the cooking is performed at a relatively high alkalinity with co-current liquor flow at relatively low temperature. The cooking temperature is about 143oC for softwood, and 138oC for hardwood. Black liquor is extracted for evaporation via a single stage flash tank from the impregnation vessel, the transfer circulation between the impregnation vessel and the digester. Andritz DownFlow LoSolids cooking system without or with pressurized impregnation vessel is another example of a modern cooking system.

Figure 3-1. Example continuous cooking system (Metso Compact Cooking).

Table 3-1. Digester key figures.


Kappa number, digester blowline Deknotted digester yield White liquor AA concentration Alkali charge on wood as effective alkali Sulphidity, white liquor Extracted turpentine SW 30 47 140 20.0 35 2 HW 17 51 140 18.5 35 0

% NaOH, g/l NaOH,% % kg/ADtdig

In order to improve yield and fibre strength the kappa number after cooking could be increased by some units. This should however be balanced with the delignification in the oxygen stage.

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3.4 Brownstock deknotting and screening


There are several important quality parameters for pulp. One of them is very high cleanliness, i.e. a low content of shives and coloured spots originating from the pulpwood (resin and bark) as well as foreign materials such as sand, plastic, rubber and rust. Pressurized deknotting separates knots from the pulp. After deknotting the pulp is screened at 3-4% consistency by barrier (slotted) screens in three or four stages. The knots are recooked. Screen rejects from the last screening stage end up as effluent treatment sludge which is burned in the power boiler.

3.5 Oxygen delignification


Oxygen delignification is done in two stages without intermediate washing to a kappa number of 12 for softwood and 10 for hardwood. Oxidized white liquor is the primary alkali source. To optimise the delignification in the initial and final phases the reaction time is approximately 10 minutes in the 1st stage and approximately 60 minutes in the 2nd stage.
Table 3-2. Oxygen delignification key figures.
Kappa number after oxygen stage Dissolved DS (yield losses) MgSO4 charge Alkali charge oxidised WL, as NaOH Oxygen charge Temperature SW 12 3.8 2,3 25 20 95/98 HW 12 1.6 1.0 18 14 95/101

% kg/ADt O2 kg/ADt O2 C

3.6

Pulp washing

The brown stock wash consists of: Two stages of pre-oxygen washing for hardwood and three stages for softwood. Either wash presses or drum displacement (DD) filters can be used. Post oxygen washing with one 2-stage DD washer before the oxygen bleached storage tower. Alternatively two wash presses could be used. These wash presses may both be placed after the oxygen bleached

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storage tower or, one of the presses could be before the tower and one after (pre bleach press). Figure 3-2 shows one alternative for brownstock washing. The brownstock washing dilution factor is 2.5 m3/ADt. The carryover of COD from the oxygen delignification to the bleach plant is calculated to be approx 5 kg COD/ADt, excluding the bleach plant filtrate recirculated to brown stock washing.

Figure 3-2. One example of a typical brownstock washing system (Metso).

3.7 Bleaching
Both the softwood and birch pulps are bleached to a final brightness of 90% ISO. The bleach plant is designed with four bleaching stages. For softwood pulp the first stage is operated as a conventional D-stage, and the sequence is D(EPO)DP. For hardwood pulp the first stage is operated as a Dhot-stage, and the sequence is Dhot(EPO)DP. Wash presses are used for all washing in the bleach plant. The main reasons for selecting a hot first D stage for hardwood pulp are that a lower charge of ClO2 is required to attain the required pulp brightness and less brightness reversion of the fully bleached pulp. These benefits are, however, not attained on softwood pulps as they contain considerably less hexenuronic acids than hardwood pulps. Hexenuronic acids are effectively removed in Dhot-stages.

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The last bleaching stage could be a D-stage instead of a P-stage. This is partly an economic decision which depends on the prices of chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydroxide. A final P-stage in place of a final Dstage may also decrease brightness reversion of the pulp. The expected bleach plant chemical charges and conditions are summarized in Table 3-3, and Table 3-4.
Table 3-3. Expected chemical charges for the SW kraft pulp with the sequence D(EPO)DP to 90%ISO brightness ( kg/ADt). ClO2 as ClO2 and not as active Cl. Kappa number of pulp to bleaching: 12.
Stage Temp (C) Time (min) pH ClO2 O2 H2O2 NaOH H2SO4 SO2 or NaHSO3 as SO2

D 70 60 ~2,5 (EPO) 80-85 75 10.5-11 D 75-80 150 3.5-4 P 75-80 150 ~10 (a) After P-stage

9 6 5 6 1 13 1 6

4 0.5 1.5 (a)

Table 3-4. Expected chemical charges for the birch kraft pulp with the sequence Dhot(EPO)DP to 90%ISO brightness ( kg/ADt). ClO2 as ClO2 and not as active Cl. Kappa number of pulp to bleaching: 10.
Stage Temp (C) Time (min) pH ClO2 O2 H2O2 NaOH H2SO4 SO2 or NaHSO3 as SO2

Dhot 85-90 120 (EPO) 85-90 60 D 75-80 150 P 75-80 150 (a) After P-stage

~3 10.5-11 3.5-4 ~10

7 3 5 6 1 12 1 6

6 0.5 1.5 (a)

For softwood the bleaching sequence results in a yield of 98%, which corresponds to a total yield of about 44%. For hardwood the bleaching sequence results in a yield of about 97.5% and a total yield of about 49%. 3.7.1 System closure and degree of bleach plant filtrate recovery

A high degree of system closure can create problems with scale formation within the bleach and evaporation plants, high bleaching chemical consumption, corrosion and plugging problems in the recovery boiler and problems controlling the Na/S balance of the mill. Bleach plant liquors must be handled in an optimal manner; for example mixing should be performed within critical temperature and pH limits, where the risk for scaling is the lowest.

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Based on experience a relatively conservative approach regarding system closure has been adopted to ensure sustained trouble free operation with good economics. The bleach plant is designed to release 10-15 t/ADt of effluent. This range includes an allowance for up to 5 t/ADt of fresh water. This extra intake of fresh water can be used for dilution at any position in the bleach plant where there is a risk for precipitation. The extra intake of fresh water also makes it possible to bleed out metals and Cl--ions. Additionally, 6 t/ADt of effluent is discharged from the paper machines. Figure 3-2 shows the approximate liquor flows in the bleach plant. Hot water is used as wash liquor on the wash press after the P-stage. The filtrate from this wash press is then used as wash liquor on the 2nd D stage wash press. Fresh water is used as wash liquor on the (EPO) stage wash press and condensate is used as wash liquor on the 1st D-stage press. The filtrate from the (EPO) wash press is then transferred as wash liquor to the 2nd wash press after the oxygen stage.
Hot/cold water Clean condensate Hot water ~5 t/ADt 4.1 t/ADt 4.1 t/ADt Chemicals Hot water xx t/ADt ~2 t/ADt

HD O2

EPO

To 1st O2 washer 4.5 t/ADt

To treatment ~10t/ADt

To treatment ~5 t/ADt

Figure 3-3. The approximate liquor flows (t/ADt) of the ECF bleach plant. The dilution factor is about 2 t/ADt.

3.8 Chlorine dioxide generation


The selection of the chlorine dioxide process (R8 or R10) is mainly based on the millwide sodium/sulphur balance. (R8 and R10 are the trade names from Erco. Eka (Akzo Nobel) has similar processes called SVP.)

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In both the R8 and R10 processes purchased sodium chlorate reacts with sulphuric acid, with methanol as the reducing agent, to produce chlorine dioxide and the by-product Na3H(SO4)2. The R10 process however has an additional step where Na3H(SO4)2 is split into Na2SO4 and H2SO4, and the H2SO4 is returned to the ClO2 generation process. In the softwood mill the R8 process is selected. The (Na3H(SO4)2) by product, is used to partially replace sulphuric acid used for soap splitting. Since there is no soap splitting and an excess of sulphur in the hardwood mill the R10 process is selected to minimize the amount of excess sulphur (which is purged as recovery boiler precipitator ash).

3.9 Evaporation
The evaporation plant is a conventional 7-effect system utilising LP and MP steam (Figure 3-4). It is designed to produce 80% dry solids liquor (including recovery boiler ash). All evaporator bodies are of the falling-film type, and the seven effects are designed to operate in counter-current fashion, i.e. with live steam being fed to the first effect and weak liquor to the seventh effect. Tanks are installed for weak, intermediate and strong black liquors well as for soap, spills and condensates. The firing liquor storage tank is pressurized due to the high dry solids content. Ash mixing is done before the first effect. Firing liquor at 80% DS is produced in the first effect. The first effect is divided into three bodies connected in series on the liquor side. Washing of the first effect is done one body at a time using weak black liquor. To avoid upsets in firing liquor concentration when washing, and to facilitate ash mixing, a strong black liquor storage tank is placed after the second effect. The body operating with the strongest liquor in the first effect is heated by intermediate pressure steam from a steam ejector driven by MP steam and compressing LP steam. The other two bodies in the first effect are heated by LP steam only. Sludge from the biological treatment is mixed into the black liquor in an intermediate storage tank.

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3.9.1

Handling of condensates

A stripping system for foul condensates from the digester and evaporation systems is included. The stripping column is integrated within the evaporation plant to reduce the live steam consumption (Figure 3-4). A methanol rectification column with turpentine decanter and foul methanol liquid storage is also included. The methanol is incinerated in the recovery boiler. Evaporation condensates are divided depending on contamination degree and distributed to different consumers within the mill. Approximately 4.5 m3/ADt of the cleanest condensate (approximately 200 mg/l COD; 80oC) is used as wash liquor in the bleach plant. Approximately 3.5 m3/ADt intermediate condensate (approximately 1000 mg/l COD, 65oC) is used in the causticizing plant. The remaining condensate is also clean condensate, and is discharged as effluent. The surface condenser is designed for a warm water temperature of 50C and to give condensate separation in principle as for the evaporators.

