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L1

ADVANCED ENGINE PERFORMANCE SPECIALIST


CHAPTER ONE

Basic Powertrain Diagnosis


CHAPTER TWO

Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II


CHAPTER THREE

Ignition System Diagnosis and Repair


CHAPTER FOUR

Fuel and Air Induction System Diagnosis and Repair


CHAPTER FIVE

Emission Control System Failures


CHAPTER SIX

I/M Failure Diagnosis

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ADVANCED ENGINE PERFORMANCE SPECIALIST


TEST BACKGROUND INFORMATION
The purpose of the L1 test is to evaluate your knowledge of diagnosing powertrain driveability problems and emission failures on electronically controlled systems. The ASE changed some of the test questions and updated the composite vehicle. injection system uses a mass airflow sensor. The ignition system is distributorless and uses one coil over each spark plug. The system uses no spark plug wires. The major additions from the previous composite vehicle engine include VVT (Variable Valve Timing), TAC (Electronic Throttle Control Actuator), data communications bus, anti-theft immobilizer system, electronically controlled EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and ORVR (Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery) evaporative emission control system components. Scan tool data includes on board diagnostic (OBD) II system monitors, and readiness status. The test may include engine cooling and exhaust system problems. The use of the word powertrain means the technician must expect questions on electronic control of the transmission, and the effect of modifications on electronically controlled systems. Diagnosis includes scope waveform analysis of crankshaft and camshaft sensors. Fuel system diagnosis is strictly of fuel injection systems, and the subject of fuel quality has been added. Emission failure diagnostic questions include: State emission inspection and maintenance (IM) 240, acceleration simulation mode (ASM), and two speed idle (TSI) emissions tests results.

Test Content Diagnostic area

Number of questions General Powertrain Diagnosis 5 Computerized Powertrain Control Diagnosis 13 (Including OBD II) Ignition System Diagnosis 7 Fuel System and Air Induction Systems Diagnosis 7 Emission Control Systems Diagnosis 10 IM Failure Diagnosis 8 Total 50

Note:
The test may contain up to 15 additional questions for ASE research purposes. Your answers to these questions do not affect your score. However, since you do not know which questions they are, you must answer all to the best of your ability and plan time for up to 65 questions. At press time, according to ASE, the L1 certification and re-certification tests have the same content.

ASE L1 TASK LIST


Carefully read the Task List, noting the areas in which your skills are strong or weak. You can do this by checking off each task that you do not perform often or do not understand completely.

Summary of the ASE L1 Test


You are expected to be certified in A8 engine performance and have skill diagnosing problems or failures in the following areas: General powertrain Computerized powertrain controls Ignition systems Fuel systems and air induction systems Emission control systems State emission inspection and maintenance programs

A. General Powertrain Diagnosis (5 questions)


1. Inspect and test for missing, modified, inoperative, or tampered powertrain mechanical components. 2. Locate relevant service information. 3. Research system operation using technical information to determine diagnostic procedure. 4. Use appropriate diagnostic procedures based on available vehicle data and service information; determine if available information is adequate to proceed with effective diagnosis. 5. Establish relative importance of observed vehicle data. 6. Differentiate between powertrain mechanical and electrical/ electronic problems, including variable valve timing (VVT) systems. 7. Diagnose engine mechanical condition using an exhaust gas analyzer. 8. Diagnose driveability problems and emission failures caused by cooling system problems.

To test your ability to read and understand shop manuals, the ASE designed a composite vehicle reference book that you must reference for some test questions. For those technicians that are re-certifying, note the following: The new type 3 composite vehicle has a generic four cycle V6 engine. The engine has four chain driven overhead camshafts and 24 valves. The sequential multi-port fuel

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Advanced Engine Performance Specialist 9. Diagnose driveability problems and emission failures caused by engine mechanical problems. 10. Diagnose driveability problems and emission failures caused by problems or modifications in the transmission and final drive, or by incorrect tire size. 11. Diagnose driveability problems and emission failures caused by exhaust system problems or modifications. 12. Determine root cause of failures. 13. Determine root cause of multiple component failures. 14. Determine root cause of repeated component failures. 20. 21. 22. 23.

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Determine root cause of failures. Determine root cause of multiple component failures. Determine root cause of repeated component failures. Verify effectiveness of repairs.

C. Ignition System Diagnosis (7 questions)


1. Inspect and test for missing, modified, inoperative, or tampered components. 2. Locate relevant service information. 3. Research system operation using technical information to determine diagnostic procedure. 4. Use appropriate diagnostic procedures based on available vehicle data and service information; determine if available information is adequate to proceed with effective diagnosis. 5. Establish relative importance of displayed scan tool data. 6. Differentiate between ignition electrical/electronic and ignition mechanical problems. 7. Diagnose no-starting, hard starting, stalling, engine misfire, poor driveability, spark knock, power loss, poor mileage, illuminated MIL, and emission problems on vehicles equipped with distributorless ignition (DI) systems; determine needed repairs. 8. Diagnose no-starting, hard starting, stalling, engine misfire, poor driveability, spark knock, power loss, poor mileage, illuminated MIL, and emission problems on vehicles equipped with distributor ignition (DI) systems; determine needed repairs. 9. Test for ignition system failures under various engine load conditions. 10. Test ignition system component operation using waveform analysis. 11. Confirm base ignition timing and/or spark timing control. 12. Determine root cause of failures. 13. Determine root cause of multiple component failures. 14. Determine root cause of repeated component failures.

B. Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II (13 questions)


1. Inspect and test for missing, modified, inoperative, or tampered computerized powertrain control components. 2. Locate relevant service information. 3. Research system operation using technical information to determine diagnostic procedure. 4. Use appropriate diagnostic procedures based on available vehicle data and service information; determine if available information is adequate to proceed with effective diagnosis. 5. Determine current version of computerized powertrain control system software and updates; perform reprogramming procedures. 6. Research OBD II system operation to determine the enable criteria for setting and clearing diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) and malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) operation. 7. Interpret OBD II scan tool data stream, diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs), freeze frame data, system monitors, monitor readiness indicators, and trip and drive cycle information to determine system condition and verify repair effectiveness. 8. Establish relative importance of displayed scan tool data. 9. Differentiate between electronic powertrain control problems and mechanical problems. 10. Diagnose no-starting, hard starting, stalling, engine misfire, poor driveability, incorrect idle speed, poor idle, hesitation, surging, spark knock, power loss, poor mileage, illuminated MIL, and emission problems caused by failures of computerized powertrain controls. 11. Diagnose failures in the data communications bus network; determine needed repairs. 12. Diagnose failures in the anti-theft/immobilizer system; determine needed repairs. 13. Perform voltage drop tests on power circuits and ground circuits. 14. Perform current flow tests on system circuits. 15. Perform continuity/resistance tests on system circuits and components. 16. Test input sensor/sensor circuit using scan tool data and/or waveform analysis. 17. Test output actuator/output circuit using scan tool, scan tool data, and /or waveform analysis. 18. Confirm the accuracy of observed scan tool data by directly measuring a system, circuit, or component for the actual value. 19. Test and confirm operation of electrical/electronic circuits not displayed in scan tool data.

