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Mastering Concepts 10.1 1. Describe the relationships among chromosomes, DNA, genes, and alleles.

Chromosomes contain tightly packed DNA and associated proteins. DNA are the strands of genetic material that contains genes, sequences of nucleotides that code for amino acids. Those genes come in arieties called alleles. !. "o# do meiosis, fertili$ation, diploid cells, and haploid cells interact in a se%ual life cycle& 'eiosis in the adult organism creates the haploid gamete cells that combine during fertili$ation to form the diploid $ygote cell. That cell undergoes mitosis to make the cells that are necessary for gro#th into the adult form. 10.! 1. (hy did )regor 'endel choose pea plants as his e%perimental organism& 'endel chose pea plants because they are easy to gro#, de elop quickly, produce many offspring, and ha e many traits that appear in t#o alternate forms that are easy to distinguish. *t also is easy to hand+pollinate pea plants, so an in estigator can control #hich plants mate #ith one another. !. Distinguish bet#een dominant and recessi e, hetero$ygous and homo$ygous, phenotype and genotype, #ild type and mutant. Dominant alleles appear in a phenotype #hene er they are present, recessi e alleles contribute to the phenotype only if no dominant alleles are present. An indi idual is homo$ygous for a gene if both alleles are identical, in a hetero$ygous indi idual, the t#o alleles for a gene are different. An organism-s phenotype is its appearance, the genotype is the alleles an indi idual possesses. The #ild type allele is the most common form of a gene in a population, a mutant allele arises #hen a gene undergoes a mutation. .. Define the /, 01, and 0! generations. The / generation is the parental or starting generation. 01 and 0! refer to the first and second generations of offspring, respecti ely. 10.. 1. (hat is a monohybrid cross, and #hat are the genotypic and phenotypic ratios e%pected in the offspring of the cross&

A monohybrid cross is a mating bet#een t#o indi iduals that are both hetero$ygous for one gene. The genotypic ratio e%pected in a monohybrid cross is 11!11, the phenotypic ratio is .11. !. "o# are /unnett squares helpful in follo#ing inheritance of single genes& /unnett squares sho# the genotypes of each parent as #ell as the genotypes of potential offspring. /henotypic and genotypic ratios of offspring can be predicted from the data in /unnett squares. .. (hat is a test cross, and #hy is it useful& A test cross is a mating bet#een a homo$ygous recessi e indi idual and an indi idual of unkno#n genotype. The genotype of the unkno#n parent can be deduced from the ratio of phenotypes in the 01 generation. 2. "o# does the la# of segregation reflect the e ents of meiosis& The la# of segregation reflects the mo ement of homologous chromosomes into separate cells during meiosis *. 10.2 1. (hat is a dihybrid cross, and #hat is the phenotypic ratio e%pected in the offspring of the cross& *n a dihybrid cross, t#o indi iduals that are hetero$ygous for t#o genes are mated. The phenotypic ratio that is e%pected is 31.1.11. !. "o# does the la# of independent assortment reflect the e ents of meiosis& The la# of independent assortment reflects that each homologous pair of chromosomes aligns independently of other chromosome pairs during metaphase * of meiosis. .. "o# can the product rule be used to predict the results of crosses in #hich multiple genes are studied simultaneously& The product rule allo#s you to estimate the odds that an offspring #ill ha e a certain combination of alleles for multiple genes by multiplying the probability that each separate e ent #ill occur. 10.4 1. "o# do patterns of inheritance differ for unlinked ersus linked pairs of genes&