Figure 3-4. Evaporation plant including condensate stripper.

3.9.2

Handling of non-condensable gases

Non-condensable gases (NCGs) are collected throughout the mill. Both strong gases and weak gases are burned in the recovery boiler. In mills which have a large excess of sulphur, an alternative is to incinerate the gases in a dedicated boiler.

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3.9.3

Tall oil recovery

Soap that separates in the weak and intermediate black liquor tanks is decanted to a soap decanter and then led to a separate storage tank. The soap is then pumped to the tall oil plant, where it is upgraded to crude tall oil. The amount of soap depends on the wood used for pulping. With 50% pine and 50% spruce, the tall oil production is assumed to be 35 kg/ADt for softwood. There is no soap from hardwood. The most common type of tall oil plant uses sulphuric acid for soap splitting, and sulphur is thus added to the recovery cycle. Mills that use an R8 process for chlorine dioxide generation can use the sodium sesquisulphate (Na3H(SO4)2) by-product to partly replace H2SO4 that would otherwise have been used for soap splitting. Some mills use carbon dioxide to pre-treat the soap. The product after this pretreatment is a mixture of soap and tall oil (soap oil), and a water phase containing sodium bicarbonate. The water phase is separated from the soap oil, and then the soap oil is treated with sulphuric acid as in a traditional tall oil plant. Pre-treatment with carbon dioxide however reduces the sulphuric acid requirement by about 40%.

3.10 Recovery boiler


The optimum recovery boiler steam pressure and temperature is not the same in different regions. In Sweden the majority of existing recovery boilers were designed when electricity prices were low. These boilers were in general designed for 60 bar steam pressure and corresponding temperatures. At higher steam temperatures more expensive metallurgy is required for the superheater, which means a sharp increase in investment and maintenance costs. Higher steam pressure and temperature cannot be economically justified with low electricity prices. In contrast, Finland, for example, has had higher electricity prices, and the majority of recovery boilers operate at 80-90 bar. Newer boilers are often designed for greater than 100 bar pressure to maximize power generation. With increasing electricity prices three new recovery boilers in Sweden have been designed for higher steam pressure and temperature. In this study the recovery boiler is designed to produce high pressure steam at 100 bar(g) and 505C.

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Some of the key factors in the recovery boiler design which are related to maximizing power generation include: Feedwater preheating which increases steam generation and consequently the power generation. One drawback of feedwater preheating is increased flue gas temperature after the economiser which increases the flue gas loss and increases the cost of the precipitator. Flue gas cooling after the precipitator the heat uptake in the cooler will typically replace LP steam for combustion air preheating. The LP steam can instead be sent to a condensing turbine to produce power. Also reduces the negative impact of increased flue gas temperature due to feedwater preheating. Top preheating heating of all combustion air to about 205oC to increase power generation. Sootblowing steam is extracted from the turbine instead of using high pressure steam from the recovery boiler.

Sootblowing steam 25 bar (g) FW heater HP steam 100 bar(g), 505 C Boiler feed water FW heater Electrostatic Precipitator Flue gas cooler

Flue gas

Top preheated Combustion air Black liquor 80 %DS (incl. dust and biosludge) Weak wash Green liquor Smelt Dissolver

Dust purge

NCGs

Dust recycle (mixed with b.l. in evap. plant)

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Figure 3-5. Recovery boiler and smelt dissolver.

The high liquor concentration contributes to a high bed temperature, which leads to low sulphur emissions from the bed. Combustion air is distributed on multiple levels to facilitate complete combustion and minimize NOx formation. Dust that is not captured in the economizer section is removed in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Most of the dust is recycled and mixed with the black liquor in the evaporation plant, as described in section 3.9. A fraction of the dust is purged, mainly to control sulphur and sodium, with the additional benefit of reducing potassium and chloride concentrations in the liquor cycle. With increased recovery boiler temperature and pressure the tolerance for potassium and chloride in the black liquor is reduced. At the design pressure and temperatures for this boiler the maximum chloride concentration in the liquor is about 0.3 wt% and about 2.0% for potassium. Exceeding these concentrations increases the risk for recovery boiler corrosion and plugging problems. Softwood and birch have relatively low levels of chloride and potassium, so the limits for chloride and potassium can be met by purging a small amount of precipitator dust (which is anyways necessary to maintain the sulphur and sodium balance).

3.11 Causticizing
The mill is equipped with conventional causticizing with both green liquor and white liquor filtration. The green liquor is filtered in two parallel green liquor filter units. The dregs are washed and dewatered in a filter press before being discharged. Condensate from the evaporation plant is used for dregs washing. Dregs and grits are combined and sent to landfill. Green liquor from the storage tank is cooled in a flash-type green liquor cooler before the lime slaker-classifier. Slaking and causticizing is performed in a single line with causticizing vessels in series. The causticized liquor is filtered in a pressure disc filter. The main advantage of a disc filters over other types of white liquor filters is the low liquor content of the discharged lime mud which eliminates the need for a separate lime mud washing stage. Alternatively the causticized liquor could be filtered using tube filters followed by another set of tube filters for the weak wash.

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Green liquor Green liquor dregs

Causticizer Lime kiln Condensate Slaker

Lime mud removal Lime mud filter Disk filter Weak wash to smelt dissolver tank

White liquor filter

Clarified white liquor

Figure 3-6. White liquor preparation (white liquor disc filter option).

Lime mud from the lime mud vessel is pumped to the agitated lime mud storage tank. The lime mud is washed and dewatered on a lime mud disc or drum filter. Condensate from the evaporation plant is used for lime mud dilution and hot water for the lime mud filter wash showers. Spills are reclaimed from two spill sumps and pumped to the weak wash storage tank.

3.12 Lime kiln


The lime kiln is equipped with an external lime mud dryer and modern product coolers. The external lime mud dryer consists of a vertical flue gas duct where the lime mud is dried and preheated by the hot flue gases. The dry mud is separated from the flue gases in a cyclone and then introduced to the kiln. This arrangement allows a shorter kiln compared to a conventional kiln where the lime mud is dried inside the kiln. External lime mud dryers are incorporated in the majority of new kilns today, and since the late 1980s a large number of existing kilns have been equipped with an external dryer to increase kiln capacity. Modern types of product coolers demand less space and have lower radiation heat losses than conventional planetary coolers.

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Dust is removed from the flue gases by means of an electrostatic precipitator. The ID fan is installed downstream the precipitator. A fraction of the lime mud is purged, primarily to control phosphate levels. Limestone is used for make-up. To save on oil consumption, a number of European mills use bark or wood residues as fuel for the lime kiln. The biomass is either pulverized and fired directly, or gasified and then fired in the kiln. There are many differences between these two processes, however, in terms of the overall mill energy balance they are similar, and either can be used. A detailed review of the biomass fuel is not in the scope of this project; however the main fuel for the lime kiln is bark or wood residue.

3.13 Paper Mill


3.13.1 Capacity To match the capacity of the kraft pulp mill, the the paper mill has two identical paper machines. Both PM1 and PM2 produce uncoated fine paper from softwood and hardwood. Each paper machine has an annual production of 511 000 t/a. The furnish composition is shown below. PM furnish composition Filler Fibre - Bleached softwood - Bleached hardwood

25% 75% 19% 56%

The corresponding furnish requirements for each paper machine are: Bleached hardwood Bleached softwood Filler Starch 573 000 191 000 235 000 27 600 ADt/a ADt/a t100/a t100/a

A block diagram for PM1 and PM2 is shown in Figure 3-7.

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White water to bleaching plant

Bleached soft wood Bl. soft wood pulp chest

Bleached hard wood Bl. hard wood pulp chest

Intermediate pulp Intermediate pulp chest

Filler

Refiner Soft wood dosing chest

Refiner Hard wood dosing chest

Mixing chest Screen Machine chest Filler Storage tower

Broke dosing chest

Filter

Broke tower

deaeration Screen and deaeration Wire silo Headbox Wire section Pulper

Press White water tank Dryer Disc filter Sizer White water tower After dryer

Pulper

Pulper

Pulper Pulper

Calender

Pulper

Reel/Finishing

Figure 3-7. Process concept of the fine paper machines

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3.13.2 Stock preparation 3.13.3 Bleached kraft supply

The pulp mill produces softwood and hardwood in campaigns of 30 h and 70 h respectively. There are three MC-storage towers of 10 000 m3 each for hardwood and three MC-storage towers of 7 500 m3 each for softwood. Since there is not a perfect plug-flow through the pulp mill, there will be some intermediate pulp produced when changing from hardwood to softwood. This intermediate pulp is stored in a 3 500 m3 MC-tower. From the MC-storage towers, pulp is diluted and pumped to their respective pulp chest. From the pulp chests, the pulp is diluted and pumped via refiners to the hardwood and softwood dosing chests. In this mill hardwood and softwood are refined separately to optimise their properties. Intermediate pulp is pumped via the hardwood refiner to the hardwood dosing chest. From the dosing chests, pulp is diluted and proportioned to the mixing chest. 3.13.4 Broke system

Broke from all the pulpers on the machine is pumped via the couch pit to the broke storage tower (3500 m3). From the broke tower, the pulp is dewatered on a thickener and taken to the broke dosing chest at about 4% consistency. Broke, which is proportioned to the paper machine, is pumped via a deflaker to the mixing chest and some of the pulp is re-circulated to the tower to increase the consistency in the tower. 3.13.5 Mixing/machine chest

After the mixing chest there is a final consistency control and the thick stock is screened with slotted barrier screens. The barrier screening system is installed between the mixing chest and the machine chest and in this position will screen both the virgin pulp supplied to the paper machine as well as the broke. 3.13.6 Filler supply

Filler is dissolved and stored in a 1 000 m3 storage tower at 40% concentration. Filler is added to the short circulation of the paper machine.