D. Fuel Systems and Air Induction Systems Diagnosis (7 questions)


1. Inspect and test for missing, modified, inoperative, or tampered components. 2. Locate relevant service information. 3. Research system operation using technical to determine diagnostic procedure. 4. Evaluate the relationships between fuel trim values, oxygen sensor readings, and other sensor data to determine fuel system control performance. 5. Use appropriate diagnostic procedures based on available vehicle data and service information; determine if available information is adequate to proceed with effective diagnosis. 6. Establish relative importance of displayed scan tool data. 7. Differentiate between fuel system mechanical and fuel system/electronic problems. 8. Differentiate between air induction system mechanical and air induction system electrical/electronic problems, including electronic throttle actuator control (TAC) systems. 9. Diagnose hot or cold no-starting, hard starting, stalling, engine misfire, poor driveability, spark knock, incorrect

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Advanced Engine Performance Specialist idle speed, poor idle, flooding, hesitation, surging power loss, poor mileage, dieseling, illuminated MIL, and emission problems on vehicles equipped with fuel injection fuel systems; determine needed action. Verify fuel quality, fuel system pressure, and fuel system volume. Evaluate fuel injector and fuel pump performance (mechanical and electrical operation). Determine root cause of failures. Determine root cause of multiple component failures. Determine root cause of repeated component failures. 5. Use test instruments to observe, recognize and interpret electrical/electronic signals. 6. Analyze HC, CO, NOx, CO2, and O2 readings; determine diagnostic test sequence. 7. Diagnose the cause of no-load I/M test HC emission failures, 8. Diagnose the cause of no-load I/M test CO emission failures. 9. Diagnose the cause of loaded-mode I/M test HC emission failures. 10. Diagnose the cause of loaded-mode I/M test CO emission failures. 11. Diagnose the cause of loaded-mode I/M test NOx emission failures. 12. Evaluate the MIL operation for onboard diagnostic I/M testing. 13. Evaluate monitor readiness status for onboard diagnostic I/M testing. 14. Diagnose communication failures with the vehicle during onboard diagnostic I/M testing. 15. Perform functional I/M tests (including fuel cap tests). 16. Verify effectiveness of repairs.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

E. Emission Control Systems Diagnosis (10 questions)


1. Inspect and test for missing, modified, inoperative, or tampered components. 2. Locate relevant service information. 3. Research system operation using technical information to determine diagnostic procedure. 4. Use appropriate diagnostic procedures based on available vehicle data and service information; determine if available information is adequate to proceed with effective diagnosis. 5. Establish relative importance of displayed scan tool data. 6. Differentiate between emission control systems mechanical and electrical/electronic problems. Note: Tasks 7 though 11 refer to the following emission control subsystems: Positive crankcase ventilation, ignition timing control, idle and deceleration speed control, exhaust gas recirculation, catalytic converter system, secondary air injection system, intake air temperature control, early fuel evaporation control, and evaporative emission control (including ORVR). 7. Determine need to diagnose emission control subsystems. 8. Perform functional tests on emission control subsystems; determine needed repairs. 9. Determine the effect on exhaust emissions caused by a failure of an emission control component or subsystem. 10. Use exhaust gas analyzer readings to diagnose the failure of an emission control component or subsystem. 11. Diagnose hot or cold no-starting, hard starting, stalling, engine misfire, poor driveability, spark knock, incorrect idle speed, poor idle, flooding, hesitation, surging, power loss, poor mileage, dieseling, illuminated MIL, and emission problems caused by a failure of emission control components or subsystems. 12. Determine root cause of failures. 13. Determine root cause of multiple component failures. 14. Determine root cause of repeated component failures. 15. Verify effectiveness of repairs.

ABOUT THIS STUDY GUIDE


This study guide does not attempt to instruct you in ASE A8 level subjects. If you need a review of those subjects, we recommend the Chek-Chart ASE A8 Study Guide. The Chek-Chart ASE A6 Study Guide should also be helpful if you need brushing up in the electrical area. The Chek-Chart Scan Tool and Lab Scope Guide would make an excellent companion to this study guide. This guide begins by presenting a diagnostic path and thought process. This path describes a slightly different diagnostic approach for driveability problems than it does for emission failure problems. The guide gives a review of diagnostic tests and values used in testing basic engine systems. Emission control systems in the ASE task list are discussed by comparing symptoms to problems. In addition, there are chapters on the ASE composite vehicle and OBD II system diagnosis, and the I/M failure diagnosis, ignition systems, and fuel and air induction systems. In the back of the guide, you will find a helpful glossary and sample test and discussion.

RECOMMENDED TEST PREPARATION


Study and review the diagnosis of defects in the following subject areas: Engine: mechanical, air intake, cylinder sealing, valve train, cooling, and exhaust systems. Transmission: torque converter lock up and electronic shift control. Ignition system: distributor and distributorless types. Fuel injection system: fuel quality, fuel delivery, and fuel control. Emission systems: PCV, electronic timing control, deceleration emission controls, idle speed controls, EGR, exhaust catalysts, secondary air injection, intake air temperature controls, early fuel evaporation systems, and evaporative systems. IM: visual, functional, and tailpipe test failures

F. I/M Failure Diagnosis (8 questions)


1. Inspect and test for missing, modified, inoperative, or tampered components. 2. Locate relevant service information. 3. Evaluate emission readings obtained during an I/M test to assist in emission failure diagnosis and repair. 4. Evaluate HC, CO, NOx, CO2, and O2 gas readings; determine the failure relationships.

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CHAPTER ONE

BASIC POWERTRAIN DIAGNOSIS

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
The technician will complete the ASE task list on Basic Powertrain Diagnosis. The technician will be able to answer 5 questions dealing with the Basic Powertrain Diagnosis section of the L1 ASE Test.