(hen pairs of genes are linked, they are carried on the same chromosome and are inherited together. Crossing o er complicates the inheritance of linked genes, sometimes allele combinations differ from either parent. The inheritance pattern of non+linked genes is more predictable since it is not affected by crossing o er. The inheritance of non+linked genes can be isuali$ed using a /unnett 5quare. !. (hat is the difference bet#een recombinant and parental chromatids, and ho# do they arise& 6ecombinant chromatids are chromosomes that ha e a mi%ture of maternal and paternal alleles instead of alleles from 7ust a single parent. *n contrast, parental chromatids carry the same combinations of alleles that #ere inherited from the parents. Crossing o er has not altered them. .. "o# do biologists use crosso er frequencies to map genes on chromosomes& The farther apart genes are on a chromosome, the more frequently they #ill cross o er. 8y comparison, genes that are close together on a chromosome are less likely to be separated. Analysis of ho# often the traits appear together helps to establish linkage maps, #hich sho# the relati e positions of genes on chromosomes. 10.9 1. "o# do incomplete dominance and codominance increase the number of phenotypes& *ncomplete dominance and codominance produce phenotypes that are intermediate bet#een or combinations of those produced by homo$ygous dominant or homo$ygous recessi e indi iduals. !. (hat is pleiotropy& /leiotropy occurs #hen a gene produces multiple phenotypic e%pressions. /leiotropy results #hen the protein encoded by a gene enters se eral different biochemical path#ays or affects more than one body part or process. .. "o# can the same phenotype stem from many different genotypes& :ach gene encodes one protein, but many different proteins may interact in a single metabolic path#ay. A mutation in a gene encoding any of these proteins may produce a fla#ed metabolic path#ay. *n this #ay, different genotypes can produce the same phenotype ;failure of the metabolic path#ay to operate properly<. 2. "o# can epistasis decrease the number of phenotypes obser ed in a population& *n epistasis, one gene affects the e%pression of another. The gene interaction may cause some phenotypes to appear to be missing from a population.

10.= 1. (hat determines a person-s se%& 5e% determination is the factor ;genetic or en ironmental< that decides if an organism is male or female. !. (hat is the role of the SRY gene in se% determination& *n human se% determination, the > chromosome-s SRY gene encodes a protein that acts as a master s#itch. The 56> protein turns on other genes, #hich direct the unde eloped testes to secrete the male se% hormone testosterone. 56> also turns on a gene encoding a protein that causes embryonic female structures to disassemble. *f a functional SRY gene is not present, an embryo #ill de elop as a female. .. (hy do males and females e%press recessi e ?+linked alleles differently& :ach female has a pair of ? chromosomes, #hereas a male has only one ? chromosome. Any trait a male has on its ? chromosome #ill be e%pressed. 6ecessi e alleles on an ? chromosome of a female may be masked by dominant alleles on its homologous ? chromosome. 2. (hy does ? inacti ation occur in female mammals& ? inacti ation happens to one of the t#o copies of a gene on the homologous ? chromosomes. @nly females ha e t#o copies of the ? chromosome. 10.A 1. "o# are pedigrees helpful in determining a disorder-s mode of inheritance& /edigrees track a trait through multiple generations and allo# the pattern of transmission and inheritance to be studied. /edigrees also may help predict the appearance of the trait in future generations. !. "o# do the pedigrees differ for autosomal dominant, autosomal recessi e, and ?+ linked recessi e conditions& Autosomal dominant pedigrees sho# affected indi iduals in e ery generation and all affected indi iduals ha e at least one affected parent. Autosomal recessi e conditions sho# a pedigree in #hich affected indi iduals can ha e normal parents, and the condition often skips generations. ?+linked recessi e conditions appear in pedigrees #here more males are affected than females, also, affected males can ha e normal parents, but affected females must also ha e an affected father.