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3.13.7

Short circulation

As a consequence of the barrier screening, it is possible to reduce the power consumption by eliminating the hydrocyclone system in the short circulation. The short circulation then consists of the wire silo, de-aeration equipment, fan pump and machine screening in two stages. The headbox is of dilution control type and the system includes two speed-controlled pumps, de-aeration and a pressure screen. Filler is charged ahead of the head box pump. The charge is controlled by the QCS-system to give a constant filler level in the paper independent of the amount of broke added. Retention aids are added before the machine screen and after the machine screen, or alternatively only after the machine screen 3.13.8 Paper machine The paper machine is based on a concept to allow for a high quality fine paper production at a high machine efficiency and high speed. The paper machine is dimensioned for 1850 m/min. The paper machine headbox is of a cross profile dilution type, which means that dilution water is added via special control valves across the machine width in the headbox. Each valve setting is based on information from the measuring frame in the dry end, the QCS-system. Since this correction is not made by the slice lip, but through local changes in stock consistency, fibre orientation is not influenced. The wire section is a modern twin wire section to give the best paper uniformity with regard to formation, basis weight profile, ash profiles and sheet structure. The press section is designed for optimum runnability of the machine by means of a closed web run from the wire section to the dryer section. A high dryness content of the web leaving the press section as well as an equal-sidedness are other important factors the press section has to perform. The press concept is two straight shoe presses following each other giving a final dryness after the press section of approx. 52%. The dryer section consists of a pre-dryer section and an after dryer section. The pre-dryer section is a combination of drying cylinders in an upper row and vacuum assisted rolls in a lower row integrated with an air handling system including web stabilising equipment for increased runnability and minimum energy consumption.

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The sizer after the pre-dryer section adds surface size to both sides of the web by means of an application roll system to increase strength properties of the paper. The sizer is followed by the after dryer section which is a combination of dryer cylinders and vacuum rolls in the first part followed by a conventional dryer section with drying cylinders both in top and bottom position. This arrangement is for curl control of cutsize papers which need special consideration regarding flatness and runnability in copying machines etc. The calender is of soft calender type in a tandem arrangement to give the optimum surface properties. To build a high quality parent roll with a diameter of 3.4-3.6 m the nip load as well as the parent roll torque has to be controlled and this is the case with all modern reel system today. This way of building a parent roll will give the best conditions when handling the roll in the winder. Winding fine paper is not so critical as winding coated paper and for this reason a centre winder is not needed. For finished rolls with a diameter of 1.2-1.4 m a common two drum winder is sufficient, but with a roll diameter of 1.5-1.6 m a winder type giving a lower linear nip load between finished roll and supporting winder rolls is needed.
Main data for the papermachines are presented in Table 3-5.

Table 3-5. Main data for papermachines

Speed design Speed at pope Width on pope Grammage Production on pope (100% eff.) Paper dryness PM furnish composition -Hardwood -Softwood -Filler Surface size of paper (starch) Paper mill efficiency Operating days per year Paper production net, annual average

m/min m/min m g/m2 t93/h % % % % % % days t93/day

1 850 1 690 9 80 (75-160) 73.1 93 56 19 25 3 82 355 1 439

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Paper production net, Kraft mill MCR Paper production net

t93/day t93/year

1 565 511 000

3.13.9

Fresh water system

The warm water system is the main fresh water consumer in the paper mill. Warm water is mainly used for high pressure cleaning showers in the wire- and press sections and for dilution of different chemicals. The process related fresh water consumption is about 6 m3/t of paper. Warm water is received from the kraft mill. Used cooling waters and other uncontaminated process waters are collected separately and re-circulated via a cooling tower to the fresh water systems.

3.13.10 White water system and buffer volumes The paper machine white water system consists mainly of a white water tank for paper machine excess water connected to a disc filter save-all. Clear filtrate from the disc filter is used for showers in the wet end and is also stored in a white water storage tower (5 500 m3) to be used for consistency control and for broke dissolving. The surplus clear filtrate is pumped to the bleach plant. Accidental discharges are avoided with a dimensioning of broke, pulp and white water storage buffer volumes in balance, which means that the white water storage towers in the system should have a volume corresponding to the total sum of all pulp storage towers. To be correct it is not the physical volumes that should be equal, it is the used buffer volume that is important. A white water tower which is always filled provides no buffer volume. A correct dimensioning and use of the storage buffer volumes also means minimal variations in the flow of waste water to the external treatment plant which should result in higher treatment efficiency and lower investment and operation costs for the external treatment plant.

3.13.11 Energy aspects of the paper machine The main input of energy to the paper machines is steam for drying of the paper. About 3.0 GJ/t evaporated water is needed for drying. The efficiency of the paper machines (need for re-drying of broke) and the dryness of the paper

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after the press section are of great importance for the steam consumption. With a press dryness of 52%, a final dryness of 93%, 3% surface size and 10% redrying, the heat consumption for drying is 3.77 GJ/t paper. Steam is also used for heating purposes on the paper machine. In the press section a 3.5 bar steam box heats the web to increase dryness and improve dryness profile. The air to the blow boxes must also be heated with steam. The total consumption of steam on the paper machine is about 4.23 GJ/t paper. The total consumption of electric energy for the paper machine is about 550 kWh/t. The main part of this power consumption is in motors for pumps, screens, drives and refiners in the paper mill. Most of this energy is going into the process flow as thermal energy and contributes to keeping the system temperature on a high level. The desired level is somewhere in the range 5255oC. A high temperature improves the dewatering on the wet end and minimises bacteriological and slime problems. On the wire section, the process water loses about 10 MW of heat to the surrounding air by evaporation. The high dryness of the pulp from the pulp mill means that only a small amount of thermal energy is transferred with the pulp from the pulp mill. To maintain the desired white water temperature, heat is transferred from the heat recovery system of the drying section to the paper machine white water.
Table 3-6. Paper machine energy consumption data
Dryness to dryer Paper dryness Evaporated Evaporated sizing Sum evaporated Redrying etc Total evaporation Heat consumption Heat consumption drying Heat consumption miscellaneous Total heat consumption paper mill Power consumption incl. refining Water consumption % % t/t paper t/t paper t/t paper % t/t paper GJ/t evap. GJ/t paper GJ/t paper GJ/t paper kWh/t paper 3 m /t paper 52 93 0.82 0.32 1.14 10 1.26 3.0 3.77 0.46 4.23 550 6.0

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3.14 Power boiler


The recovery boiler alone does not produce enough steam to meet the demand of the integrated fine paper mill. A power boiler is therefore used to produce the additional steam. The power boiler is fuelled with wood residues from the woodyard and chip screening areas, plus sludge from the effluent treatment plant. The power boiler is designed to provide steam for mill start-up and shut downs, and there is no need for an additional fossil fuel fired boiler dedicated for startups and shut downs. The power boiler is designed with a bubbling fluidised bed (BFB).

HP steam 100 bar(g), 505 C

Sootblowing steam 25 bar(g)

Boiler feed water Flue gas

Primary Sludge Sec. Biosludge Falling Bark Electrostatic Precipitator

Combustion air

Figure 3-8. Bubbling fluidised bed power boiler

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3.15 Steam turbines and steam distribution


Steam is reduced through a backpressure steam turbine to 3.5 bar(g). This pressure has been selected to facilitate maximum electric power production without requiring unnecessary large evaporator bodies or heat surfaces in the paper machines. Intermediate pressure steam of 25 bar(g) is extracted for soot blowing and 9 bar(g) steam is extracted to the MP-steam system. MP steam and LP steam are de-superheated with boiler feedwater before distribution. HP steam not required in the process is utilised in a condensing steam turbine for further electric power generation.
Table 3-7. Steam data.
HP steam IP steam, extracted for sootblowing MP steam, desuperheated LP steam, desuperheated C 505 275 200 150 bar(g) 100.0 25.0 9.0 3.5

3.16 Cooling and recovery of low-temperature heat


In addition to normal heat losses of different kinds, approximately one third of all the energy that is introduced with the fuel to the system will have to be cooled away by a cooling system. The secondary energy system comprises the recovery of heat that is generated from steam and electricity and that is finally withdrawn from the system by cooling. In principle, the system can be divided into two parts: one where heat is recovered for the production of warm and hot water, another part where excess heat is cooled by the means of a cooling tower. The design of the model mill is conventional, except for the very low fresh water consumption. Low-temperature heat is recovered from a number of sources in the kraft mill, e.g., the surface condenser of the evaporation plant, the smelt dissolver vapour condenser, and the turpentine condenser. The heat is used for hot water production and for boiler feedwater heating. Condensate from the evaporation plant is used in the pulp washing and in the lime mud wash. The cooling water system is integrated with the process water system. Cooling is carried out in cooling towers. See Appendix 3 for the secondary heat balance.

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3.17 Effluent treatment


Pulp is produced in campaigns with softwood 25% of the time and hardwood 75% of the time. Effluent treatment is designed for hardwood campaigns, and discharges are calculated as long term mean averages. Effluent treatment consists of pre-treatment, (cooling equipment and neutralisation), primary treatment and biological treatment. In the pre-treatment there is a primary clarifier to remove fibre sludge. The estimated suspended solids content of the effluent from the mill pulp and paper mill is about 100 mg/l. After the clarifier the suspended solids content is about 50 mg/l. The primary sludge is dewatered in a centrifuge and incinerated in the power boiler (alternatively the primary sludge could be sold to a fluting mill or similar, depending on the price). After the primary clarifier the effluent is screened, cooled to about 37oC with heat exchangers or cooling towers, and the pH is adjusted to about 7.
Table 3-8. Inlet data to biological treatment.
Softwood campaigns 60 000 1 220 73 000 50 3 000 ~37 ~7 3 000 Hardwood campaigns 70 000 1 200 84 000 50 3 500 ~37 ~7 3 500

Total effluent COD SS Temperature pH Primary sludge

m /d mg/l kg/d mg/l kg/d C kg DS/d

For biological treatment there is a bio-film reactor with suspended carriers followed by an activated sludge system. The activated sludge system is comprised of an aeration basin and secondary clarifier. The system is designed for low bio-sludge production and low nutrient discharges. COD reduction is estimated to be about 65-70% for softwood and about 70-75% for the hardwood mill. Suspended solids out from the secondary clarifier are about 50 mg/l. The biological sludge is dewatered to about 10% in a centrifuge and mixed with intermediate black liquor in the evaporation plant, before firing in the recovery boiler.