DIAGNOSTIC PATH AND THOUGHT PROCESS


To diagnose powertrain driveability or emission problems and determine the root cause of a symptom, you must use your knowledge of the following systems: Engine mechanical: Air intake, cylinder sealing, valvetrain, and exhaust Ignition: Triggering, primary, and secondary Fuel injection: Pump, regulator, lines, hoses, injectors, idle air control, cranking, and open loop fuel control Emission controls: Positive crankcase ventilation (PCV), ignition timing control, deceleration enleanment, exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR), catalyst, closed loop fuel control, secondary air injection, intake air temperature control, and evaporative emission control (EVAP) Transmission and final drive: Electronic control of torque converter lock-up and shift control Keep the driveability or tailpipe emission symptom in mind. Begin with a visual inspection, looking for obvious flaws such as missing, modified, disconnected, or defective components. The term visual inspection may be misleading; moving things out of your way, flexing and wiggling wire and vacuum connections, and tapping on components are an important part of visual inspections. Also take the time to verify that all ECM and sensor grounds are clean and tight. Perform a ground circuit voltage drop test if necessary. Dont waste time looking for the solution to a problem for which the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) already

has a proven cure. Check the technical service bulletins (TSBs) for the vehicle in your shops reference library or electronic files. In some cases, you will want to look up OEM system operation to know correct OEM system operation prior to testing it. Before performing a test on a device or system, note the specifications and any OEM special pre-test requirements or procedures. Locating electrical parts can be difficult and time consuming. An electrical component locator manual can sometimes indicate where to begin the search. To find this or other information, you will need to properly identify the vehicle application. You will need to use the following information: Vehicle year Make Model Production date VIN Engine size Emissions certification type

Since the symptom has to do with engine performance or tailpipe emission, you should check the engines mechanical condition first, then make the customer aware of any expensive problems. At this point, it is the customers choice whether or not to proceed. The right approach to the diagnosis depends on the symptom and the amount of preliminary information available to you. Think of the problem as existing somewhere in a pyramid of systems, figure 1-1. Depending on the information already at hand, you could start the search for the cause of the symptom using a tailpipe gas analysis. Check any emissions-related trouble code. Then work from the top of the pyramid down.

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Catalyst: A substance that speeds or aids in a chemical reaction. Cylinder Sealing Parts: Engine parts that contain compression or combustion in the cylinder, piston rings, valves, and headgasket. Emissions Certification Type: A reference to whether the vehicle has a Federal or California emissions system configuration. Enleanment: To make leaner, as in adding less fuel to the mixture. Final Drive: Usually refers to the driveshaft, differential gears, and drive axles. Fuel Control: A statement of whether or not the PCM is able to deliver the correct, and quickly varying, fuel mixture to satisfy the needs of a three-way catalytic converter. Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM): The manufacturer that made the component for its original assembly when new. Voltage Drop: The measurement of the loss of voltage caused by unwanted resistance in a circuit connection, conductor, or device.

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ELECTRONIC CONTROLS EMISSION CONTROL SUB-SYSTEM FUEL DELIVERY SYSTEM IGNITION SYSTEM ENGINE MECHANICAL

TRANSMISSION

FINAL DRIVE

Fig. 1-1. The pyramid of powertrain systems is made up of vehicle systems that can cause engine performance or emissions symptoms.

In Chapter 5, Emission Control System Failures, you will be guided to the next step of this diagnostic path, to uncover the causes of emission failures. Your actual diagnostic path may be guided by: State emissions test failure flow charts Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) no-code driveability flow charts OEM trouble code diagnostic flow charts Company policies

If the problem occurs at certain temperatures, such as on cold starts or after a hot soak What all the symptoms are, noises, vibrations, smells, performance, or any combination Whether the problem has occurred before, and what was done to repair it When the vehicle was last serviced and what work was performed The actual symptom may be different from the customers description of it, or your understanding of it may be different from the customers. Having the customer accompany you on a test drive to pinpoint symptoms as they occur would be ideal. There is nothing better than your own observation of the symptom. Just make sure you are working on the right one.

Insight Remember, some flow charts do not tell you to check the basics, or the obvious; they take it for granted it has been done!

Verifying the Driveability Symptom


Knowing the symptom helps organize your approach. The operator of the vehicle is a good source for this information. Get the driver to describe the symptom in as much detail as possible. It is important to know what the complaint is, the conditions under which it occurs, and the severity of the symptoms. Typically, you want to know: Whether it occurs regularly or at random, and if it is happening now If certain conditions, such as accelerating or climbing hills, cause or contribute to the symptom If the problem exists all the time or some of the time

Verifying the Emission Symptom


The customers description of a symptom may, or may not, be relevant to the emission failure. In this case, the customers description of an unrelated symptom may mislead you from the true cause of the emissions test failure. Use your best judgment. Begin with the vehicle inspection report (VIR) or perform your own inspection. Verify the type of failure first: Visual Functional Tailpipe emission Then compare your inspection results to the VIR.

Hot Soak: A period of time after shutting down a warm engine where heat saturates the combustion chambers, valvetrain, intake, and residual fuel. Vehicle Inspection Report (VIR): Reports the results of a state emissions inspection.

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Intuitive Diagnosis
At this point, you may be tempted to use an intuitive approach. This approach relies on working knowledge and experience, based on past successes fixing problems. You are counting on the high likelihood that the cause is the same as previous experience has shown. Use this method to guide you only to systems that need testing. Do not let this method lead you to replace parts until the proper testing is done. Make sure the success of this repair is verified with care. The intuitive method can be a valuable addition to your diagnostic skill.

The ampere is the unit that indicates the rate of electric current flowing through a circuit.

Ammeter
An ammeter is a gauge that is used to measure the current flow in a circuit. Typical ammeters are connected in series with the circuit or component to be tested. The meter bridges the gap in an open circuit so that all the current flows through the meter, figure 1-4. The second type of ammeter uses an inductive pickup clamp around the circuit being tested. The meter reads the strength of the electromagnetic field created by the current passing through the inductive clamp. Digital ammeters have high input impedance that results in an extremely low amount of current being drawn off the circuit when connected in series. Since all ammeters have low resistance, they will act as a jumper wire to short a circuit if connected in parallel. Observing correct polarity is important when using an ammeter with an inductive pickup. Most inductive clamps are marked with an arrow, which points in the direction of current flow when properly connected, figure 1-5.

ELECTRICAL REVIEW
To help you make better diagnoses, this section begins with a brief refresher on electrical behavior and explains measuring the different aspects of an electrical charge using common test equipment. It is important to understand the fundamental behavior of electricity before you attempt to troubleshoot an electrical or electronic problem. There is no mystery to electricity, and how it behaves under any given circumstance is entirely predictable. The section concludes with a short discussion of Ohms Law and how to apply it to diagnostic situations.

LAMP CURRENT FLOW

Electrical Current
Electricity is a form of energy that results when electrons, which are negatively charged atomic particles, transfer from one atom to another. This electron transfer occurs most readily in materials known as conductors and can be activated by an external force, such as heat, friction, or a magnetic field. Electrons tend to move at random but can be organized and directed. Electric current is the controlled flow of electrons from atom to atom within a conductor. To control the flow of electrical power a path must be provided for the current to follow. These pathways, or circuits, route the electrical charge to various points, where it is used to perform work. In order to function, a circuit must form a complete loop so that electron transfer remains uninterrupted, figure 1-2. Automotive circuitry begins at one battery terminal, travels through the wiring harnesses, and returns to the other battery terminal. If there is a break, or open, in the circuit, current cannot flow since the electrons have nowhere to go, and no work can be performed, figure 1-3.