10.3 1. "o# can the en ironment affect a phenotype& :n ironment can affect a phenotype in a ariety of #ays. Temperature can influence gene e%pression of temperature+sensiti e alleles, infectious agents can intensify a genetic disorder, upbringing and nourishment #ill affect temperament and physical health. !. (hat is a polygenic trait& A polygenic trait is one that is controlled by many genes. 10.10 1. :%plain the logic of planting non+8t+crop buffer strips around fields planted #ith 8t crops. The buffer strip creates a feeding $one for non+8t+resistant lar ae. These moths are likely to mate #ith the 8t+resistant arieties sur i ing in the field. 5ince both 8t+resistant and non+8t+resistant moths sur i e in the population, this strategy should reduce the likelihood that 8t+resistance #ill increase significantly in the population. !. "o# did researchers in this study use a breeding e%periment to demonstrate that 8t resistance alleles in pink boll#orms are recessi e& 6esearchers kne# that if the resistant allele #as recessi e then matings bet#een moths hetero$ygous for resistance #ith moths fully resistant ;homo$ygous recessi e< should sho# a phenotypic ratio in the offspring of appro%imately 111. :%periments re ealed that indeed appro%imately 40B of the offspring thri ed #hile 40B either died or #ere quite small. .. (hat do you predict #ill happen to the incidence of resistance alleles in pink boll#orm populations if farmers choose not to plant the required refuge& (ithout the refuge strip resistant moths #ould only ha e other resistant moths to mate #ith, allele frequencies #ould shift to#ard the recessi e ;resistance< allele in future generations. *f this occurs then 8t as a pesticide in corn #ill no longer be useful. Write It Out 1. (hat ad antages do pea plants and fruit flies ha e for studies of inheritance& (hy aren-t humans equally suitable& 8oth peas and fruit flies are easy to gro#, de elop rapidly, produce many offspring, and ha e many traits that appear in t#o easily distinguishable forms. *n addition, it is easy to control genetic crossing in pea plants and fruit flies. "umans cannot be used because

they take longer to reach se%ual maturity, do not produce an abundance of offspring, and cannot be forced to mate to suit the ob7ecti es of an e%periment. !. 5ome people compare a homologous pair of chromosomes to a pair of shoes. :%plain the similarity. "o# #ould you e%tend the analogy to the se% chromosomes for females and for males& 5hoes come in all kinds of arieties1 sandals, boots, sneakers, but they are paired #ith their matching shoe #hich #ill be the same si$e, and ha e straps or laces, rubber treads or uppers all in the same places and of the same materials. 5imilarly, homologous chromosomes are the same length and shape #ith the same genes in the same places. The se% chromosomes of males are not homologous, ho#e er, and #ould be like an adult si$e 11 sneaker paired #ith a child-s si$e . sandal. *n a female, the shoes #ould be homologous and #ould match. .. *n an attempt to breed #inter barley that is resistant to barley mild mosaic irus, agricultural researchers cross a susceptible domesticated strain #ith a resistant #ild strain. The 01 plants are all susceptible, but #hen the 01 plants are crossed #ith each other, some of the 0! indi iduals are resistant. *s the resistance allele recessi e or dominant& "o# do you kno#& The resistance allele is recessi e because it #as not e%pressed in the 01 generation but #as e%pressed in some of the plants of the 0! generation. 2. )i en the relationship bet#een genes, alleles, and proteins, ho# can a recessi e allele appear to ChideD in a hetero$ygote& A recessi e allele often encodes a nonfunctional protein. A hetero$ygous indi idual has one dominant and one recessi e allele, but the recessi e allele appears to ChideD because the cell has enough of the normal protein ;encoded by the dominant allele<, to function properly. 4. Chapter A e%plained the roles of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer. 8oth types of genes encode proteins that regulate the cell cycle. Determine the function of each type of protein, then e%plain #hy oncogenes are dominant and tumor suppressor genes are recessi e. The proteins in normal proto+oncogenes stimulate cell di ision. @nly one copy of the mutant oncogene allele is necessary to e%press cancer, #hich means the oncogene allele is dominant. Tumor suppressor genes promote apoptosis or pre ent cell di ision. T#o mutated ersions of this gene must be present to e%press cancer, and so the gene ariation is recessi e. 9. 'any plants are polyploid ;see chapter 3<, that is, they ha e more than t#o sets of chromosomes. "o# #ould ha ing four ;rather than t#o< copies of a chromosome more effecti ely mask e%pression of a recessi e allele&

