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Fluid Mechanics Homework Solution 1

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Problem 1

Problem Statement:

A gas may gas may be considered rareed if it contains less than 1012 molecules/mm3 . At what pressure can air be considered rareed at 18 C?

Approach:

Treat air as an ideal gas, use ideal gas law with consistant units, check for dimensional homogeneity.

Assumptions:

Air can be treated as an ideal gas under these conditons.

Governing Equations:

P = RT Where P is pressure, is density, R is the ideal gas constant, and T is absolute temperature.

Solution:

Let A=number of molecules/volume at which air is considered rareed. Let the density of rareed air =R

M R = A N , where M is the molecular mass of air and NA is Avogadros number. A AM NA RT

, T = 10 C = 291 k From the problem statement: A = 102 molecules mm3 molecules (1000mm)3 1mol g 1kg m2 28 . 97 287 291k mm3 1m3 6.023 1023 molecules mol 1000g s2 k

PR = 1012

PR = 1012

2 )3 (((( (1000 molecules mm 1 mol g ( 1kg 287 m 291 k 28 . 97 ( 3 1000g ((( mm 1m3 6.023 1023( molecules s2 k mol

PR 4.0

kg = 4.0 P a ms2

Problem 2

Problem Statement:

Given atmospheric conditions on Mars of T = 50 C , P = 900 P a, nd : 1. The density of the Martian atmosphere, assuming Rg Rco2 2. The density of air on Earth given the same conditions 3. The density of CO2 at T = 18 C , P = 101.6 kP a

Approach:

Use the ideal gas law to solve for density.

Assumptions:

Air and the Martian atmoshere can be treated as ideal gases at these conditions, Rg Rco2

Governing Equations:

The ideal gas law: P = RT 2

Solution:

m m From Table A.4: Rco2 = 189 s 2 k , Rair = 287 s2 k

2 2

P Rco2 T P

s k

900

kg 2.16 102 m 3

Rair T

= =

s k

900

kg 1.41 102 m 3

P Rair T

s k

k=

101600

2 s k

kg ms2

291 k 287 m 2

1.85

kg m3

kg The density of the Martian atmospere at P = 900 P a, T = 50 C 2.16 102 m 3 kg The density of air at P = 900 P a, T = 50 C 1.41 102 m 3 kg The density of CO2 at P = 101.6 kP a, T = 18 C 1.85 102 m 3

Problem 3

Problem Statement:

A rigid tank contains helium gas at 600 kPa and 20 C. What is the change in pressure if the temperature increases to 40 C?

Approach:

Use the ideal gas law to nd the original helium gas density in the tank. A rigid tank does not allow mass or volume change, so density must stay constant in the tank, and we can use this fact to solve for pressure.

Assumptions:

Helium can be treated as an ideal gas at these conditions, mass of gas in the tank is constant.

Governing Equations:

Ideal gas law: P = RT

Solution:

Constant density implies P = RT = P2 P1 = P2 P1 = P1 RT1 RT2 313 k 1 293 k T2 1 T1

P2 P1 = 600 kP a

41 kP a

The pressure in the tank rises by 41 kPa when the temperature rises from 20 C to 40 C

Problem 4

Problem Statement:

A 25 mm shaft is being pulled through a bearing lled with lubricant. The gap between the bearing and the shaft is 0.3 mm and the bearing is 0.5 m long. The lubricant has a kinematic viscosity of = 8 104 m2 /s and a density of = 910 kg/m3 . Find the force necessary to pull the shaft through the bearing at 3 m/s.

Approach:

Use the relationship between shear stress and the shear deformation of a Newtonian uid. = du dy , to solve for the required force

Assumptions:

The lubricant is a Newtonian uid, the velocity prole in the gap is linear, the no-slip condition holds at the boundaries.

Governing Equations:

= du dy , where is the shear stress at the surface, is dynamic viscosity, and velocity gradient at the boundary.

du dy

is the

Sketch:

Solution:

From the no-slip condition u|bearing = 0 We assume the velocity prole is linear, so u|bearing u|shaf t du |shaf t = dy h Using = and =

F A,

u|shaf t = 3m/s

F = 2RL

u|bearing u|shaf t h

F =2

F 286 N The uid exerts a 286 N force on the uid to the left, so the required force to move the shaft is 286 N to the right.

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