BATTERY

CONDUCTOR

Fig. 1-2. No matter how simple or complex, an electrical circuit must form a complete loop in order for current to flow.

LAMP BATTERY

Amperage
The amount of current flowing through a circuit, conductor, or electrical device is rated in amperage or amps. Amperage is determined by counting the number of electrons that move past a certain point in the circuit in a given amount of time.
CONDUCTOR

Fig. 1-3. Any break or open in a circuit prevents current flow.

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Ampere (AMP): The unit of measure for electric current. Ammeter: A test instrument which measures current flow in a circuit. Conductor: A material that readily allows current flow. Current: The flow of electrons through a conductor. Electron: Negatively charged atomic particles. Impedance: Resistance to current flow often used in rating test meters. Jumper Wire: A length of wire with probes or clips at each end used to bypass a portion of a circuit. Ohms Law: A series of formulas that are used to determine the values in an electrical circuit. Any two of the values can be multiplied or divided to determine the third unknown value.

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Chapter One: Basic Powertrain Diagnosis If the current flow is greater than normal, some of the normal circuit resistance is being bypassed by a short. This can be caused by faulty components or defective wire insulation

OFF

~ V Hz~ V Hz

% RPM

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RPM+

C F V

10A

COM

Electromotive Force
To flow current through a circuit requires an action that organizes all of the randomly drifting electrons and pushes them in one direction. This action is known as electromotive force (EMF), or voltage. Voltage can be measured as the potential difference that exists between two points in a circuit, such as the two terminals of a battery. One of these points must have a negative charge, and the other must have a positive charge. The strength of the force depends upon the strength of the charges at each point.

IGNITION SWITCH

BALLAST RESISTOR

IGNITION COIL

DISTRIBUTOR

Fig. 1-4. A traditional ammeter is always connected in series to measure the current flow of a circuit.

Voltage Voltage is a force that is applied to a circuit and can exist even when there is no current flowing. In automotive applications, voltage is supplied by the battery and the generator. Chemical reaction creates a difference in electromotive force between the positive and negative terminals of a battery, while mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy in a generator to keep the battery charged. A voltmeter is used to measure voltage and results are recorded in units called volts. The actual value of a volt is the amount of energy required to move one amp from the point of lower potential to the point of higher potential. In practical terms, one volt is the amount of force required to move one ampere of current through one ohm of resistance. Voltmeter A voltmeter can be either a digital or analog instrument. It is normally connected in parallel with a circuit or across a voltage source. As with ammeters, digital voltmeters have high impedance, which prevents high current from damaging the meter and limits the load the meter places on the circuit. An internal resistor protects an analog voltmeter from too much current flow. Digital voltmeters also have an internal resistor that is in parallel to the circuit being tested. This resistor must be at least 1 megaohm, and a good digital meter will use a 10 megaohm resistor. Meters used on electronic circuits should have a minimum impedance of 10 megaohms. The high internal resistance of a digital voltmeter draws very little current from a circuit and, when connected in parallel, the effect of the voltmeter on circuit voltage drop is insignificant. Testing with a Voltmeter Typically, a voltmeter is used to:
Measure the source voltage of a circuit Measure the voltage drop caused by a load Check for circuit continuity Measure voltage at any point in a circuit

Fig. 1-5. Observing correct polarity is critical for ammeter testing; inductive pickup clamps usually have an arrow to indicate their polarity.

Once you get an accurate reading on the ammeter, compare the reading to the current specifications provided by the vehicle manufacturer. Current specifications are not always available, so you may need to use Ohms law and calculate the proper amount of current flow for a particular circuit. In general: If the ammeter shows no current flow, the circuit is open at some point. This indicates no continuity If the ammeter shows less current flow than is normal, the circuit is complete but contains too much resistance. This can be caused by improper or defective components or by loose or corroded connections

Electromotive Force (EMF): The force that causes the electrons to move from atom to another atom. More commonly known as voltage. Generator: A device that produces electrical energy by passing a magnetic field through a coil of wire. Known for many years as an alternator due to the fact that alternating current is produced in the stator assembly; J1930 (OBD II) term for alternator (generating device that uses a diode rectifier). Ohm: The unit of measure for resistance to current flow. Volt: The unit of measure for electrical pressure or electromotive force. Voltmeter: An electrical test meter that measures electrical pressure (EMF).

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OFF

~ VHz~

VHz
% RPM

ENGINE GROUND

OFF
A

~ VHz~ VHz

CF V

RPM +

% RPM

10A

COM

A
RPM +

CF V

10A

COM

+
+

BATTERY
BATTERY

Fig. 1-6. A voltmeter is connected in parallel across a voltage source. This meter is displaying open-circuit battery voltage.
VOLTMETER #1 VOLTMETER #2

Fig. 1-8. Voltage drop testing is one of the best ways to check the integrity of a circuit or electrical device. This meter is displaying 0.18 voltage drop across the engine ground and the battery.

OFF

~ V Hz~ V Hz

OFF

~ V Hz~ V Hz

% RPM

% RPM

VOLTMETER #3

A
RPM+

C F V

A
RPM+

C F V

10A

COM

10A

COM OFF

~ V Hz~ V Hz

% RPM

A
RPM+

C F V

IGN.SWITCH

MOTOR SWITCH
10A COM

M
MOTOR

Fig. 1-7. Source voltage can also be checked anywhere along a circuit by grounding the negative meter lead and probing the circuit with the positive meter lead.

To measure voltage or voltage drop, connect the voltmeter in parallel. To perform a continuity check, connect the voltmeter in series with the portion of the circuit being tested.

Checking Source Voltage The source, or available, voltage within a circuit can be measured with or without current flowing through the circuit. The battery is the voltage source for all DC automotive circuits. It is checked by connecting the positive lead of the voltmeter to the positive battery (B) terminal and the negative lead to the negative battery (ground) terminal, figure 1-6. This measures no-load, or open-circuit, battery voltage, which should be about 12.2 volts with the engine not running. Source voltage can be checked in a similar fashion, at any point along a circuit, by grounding the negative meter lead and probing the supply wire with the positive meter lead, figure 1-7. Low source voltage in a circuit is the result of high resistance, and loose or corroded connections are often at fault. A loss of source voltage indicates an open in the circuit. Checking Voltage Drop Voltage drop is the amount of voltage that an electrical device normally consumes to perform its task. However, excessive

voltage drop can be the result of a high-resistance connection or failed component. Checking voltage drop is one of the most important tests you can perform on a circuit. Voltage drops can cause major driveability symptoms in onboard computer systems. A voltage drop on an engine control module (ECM) power ground can cause sensor voltage references to be higher than normal, throwing off the overall sensor calibration of the entire control system. To check voltage drop, the circuit must be powered up and have current flowing. The circuit must also have the maximum amount of current flowing under normal conditions for which the circuit was designed. The amount of voltage drop that is considered acceptable will vary by circuit. Low-current circuits that draw milliamps will be affected by very small voltage drops, while the same amount of voltage drop will have a negligible affect on a high-current circuit. In general, voltage drop on a power ground circuit should be less than 0.1 volt. To measure voltage drop, connect the meter in the same fashion used to take system voltage readings. Leave the negative meter lead attached to the negative battery terminal, and use the positive meter lead to probe at various points in the circuit to check a power ground, figure 1-8. You can compute voltage drop by checking available voltage on both sides of a load, then subtracting the voltage reading of the ground side from the reading on the positive side of the load. You can take direct voltage drop readings by connecting the positive meter lead to the power side of a load and connecting the negative meter lead to the ground side of the component. Check electronic sensor voltage drop in a similar way. Connect the digital multimeter (DMM) negative lead to the sensor ground terminal and probe the signal line with the positive meter lead. Remember, the sum of all the voltage drops in a circuit will equal the source voltage.