The e%tra chromosomes #ill pro ide additional opportunities for a dominant allele to mask the e%pression of a recessi e allele. =. 5pringer spaniels often suffer from canine phospho+fructokinase ;/0E< deficiency. The dogs lack an en$yme that is crucial in e%tracting energy from glucose molecules. Affected pups ha e e%tremely #eak muscles and die #ithin #eeks. A DNA test is a ailable to identify male and female dogs that are carriers. (hy #ould breeders #ish to identify carriers if these dogs are not affected& *t #ould be beneficial because breeders could pre ent carriers from mating, thus reducing the incidence of this disease in the dogs. A. "o# did 'endel use e idence from monohybrid and dihybrid crosses to deduce his la#s of segregation and independent assortment& "o# do these la#s relate to meiosis& 0rom his series of monohybrid crosses, 'endel concluded that genes occur in alternati e forms ;alleles< and that each indi idual inherits t#o alleles for each gene. "is la# of segregation states that t#o alleles of the same gene separate as they are packaged into gametes. This la# reflects meiosis because homologous chromosomes are pulled into separate cells during meiosis *. 0rom his series of dihybrid crosses, 'endel de eloped the la# of independent assortment, #hich states that during gamete formation, the segregation of the alleles of one gene does not influence the segregation of the alleles for another gene. This la# reflects meiosis ;as long as the t#o genes being studied reside on different chromosomes< because the orientation of each homologous pair of chromosomes does not affect the orientation of other homologous pairs during meiosis *. 3. *n a dihybrid cross, the predicted phenotype ratio is 31.1.11, the C3D represents the proportion of plants e%pressing at least one dominant allele for both traits. "o# #ould you use test crosses to determine #hether these plants are homo$ygous dominant or hetero$ygous for one or both genes& A test cross is a mating #ith a homo$ygous recessi e indi idual. *n this case, you #ould obtain a plant that #as homo$ygous recessi e for both alleles. *f a plant is homo$ygous dominant for both genes, all of the offspring #ill ha e the dominant phenotype for both traits. *f the plant is hetero$ygous for either gene, about half the offspring #ill e%hibit the recessi e phenotype for that trait. 10. A #hite #oman #ith fair skin, blond hair, and blue eyes and a black man #ith dark bro#n skin, hair, and eyes ha e fraternal t#ins. @ne t#in has blond hair, bro#n eyes, and light skin, and the other has dark hair, bro#n eyes, and dark skin. (hat 'endelian la# does this real+life case illustrate& This scenario represents 'endel-s principle of independent assortment.

11. The radish has nine groups of traits. (ithin each group, dihybrid crosses do not yield a 31.1.11 phenotypic ratio. *nstead, such crosses yield an o erabundance of phenotypes like those of the parents. (hat does this information re eal about the chromosomes of this plant& The information re eals that at least some of the genes are located on the same chromosome. 1!. "o# does gene linkage interfere #ith 'endel-s la# of independent assortment& (hy doesn-t the inheritance pattern of linked genes dispro e 'endel-s la#& (ithin each linkage group, dihybrid crosses did not produce the proportions of offspring that 'endel-s la# of independent assortment predicts. 5cientists e entually reali$ed that each linkage group #as simply a set of genes transmitted together on the same chromosome. This obser ation does not dispro e 'endel-s la# of independent assortment, #hich applies only #hen genes are located on different chromosomes. 1.. "o# does crossing o er CunlinkD genes& Crossing o er separates alleles that occurred together on the same chromatid, so that alleles that #ere pre iously linked are no longer transmitted together. 12. *f t#o different but linked genes are located ery far apart on a chromosome, ho# may the inheritance pattern create the appearance of independent assortment& 5ince the genes are ery far apart on the chromosome, they ha e a high probability of being separated by crossing o er. 14. :%plain ho# each of the follo#ing appears to disrupt 'endelian ratios1 incomplete dominance, codominance, pleiotropy, epistasis. Incomplete dominance: the hetero$ygote-s phenotype is intermediate bet#een those of the t#o homo$ygotes. This goes against the idea that t#o alleles should produce only t#o phenotypes, #ith one allele dominant o er the other. *nstead of a .11 phenotypic ratio, the ratio is 11!11. Codominance1 the hetero$ygote fully e%presses t#o different and equally e%pressed alleles. This goes against the idea that t#o alleles should produce only t#o phenotypes, #ith one allele dominant o er the other. *nstead of a .11 phenotypic ratio, the ratio is 11!11. Pleiotropy1 one gene has multiple phenotypic e%pressions. 'endel-s la#s imply that each gene controls only one trait. @ne allele can therefore change the phenotype in multiple #ays. Epistasis1 one gene affects the e%pression of another gene. :ntire classes of phenotypes corresponding to one gene can seem to disappear if the allele of the other gene changes.

