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The Jungle Upton Sinclair 1906 There were the men in the pickle rooms, for instance, where

re ol !ntanas ha gotten his eath" scarce a one of these that ha not some spot of horror on his person# $et a man so much as scrape his finger pushing a truck in the pickle rooms, an he might ha%e a sore that woul put him out of the worl " all the &oints of his fingers might 'e eaten '( the aci , one '( one# )f the 'utchers an floorsmen, the 'eef 'oners an trimmers, an all those who use kni%es, (ou coul scarcel( fin a person who ha the use of his thum'" time an time again the 'ase of it ha 'een slashe , till it was a mere lump of flesh against which the man presse the knife to hol it# The han s of these men woul 'e criss*crosse with cuts, until (ou coul no longer preten to count them or to trace them# The( woul ha%e no nails,+ the( ha worn them off pulling hi es" their knuckles were swollen so that their fingers sprea out like a fan# There were men who worke in the cooking rooms, in the mi st of steam an sickening o ors, '( artificial light" in these rooms the germs of tu'erculosis might li%e for two (ears, 'ut the suppl( was renewe e%er( hour# ### There were those who worke in the chilling rooms, an whose special isease was rheumatism" the time limit that a man coul work in the chilling rooms was sai to 'e fi%e (ears# There were the wool pluckers, whose han s went to pieces e%en sooner than the han s of the pickle men" for the pelts of the sheep ha to 'e painte with aci to loosen the wool, an then the pluckers ha to pull out this wool with their 'are han s, till the aci ha eaten their fingers off# There were those who ma e the tins for the canne meat, an their han s, too, were a ma,e of cuts, an each cut represente a chance for 'loo poisoning# ### There were the -hoisters,- as the( were calle , whose task it was to press the le%er which lifte the ea cattle off the floor# The( ran along upon a rafter, peering own through the amp an the steam, an as ol .urham/s architects ha not 'uilt the killing room for the con%enience of the hoisters, at e%er( few feet the( woul ha%e to stoop un er a 'eam, sa( four feet a'o%e the one the( ran on, which got them into the ha'it of stooping, so that in a few (ears the( woul 'e walking like chimpan,ees# 0orst of an(, howe%er, were the fertili,er men, an those who ser%e in the cooking rooms# These people coul not 'e shown to the %isitor+for the o or of a fertili,er man woul scare awa( an( or inar( %isitor at a hun re (ar s, an as for the other men, who worke in tank rooms full of steam, an in some of which there were open %ats near the le%el of the floor, their peculiar trou'le was that the( fell into the %ats" an when the( were fishe out, there was ne%er enough of them left to 'e worth e1hi'iting+sometimes the( woul 'e o%erlooke for a(s, till all 'ut the 'ones of them ha gone out to the worl as .urham/s 2ure $eaf $ar 3 # # #Upton Sinclair4s The Jungle Sinclair4s in%estigation of the 5hicago meatpacking in ustr( flew off the shel%es an informe the countr( a'out the con itions at the places where the( got the meat for their inner# Use the ta'le an 6uestions to iscuss the pro'lems facing the population at the time of the 2rogressi%es#

Unit 6 5hapter 178 2rogressi%e Jigsaw 9ame:::::::::::::::::::::::::: Upton Sinclair4s The Jungle Sinclair4s in%estigation of the 5hicago meatpacking in ustr( flew off the shel%es an informe the countr( a'out the con itions at the places where the( got the meat for their inner# Use the ta'le an 6uestions to iscuss the pro'lems facing the population at the time of the 2rogressi%es 1#<ill in the following chart for four of the &o's iscusse a'o%e# Jo' 9ame !ctions of Jo' =isks of Jo's =isk to 5onsumers ;our::::::::

># 0hat kin s of pro'lems are seen facing the workers in this meatpacking factor(? @Ai%e B e1amplesC

B# 0hat kin s of pro'lems coul the consumers see from meat purchase from this compan(? @Ai%e B e1amplesC

D# 0hat o (ou fin most surprising in Upton Sinclair/s account of the meatpacking in ustr( aroun the turn of the centur(? 0h(?

E#

0hat o (ou think was Sinclair/s purpose for writing this piece?

6#

;ow o (ou think rea ers reacte to The Jungle when it first came out?

F# 0hat can the go%ernment o to protect the citi,ens of the Unite States from companies such as this?

7# 0hat is the histor( of the go%ernment4s relationship with 'ig 'usinesses such as the meatpacking in ustr(? 0hat has the go%ernment one in the past with 'ig 'usiness?