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Checking Continuity Continuity testing is similar to no-load voltage testing, since both procedures tell you if system voltage is being applied to a part of the circuit. However, for a continuity check, the voltmeter is connected in series with the circuit rather than in parallel.

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Chapter One: Basic Powertrain Diagnosis 5. The condition of the conductor. Broken strands of a cable or a partially cut wire reduces the cross-sectional area of the conductor and raises resistance. Loose, dirty, or corroded connections have the same effect and are a major cause of electrical problems

Ohms An ohm is the unit established to measure electrical resistance. One ohm is equal to the amount of resistance present when one volt of electromotive force pushes one ampere of current through a circuit. The resistance of any electrical device or circuit can be measured two ways:
Directly with an ohmmeter measuring the resistance offered by the device or circuit in ohms Indirectly with a voltmeter, measuring the voltage drop across the device or circuit Since every electrical device, or load, in a circuit offers some resistance, voltage is reduced as it pushes current through each load. Voltage drop testing was detailed earlier in this chapter.

Fig. 1-9. Check continuity with a voltmeter by connecting it in series with the device being tested and energizing the circuit.

To check continuity with a voltmeter, open the circuit at the test point by disconnecting the power wire. Then, attach the positive voltmeter lead to the source voltage side of the open circuit and connect the negative voltmeter lead to the ground side of the test point. Next, energize the circuit and note the voltmeter reading, figure 1-9. If the voltmeter reads system voltage, the circuit is complete. If the voltmeter reads near zero voltage, the circuit is open. Due to the high resistance of the DMM, the circuit cannot carry current so the meter reads source voltage.

Resistance
Voltage forces current through a conductor, but all conductive materials oppose current flow to some extent. This opposition, known as resistance, exists in some degree in all electrical devices. If you know how much resistance a circuit should have, you can quickly determine the overall condition of the circuit by measuring its resistance. There are five factors, or characteristics, that determine how much resistance is present in an electrical circuit. These are: 1. The atomic structure of the material. All conductors have some resistance, but the low resistance in a good conductor will flow current when a fraction of a volt is induced 2. The length of the conductor. The longer a piece of wire or cable, the higher its resistance 3. The cross-sectional area of the conductor. The thinner a piece of wire or cable, the higher its resistance 4. The temperature of the conductor. In most cases, the higher the temperature of the conducting material, the higher its resistance. However, some sensors are designed to operate exactly the opposite

Tips for Using an Ohmmeter An ohmmeter is a self-powered test instrument that can only be used when there is no voltage applied to the circuit device being tested. Any current flow from an outside source will damage the meter. Before testing with an ohmmeter, make sure the circuit is not under power, or remove the component to be tested from the circuit, figure 1-10. Ohmmeters, whether analog or digital, operate on the voltage drop principle. When you connect the leads of an ohmmeter to a device for testing, the meter directs a low-voltage current from its power source through the device. Since the source voltage and the internal resistance of the meter are known, the resistance of the test device can be determined by the amount of voltage dropped as current flows through it. The ohmmeter makes this calculation and directly displays the resistance of the test device in ohms. Be aware, ohmmeter testing may not always be conclusive. Resistance faults in wiring and connections often generate heat, which further increases the resistance of an operating circuit. In these cases, the fault may not be apparent unless the circuit is under power. The device may be able to relay the low-voltage signal of an ohmmeter, but not be able to carry the signal when system voltage is applied to it. Another consideration is the fact that most ohmmeters will only read as low as 0.1 ohm, yet smaller amounts of resistance can cause problems, especially on electronic circuits. These low-resistance faults can only be determined through voltage drop testing. However, an ohmmeter has definite advantages for many test situations and is particularly useful to:
Measure the resistance of parts that have specific resistance values that fall within the usable range of the meter Measure high-resistance items, such as secondary ignition cables and electronic pickup coils Test internal parts of components that require disassembly to reach the test points Bench test parts such as switches, circuit breakers, and relays before assembly or installation Check circuit continuity of components

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V
VOLTAGE

A
AMPERAGE

R
RESISTANCE

Fig. 1-11. This diagram is an easy way to remember the relationship of the three elements of Ohms Law; when one is missing you can calculate it based on the other two.

Fig. 1-10. Using an ohmmeter to measure the resistance of an electronic fuel injector. Note, the multi-plug has been disconnected to prevent current flow through the injector.

Ohms Law
The relationship between current flow, electromotive force, and resistance is predictable for any electrical, or electronic, circuit or device. This relationship was first stated as a theory by George Ohm in 1827 and has since become known as Ohms Law. Ohm determined that there are three characteristics at work in an electrical device: voltage, amperage, and resistance. If you know two of them you can always calculate the third, since the relationship of these three never changes, figure 1-11. According to Ohms Law, when a force of one volt pushes one ampere of current through a circuit, the resistance present is 1 ohm. This establishes and gives a value to the ohm, the unit with which resistance is measured. Now, you can use one of three simple mathematic equations to calculate the missing factor: To calculate voltage, multiply amperes by resistance VAR To calculate amperage, divide voltage by resistance AVR To calculate resistance, divide voltage by amperage RVA