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Nutrients Acid/Base
(if necessary) (if necessary)

Screen From Kraft Pulp mill Primary clarifier Cooling Biofilm reactor with suspended carriers Air Centrifuge Return sludge Polymer Biological sludge Centrifuge Aeration basin Secondary clarifier

From Fine paper mill

Primary sludge for fiber reuse Intermediate black liquor 80-90C To recovery boiler

Figure 3-10. Effluent treatment plant

Table 3-9. Outlet data from biological treatment.


Flow COD reduction COD out SS out m /d % kg/d mg/l kg/d kg/d
3

Softwood 60 000 65-70 < 25 550 50 3 000 ~ 7 100

Hardwood 70 000 70-75 < 25 200 50 3 500 ~9 700

Biological sludge

3.18 Spill handling system


Accidental spills caused by abnormal operation or equipment failures can be a significant contribution to the effluent emissions from the mill, and therefore it is important to minimise spills. The mill is designed with a comprehensive sewer system to collect accidental spills as close to the source as possible and directly recycle them to the proper process stage. The evaporation plant is designed with additional capacity to take care of black liquor spills in that area, as well as possible liquor contaminated condensates. The spill system includes: Adequate instrumentation to minimise the risk for overflow of tanks and equipment, and to detect accidental spills. Provisions to take care of process liquors when it is necessary to empty tanks or equipment for maintenance Retention dams around tanks and equipment. Floor channels connected to pump sumps from which liquids can be pumped back to the process.

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Emergency effluent treatment pond for major spills or upset conditions in the effluent treatment plant. Well-educated and trained personnel who understand the importance of spill handling.

3.19 Water supply and treatment


Water is basically used for two purposes in the mill: process water and cooling. The raw water quality is normally good in Nordic rivers. The mill water system has only one quality, chemically treated water, with the following treatment sequence: Water intake with coarse screening. Chemical treatment in a dissolved air flotation (DAF). Sand filtration. Clear water well, including storage capacity for fire fighting.
Table 3-10. Data, raw water treatment.
Flow Raw water sludge m /d kg/d
3

70 000 80 000 ~2 700

The raw water intake should be arranged and designed to minimize the amount sand and other debris which enters the mill. As precipitation chemical some kind of Al-salt and polymer is used. Raw water sludge is discharged to the receiving water together with treated effluent. The cooling water system is semi-open, which means that part of the process water comes from the cooling water system. The cooling is performed in a cooling tower. There are filters in the cooling water system to avoid impurities in the mill process water. The amount of process water coming from the cooling system is controlled so that the cold water temperature is maintained at about 18oC. There is a separate cooling water loop for the turbine. The water from the turbine oil cooler is dumped. Other coolers in the mill are connected to the general mill process water system. Water from such coolers that could contaminate the water should also be dumped.

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Al Polymer

Air

Screen Raw water intake Dissolved air flotation

Sand filtration

Clear water well

Raw water sludge

Figure 3-11. Water treatment.

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4 Model mill - energy balance


The model integrated fine paper mill is very energy efficient. During softwood campaigns the recovery boiler alone produces sufficient steam for process steam consumption and cogeneration of power in the back-pressure turbine. In this case there is a slight excess of steam, and all falling bark could be sold. During hardwood campains however, the recovery boiler alone does not produce sufficient steam, and therefore the mill has a small bark boiler. In this case there is still an excess of bark which could be sold. During both hardwood and softwood campaigns the back pressure power generation is not sufficient to meet the mill requirement. Since the mill has a bark boiler and excess falling bark, a condensing turbine is included to maximize power generation, and make use of the excess recovery boiler steam which otherwise would be wasted during softwood campaings. Note that even with the condensing turbine the mill still needs to purchase electricity during both hardwood and softwood campaigns. In this study it is assumed that only falling bark is available, and the resulting bark boiler and condensing turbine are relatively small. An alternative that must be evalulated in reality is purchasing bark to further increase power generation to meet the full demand of the mill and possibly produce power for sale. Such an economic evaluation is very mill specific, and depends on investment cost, fuel price, marginal steam cost, and electricity prices. Key factors which make the model mill energy efficient include: High HP steam data, 100 bar(g), 505oC Feed water preheating to 175oC to increase HP steam generation Recovery boiler flue gas cooler to reduce LP steam consumed in air preheating Top preheating of all recovery boiler combustion air to 205oC Recovery boiler sootblowing steam is extracted at 25 bar(g) from the turbine instead of using HP steam Latest technology for pulp digesting which has a lower cooking temperature than other systems 7 effect evaporation plant Steam consumption in the bleach plant is reduced; more chlorine dioxide and less hydrogen peroxide allow a lower bleaching temperature Low pressure steam used in the paper machine

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Pressurized condensate system High temperature of hot water, 85 - 90oC, and maximum use of hot water instead of steam in the bleach plant, and paper machine Bark press for bark to the power boiler

An overview of the energy system and balances for the model mill during softwood and hardwood campaigns are shown in Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-2, and further details of the balances are included in Appendix 2.
Model Fine paper SW campaign
Pulp SW HW Market 2 000 ADt/d 2 000 ADt/d 0 ADt/d 0 ADt/d 35 MW 0,0 MW 412 MW 49,3 Bark Boiler 100 bar(g) 591,8 Recovery Boiler Soot blowing Air preheat Feedwater Preheating Steam flows t/h 505 C

0,0

MP-steam

46,7 594,4 146 C

1,7 46,7 6,7 2,5 15,4 0,8 35,9 3,4 0,0 2,5 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 117,2 2,5 0,0 237,4 0,0 0,0 11,1 45,4

Air preheater bark boiler Digester Bleaching Oxygen stage Evaporation Chemical preparation Feedwater preheat Miscellaneous, losses Air preheater recovery boiler Air preheater power boiler Smelt shattering Digester Bleaching Pulp machine Pulp machine, white water system Evaporation Chemical preparation Causticising Paper machine Building heating Blow off Miscellaneous, losses Steam to feedwater tank

14,5 MW

G
62,6 25,0 bar(g)

96,0 MW

46,7

111,4 9,0 bar(g)

Powe r balance Consumption


Process Sold Sum

MW 121,3 0,0 121,3 113 C 96,0 14,5 10,7 121,3 Sec heat 8,0 MW 75 C

26,2 MW 0,0

Production
Back-pressure Condensing Bought Sum

46,7 35 C

Make-up 119,1 15 C Mixed bed

420,4 3,5 bar(g)

34 C

434,0 Condensate return 128 C

Bark to lime kiln, tDS/d Bark to bark boiller, tDS/d Sold bark, tDS/d

203 217 0

Figure 4-1. Overall energy balance softwood campaigns

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Model Fine paper HW campaign


Pulp SW HW Market 2 500 ADt/d 0 ADt/d 2 500 ADt/d 0 ADt/d 70 MW 0,0 MW 97,8 Bark Boiler

100 bar(g) 611,4 Recovery Boiler 426 MW

505 C

Soot blowing Air preheat Feedwater Preheating

Steam flows t/h

0,0

MP-steam

64,9 644,3 146 C

3,4 52,1 21,9 3,1 16,8 1,0 37,1 4,2 0,0 4,9 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 127,7 3,1 0,0 237,4 0,0 0,0 11,5 51,8

Air preheater bark boiler Digester Bleaching Oxygen stage Evaporation Chemical preparation Feedwater preheat Miscellaneous, losses Air preheater recovery boiler Air preheater power boiler Smelt shattering Digester Bleaching Pulp machine Pulp machine, white water system Evaporation Chemical preparation Causticising Paper machine Building heating Blow off Miscellaneous, losses Steam to feedwater tank

20,2 MW

G
66,0 25,0 bar(g)

103,9 MW

64,9

137,5 9,0 bar(g)

Powe r balance Consumption


Process Sold Sum

MW 124,0 0,1 124,1 112 C 103,9 20,2 0,0 124,1 Sec heat 10,5 MW 75 C

36,4 MW 0,0

Production
Back-pressure Condensing Bought Sum

64,9 35 C

Make-up 144,0 15 C Mixed bed

440,9 3,5 bar(g)

32 C

453,5 Condensate return 129 C

Bark to lime kiln, tDS/d Bark to bark boiller, tDS/d Sold bark, tDS/d

211 432 0

Figure 4-2. Overall energy balance hardwood campaigns

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5 Comparison of model mill and typical mill


To indicate potential energy savings, energy balances for a typical fine paper mill, from the FRAM project, is included here. The type mill has energy production and consumption similar to existing Swedish mills. Table 5-1 and Table 5-2 summarize the key operating and dimensioning data for the type mill, compared to the model mill.