19. 5uppose a single trait is controlled by a gene #ith four codominant alleles. A person can inherit any combination of t#o of the four alleles. "o# many phenotypes are possible for this trait& *f the alleles are labeled A, 8, C, and D, the follo#ing allele combinations are possible1 AA, A8, AC, AD, 88, 8C, 8D, CC, CD, and DD. Ten phenotypes are possible. 1=. (hat is the role of the > chromosome in human se% determination& The > chromosome contains the 56> gene that acts as a s#itch for other se% determining genes that then acti ate in the embryo so that it de elops as a male and dismantles all female embryonic structures. 1A. Do you agree #ith the statement that all alleles on the > chromosome are dominant& (hy or #hy not& No. @ne might be tempted to ans#er CyesD because the > chromosome is not homologously paired, so all alleles on the > chromosome are e%pressed. "o#e er, recessi e alleles are still Crecessi eD e en if no dominant allele can mask them. A recessi e allele encodes a nonfunctional protein. *f an allele on the > chromosome encodes a nonfunctional protein, then the allele is recessi e. 13. 5uppose a fetus has ? and > chromosomes but lacks receptors for the protein encoded by the SRY gene. (ill the fetus de elop as a male or as a female& :%plain your ans#er. The fetus #ill de elop as a female. (ithout 56> protein receptors, the signal to de elop as a male #ill ne er be recei ed. !0. "o# are ?+linked genes inherited differently in male and female humans& (hereas a female inherits t#o ? chromosomes, a male inherits his single ? chromosome from his mother. A male e%presses e ery allele ;dominant or recessi e< on his ? chromosome because he lacks a second allele that could mask the e%pression of recessi e alleles. !1. (hat does ? inacti ation accomplish& *n ? inacti ation, all but one ? chromosome is shut off in each cell, a process that happens early in the embryonic de elopment of a mammal. (hich ? chromosome is inacti ated is a random e ent. This pre ents female mammals #ith t#o ? chromosomes from e%pressing more ?+linked genes than a male. !!. 6ett syndrome is a se ere ?+linked recessi e disorder that affects mostly female children. "o# does ? inacti ation e%plain this obser ation&