9# 5om'ine (our answers a'o%e with (our conclusions rawn from the rea ing an answer the following 6uestion8 0hat can societ( o to com'at the pro'lems facing workers an consumers such as those seen in The Jungle?

9ew Gork Times, Harch >6, 1911, p# 1# @Selections taken '( Hr# 5liftonC

1D1 Hen an Airls .ie in 0aist <actor( <ire" Trappe ;igh Up in 0ashington 2lace Iuil ing" Street Strewn with Io ies" 2iles of .ea Jnsi e Three stories of a ten*floor 'uil ing at the corner of Areene Street an 0ashington 2lace were 'urne (ester a(, an while the fire was going on 1D1 (oung men an women at least 1>E of them mere girls were 'urne to eath or kille '( &umping to the pa%ement 'elow# The 'uil ing was fireproof# Jt shows now har l( an( signs of the isaster that o%ertook it# The walls are as goo as e%er so are the floors, nothing is the worse for the fire e1cept the furniture an 1D1 of the 600 men an girls that were emplo(e in its upper three stories# Host of the %ictims were suffocate or 'urne to eath within the 'uil ing, 'ut some who fought their wa( to the win ows an leape met eath as surel(, 'ut perhaps more 6uickl(, on the pa%ements 'elow# !ll )%er in ;alf an ;our# The fire was practicall( all o%er in half an hour# Jt was confine to three floors the eighth, ninth, an tenth of the 'uil ing# Iut it was the most mur erous fire that 9ew Gork ha seen in man( (ears# The %ictims who are now l(ing at the Horgue waiting for some one to i entif( them '( a tooth or the remains of a 'urne shoe were mostl( girls from 16 to >B (ears of age# The( were emplo(e at making shirtwaist '( the Triangle 0aist 5ompan(, the principal owners of which are Jsaac ;arris an Ha1 Ilanck# Host of them coul 'arel( speak Knglish# Han( of them came from Irookl(n# !lmost all were the main support of their har *working families# There is &ust one fire escape in the 'uil ing# That one is an interior fire escape# ! heap of corpses la( on the si ewalk for more than an hour# The firemen were too 'us( ealing with the fire to pa( an( attention to people whom the( suppose 'e(on their ai # 0hen the e1citement ha su'si e to such an e1tent that some of the firemen an policemen coul pa( attention to this mass of the suppose l( ea the( foun a'out half wa( own in the pack a girl who was still 'reathing# She ie two minutes after she was foun # $eape )ut of the <lames# !t D8D0 o/clock, nearl( fi%e hours after the emplo(ees in the rest of the 'uil ing ha gone home, the fire 'roke out# Some of them escape '( running own the stairs, 'ut in a moment or two this a%enue was cut off '( flame# The girls rushe to the win ows an looke own at Areene Street, 100 feet 'elow them# Then the( all 'egan to rop# The crow (elle -.on/t &ump3- 'ut it was &ump or 'e 'urne the proof of which is foun in the fact that fift( 'urne 'o ies were taken from the ninth floor alone# The( &umpe , the( crashe through 'roken glass, the( crushe themsel%es to eath on the si ewalk# )f those who sta(e 'ehin it is 'etter to sa( nothing e1cept what a %eteran policeman sai as he ga,e at a hea less an charre trunk on the Areene Street si ewalk hours after the worst cases ha 'een taken out8 -J saw the Slocum isaster, 'ut it was nothing to this#-Js it a man or a woman?- aske the reporter# -Jt/s human, that/s all (ou can tell,- answere the