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Table 5-1. Summary of key pulp mill data Model mill vs. Type mill.
Softwood Softwood Hardwood Hardwood Model Type Model Type 2 000 1 000 2 500 1 250

Pulp production Wood yard Wood to digester Bark and wood waste Digester Plant Kappa number Unscreened deknotted digester yield Alkali charge on wood as EA Sulphidity (white liquor) Oxygen Stage Kappa number after oxygen stage Alkali charge as NaOH Oxygen charge Washing Department Dilution factor in the last stage Evaporation Plant Weak black liquor to evaporation, excl.spill ditto dry solids content Strong black liquor, dry solids content incl. ash Total evaporation, including spill Recovery Boiler Estimated higher heating value of virgin DS Strong liquor virgin solids to mixing tank Net useful heat from liquor, virgin solids Net useful heat from liquor Causticizing and Lime Kiln Causticizing efficiency Total white liquor production Lime kiln load Active CaO in lime

ADt/24 h

t/24 h t/24 h

4 072 420

2 065 193

4 610 642

2 328 298

% NaOH,% mole-%

30 47.0 20.0 35

27 46.1 20.0 35

17 51.0 18.5 35

17 50.5 19.0 35

kg/ADt kg/ADt

12 25 20

14 25 20

12 18 14

10 20 14

m /ADt unbl.

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

t/h % % t/h

913 16.0 80 771

441 16.9 73 359

981 15.7 80 840

475 16.5 73 393

MJ/kg t/24 h MJ/kg DS MW

14.0 3 477 10.3 413

14.0 1 778 9.5 195

13.8 3 668 10.0 426

13.9 1 866 9.3 200

mole-% 3 m /24 h t/24 h %

82 7 541 534 90

82 3 984 272 90

82 7 831 554 90

82 4 215 288 90

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Table 5-2. Summary of paper mill key operating data.


Model Speed at pope Width on pope Grammage Production on pope (100% eff.) Paper dryness PM furnish composition -Hard wood -Soft wood -Filler -Surface size of paper (starch) Paper production net (PM1 + PM2), Kraft mill MCR Paper production net (PM1 + PM2) Bleached hardwood consumption Bleached softwood consumption Filler consumption Starch consumption m/min M 2 g/m t/h % 1 690 9 80 (75-160) 73 93 Type 980 7.8 80 (75-160) 37 93

% % % %

56 19 25 3

56 19 25 3

t/d t/a ADt/a ADt/a t100/a t100/a

3 100 1 022 000 573 000 191 000 235 000 27 600

1570 512 000 287 000 96 000 118 000 13 800

5.1 Type mill process description


Following is a brief description of the type mill, with emphasis on the factors which are different from the model mill, and which affect the mills energy balances. 5.1.1 Digester

Many existing mills still use the old conventional two flash digester, without chip bin presteaming. The loading of the digester is also normally raised over the years and therefore the cooking temperature is higher than in new digesters. The type mill has a two flash digester and a cooking temperature of 165C for softwood and 162C for hardwood. To achieve maximum production in the digester, the alkali charge is increased.

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5.1.2

Oxygen stage

The type mill has a single oxygen stage with limited kappa reduction from 27 to 16 on softwood. Hardwood is the same as in the reference mill, 17 to 10. Washing before the stage is on a vacuum filter. 5.1.3 Pulp washing

Vacuum filters were once the standard equipment for pulp washing and many are still in use. These require more washing liquid than wash presses and therefore increase the water consumption and the heat needed for heating the water. The type mill is assumed to have a retrofit oxygen stage with vacuum filter before oxygen stage and wash presses after. The bleach plant has vacuum washers in all positions. 5.1.4 Bleaching

The ECF bleach sequence in the typical mill uses much more ClO2 and less H2O2 than in the model mill. The bleach plant is a little more open than in the model mill, which together with the higher wash water flows needed for filters results in about twice the effluent from the bleach plant compared to the model mill.
Table 5-3. Expected chemical charges for the SW kraft type mill with the sequence (OO)D(EOP)DD) to 90% ISO brightness ( kg/ADt). ClO2 as ClO2 and not as active Cl.
Stage Temp (C) Ox. WL (NaOH) ClO2 O2 H2SO4 NaOH H2O2 MgSO4 SO2

(OO) D0 (EOP) D1 D2

95 70 90 70 70

30

21 8 7 7 3 4 17 2 2

2 1 0.5 1

Table 5-4. Expected chemical charges for the HW kraft type mill with the sequence (OO)D(EOP)DD to 90% ISO brightness ( kg/ADt). ClO2 as ClO2 and not as active Cl.
Stage Temp (C) Ox. WL (NaOH) ClO2 O2 H2SO4 NaOH H2O2 MgSO4 SO2

(OO) D0 (EOP) D1 D2

95 70 90 70 70

23

16 7 5 6 3 5 14 2 2

0.5 1

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H20 8.3 ton/ADt


0.4 ton/ADt 0.2 ton/ADt

H20 7.8 ton/ADt


0.9 ton/ADt

D2-filtrate 8.3 ton/ADt


0.4 ton/ADt 0.01 ton/ADt

H 20 4.9 ton/ADt

D0

OP

D1

D2

To effluent treatment 4.4 ton/ADt

To effluent treatment 8.1 ton/ADt

To effluent treatment 9.1 ton/ADt

To D1-filter

To effluent treatment 1.8 ton/ADt

Figure 5-1. The liquor flows (m /ADt) of the type mill ECF bleach plant. The dilution factor is 2.5 m3/ADt.

5.1.5

Paper machine

The type mill fine paper machines operate at lower speed, about 1000 m/min, and production is usually not greater than 255 000 t/a. The forming section if of hybrid type, i.e., an initial fourdrinier forming followed by twin-wire forming, giving higher energy consumption. The approach flow system is equipped with cleaners and is therefore more power consuming than the reference mill which has guard screening systems. The press is a four-nip press section with a steam box before the fourth nip. The dryness after the press section is lower than in the reference mill; about 46%. The water consumption is higher, thereby giving a higher cost for heating The total consumption of electric energy is higher than the model mill; about 700 kWh/t. Table 5-5 summarizes consumption data for the papermachine.

Integrated fine paper mill 20 January 2011

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Table 5-5. Paper machine consumption data Model mill vs Type mill
Dryness to dryer Paper dryness Evaporated Redrying etc Total evaporation Heat consumption Heat consumption drying Heat consumption miscellaneous Total heat consumption paper mill Power consumption incl. refining Water consumption % % t/t paper % t/t paper GJ/t evap. GJ/t paper GJ/t paper GJ/t paper kWh/t paper 3 m /t paper Model 52 93 0.82 10 1.26 3.0 3.77 0.46 4.23 550 6.0 Type 46 93 1.06 10 1.50 3.0 4.51 0.46 4.97 700 10

5.1.6

Evaporation

The capacity of existing evaporation plants can easily be increased in small steps by adding new evaporator bodies. Earlier most evaporation plants were built with five-effect economy. After increasing the evaporation plant many existing mills therefore have a combination of five- and six-effect economy. For the type mill it is assumed that the evaporation plant on average operates with 5.5 effect economy. The strong liquor from the evaporation plant has 72% dry solids content and only LP-steam is used for the evaporation. A stripper for the evaporation plant is nowadays standard, but has not always been. Many strippers today are therefore not fully integrated in the evaporation plant, some are completely separate and some recover the steam partly in the evaporation plant. Also only the most contaminated condensate is stripped. The type mill has a separate stripper for 2 m3/ADt. 5.1.7 Recovery boiler

The recovery boiler in the type mill does not have flue gas cooling as in the model mill. The type mill has a conventional combustion air system where approximately 85% of the combustion air is heated to 165oC (compared to preheating of 100% of the combustion air to 205oC in the model mill). The type mill has a feedwater temperature of 125oC, compared to the model mill where feedwater is preheated from 146oC to 175oC.

Integrated fine paper mill 20 January 2011

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The soot blowing steam is extracted from the recovery boiler directly and not from the turbine. Due to the assumed high load on the recovery boiler the steam consumption for the soot blowing is increased from 1 to 1.5 GJ/ADt. 5.1.8 Lime kiln

The lime mud has a dryness of 70% and the lime kiln is fired with mineral oil. 5.1.9 Power boiler

With higher steam consumption in the type mill compared to the model mill, wood fuel must be purchased for the power boiler. There is no bark press and the bark is fired at 40% dryness. 5.1.10 Steam turbines and steam distribution The very clearly dominating data for the HP-steam in typical mills in Sweden today is 60 bar and 450C. Some mills operated at 40 bar and in Finland 80 bar is also common. The type mill uses 60 bar and 450C. The MP-steam pressure in the mill is normally set according to the demands from the digester. The model mill has a modern digester with low cooking temperature. Older digesters like the one chosen for the type mill, which are often overloaded, need higher cooking temperatures. The MP-steam pressure is therefore increased from 9 to 10 bar(g) in the typical mill. The common feedwater temperature of 125C is used in the type mill compared to 146oC in the model mill. Typical mill have increased production over the years with debottlenecking measures and the steam turbines have consequently become too small to take care of all the steam. Part of the HP-steam must therefore be reduced directly to lower pressures by pressure reducing valves, PRVs. The efficiency of the turbine is also lower than for modern turbines, due both to wear and less original efficiency. When the typical mill was originally built there was no steam surplus from liquor and falling bark, and therefore no condensing turbine.