8ecause the disorder is se ere most males die as a result of inheriting the recessi e allele. 0emales #ho are hetero$ygous, ho#e er #ill ha e the dominant allele inacti ated in some cells, lea ing the recessi e allele to be e%pressed. The effects may not be lethal since the recessi e allele is inacti ated in about half of the cells, but the disease #ill be se erely debilitating. !.. The cells of a track runner are collected before an @lympic competition. Technicians e%amining the cells disco er t#o 8arr bodies in each nucleus. "o# is this unusual& (hat #ould you e%pect to find if you constructed a karyotype of the runner-s chromosomes& Cells of a female #ith an e%tra ? chromosome ha e an e%tra 8arr body, not 7ust one as in a normal female. /erhaps she is ???, and so the karyotype should sho# three and not t#o ? chromosomes. !2. A family has an ?+linked dominant form of congenital generali$ed hypertrichosis ;e%cessi e hairiness<. Although the allele is dominant, males are more se erely affected than females. 'oreo er, the #omen in the family often ha e asymmetrical, hairy patches on their bodies. "o# does ? chromosome inacti ation e%plain this obser ation& A female is a mosaic for ?+linked genes because the maternal or paternal ? chromosome is inacti ated at random in each cell. !4. (hy are male calico cats rare& *n cats, the genes encoding black and orange fur are located only on the ? chromosome. Calico cats result from the random inacti ation of black and orange alleles. 'ale calico cats are unusual because they #ould ha e to be ??>. !9. *n the follo#ing pedigree, is the disorder-s mode of inheritance autosomal dominant, autosomal recessi e, or ?+linked recessi e& :%plain your reasoning. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant. The disorder cannot be ?+linked recessi e since indi idual = on line **, #ho recei ed only one ? from her affected father, e%presses the disorder. Notice that the pedigree has no carriers, e ery indi idual that inherits an allele of the disorder e%presses the disorder. The allele conferring the disorder must therefore be dominant. !=. /edigree charts can sometimes be difficult to construct and interpret. /eople may refuse to supply information, and adoption or serial marriages can produce blended families. Artificial insemination may in ol e anonymous sperm donors. 'any traits are strongly influenced by the en ironment. "o# does each of these factors complicate the use of pedigrees& *f people refuse to supply medical information, it can be impossible to tell #ho is affected and #ho is not. 8lended families and artificial insemination make it impossible to trace parentage.

!A. :%plain the follo#ing CequationD1 )enotype F :n ironment G /henotype )enotype represents #hat proteins #ill be produced and ho# they #ill interact #ith each other, but the en ironment often affects ho# those proteins #ill e%press themsel es or #hen the genes #ill be acti ated and inacti ated. The combination of all these factors #ill determine the actual physical e%pression, or phenotype. !3. 'itochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA that encodes some proteins essential to life. These organelles are inherited ia the female parent-s egg. Do you e%pect these genes to follo# 'endelian la#s of inheritance& :%plain your ans#er. 'endelian la#s of inheritance rely on the separation of homologous pairs ;la# of independent assortment< and alleles #ithin a gene pair ;la# of segregation<. 8oth of these separation e ents are the result of spindle fibers separating chromosomes in the stages of meiosis. Chloroplasts and mitochondria do not undergo meiosis and so their DNA is not sub7ect to the 'endelian la#s of inheritance. Genetics Problems 1. "olstein cattle suffer from the condition citrullinemia, in #hich homo$ygous recessi e cal es die #ithin a #eek of birth because they cannot break do#n ammonia that is produced #hen amino acids are metaboli$ed. *f a co# that is hetero$ygous for the citrullinemia gene is inseminated by a bull that is homo$ygous dominant, #hat is the probability that a calf inherits citrullinemia& No cal es #ill inherit citrullinemia, each has a 40B chance of being a carrier !. (ild+type canaries are yello#. A dominant mutant allele of the color gene, designated (, causes #hite feathers. *nheriting t#o dominant alleles is lethal to the embryo. *f a yello# canary is crossed to a #hite canary, #hat is the probability that an offspring #ill be yello#& (hat is the probability that it #ill be #hite& 40B chance for each color .. *n humans, more than 100 forms of deafness are inherited as recessi e alleles on many different chromosomes. 5uppose that a #oman #ho is hetero$ygous for a deafness gene on one chromosome has a child #ith a man #ho is hetero$ygous for a deafness gene on a different chromosome. Does the child face the general population risk of inheriting either form of deafness or the !4B chance that 'endelian ratios predict for a monohybrid cross& :%plain your ans#er. No. The child faces a !4B chance of inheriting both recessi e alleles. The chance that both of those alleles are of the same gene, and lead to a dominant phenotype is much lo#er.

