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This means: doing things better and faster than the others to deliver a product or service. enterprising businessmen and women have always aimed for a better performance than their competitors. . Since the beginning of business in general.
The assembly line system shown here has rapidly grown to become more automated through the years . An example of a change in technology is the improvement of an existing system.
Miss that moment and you start to decline. But why? "There is at least one point in the history of any company when you have to change dramatically to rise to the next level of performance. Intel ." › Andy Grove.
not only through in house management but also through keeping up with the times. Change in technology is more than just making more profits › it is constantly maintaining a rise in the quality of your company. .
› Consumers expect uniform service whether they are in the physical world or if they are in the digital world. The convergence of the business and personal use of technology is also fueling this trend. nor the most intelligent. . but the ones most responsive to change.” .Charles Darwin Technology erodes boundaries Physical and digital worlds are converging. "It is not the strongest of the species that survives.
The Next Generation Technology is just a tool and won’t by itself change the world. identity and intelligence would not be disruptors but rather an ingrained part of society and business as usual. automation. . The next generation has grown up in a world where use of technology in both their personal and professional lives is inherently understood. › this almost transparent use of technology will be one of the major sources of change › social networking.
Rise of the Machines Interconnected machines with the ability to harvest and exploit data will generate entirely new infrastructures of orchestrated and efficient systems. › Intelligence derived from these systems can be exploited to: enable transforming efficiency gains open up new modes of operation across both the physical and virtual world. .
over 80% of handsets in the markets will be smart phones.In 2013. By 2015. . mobile devices passed PCs to be the most common Web access tools.
. There are three different methods of handling the conversion or production process . (Not exclusive) › several methods may be used at different stages of the overall production process. Batch and Flow The various methods of production are not associated with a particular volume of production.Job.
tailoring › Involve much greater complexity › present greater management challenge. › The important ingredient in high-technology job production is project management. often as the job progresses. › Enables customer's specific requirements to be included. or project control. complete task is handled by a single worker or group of workers. › Examples: film production. › Examples include: hairdressers. › Jobs can be small-scale/low technology as well as Low technology jobs: complex/high technology. large construction projects . › organisation is extremely simple with the required skills and High technology jobs: equipment easily obtainable.
Capital expenditure can also be kept lower. This method aims to: › Concentrate skills (specialisation) › Achieve high equipment utilisation . › Possible to achieve specialisation of labour. › Each operation is completed through the whole batch before the next operation is performed. work for any task is divided into parts or operations.
› Batch methods often result in the build up of significant "work in progress" or stocks (i.Most commonly used method for organising manufacture.e. Example: the production of electronic instruments. Not without their problems: › There is a high probability of poor work flow. . completed batches waiting for their turn to be worked on in the next operation).
" › The aims of flow methods are: Improved work & material flow Reduced need for labour skills Added value / completed work faster .except that the problem of rest/idle production/batch queuing is eliminated. "method of production organisation where the task is worked on continuously or where the processing of material is continuous and progressive.Similar to batch methods .
In order that flow methods can work well. several requirements must be met: › (1) There must be substantially constant demand › (2) The product and/or production tasks must be standardised › (3) Materials used in production must be to specification and delivered on time › (4) Each operation in the production flow must be carefully defined .and recorded in detail › (5) The output from each stage of the flow must conform to quality standards .
chocolates and televisions. Common examples where flow methods are used are the manufacture of motor cars. particularly in ensuring that the correct production materials are delivered on time and that operations in the flow are of equal duration. .The achievement of a successful production flow line requires considerable planning.
or service. with a real distinction on ingredient. or it may be ‘psychological’ brought about through subtle sales appeals. . utility. The differential claimed may be ‘real’. quality.The differentiated product – The differentiated product enjoys a distinction from other similar products/brands in the market.
.Customer specific requirements are taken into account while developing the product. where the manufacturer and the user are in direct contact and the product gets customised to the requirements of the customer.The customised product . Commonly practised in the industrial product marketing.
by adding an extra facility or an extra feature to the product. which are neither suggested by the customer nor expected by them.The augmented product – The augmented product is the result of voluntary improvements brought about by the manufacturer in order to enhance the value of the product. The marketer on his own augments the product. .
Only the technological and economic resources of the firm set the limit. . economic and competitive condition.The potential product – The potential product is tomorrow’s product carrying with it all the improvements and finesse possible under the given technological. There are no limits to the ‘potential product’.
Therefore. when you do business with an organization or getting into a new job in an organization. Tells you the character of an organization and the values it believes in. . it is always a great idea to get to know and understand their organizational structure.
› These structures are quite suitable for tall organizations. This type of structures is quite helpful for small organizations due to the fact that the founder has the full control over all the decisions and operations. Usually observed in small scale. The communication is done in one-on-one conversations. When the organizations grow complex and large. › Pre-bureaucratic structures › › › › › There are three types of bureaucratic structures: Bureaucratic structures › › lacks the standards. Post-bureaucratic Structures › Have a certain degree of standardization. but open to more modern ideas and methodologies. The organizations that follow post-bureaucratic structures still inherit the strict hierarchies. bureaucratic structures are required for management. start-up companies. Bureaucratic structures maintain strict hierarchies when it comes to people management. culture management. › They follow techniques such as total quality management (TQM). Structure is centralized and there is only one key decision maker. . etc.
› In this case. . Example: Software engineers will only staff the entire software development department. Functional Structure Divided into segments based on the functions when managing. This way. successful in large organization that produces high volumes of products at low costs. management of this functional group becomes easy and effective. The low cost can be achieved by such companies due to the efficiencies within functional groups. › Allows the organization to enhance the efficiencies of these functional groups. organization may find it difficult to achieve some organizational objectives at the end. Disadvantage from an organizational perspective if the communication between the functional groups is not effective.
It can have microwave division. or any other measurement.. . and these divisions have their own marketing teams. › Divisions can be defined based on the geographical basis. each division can be considered as a microcompany with the main organization. turbine division. etc. finance teams. take a company such as General Electrics. etc. › Each division is equipped with its own resources in order to function independently. products/services basis. In that sense. Divisional Structure › Divide the functional areas of the organization to divisions. As an example.
the company uses teams to complete tasks. Matrix Structure Organization places the employees based on the function and the product. divisional structures. quality engineers of project A. software engineers of project B. . › Gives the best of the both worlds of functional and In this type of an organization. The teams are formed based on the functions they belong to (ex: software engineers) and product they are involved in (ex: Project A). etc. there are many teams in this organization such as software engineers of project A. This way.
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