Even though you may never need to use one of these equations to figure out the missing characteristic, it is important to understand the logic behind them. Suppose you are dealing with a fused circuit operating on system voltage that keeps blowing the fuse after a short period of time. A quick check tells you 12 volts are available on either end of the circuit, and you know the fuse is rated at 10 amps. Therefore, Ohms Law tells you there is low resistance in the circuit because amperage is equal to voltage divided by resistance. So, if voltage is constant, a drop in resistance is the only condition that will allow enough current to flow through the circuit to overload the fuse. Very few, if any, automotive problems will require you to actually calculate Ohms Law equations to repair them. However, you will find it much easier to locate faults in electric and electronic circuitry once you understand the relationships of current, voltage, and resistance expressed in Ohms Law. In an automotive electrical system, DC voltage originates at the battery, and the open-circuit, or no-load, voltage of a good battery will be about 12.6 volts. With the engine running, a typical charging system regulates output between 13.5 and 14 volts. This is the source, or system, voltage that provides power to all of the circuits on the vehicle. Therefore, voltage should remain fairly stable, unless there is an unexpected change in resistance. Low voltage in a vehicle electrical system is often the result of either a charging system problem or a bad battery. If resistance is unchanged, a drop in system voltage results in less current flow, and a rise in system voltage will increase amperage, or current flow, as well. Ohms Law says: Voltage and amperage are directly proportional to each other as long as resistance remains the same. Both must move in the same direction, figure 1-12 Resistance in an electrical circuit should only be that of the load devices specified by the engineer. This includes all switches, relays, motors, solenoids, lamps, and other parts that create resistance to perform usable work. The resistance of all the loads determines the circuit amperage. Remember, system voltage should remain stable and within its designed range unless there is a battery or charging system problem. Therefore, the circuit with the greatest total resistive load will flow the least amount of

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10
A M P E R A G E
IN C R EA SE
D EC R EA SE

10
HIGH AMPERAGE

FIXED RESISTANCE
10
V O L T A G E

10

IN C R EA SE

DE CR EA SE

RESISTANCE LOW

Fig. 1-12. Voltage and amperage increase or decrease directly in proportion to each other as long as resistance remains constant.

VOLTAGE CONSTANT

HIGH RESISTANCE

Fig. 1-14. High amperage overloading a fuse is often the effect of low resistance allowing too much current to flow.

AMPERAGE LOW

connection, frayed wire, broken insulation, or a defective component, will change the designed resistance of the circuit. When the battery and charging system are in good condition, a change in resistance will increase or decrease amperage in the circuit. Excessive amperage will cause blown fuses, while reduced amperage can cause slow motor operation, dim bulbs, sluggish solenoid or relay response, and less than peak performance from other circuit devices.

Diodes
Diodes serve as one-way check valves in an electrical system. They allow current to flow in one direction, but prevent current flow in the other. A diode is used to direct current flow and protects solid state devices from voltage spikes. Each diode has two halves, an anode and a cathode. The diode allows current flow through the cathode to the anode. Diodes are used in circuits to re-direct current flow. A good example of diodes being used is in an alternator, where they modify current from alternating current to direct. A standard silicon diode causes a voltage drop of approximately 0.6V.

VOLTAGE CONSTANT

Fig. 1-13. Amperage and resistance are inversely proportional when voltage is constant, so if either one increases the other must decrease.

current, and the circuit with the least resistance will allow the greatest amperage flow. According to Ohms Law: Amperage and resistance are inversely proportional to each other as long as voltage remains the same. They move in opposite directions, figure 1-13 Under normal circumstances, you will not see a situation where amperage is held constant while voltage and resistance change. Amperage is the strength of the electrical charge moving through a conductor, and it responds to changes in voltage or resistance. Although high amperage is the cause of many blown fuses, it is most often the effect of low circuit resistance rather than the cause of the problem, figure 1-14. Understanding the inverse relationship of amperage to resistance at a steady voltage is an important diagnostic aid. Any circuit damage, whether an open or short, poor or corroded

Clamping Diodes Clamping diodes are diodes placed in a circuit in parallel with a magnetic coil. When the magnetic field produced by the coil collapses because power is removed, it produces a voltage spike with polarity opposite that of normal current flow. The diode is wired in parallel with the coil so when the field collapses, the spike is blocked from flowing in the circuit. The diode prevents the spike from reaching a computer or other solid state component. For example, when a relay is de-energized, the resulting voltage spike can exceed 40 volts. A starter relay can produce a voltage spike of nearly 200 volts. Clamping diodes protect the vehicle computers from these spikes.

Alternator: See Generator. Diode: An electronic component designed to allow current flow in one direction only. Used in control circuits and in rectifier assemblies in the generator.

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Series Circuits
In a series circuit, the current has only one path to follow. In figure 1-15, using conventional current flow theory, you see that the current must flow from the battery through the resistor, and back to the battery. The circuit must be continuous, or have continuity. If one wire is disconnected from the battery, the circuit is broken and there is no current. If electrical loads are wired in series, they must all be switched on and working or the circuit is broken and none of them work. A simplified example of a series circuit is shown in figure 1-16. Current flows from the battery through the horn switch, through the horn, and then back to the battery.

When you know the current and the individual resistances of a series circuit, you can calculate the voltage drop across each load. The sum of these drops equals the source voltage. For the 2 ohm resistor in figure 1-17: IRE 2 2 4 volts For the 4 ohm resistor in figure 1-17: IRE 2 4 8 volts The sum of the volts is 4 volts 8 volts 12 volts, which is the source voltage.

Series Circuits and Ohms Law Ohms law can easily be applied to a series circuit. If any two of the values are known, the third can be calculated using Ohms Law. Some characteristics of a series circuit are:
Current is the same everywhere in the circuit. Since there is only one path for current, the same amount of current must be available at all points of the circuit Voltage drops may vary from load to load if the individual resistances vary, but the sum of all voltage drops in the series is equal to source voltage The total resistance is the sum of all individual resistances in the series In figure 1-15, the circuit consists of a 3 ohm resistor connected to a 12 volt battery. The amperage is found by using Ohms Law: ERI 12 3 4 amperes

Parallel Circuits
When current can follow more than one path to complete a circuit, that circuit is called a parallel circuit. The points where current paths split and rejoin are called junction points. The separate paths that split and meet at junction points are called branch circuits or shunt circuits. A parallel circuit is shown in figure 1-18. In an automobile, the headlamps are wired in parallel with each other, figure 1-19.

Parallel Circuits and Ohms Law The features of a parallel circuit are:
The voltage applied to, or measured across, each branch of the circuit is the same The total current in a parallel circuit is the sum of the current in each branch The total resistance of a parallel circuit is always less than the lowest individual resistance. The reason is that when you add resistors in parallel, you are actually adding more conductors, or paths in which current can flow, which reduces the total resistance

Fig. 1-15. A simple series circuit.

Fig. 1-17. A series circuit with more than 1 resistor.

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Fig. 1-16. This horn circuit diagram illustrates a simple series circuit.

Fig. 1-18. A parallel circuit.

Parallel Circuit: An arrangement that provides separate power supplies and ground paths to several loads. Series Circuit: An arrangement in which current must flow through one load before another. Each load shares the power supply with the other loads in the circuit. Shunt: A parallel electrical connection or branch circuit, in parallel with another branch circuit or connection.

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Fig. 1-20. A series-parallel circuit.

Through the 3 ohm resistor, it is: ERI 12 volts 3 ohms 4 amps Total circuit current is 2 amps 4 amps 6 amps. If the resistance of a branch is unknown, dividing the source voltage by the branch current gives the branch resistance. In figure 1-18, for the first branch: R1 12 volts 2 amps 6 ohms For the second branch: R2 12 volts 4 amps 3 ohms
Fig. 1-19. The headlamps are wired in parallel with each other in all headlamp circuits.