policeman# Jt was &ust a mass of ashes, with 'loo congeale on what ha pro'a'l( 'een the neck# Heantime the remains of the ea it is har l( possi'le to call them 'o ies, 'ecause that woul suggest something human, an there was nothing human a'out most of these were 'eing taken in a stea ( stream to the Horgue for i entification# -Jt/s the worst thing J e%er saw,- sai one ol policeman# 5hief 5roker sai it was an outrage# ;e spoke 'itterl( of the wa( in which the Hanufacturers/ !ssociation ha calle a meeting in 0all Street to take measures against his proposal for enforcing 'etter metho s of protection for emplo(ees in cases of fire# The Triangle 0aist 5ompan( emplo(e a'out 600 women an less than 100 men# )ne of the sa est features of the thing is the fact that the( ha almost finishe for the a(# Jn fi%e minutes more, if the fire ha starte then, pro'a'l( not a life woul ha%e 'een lost# ;ow the fire starte no one knows# )n the three upper floors of the 'uil ing were 600 emplo(ees of the waist compan(, E00 of whom were girls# The %ictims mostl( Jtalians, =ussians, ;ungarians, an Aermans were girls an men who ha 'een emplo(e '( the firm of ;arris L Ilanck, owners of the Triangle 0aist 5ompan(, after the strike in which the Jewish girls, formerl( emplo(e , ha 'ecome unioni,e an ha eman e 'etter working con itions# The 'uil ing ha e1perience four recent fires an ha 'een reporte '( the <ire .epartment to the Iuil ing .epartment as unsafe in account of the insufficienc( of its e1its# The 'uil ing itself was of the most mo ern construction an classe as fireproof# 0hat 'urne so 6uickl( an isastrousl( for the %ictims were shirtwaists, hanging on lines a'o%e tiers of workers, sewing machines place so closel( together that there was har l( aisle room for the girls 'etween them, an shirtwaist trimmings an cuttings which littere the floors a'o%e the eighth an ninth stories# !ll 0oul Soon ;a%e Ieen )ut# Strewn a'out as the firemen worke , the 'o ies in icate clearl( the prepon erance of women workers# ;ere an there was a man, 'ut almost alwa(s the( were women# )ne wore furs an a muss, an ha a purse hanging from her arm# 9earl( all were resse for the street# The fire ha flashe through their workroom &ust as the( were e1pecting the signal to lea%e the 'uil ing# Jn ten minutes more all woul ha%e 'een out, as man( ha stoppe work in a %ance of the signal an ha starte to put on their wraps# There were in the 'uil ing, accor ing to the estimate of <ire 5hief 5roker, a'out 600 girls an 100 men#

Unit 6 5hapter 178 2rogressi%e Jigsaw 9ame::::::::::::::::::::: 9GT Triangle Shirtwaist <actor( 1# .escri'e the make*up of the ma&orit( of the workers in the Triangle Shirtwaist <actor(# ;our::::::

>#

0hat were the workers oing on the Satur a( night when this trage ( struck?

B#

0hat pre%ente the workers from escaping the fire?

D#

0hat histor( i this 'uil ing an 'usiness ha%e with fire?

E# 0hat were Hr# ;arris an Hr# Ilanck re6uire to o to ensure the safet( of their emplo(ees?

6#

0h( o (ou think the fire sprea so 6uickl( in the factor(?

F#

;ow woul this stor( affect the common rea er of the 9ew Gork Times?

7# 0hat can 'e one to attempt to pre%ent this trage ( from happening again? @2ro%i e B 2ossi'ilitiesC

9# ;ow might this change the opinion of societ( an go%ernment towar s 'usinesses in cities?

Unit 6 5hapter 178 2rogressi%e Jigsaw+2hotos of 5hil $a'or 2icture 1 Top left 2icture > Top right 2icture BHi le left 2icture DHi le right 2icture E Iottom left 2icture 6 Iottom right

Unit 6 5hapter 178 2rogressi%e Jigsaw

2ictures of 5hil $a'or 9ame:::::::::::::::::::::::::

;our:::::

Jn each of the pictures a'o%e we see ifferent occupations hel '( chil ren in the earl( >0th centur(# Use the following 6uestions to e%aluate an form opinions on the impact of chil la'or on !merican societ( in the 2rogressi%e Kra# Jn the ta'le 'elow, complete the chart escri'ing the work en%ironment of each (oung worker# 0hat angers o each chil in the pictures a'o%e face? 2icture M 1# Threa 'o''in 'o( ># Te1tile factor( girl B# 5oal mining D# 5oal sorting E# 2in setting 6# 5arpenter4s assistant 1# 0hich of the a'o%e &o's woul ha%e 'een the 'est? 0h( might it 'e angerous?

>#

0hich of the &o's a'o%e woul ha%e 'een the worst? 0h( might it 'e angerous?

B#

0h( o parents N families sen their chil ren to these &o's e%er( a(?

D# E#

5hoose two chil ren from the a'o%e pictures an

escri'e them in etail#

5hoose two &o's from a'o%e an e1plain wh( a compan( woul use chil ren to accomplish

these tasks#

6# !re companies responsi'le for the hours, &o's, securit( or safet( of these workers? 0hat is it going to take to change these actions of these emplo(ers?

F# ;ow can societ( respon to the concerns of chil ren? !re the concerns of chil ren the focus of >0th centur( families4 worries?

7#

;ow ha%e chil ren helpe to e1pan an encourage the e%elopment of in ustr(?

9#

0ho is responsi'le for helping the plight of chil la'or in the earl( >0th centur(?

10# Js chil la'or rights an legislation a priorit( of societ(? 0h( shoul these consi erations either 'e a priorit( or 'e a secon ar( concern?

