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Introduction to Sewage Collection System

Dr Sher Jamal Khan

Subject: Wastewater Collection and Treatment (ENE-326)

Course Outline

Sewage Collection & Management System Analysis & Selection of Wastewater Flow rates; Waste Stabilization Ponds Principles of Aerobic Bioreactors Principles of Aerobic Biological Treatment Design of Aerated Lagoons Principles & Design of Aeration Suspended Growth System
Conventional Activated Sludge Extended Aeration

Attached Growth System

Design of Trickling Filter Design of Rotatory Biological Reactors

Design of Constructed Wetlands Design of Anaerobic Digester

Recommended Books

Water and Wastewater Engineering, Design Principal and Practices

Mackenzie L. Davis

Wastewater Treatment for Pollution Control and Reuse 3rd Edition by Arceivala Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment Ronald L. Droste

Grading Policy - Theory

Quizzes (4-6) Assignments (4-6) OHT (2) Final

10 10 30 50

Grading Policy - Practical

GPS-X Modeling Assignments Quiz

70 30

Difference b/w Water Supply and Sewerage System

Flow by gravity (mostly) in sewerage system; Designed as open channel flow, but with cover; More suspended material; Release of gases i.e. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S);

Components of Wastewater Flows

Domestic (sanitary) wastewater: Discharged from residences, commercial, institutional and similar facilities; Industrial Wastewater: Wastewater in which industrial waste predominate; Inflow/Infiltration: Water that enters the collection system through indirect or direct means: Stormwater: Runoff resulting from rainfall and snowmelt;

Type of Collection System

Sanitary Collection System Stormwater Collection System Combined Collection System Partially Combined Collection System

Sanitary Collection System

The load on treatment plant becomes light; Small diameter pipes are used as sewers; Natural water does not become polluted unnecessarily; Where pumping of sewage is necessary, this system becomes economical; In this system maintenance cost become high; The cleaning of sewers is difficult as these are small in size; Steeper gradient is permitted to get self-cleaning velocity; Storm sewers dont flow during the whole year, in dry season these sewers become uneconomical; Sanitary sewer is laid below the storm sewer so that storm water may not become contaminated in this way depth of sanitary sewer may become unnecessarily more;

Combined Collection System

The maintenance cost is comparatively low; The storm water reduces the strength of sewage by dilution; Due to single pipe laying this system is economical; It is easy to clean a combined sewer as it is of large size; There are less chance of choking the sewer because the size of sewer used is large; Due to extra quantity of sewage the load on treatment increase unnecessarily; The sewers used in this system are large in diameter; The storm water is unnecessarily polluted; In this system sewer get easily silted if not properly designed; In dry weather discharge become very low and it become foul; This system become uneconomical when pumping is required for the lifting of sewage to the ground level; In case of heavy rains, sewer may become overflow and it may put public health in danger;

Partially Combined Collection System


size of sewers remains reasonable in the system; Self-cleaning velocity is easily attained in this system; The storm water diluted the sanitary sewage and quantity of combined sewage does not exceed a particular limit; In combined portion of the system it is difficult to attain self-cleaning velocity in dry season; If pumping may require in combined portion, extra quantity is to be pumped; Storm water increases the load on the treatment plant;

Definition and Terms

Sewer: A pipeline intended to carrying wastewater and storm water; Sewage: Water that is not intended to use or that has been used and is permitted to escape, or which unavoidably escapes; Sewerage: The system of sewers used to collect and carry storm and wastewater away for treatment and disposal; Separate Sewer System: A sewer system carrying sanitary wastewater and other waterborne waste from residences, commercial buildings, industrial plants, and institutions; Combined Sewer: A sewer intended to receive both wastewater and storm or surface water;

Definition and Terms

House Sewer: The extension from the building to the public sewer, also called house sewer; Sanitary Sewer: A sewer intended to carrying sanitary wastewater and other waterborne waste from residences, commercial buildings, and institutions; Storm Sewer: A sewer that carries storm water and surface water, street wash and other wash water, or drainage but excludes domestic wastewater and industrial waste; Lateral Sewer: A sewer that discharges into a branch or other sewer and has no other common sewer tributary to it; Main Sewer: A sewer to which one or more branch sewers are tributary; Trunk Sewer: A sewer that receives many tributary branches and serves a large territory; Outfall Sewer: A sewer that receives wastewater from a collecting system or from a treatment plant and carries it to a point of final discharge;

Definition and Terms

Force main: this term is used to describe a pressurized pipe that is used to convey wastewater; Infiltration: the seepage of groundwater into a sewer system, including service connections. Seepage frequently occurs through defective or cracked pipes, pipe joints, connection or manhole walls Inflow: Storm water runoff connection to the sanitary collection system and cause an almost immediate increase in wastewater flow rates; Invert Level: The lowest point of the internal surface of a sewer;

Wastewater Collection System

Wastewater Collection System

Typical Layout of House Connections








Typical Layout Of Manhole





Wastewater Sources and Flowrates

Domestic Wastewater Sources: water consumption record may also be used for estimating flowrates; 90 % or more water becomes wastewater if water use for landscape and irrigation is limited; Averagely 60 90 % of the per capita water consumption becomes wastewater; (In Punjab-Pakistan 70-75% in peri-urban area & 80-85% in urban area);
Residential areas Commercial districts Institutional facilities Recreational facilities Infiltration Inflow