Integrated fine paper mill 20 January 2011

Page 48

5.2 Energy balance comparison Model mill vs type mill


Steam and power balances, as well as bark balance for the model mill are compared to the type mill from the FRAM project in Table 5-6 to Table 5-11.
Table 5-6. Steam balance, GJ/ADt pulp
Consumption Recovery boiler soot blowing Recovery boiler blow down Power boiler Woodyard Digester Oxygen stage Bleaching Paper machine Evaporation Stripper Chemical preparation Causticising Hot water production Heating etc Miscellaneous, losses Total process consumption Surplus steam (blow off LP) Back-pressure turbine Condensing turbine Total consumption Production Recovery boiler Bark boiler Secondary heat Total production Softwood Model 1.02 0.05 0.02 0.00 1.55 0.08 0.22 6.62 3.49 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.45 13.61 0.00 4.30 1.78 19.69 Type 1.71 0.03 0.01 0.14 2.57 0.18 0.35 7.79 4.45 0.54 0.10 0.05 0.37 0.09 0.66 19.03 0.00 3.14 22.17 Hardwood Model Type 0.85 1.31 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.00 0.13 1.38 2.09 0.08 0.21 0.58 0.40 5.30 6.20 3.04 3.97 0.00 0.53 0.10 0.07 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.36 0.00 0.07 0.39 0.59 11.80 16.05 0.00 3.72 1.98 17.50 0.00 2.34 18.40

17.82 1.53 0.35 19.69

16.77 4.89 0.51 22.17

14.71 2.43 0.36 17.50

14.01 3.94 0.45 18.40

Integrated fine paper mill 20 January 2011

Page 49

Table 5-7. Steam balance, (GJ/t paper).


Consumption Recovery boiler soot blowing Recovery boiler blow down Power boiler Woodyard Digester Oxygen stage Bleaching Paper machine Evaporation Stripper Chemical preparation Causticising Hot water production Heating etc Miscellaneous, losses Total process consumption Surplus steam (blow off LP) Back-pressure turbine Condensing turbine Total consumption Production Recovery boiler Bark boiler Secondary heat Total production Softwood Model Type Hardwood Model Type

0.65 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.99 0.05 0.14 4.23 2.23 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.29 8.70 0.00 2.75 1.14 12.59

1.09 0.02 0.01 0.09 1.64 0.11 0.22 4.96 2.83 0.34 0.06 0.03 0.24 0.06 0.42 12.12 0.00 2.00 0.00 14.12

0.68 0.03 0.03 0.00 1.10 0.06 0.46 4.23 2.43 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.31 9.42 0.00 2.97 1.58 13.98

1.04 0.02 0.01 0.10 1.66 0.17 0.32 4.94 3.16 0.42 0.06 0.04 0.29 0.06 0.47 12.78 0.00 1.86 0.00 14.65

11.39 0.98 0.22 12.59

10.68 3.11 0.32 14.12

11.75 1.94 0.29 13.98

11.15 3.14 0.36 14.65

Integrated fine paper mill 20 January 2011

Page 50

Table 5-8. Power balance, kWh/ADt pulp


Power consumption Wood yard Digester Washing and screening Oxygen stage Bleaching Final screening Paper machine Evaporation Causticising, lime kiln incl. fuel gasifier Boiler house Cooling tower etc Raw water treatment and distribution Effluent treatment Chem preparation Miscellaneous, losses Sum Sold power Total Power production Back-pressure power Condensing power Bought power Sum Softwood Model Type 45 45 44 44 60 90 60 80 80 100 45 45 861 939 27 30 59 30 80 100 20 0 17 22 17 30 10 10 30 35 1455 1600 0 0 1455 1600 Hardwood Model Type 40 40 39 39 54 80 54 72 72 89 689 40 125 756 24 25 40 24 64 80 12 0 15 20 15 27 9 9 24 28 1191 1329 0 0 1191 1329

1152 174 128 1455

829 0 771 1600

998 194 0 1191

631 0 698 1329

Integrated fine paper mill 20 January 2011

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Table 5-9. Power balance, kWh/t paper


Power consumption Wood yard Digester Washing and screening Oxygen stage Bleaching Final screening Pulp machine Evaporation Causticising, lime kiln incl. fuel gasifier Boiler house Cooling tower etc Raw water treatment and distribution Effluent treatment Chem preparation Miscellaneous, losses Sum Sold power Total Power production Back-pressure power Condensing power Bought power Sum Softwood Model Type Hardwood Model Type

29 28 38 38 51 29 550 17 38 51 13 11 11 6 19 930 0 930

29 28 57 51 64 29 598 19 19 64 0 14 19 6 22 1019 0 1019

32 31 43 43 58 550 100 19 32 51 10 12 12 7 19 951 0 951

32 31 64 57 71 32 602 20 19 64 0 16 21 7 22 1058 0 1058

736 111 82 930

528 0 491 1019

797 155 0 951

502 0 556 1058

Table 5-10. Bark balance, DS t/ADt pulp.


Softwood Model 0.210 0.101 0.109 0 0.109 Type 0.196 0.000 0.196 0.182 0.376 Hardwood Model Type 0.257 0.240 0.084 0.000 0.173 0.240 0 0.063 0.173 0.303

Bark from woodyard Bark to lime kiln Remaining bark Purchased bark Bark to bark boiler

Integrated fine paper mill 20 January 2011

Page 52

Table 5-11. Bark balance, DS t/t paper.


Softwood Model Type Bark from woodyard Bark to lime kiln Remaining bark Sold bark Bark to bark boiler Hardwood Model Type

0.134 0.065 0.070 0.000 0.070

0.125 0.000 0.125 0.116 0.239

0.205 0.067 0.138 0.000 0.138

0.191 0.000 0.191 0.050 0.241

Integrated fine paper mill 20 January 2011

Page 53

6 References
Delin L, Berglin N, Sivrd , Samuelsson , Backlund B, Lundstrm A, Bleached market kraft pulp mill, Report FRAM 09, 2004 Delin L, Berglin N, Eriksson T, Andersson R, Sivrd , Samuelsson , Backlund B, Lundstrm A, berg M, Integrated fine paper mill, Report FRAM 10, 2004 Delin L, Berglin N, Eriksson T, Andersson R, Sivrd , berg M, Kraftliner reference mill, Report FRAM 11, 2003 Delin L, Stenberg E, Lundstrm A, Sivard , berg M, Magazine paper mill, Report FRAM 12, 2004 Wiberg, R Energifrbrukning I mass- och pappersindustrin 2007, Skogs Industrierna rapport, 2007 Wiberg, R Energifrbrukning I mass- och pappersindustrin 2000, Skogs Industrierna rapport, 2000

Appendix 1

Model mill - Softwood bleached kraft pulp

PRODUCTION DESIGN BASIS: OPERATING DAYS PER YEAR MILL EFFICIENCY AVERAGE DAILY PRODUCTION PULP MILL CAPACITY, MCR ANNUAL PULP PRODUCTION 355 d/a 92% 1840 ADt/d 2000 ADt/d 653200 ADt/a

KNOTS 19 BDt/d
BROWN STOCK STORAGE

DIGESTER PLANT 1933 BDt/d 2148 ADt/d

BLOW TANK

PRESSURE KNOTTERS 1914 BDt/d 2127 ADt/d 1,0%

PRESSURE SCREENS

PREOXYGEN WASHING

1913 BDt/d 2126 ADt/d

OXYGEN DELIGNIFICATION

1840 BDt/d 2045 ADt/d

POSTOXYGEN WASHING

1840 BDt/d 2045 ADt/d

D(EPO)DP BLEACH PLANT

1804 BDt/d 2004 ADt/d

HD-STORAGE, TO PULP MACHINE

1800 BDt/d

0,1 % REJ.

2000 ADt/d

WHITE LIQUOR 7 085 m3/d

NCG

BLACK LIQUOR 21 905 t/d 16,0 %

1,0 BDt/d

ALKALI as NaOH 50,0 t/d

NaOH O2 41 t/d MgSO4 5 t/d

O2

ClO2

H2SO4 H2O2

SO2

LOSS AS WHITE LIQUOR 14 m3/d

WHITE LIQUOR 443 m3/d

NCG 4 072 BDt/d CHIP STORAGE & SCREENING Screen Losses 0,5% 20 BDt/d 4 097 BDt/d CaCO3 SAW MILL CHIPS 1 229 BDt/d CaO 4 BDt/d Storage losses LIME KILN 90% CaO MUD REBURNT LIME 534 t/d CAUSTICIZING PLANT GREEN LIQ. WEAK WASH RECOVERY BOILER

METHANOL

VIRGIN DS 14,0 MJ/kg DS 3 477 t/d DS 79 %

EVAPORATION PLANT 771 t/h evap

WHITE LIQUOR OXIDATION

CHLORINE DIOXIDE PLANT BYPRODUCT SALT CAKE (Na2SO4)

DE-BARKING & CHIPPING Losses 2,0% 400 BDt/d TO BIOMASS BOILER 420 BDt/d

MeOH

H2SO4

NaClO3

PURCHASED LIMESTONE HANDLING ROUNDWOOD 3 268 BDt/d

PURCHASED LIME HANDLING

CAUSTIC HANDLING

CAUSTIC HANDLING

OXYGEN HANDLING

MgSO4 HANDLING

METHANOL HANDLING

SULPHURIC ACID HANDLING

SODIUM CHLORATE HANDLING

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE HANDLING

SO2 HANDLING

WOOD SUPPLY Pine Spruce Roundwood with bark Bark on unbarked logs Saw mill chips Solid wood density Moisture Lignin in wood Cl in wood K in wood S in wood Extractives in wood 50% 50% 70 % 11 % 30 % 420 kg/m3 50,0 % 27,5% 60 mg/kg DS 400 mg/kg DS 80 mg/kg DS 3,0%

DIGESTER AND OXYGEN DELIGNIFICATION Kappa out of digester EA to digester, as NaOH AA to digester, as NaOH Knotted, unscreened yield Kappa out if O2 stage Total alkali to O2 delig., NaOH O2 to oxygen delig. MgSO4 to oxygen delig. Dilution factor, brownstock wash 30 20,0 % 24,2 % 47,0 % 12 25 kg/ADt 20 kg/ADt 2 kg/ADt 2,50

PULP YIELD AND LOSSES YIELD % Chip storage Chip screen Digester Knots Reject Oxygen delig. Bleaching Final screen Total yield (from dig feed) LOSSES % 0,1 0,5 1,0 0,1 96,2 98,0 0,2 44,2