Unit 6 5hapter 178 2rogressi%e Jigsaw

9ame:::::::::::::::::::::

;our::::

The Huckrakers ! muckraker was a &ournalist that i some in%estigati%e work to rake up the mu to shine a light on some %er( ugl( parts of !merican societ(# Ielow are some muckraking authors an their stories# !nswer the 6uestions that follow the stories to anal(,e the impact of the &ournalists on the time# Shame of the 5ities $incoln Steffens 9ow, the t(pical !merican citi,en is the 'usinessman# The t(pical 'usinessman is a 'a citi,en" he is 'us(# Jf he is a -'ig 'usiness man- an %er( 'us(, he oes not neglect, he is 'us( with politics, oh, %er( 'us( an %er( 'usinesslike# J foun him 'u(ing 'oo lers in St# $ouis, efen ing grafters in Hinneapolis, originating corruption in 2itts'urgh, sharing with 'osses in 2hila elphia, eploring reform in 5hicago, an 'eating goo go%ernment with corruption fun s in 9ew Gork# ;e is a self* righteous frau , this 'ig 'usiness man# ;e is the chief source of corruption, an it was a 'oon if he woul neglect politics# Iut he is not the 'usinessman that neglects politics" that worth( is the goo citi,en, the t(pical 'usinessman# ;e too is 'us(, he is the one that has no use an therefore no time for politics# 0hen his neglect has permitte 'a go%ernment to go so far that he can 'e stirre to action, he is unhapp(, an he looks aroun for a cure that shall 'e 6uick, so that he ma( hurr( 'ack to the shop# 1# 0hat is Steffens4 opinion regar ing 'usinessmen?

># 0hat is Steffens4 opinion regar ing politics in !merica?

B# 0hat influence i Steffens think 'usiness ha on politics?

D# ;ow can Steffen4s %iews on 'usiness an politics 'e seen as linke ?

E# ;ow can this maga,ine article effect the common man, what feelings a'out 'usiness an politics might this article encourage or grow? ;istor( of the Stan ar )il 5ompan( J a Tar'ell

There were at that time some >6 OoilP refineries in the town**some of them %er( large plants#### To the owners of these refineries, Hr# =ockefeller now went one '( one, an e1plaine Ohis plansP# -Gou see,- he tol them, -this scheme is 'oun to work# Jt means an a'solute control '( us of the oil 'usiness# There is no chance for an(one outsi e#### Gou are to turn o%er (our refiner( to m( appraisers, an J will gi%e (ou Stan ar )il 5ompan( stock or cash, as (ou prefer, for the %alue we put upon it# J a %ise (ou to take the stock# Jt will 'e for (our goo #- 5ertain refiners o'&ecte # The( i not want to sell# The( i want to keep an manage their OownP 'usiness# Hr# =ockefeller was regretful 'ut firm# Jt was useless to resist, he tol the hesitating#### -Gou can ne%er make more mone(, in m( &u gment,- sai Hr# =ockefeller# -Gou can/t compete with the Stan ar # 0e ha%e all the large refineries now# Jf (ou refuse to sell, it will en in (our 'eing crushe #6# ;ow i Tar'ell see =ockefeller4s role in e%eloping the Stan ar )il 5ompan(?

F#

0hat o (ou think Tar'ell4s opinion of =ockefeller was?

7# 0hat was =ockefeller tr(ing to o in ac6uiring more oil refineries in this e1ample? 0as there an(thing wrong with his acti%ities?

9#

0hat was the point of each of these articles? @0h( i the authors write each of these?C

10# Ioth of these articles can 'e foun in Hc5lure4s Haga,ine from 190D 1911# Hc5lure4s was a nationwi e maga,ine that reache man( homes for pleasure rea ing# 0h( was it essential at this time for muckrakers to o their &o'?