Total resistance of the circuit can be calculated using the productover-the-sum method: Rt (6 ohms 3 ohms) (6 ohms 3 ohms) 2 ohms Or, if all you need is the equivalent circuit resistance, divide the source voltage by the total circuit amperage as follows: Rt 12 volts 6 amps 2 ohms To determine source voltage, multiply the total circuit current by the total circuit resistance. Or, since the voltage is the same across all branches, multiply one branch current by the same branch resistance. In figure 1-18: IRE 6 amps 2 ohms 12 volts Or, (branch I) (branch R) E: Branch 1: 2 6 12 volts Branch 2: 4 3 12 volts

There are two ways to calculate the total resistance, or equivalent resistance, in a parallel circuit. One formula for any number of resistors is: Rt 1 (1 R1 1 R2 1 R3) Note: Rt Total circuit resistance. For the circuit illustrated in figure 1-18: R 1 (1 6 1 3) 2 ohms Another way to calculate total resistance is the product-overthe-sum method: R1 (R1 R2) (R1R2) This formula can be used for only two resistances at a time. If more than two are wired in parallel, you must calculate their values in pairs until you determine one total resistance for the circuit. For the circuit in figure 1-18: R1 (6 3) (6 3) 2 ohms To apply Ohms Law to a parallel circuit, sometimes you must treat branches as independent circuits and sometimes you must deal with the entire circuit, depending upon which values are unknown. To find current, you must treat each branch separately because of the different current in each branch. Voltage is applied equally across all branches, so the source voltage is divided by the branch resistance to determine the current through that branch. Adding the current in all the branches gives the total current in the circuit. In the circuit shown, figure 1-18, current through the 6 ohm resistor is: ERI 12 volts 6 ohms 2 amps

Series-Parallel Circuits
As the name suggests, series-parallel circuits combine the two types of circuits already discussed. Some of the loads are wired in series, but there are also some loads wired in parallel, figure 1-20. The entire headlamp circuit of an automobile is a seriesparallel circuit, figure 1-21. The headlamps are in parallel with each other, but the switches are in series with the battery and with each lamp. Both lamps are controlled by the switches, but one lamp still lights if the other is burned out. Most of the circuits in an automobile electrical system are series-parallel.

Series-Parallel Circuits and Ohms Law Values in a series-parallel circuit are figured by reducing the parallel branches to equivalent values for single loads in series. Then the equivalent values and any actual series loads are combined. To calculate total resistance, first find the resistance of all loads wired in parallel. If the circuit is complex, it may be

Series-Parallel Circuit: An arrangement that combines two or more loads in parallel with one or more loads in series.

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With this summary of electrical theory, you can perform more accurate diagnoses, resulting in more efficient repairs, and a higher percentage of satisfied customers.

MORE DIAGNOSTICS
Check the Basics
Some mechanical and electrical systems are not monitored by the electronic powertrain control system. Failures here can cause driveability or emission problems without setting codes. Other problems may not be detected by a scan tool or lab scope. Some problems may be the root cause of a code or a sensor that is out of range, even though it is on a system that is not monitored by the electronic powertrain control system. The following tests, described over the next several pages, may be performed to detect these types of problems. The tests are not necessarily in the order they should be performed. This is a reminder list. The list does not have a specific order or specific procedures.
Fig. 1-21. A complete headlamp circuit, with all bulbs and switches, is a series-parallel circuit.

No-Start Diagnosis
To run, an engine requires four things: air, fuel, compression and ignition, all at the right time. Perform the following tests to find what the problem is: Observe the engines cranking speed; if it is too slow, check the battery and starting system Check fuel pressure and volume Verify the electrical signal to the injector with a 12V test light, figure 1-22, depending on the OEMs recommendation Use a properly gapped spark tester to check for spark Check compression by performing a cranking vacuum or compression test Check the ignition timing Verify camshaft drive integrity and valve timing

handy to group the parallel branches into pairs and treat each pair separately. Then add the values of all loads wired in series to the equivalent resistance of all the loads wired in parallel. In the circuit shown in figure 1-20: Rt (6 3) (6 3) 2 4 ohms In the illustration, the equivalent resistance of the loads in parallel is: (6 3 ) (6 3) 2 ohms The total of the branch currents is 1 2 3 amps, so the voltage drop is: IRE 326 The voltage drop across the load in series is 2 [] 3 6 volts. Add these voltage drops to find the source voltage: 6 6 12 volts To determine the source voltage in a series-parallel circuit, you must first find the equivalent resistance of the loads in parallel, and the total current through this equivalent resistance. Figure out the voltage drop across this equivalent resistance and add it to the voltage drops across all loads wired in series. To determine total current, find the currents in all parallel branches and add them together. This total is equal to the current at any point in the series circuit. In figure 1-20: I (E R1) (E R2) (6 6) (6 3) 1 2 3 amps Notice that there are only 6 volts across each of the branch circuits because another 6 volts have already been dropped across the 2 ohm series resistor.

Battery
Perform a preliminary visual inspection and check the electrolyte level. The battery should measure 12.6V or higher, if it is fully charged. The minimum state of charge needed to perform a load or capacity test is 12.4V. If the state of charge is too low, perform a 3 minute (sulfation) test while charging. To do this, connect the charger and set it on high. In three minutes, check the charging voltage. If at the end of three minutes, the charging voltage is above 15.8V, the battery may be considered sulfated. It should be replaced because it may never accept a full charge. If the battery passes, continue charging at a normal rate until it is fully charged. A capacity test should be performed with a load of half the cold cranking amperes applied for 15 seconds. By the end of this time, the battery should not have dropped below 9.6V. If it does, replace it. Sometimes, a batterys state of charge is low because of a key OFF drain. To test for a key OFF drain, disconnect the negative battery cable connection. Connect a (known good)

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Electrolyte: The chemical solution in a battery that conducts electricity and reacts with the plate materials. Integrity: Soundness, intactness of a component, or a persons adherence to a code of values. Lab Scope: An oscilloscope used to observe electronic sensor and actuator waveforms, usually not capable of reading high secondary ignition voltage.

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Chapter One: Basic Powertrain Diagnosis for a small (parasitic) drain. If you measure zero, check the ammeters circuit protection. There are electronic control devices that need power even with the key OFF. You will need to look up their normal parasitic drain, to know if there is an abnormal drain on the system.

