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Critical Reviewing of Results, Discussions, Conclusions, Future Work and Referencing J M Nouri j.m.nouri@city.ac.

uk Room C113

Matters important to Examiners Results • Do the results obtained relate to the questions posed? • Is the level and form of analysis appropriate for the data? • Has the data uncertainties been identified and quantified? • Is the graphs are readable and easy to follow? • Could the presentation of the results been made clearer? • Are patterns and trends in the results accurately identified and summarized? .

Matters important to Examiners Discussion and Conclusions • Is the candidate aware of possible limits to confidence/reliability/validity of the work? • Have the main points emerged from the results been picked up for discussion? • Have proper comparisons to previous works OR links to the literature been made? • Is there evidence of attempts at theory building? • Are there speculations? Are they well grounded in the results? .

Provide justification if you are using a nonconventional analysis. Where applicable. for example: • What parameters were kept constant? • What were the other relevant parameters? • Cleary describe your definitions for data processing • Make sure that you have used appropriate data analysis and described them fully.RESULTS Before presenting your results • Make sure that you have described the conditions under which the data were obtained and processed. • Make sure that you have used appropriate statistical analysis. . show measurement errors and standard errors on the graphs.

• The use of different colour is also good but has to come with symbols . make sure that using different symbols for different curves. • Make sure you use similar scale throughout. That makes comparison much easier • Make sure that the captions provide full details of measurements/calculations operating conditions.RESULTS Plotting Graphs • The origin and intercepts are important and should be clearly identified. • When plotting several curves in a graph. • Proper selection of scales so that the curves are clearly visible.

• Before discussing your results in details try to give a brief description of the patterns and changes that your data show. . • If using any types of curve-fit give details in the text and the equation on the graph. note that you should have a section error analysis in your Setup Chapter.RESULTS Plotting Graphs • Either identify errors and uncertainties by the bar on the curves on mention them in the text.

• Most impotently. .DISCUSSION Once you presented your data then the questions are: • What do they mean • Do they agree with existing theories • How do the results compared with current literature. do they answer questions that you have set out. if not why? • Are they providing new information that were not existed before? • Are they providing/suggesting new theories or mechanisms or correlations that improve our understating .

DISCUSSION • But before answering all above questions you should be confident of the data your presenting • Are your results repeatable • Are they statistically sound. changing the number of samples will result to different pattern. • Have all the errors been accounted for. i.e. .

what have you learned from your research • Explain and discuss your results in accordance with theory • Compare with previous work. if different explain why • Always remember your research limitation • Do not repeat what you said before .DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION • To interpret your results.

.CONCLUSION • In the beginning give a detail of the aims and objectives • What methodology you have used • A summary of all your finding in the results and discussion section • Provide avenue for future work/research if your study was not able to answer all questions.

REFERENCES Sources: • Book • Journal and conference papers • Thesis and dissertation • Web Sites: There are some very useful and authoritative sources that can be used. Information required: • • • • Name of the Authors Title Year Name of the publisher . but avoid this type of citation as much as you can as they are usually less satisfactory.

Befrui. mixture prepration and Combustion in Four-stroke Directinjection Gasoline Engines. 2.. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. LES Simulation of the Internal Flow and Near-Field Spray Structure of an Outward-Opening GDi Injector and Comparison with Imaging Data. 28. Liquid film disintegration regimes and proposed correlations. C.Cavalho. UK. D. PhD Thesis. Robart. M. . J. City University London. 2002. W. 2009. 3. 4. 2008.Marchi A. B. Flow.S.V. Heitoyr. p. Chapter 1 in Flow and Combustion in Reciprocating Engines. • Make sure that all references cited in the text are referred properly to the list of references. SAE Paper 010137. and Santos. and Reckers. and Arcoumanis. Int. of Multiphase flow. 773-789.. H. I. 2009.Ando. D.REFERENCES List of References For example: 1. Internal flow and spray characteristics of an outwards opening pintle-type gasolineinjector.

REFERENCES • • • • Book Journal and conference papers Thesis and dissertation Web Sites Provid • Name of the Authors • Title • Year • Name of the publisher .