Unit 6 5hapter 178 2rogressi%e Jigsaw

Theo ore =oose%elt <rom =ough*=i er to Stewar of the 2eople .uring the Spanish*!merican 0ar, =oose%elt was lieutenant colonel of the =ough =i er =egiment, which he le on a charge at the 'attle of San Juan# ;e was one of the most conspicuous heroes of the war# Ioss Tom 2latt, nee ing a hero to raw attention awa( from scan als in 9ew Gork State, accepte =oose%elt as the =epu'lican can i ate for Ao%ernor in 1797# =oose%elt won an ser%e with istinction# !s 2resi ent, =oose%elt hel the i eal that the Ao%ernment shoul 'e the great ar'iter of the conflicting economic forces in the 9ation, especiall( 'etween capital an la'or, guaranteeing &ustice to each an ispensing fa%ors to none# =oose%elt emerge spectacularl( as a -trust 'uster- '( forcing the issolution of a great railroa com'ination in the 9orthwest# )ther antitrust suits un er the Sherman !ct followe # )n <e'ruar( 17, 190> he irecte the Justice .epartment to use the Sherman !nti*Trust !ct to prosecute the 9orthern Securities 5ompan( run '( J#2# Horgan# This marke an important shift in the scope of go%ernment# <or the first time the fe eral go%ernment was taking an acti%e, regulator( position in regar to 'usiness# ;e worke to pass two lan mark pieces of legislation * the 2ure <oo L .rug !ct an a meat inspection 'ill# These laws were inten e to protect consumers against the foo in ustr( * especiall( meat packing# =oose%elt was also the first presi ent to use the power of the fe eral go%ernment as a 'roker in the conflict 'etween la'or an capital# Jn Ha( of 190> the coal miners of eastern 2enns(l%ania went on strike# ;e threatene to sen in fe eral troops to take charge of the mines# K%entuall( the( ga%e in an agree to ar'itration# =oose%elt steere the Unite States more acti%el( into worl politics# ;e like to 6uote a fa%orite pro%er', -Speak softl( an carr( a 'ig stick# # # # !ware of the strategic nee for a shortcut 'etween the !tlantic an 2acific, =oose%elt ensure the construction of the 2anama 5anal# ;is corollar( to the Honroe .octrine pre%ente the esta'lishment of foreign 'ases in the 5ari''ean an arrogate the sole right of inter%ention in $atin !merica to the Unite States# ;e aggressi%el( positione the Unite States as a new worl power in or er to esta'lish a lea ership position an protect national securit(# <or e1ample, in 1901 the U#S# was the fifth strongest na%al power in the worl # I( 190F it was in secon place 'ehin Areat Iritain# ;e won the 9o'el 2eace 2ri,e for me iating the =usso*Japanese 0ar, reache a Aentleman/s !greement on immigration with Japan, an sent the Areat 0hite <leet on a goo will tour of the worl # Some of Theo ore =oose%elt/s most effecti%e achie%ements were in conser%ation# ;e a e

enormousl( to the national forests in the 0est, reser%e lan s for pu'lic use, an fostere great irrigation pro&ects# ;e crusa e en lessl( on matters 'ig an small, e1citing au iences with his high*pitche %oice, &utting &aw, an poun ing fist# -The life of strenuous en ea%or- was a must for those aroun him, as he rompe with his fi%e (ounger chil ren an le am'assa ors on hikes through =ock 5reek 2ark in 0ashington, .#5# $ea%ing the 2resi enc( in 1909, =oose%elt went on an !frican safari, then &umpe 'ack into politics# Jn 191> he ran for 2resi ent on a 2rogressi%e ticket# To reporters he once remarke that he felt as fit as a 'ull moose, the name of his new part(# 0hile campaigning in Hilwaukee, he was shot in the chest '( a fanatic# =oose%elt soon reco%ere , 'ut his wor s at that time woul ha%e 'een applica'le at the time of his eath in 19198 -9o man has ha a happier life than J ha%e le " a happier life in e%er( wa(#-

Unit 6 5hapter 178 2rogressi%e Jigsaw

9ame::::::::::::::::::::

;our:::::::

1# =ea the 'iograph( a'o%e an fill out the following chart on 2resi ent =oose%elt4s %arious titles throughout his life# Title or =eason for gaining title or nickname 9ickname 1#

># B# ># ;ow i =oose%elt4s influence in the Spanish*!merican 0ar put him in the focus of !merican societ(?

B#

;ow i =oose%elt change the opinion of go%ernment towar s 'ig 'usiness?

D#

Ai%e an e1ample of how =oose%elt acte towar s the !merican econom(#

E#

;ow i =oose%elt4s foreign polic( appear 'oth aggressi%e an peaceful?

6#

Ai%e three situations where =oose%elt in%ol%e the Unite States in foreign politics?

F#

;ow can =oose%elt 'e seen as a Han of the 2eople?

7# 0h( was =oose%elt such a change of pace in the 2resi enc( of the Unite States? @;int8 0hat i the pre%ious 2resi ents o to make them noteworth(?C

9# ;ow are =oose%elt4s actions at home an aroun the worl linke ? 0hat comparisons can (ou raw?

10# !s a person from the time perio , wh( woul (ou like or islike Theo ore =oose%elt as (our 2resi ent?

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