WHITE LIQUOR SPECIFICATION

BLEACH AND CHEMICAL PLANTS BLEACH PLANT kg/ADt t/d 6,9 13,8 22,0 44,0 6,0 12,0 4,0 15,0 4,0 8,0 30,0 8,0 CHLORIDE DIOXIDE PLANT t/ADt t/d 0,80 11,0 0,20 2,8 1,6 22,1

47,0

Na K S OHHSS2O32SO42CO32AA TTA EA %SULPHIDITY ON AA

g/L ACTUAL g/L as NaOH 93,4 3,8 21,8 49,1 20,2 1,9 3,3 15,0 140,0 160,0 115,5 35%

ClO 2 NaOH O2 H2O2 H2SO4 SO2

H2SO4 CH 3OH NaClO3

F Engineering, Forest Industry


STOCKHOLM SWEDEN OVERALL MATERIAL BALANCE, MCR Bleached Softwood 2000 ADt/d PROJECT Model mills 2010 DRAWING 20100426 v. 1.0

SULF8_1 model mills 2010.xlsm

Appendix 1

Model mill - Bleached hardwood pulp

PRODUCTION DESIGN BASIS: OPERATING DAYS PER YEAR MILL EFFICIENCY AVERAGE DAILY PRODUCTION PULP MILL CAPACITY, MCR ANNUAL PULP PRODUCTION 355 d/a 92% 2300 ADt/d 2500 ADt/d 816500 ADt/a

KNOTS 19 BDt/d
BROWN STOCK STORAGE

DIGESTER PLANT 2370 BDt/d 2633 ADt/d

BLOW TANK

PRESSURE KNOTTERS 2351 BDt/d 2612 ADt/d 0,8%

PRESSURE SCREENS

PREOXYGEN WASHING

2350 BDt/d 2611 ADt/d

OXYGEN DELIGNIFICATION

2312 BDt/d 2569 ADt/d

POSTOXYGEN WASHING

2312 BDt/d 2569 ADt/d

D(EPO)DP BLEACH PLANT

2255 BDt/d 2505 ADt/d

HD-STORAGE, TO PULP MACHINE

2250 BDt/d

0,1 % REJ.

2500 ADt/d

WHITE LIQUOR 7 414 m3/d

NCG

BLACK LIQUOR 23 545 t/d 15,7 %

1,2 BDt/d

ALKALI as NaOH 45,0 t/d

NaOH O2 36 t/d MgSO4 3 t/d

O2

ClO2

H2SO4 H2O2

SO2

LOSS AS WHITE LIQUOR 17 m3/d

WHITE LIQUOR 400 m3/d

NCG 4 610 BDt/d CHIP STORAGE & SCREENING Screen Losses 0,5% 23 BDt/d 4 642 BDt/d CaCO3 SAW MILL CHIPS 0 BDt/d CaO Ash 0 t/d 9 BDt/d Storage losses LIME KILN 90% CaO MUD REBURNT LIME 554 t/d CAUSTICIZING PLANT GREEN LIQ. WEAK WASH RECOVERY BOILER

METHANOL

VIRGIN DS 14,0 MJ/kg DS 3 668 t/d DS 79 %

EVAPORATION PLANT 840 t/h evap

WHITE LIQUOR OXIDATION

CHLORINE DIOXIDE PLANT BYPRODUCT SALT CAKE (Na2SO4)

CP DE-BARKING & CHIPPING Losses 2,0% 619 BDt/d TO BIOMASS BOILER 642 BDt/d MeOH H2SO4 NaClO3

PURCHASED LIMESTONE HANDLING ROUNDWOOD 5 261 BDt/d

PURCHASED LIME HANDLING

CAUSTIC HANDLING

CAUSTIC HANDLING

OXYGEN HANDLING

MgSO4 HANDLING

METHANOL HANDLING

SULPHURIC ACID HANDLING

SODIUM CHLORATE HANDLING

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE HANDLING

SO2 HANDLING

WOOD SUPPLY Birch Other hardwoods Roundwood with bark Bark on unbarked logs Saw mill chips Solid wood density Moisture Lignin in wood Cl in wood K in wood S in wood Extractives in wood 90% 10% 100 % 11 % 0% 495 kg/m3 45,0 % 22,0% 150 mg/kg DS 450 mg/kg DS 80 mg/kg DS 2,5%

DIGESTER AND OXYGEN DELIGNIFICATION Kappa out of digester EA to digester, as NaOH AA to digester, as NaOH Knotted, unscreened yield Kappa out if O2 stage Total alkali to O2 delig., NaOH O2 to oxygen delig. MgSO4 to oxygen delig. Dilution factor, brownstock wash 17 18,5 % 22,4 % 51,0 % 12 18 kg/ADt 14 kg/ADt 1 kg/ADt 2,50

PULP YIELD AND LOSSES YIELD % Chip storage Chip screen Digester Knots Reject Oxygen delig. Bleaching Final screen Total yield (from dig feed) LOSSES % 0,2 0,5 0,8 0,1 98,4 97,5 0,2 48,8

WHITE LIQUOR SPECIFICATION

BLEACH AND CHEMICAL PLANTS BLEACH PLANT kg/ADt t/d 6,9 17,3 22,0 55,0 6,0 15,0 4,0 15,0 4,0 10,0 37,5 10,0 CHLORIDE DIOXIDE PLANT t/ADt t/d 0,80 13,8 0,20 3,5 1,6 27,6

51,0

Na K S OHHSS2O32SO42CO32AA TTA EA %SULPHIDITY ON AA

g/L ACTUAL g/L as NaOH 92,7 6,2 21,8 49,1 20,2 1,9 3,3 15,0 140,0 160,0 115,5 35%

ClO 2 NaOH O2 H2O2 H2SO4 SO2

H2SO4 CH 3OH NaClO3

F Engineering, Forest Industry


STOCKHOLM SWEDEN OVERALL MATERIAL BALANCE, MCR Hardwood 2500 ADt/d PROJECT Model mills 2010 DRAWING 20100426 v. 1.0

Appendix 2 Softwood

ENERGY BALANCE
ASSUMPTIONS

Model Fine paper SW campaign Enthalpy etc Temp Pressure C bar(g) 15 75 75 146 505 275 200 150

Make-up water before preheating Make-up water, preheated by sec heat Turbine cond., preheated by sec heat Feedwater to boilers HP-steam MP2-steam, desuperheated MP-steam, desuperheated LP-steam, desuperheated Mech./el efficiency turbine Produced pulp, MCR of which softwood of which hardwood Market pulp Paper machine

kJ/kg C kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg ADt/d 2000 2000 0 0 3130

63 315 315 622 3386 2944 2827 2748 0,97

100,0 25,0 9,0 3,5

EnerbalNew JTLDn6.xlsmSteamBal

Appendix 2 - Softwood

STEAM CONSUMPTION

Steam Flow t/h

Condensate Temp Flow C t/h

Heat Effect MW 99,5

HP-steam Back-pressure turbine MP2-steam MP-steam LP-steam Condensing turbine condensing steam Direct reduction HP-MP Direct reduction HP-LP Soot blowing recovery boiler Blow down recovery boiler Soot blowing bark boiler Blow down bark boiler Total HP-steam MP2-steam Soot blowing recovery boiler Air preheater recovery boiler Feedwater interheater Soot blowing power boiler Total MP2-steam MP-steam Air preheater recovery boiler Air preheater bark boiler Feedwater preheater Digesting Bleaching Oxygen stage Evaporation Chemical preparation Paper machine Miscellaneous, losses Total MT-nga LP-steam Air preheater recovery boiler Air preheater bark boiler Smelt shattering Woodyard Digesting Bleaching Evaporation Chemical preparation Causticising Paper machine Heating etc Blow off Miscellaneous, losses Steam to feedwater tank Total LP-steam

(62,6) (111,4) (420,4) 41,3 46,7 (0,0) (0,0) 0,0 3,0 0,0 0,2 50,0 35 46,7

0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 46,7

0,0 1,1 0,0 0,1 142,0

29,6 18,3 17,8 0,5 66,2

160 200

0,0 18,3 17,8 0,0 36,1

23,7 (11,6) (10,4) 0,4 24,1

0,0 1,7 35,9 46,7 6,7 2,5 15,4 0,8 0,0 3,4 113,1

170 170 180 170 180 100 140 100 100 100

0,0 1,7 35,9 0,0 0,0 0,0 14,6 0,0 0,0 1,0 53,3

(0,0) (1,0) (20,6) 35,8 5,1 1,9 9,7 0,6 0,0 2,5 55,7

0,0 2,5 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 117,2 2,5 0,0 237,4 0,0 0,0 11,1 45,4 416,0

148 148

140 100 100 105 100 100 100

0,0 2,5 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 111,3 2,0 0,0 225,5 0,0 0,0 3,3 45,4 390,0

(0,0) (1,5) 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 71,2 1,7 0,0 153,3 0,0 0,0 8,0 234,1

EnerbalNew JTLDn6.xlsmSteamBal

Appendix 2 - Softwood

SUMMARY STEAM CONSUMPTION HP-steam MP2-steam MP-steam LP-steam Make-up water TOTAL STEAM CONSUMPTION STEAM PRODUCTION Recovery boiler HP-steam soot blowing blow down feedwater preheat MP feedwater preheat MP2, inter eco air preheating, LP-steam air preheating, MP-steam air preheating, MP2-steam Sum Extern verhettare Bark boiler HP-steam soot blowing blow down air preheating, LP-steam air preheating, MP-steam Sum t/ADt 7,10

Steam Flow t/h 50,0 66,2 113,1 416,0 645,3 Flow t/h 591,8 0,0 3,0

Condensate Temp Flow C t/h 46,7 36,1 167 53,3 117 390,0 119,1 645,3

Heat Effect MW 142,0 24,1 55,7 234,1 455,9 Effect MW 454,5 0,0 0,6 -20,6 -10,4 0,0 0,0 -11,6 412,5 0,0