2. A man and a #oman each ha e dark eyes, dark hair, and freckles. The genes for these traits are on separate chromosomes. The #oman is hetero$ygous for each of these genes, but the man is homo$ygous. The dominance relationships of the alleles are as follo#s1 8 G dark eyes, b G blue eyes " G dark hair, h G blond hair 0 G freckles, f G no freckles a. (hat is the probability that their child #ill share the parents- phenotype& b. (hat is the probability that the child #ill share the same genotype as the mother& As the father& Hse the product rule or a /unnett square to obtain your ans#ers. (hich method do you think is easier& a. 100B b. 1IA chance that a child #ill ha e the same genotype as either parent The product rule is an easier method. 4. )enes J, E, and K are on the same chromosome. The crosso er frequency bet#een J and E is 13B, the crosso er frequency bet#een E and K is !B, and the crosso er frequency bet#een J and K is !1B. Hse this information to create a linkage map for the chromosome. The largest crosso er frequency indicates the t#o genes that are farthest apart. The smallest frequency indicates the t#o closest genes. 5o the map is LKLELLLLLLLLLLLLJL. 9. A particular gene in dogs contributes to coat color. The t#o alleles e%hibit incomplete dominance. Dogs #ith genotype mm ha e normal pigmentation, genotype 'm leads to CdiluteD pigmentation, genotype '' produces an all+#hite dog. *f a breeder mates a normal dog #ith a #hite dog, #hat #ill be the genotypes and phenotypes of the puppies& *f t#o 'm dogs are mated, #hat is the probability that a puppy #ill be all #hite& Dilute ;'n<. Normal ;mm< ? All #hite ;''< G all dilute ;'m< pups !4B. 'm ? 'm G !4B normal, 40B dilute, !4B all #hite =. Three babies are born in the hospital on the same day. 8aby ? has type A8 blood, 8aby > has type 8 blood, 8aby M has type @ blood. Hse the information in the table belo# to determine #hich baby belongs to #hich couple. ;Assume that all indi iduals are homo$ygous dominant for the " gene.<

8aby M, @ blood, belongs to couple !, because an A8 parent cannot produce an @ child. 8aby ?, A8 blood, belongs to couple 1, because an @ parent cannot produce an A8 child. 8aby >, 8 blood, therefore belongs to couple .. A. Consider a #oman #hose brother has hemophilia A but #hose parents are healthy. (hat is the chance that she has inherited the hemophilia allele& (hat is the chance that the #oman #ill concei e a son #ith hemophilia& 40B chance the #oman inherits the allele, if she did, her son has a 40B chance of ha ing hemophilia Pull It Together 1. (hich cells in the human body are haploid& (hich cells are diploid& )ametes are haploid cells and nearly all other cells are diploid. 5ome cells, like red blood cells, lack a nucleus, and are therefore not haploid or diploid. !. (hat is the difference bet#een a genotype and a phenotype& A genotype describes the genetic makeup of an indi idual and a phenotype describes the e%pression of its genetic makeup. .. (hat is the difference bet#een a dominant and a recessi e allele& Dominant alleles are e%pressed as functional proteins. @nly one dominant allele is necessary for the effects of that allele to be e%pressed. A recessi e allele encodes a nonfunctional protein. A recessi e allele is only Ce%pressedD if no dominant alleles are present ;and therefore no functional proteins are e%pressed<. 2. Add meiosis, gametes, mutations, incomplete dominance, codominance, pleiotropy, and epistasis to this concept map. C'eiosisD leads to C)ametesD #ith CproducesD, #hich leads to C"aploid cellsD #ith CareD. C)enesD leads to C'utationD #ith Ccan undergoD, #hich leads to CAllelesD #ith Cresults in ne#D. C/leiotropyD leads to C/henotypeD #ith Cis #hen genes ha e multiple effects on theD. CCodominanceD can lead to CDominantD #ith Coccurs #hen multiple alleles for a gene areD. C*ncomplete dominanceD can lead to C/henotypeD #ith Coccurs

#hen hetero$ygotes ha e an intermediateD. C:pistasisD can lead to C)enesD #ith Coccurs #hen e%pression of one gene affects the e%pression of otherD.