594,8

t/ADt 0,59

49,3 0,0 0,2

49,5

37,8 0,0 0,1 -1,5 -1,0 35,4

MP-steam from boilers desuperheating water MP2-steam desuperheating water MP-steam drainage water LP-steam Secondary heat for preheating make-up water TOTAL STEAM PRODUCTION

0,0 3,6 1,7 -4,4 645,3

0,0

8,0 455,9

POWER CONSUMPTION Wood yard Digester Washing and screening Oxygen stage Bleaching Final screening Paper machine Evaporation Causticising, lime kiln incl. fuel gasifier Boiler house Cooling tower etc Raw water treatment and distribution Effluent treatment Chem preparation Miscellaneous, losses Sum Sold power Total POWER PRODUCTION Back-presssure power Condensing power Bought power Sum

kWh/ADt 45 44 60 60 80 45 861 27 59 80 20 17 17 10 30 1455 0 1455

MW 3,8 3,7 5,0 5,0 6,7 3,8 71,7 2,3 5,0 6,7 1,7 1,4 1,4 0,8 2,5 121,3 0,0 121,3

1152 174 128 1455

96,0 14,5 10,7 121,3

EnerbalNew JTLDn6.xlsmSteamBal

Appendix 2 - Hardwood

ENERGY BALANCE
ASSUMPTIONS

Model Fine paper HW campaign Enthalpy etc Temp Pressure C bar(g) 15 75 75 146 505 275 200 150

Make-up water before preheating Make-up water, preheated by sec heat Turbine cond., preheated by sec heat Feedwater to boilers HP-steam MP2-steam, desuperheated MP-steam, desuperheated LP-steam, desuperheated Mech./el efficiency turbine Produced pulp, MCR of which softwood of which hardwood Market pulp Paper machine

kJ/kg C kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg ADt/d 2500 0 2500 0 3130

63 315 315 622 3386 2944 2827 2748 0,97

100,0 25,0 9,0 3,5

EnerbalNew JTLDn6.xlsmSteamBal

Appendix 2 - Hardwood

STEAM CONSUMPTION

Steam Flow t/h

Condensate Temp Flow C t/h

Heat Effect MW 107,7

HP-steam Back-pressure turbine MP2-steam MP-steam LP-steam Condensing turbine condensing steam Direct reduction HP-MP Direct reduction HP-LP Soot blowing recovery boiler Blow down recovery boiler Soot blowing bark boiler Blow down bark boiler Total HP-steam MP2-steam Soot blowing recovery boiler Air preheater recovery boiler Feedwater interheater Soot blowing power boiler Total MP2-steam MP-steam Air preheater recovery boiler Air preheater bark boiler Feedwater preheater Digesting Bleaching Oxygen stage Evaporation Chemical preparation Paper machine Miscellaneous, losses Total MT-nga LP-steam Air preheater recovery boiler Air preheater bark boiler Smelt shattering Woodyard Digesting Bleaching Evaporation Chemical preparation Causticising Paper machine Heating etc Blow off Miscellaneous, losses Steam to feedwater tank Total LP-steam

(66,0) (137,5) (440,9) 57,3 64,9 (0,0) (0,0) 0,0 3,1 0,0 0,5 68,4 35 64,9

0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 64,9

0,0 1,1 0,0 0,2 166,3

30,6 19,8 18,4 1,0 69,7

160 200

0,0 19,8 18,4 0,0 38,2

24,5 (12,5) (10,8) 0,8 25,2

0,0 3,4 37,1 52,1 21,9 3,1 16,8 1,0 0,0 4,2 139,6

170 170 180 170 180 100 140 100 100 100

0,0 3,4 37,1 0,0 0,0 0,0 16,0 0,0 0,0 1,3 57,7

(0,0) (2,0) (21,3) 40,0 16,8 2,4 10,6 0,8 0,0 3,1 73,6

0,0 4,9 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 127,7 3,1 0,0 237,4 0,0 0,0 11,5 51,8 436,4

148 148

140 100 100 105 100 100 100

0,0 4,9 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 121,3 2,5 0,0 225,5 0,0 0,0 3,5 51,8 409,4

(0,0) (2,9) 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 77,5 2,1 0,0 153,3 0,0 0,0 8,3 241,2

EnerbalNew JTLDn6.xlsmSteamBal

Appendix 2 - Hardwood

SUMMARY STEAM CONSUMPTION HP-steam MP2-steam MP-steam LP-steam Make-up water TOTAL STEAM CONSUMPTION STEAM PRODUCTION Recovery boiler HP-steam soot blowing blow down feedwater preheat MP feedwater preheat MP2, inter eco air preheating, LP-steam air preheating, MP-steam air preheating, MP2-steam Sum Extern verhettare Bark boiler HP-steam soot blowing blow down air preheating, LP-steam air preheating, MP-steam Sum t/ADt 5,87

Steam Flow t/h 68,4 69,7 139,6 436,4 714,1 Flow t/h 611,4 0,0 3,1

Condensate Temp Flow C t/h 64,9 38,2 167 57,7 117 409,4 144,0 714,1

Heat Effect MW 166,3 25,2 73,6 241,2 506,4 Effect MW 469,5 0,0 0,6 -21,3 -10,8 0,0 0,0 -12,5 425,6 0,0

614,4

t/ADt 0,94

97,8 0,0 0,5

98,3

75,1 0,0 0,1 -2,9 -2,0 70,3

MP-steam from boilers desuperheating water MP2-steam desuperheating water MP-steam drainage water LP-steam Secondary heat for preheating make-up water TOTAL STEAM PRODUCTION

0,0 3,8 2,1 -4,6 714,1

0,0

10,5 506,4

POWER CONSUMPTION Wood yard Digester Washing and screening Oxygen stage Bleaching Final screening Paper machine Evaporation Causticising, lime kiln incl. fuel gasifier Boiler house Cooling tower etc Raw water treatment and distribution Effluent treatment Chem preparation Miscellaneous, losses Sum Sold power Total POWER PRODUCTION Back-presssure power Condensing power Bought power Sum

kWh/ADt 40 39 54 54 72 40 689 24 40 64 12 15 15 9 24 1191 1 1191

MW 4,2 4,1 5,6 5,6 7,5 4,2 71,7 2,5 4,1 6,6 1,3 1,6 1,6 1,0 2,5 124,0 0,1 124,1

998 194 0 1191

103,9 20,2 0,0 124,1

EnerbalNew JTLDn6.xlsmSteamBal

Appendix 3 - Softwood

1 4,0 Misc. 4,0

1,3 1,4 24,3 18 C 55,4 15,6

ClO2 Make-up Boilers 39,6 29 C Liquor Evaporation 3,49 GJ/ADt

9,4

1,0 0,0

Wood yard

1,0

50 C

4,1

Diss. Tank condenser 65 C 0,26 GJ/ADt

Turbine condenser 1,13 GJ/ADt Misc. cooling

Terpentine condenser 0,19 GJ/ADt Cooling O2-filtrate 0,00 GJ/ADt Cooling liquor to evaporation 0,38 GJ/ADt Cooling HC-tower 0,00 GJ/ADt Cooling liquor to hiheat wash 0,05 GJ/ADt Preheating condensate and make-up water 0,35 GJ/ADt

1,8 90 C

1,0 5,3 3,1

Paper machine

10,5

Cooling bleach 1,9 filtrate 0,12 GJ/ADt

0,0 0,0 1,6 4,5 5,5 0,0 3,9 Bleaching

45,4 0,93 GJ/ADt 109,3 8,4 Chemical preparation 0,17 GJ/ADt Bleach cooling 0,32 GJ/ADt Building heating 3,6

7,3

0,0

Causticising

15,6

0,6

0,0 0,0

4,3 Pulp wash

1,1 Cooling tower 25 C 2,46 GJ/ADt 3,3 29 C

110,4

50 C Cooling tower 1,13 GJ/ADt 35 C Effluent treatment

Total t/ADt Water consumption Total effluent 24,3 22,2

Water balance
Warm and hotwater
Model Fine paper SW campaign, SW

22,2

35 C

Printed 2010-07-08

Appendix 3- Hardwood

1 4,0 Misc. 4,0

1,5 1,4 23,1 18 C 63,4 14,5

ClO2 Make-up Boilers 34,5 29 C Liquor Evaporation 3,04 GJ/ADt

8,2

1,0 0,0

Wood yard

1,0

50 C

3,2

Diss. Tank condenser 65 C 0,20 GJ/ADt

Turbine condenser 1,26 GJ/ADt Misc. cooling

Terpentine condenser 0,19 GJ/ADt Cooling O2-filtrate 0,00 GJ/ADt Cooling liquor to evaporation 0,40 GJ/ADt Cooling HC-tower 0,00 GJ/ADt Cooling liquor to hiheat wash 0,10 GJ/ADt Preheating condensate and make-up water 0,36 GJ/ADt

1,8 89 C

0,8 4,2 2,5

Paper machine

8,6

Cooling bleach 3,7 filtrate 0,23 GJ/ADt

0,0 0,0 2,6 4,0 4,9 0,0 3,3 Bleaching

40,3 0,80 GJ/ADt 124,1 9,2 Chemical preparation 0,18 GJ/ADt Bleach cooling 0,51 GJ/ADt Building heating 3,8

7,2

0,0

Causticising

25,7

1,2

0,0 0,0

4,3 Pulp wash

1,2 Cooling tower 25 C 2,67 GJ/ADt 3,3 29 C

125,3

47 C Cooling tower 0,98 GJ/ADt 35 C Effluent treatment

Total t/ADt Water consumption Total effluent 23,1 20,3

Water balance
Warm and hotwater
Model Fine paper HW campaign, HW

20,3

35 C

Printed 2010-07-08