Starting
Disable both ignition and fuel, or just the fuel system. This not only prevents startup, but also prevents crankcase oil dilution caused by gasoline washing past the rings while performing cranking tests. Limit cranking tests to 15 seconds to protect the starter from overheating. The starter should crank the engine at normal speed and not draw more current than specified. Battery voltage during a 15-second starter draw test should not drop below 9.6V and the amperes should stay within OEM specifications. Keep in mind that some electronic engine control systems require at least 10.5V during normal startup. Voltage lower than 10.5V may cause a no-start. When the starter cranks too slowly and draws high current, the problem may be caused by:
Fig. 1-22. Using a 12V test light to verify electrical signal to an injector.

A short in the starter Excessive mechanical load When the starter cranks too slowly and draws low current, the problem may be caused by: Poor battery capacity Excessive resistance in the circuit Excessive resistance in the starter When the starter cranks too fast and draws low current, the problem is probably a low compression problemoften a camshaft drive defect. If the starter engages the flywheel but does not release, or makes unusual noise during cranking, the problem may be caused by: Improper pinion to flywheel clearance Bad starter drive Shorted starter solenoid or relay Starter not aligned properly

OFF

~ VHz~

VHz
% RPM

CF V

RPM +

10A

COM

TEMPORARY SHUNT

When the starter spins but does not engage the flywheel, the cause may be:
BATTERY

Fig. 1-23. Using a jumper (shunt) to protect an ammeter during a battery drain test.

Defective starter drive Starter mounting bolts loose When the solenoid clicks but the starter does not spin, the problem may be caused by: A defective solenoid switch Excessive resistance in the starter control circuit

12-volt test light in series with the battery post and the battery cable terminal connector. If the light illuminates, there is a large drain. If the test light does not illuminate, remove it and proceed to the next test. Temporarily connect a jumper (shunt) in series between the negative battery post and the disconnected cables battery terminal connector. Connect an ammeter across the battery post and the battery terminal connector, figure 1-23. The shunt will protect your meter from a current increase while the vehicles capacitors are charging up. Wait 34 minutes, then disconnect the jumper before measuring. Use the highest meter range first, usually 10 or 20 amps. Then scale down to milliamps to check

Charging
Begin by checking the alternator belt condition and tension. Check battery voltage with the ignition key in the OFF position. Test the charging system voltage at the battery, with the engine running at idle speed and accessories turned on. If there is no OEM specification available, it should maintain a minimum of at least 0.5V above the batterys key OFF voltage with the accessory loads on. If the system voltage is low, first be sure engine idle speed is correct, then look for high resistance in a wire or connection.

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OFF

~ VHz~

VHz
% RPM

CF V

RPM +

10A

COM

antifreeze/water in all but the coldest climates. A 70/30 mix is the maximum ratio allowed for all but a few vehicle applications. Look for corrosion or contamination in the system. Use the radiator cap pressure specification when pressurizing the system to perform a leak check. Proper engine temperature is critical for clean emissions and optimal engine operation. Use a scan tool to accurately determine and confirm thermostat operation. A lower temperature, stuckopen thermostat, or no thermostat may cause a long warmup time, or in cool weather no warmup. This in turn may cause:
+

Extended high idle speed High Carbon Monoxide (CO) tailpipe emission Left uncorrected, other symptoms may be: Fouled spark plugs High hydrocarbon (HC) tailpipe emission High fuel consumption Abnormal fuel trim readings Carbon build up Oxygen (O2) sensor carbon contamination Catalyst damage

Fig. 1-24. Voltage drop testing the positive side of the charging circuit.

To do this, perform a voltage drop test on the charging circuit, figure 1-24. Check both the positive and ground side of the circuit. It is important to turn on enough accessories to cause a load of at least 20 amperes on the alternator. This will ensure that the flaw in the circuit is revealed. If this does not uncover the problem, verify that the field circuit voltage or amperage is at specification. Check for overcharging. Measure the voltage at the battery with the engine running at 2000 rpm and the accessories turned off. It should not be above the OEMs specified charging system voltage limit. Other tests include performing: An oscilloscope alternator diode ripple test Alternating Current (AC) volt leakage test. AC voltage above 0.5V is the rule of thumb for a failed alternator Current leakage test using an ammeter in the charging circuit

Engine cooling fan systems are often controlled by the ECM. The ECM uses the coolant temperature signal to know when to activate a relay to control the cooling fan. A system that is bypassed to make the fan run constantly may cause the same high CO symptoms as a thermostat that is stuck open. Overheating problems are caused by: Low coolant level Poor or no coolant circulation Inoperable auxiliary fan Lack of airflow

An engine overheating during an emissions test may cause the test to be aborted. However, an engine running hotter than normal, but not overheating, may cause a NOx emission test failure.

Engine Cylinder Power Contribution Test


A cylinder power contribution test tells you which cylinder or cylinders combustion is not as efficient as the others. It does not tell you which system is at fault, figure 1-25. A low power contribution by one or more cylinders may be caused by: A vacuum leak Compression loss Poor valve lift Weak spark Fuel injector defect Primary ignition wiring fault

Insight Think of the powertrain systems affected by a weak battery or defective charging system: starting, ignition, fuel delivery, fuel control, emission controls, and transmission controls. Low or high system voltage will affect tailpipe emissions. When a engine control module (ECM) goes into a limited operation strategy because of low system voltage, it may disable the EGR, causing higher emission of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx).

Cooling
Check the coolant condition and the level with a coolant tester (hydrometer). Most manufacturers recommend a 50/50 mix of

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Carbon Monoxide: An odorless, colorless, tasteless poisonous gas. A pollutant produced by the internal combustion engine. Fouled: Contaminated, like a spark plug contaminated (fouled) with carbon. Fuel Trim (FT): Fuel delivery adjustments based on closed-loop feedback. Values above the central value (0%) indicate increased injector pulse width. Values below the central value indicate decreased injector pulse width. Short Term Fuel Trim is based on rapidly switching oxygen sensor values. Long Term Fuel Trim is a learned value used to compensate for continual deviation of the Short Term Fuel Trim from its central value. (Term means time. Short Term Fuel Trim makes an immediate correction for O2 sensor bias. Long Term Fuel Trim makes a correction for Short Term Fuel Trim bias). Ripple Test: A test that checks for unwanted A/C. voltage leaking from an alternator rectifier bridge.

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Fig. 1-25. Oscilloscope power balance test control panel.

ECM failure Fuel injector electrical circuit defect Do not forget that on a multiport system, a fuel injector with a bad intake O-ring seal can cause a vacuum leak that has more effect on its own cylinder. So use your favorite vacuum leak detection method and include injector O-ring seals in your search. Exhaust gas leaking into the intake from an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve has an unequal effect on cylinder power loss. The cylinders closest to the EGR are affected most. This effect is more severe at low rpm than at high rpm.

Insight Most problems that affect engine power contribution cause a rise in HC emission. Only those problems that cause a rich condition cause a proportional rise in CO emission. The more effect the problem has on power contribution, the higher the HC emission will be.

Engine Mechanical Condition Tests


A cranking compression test will reveal a cylinder with a sealing problem. Testing dry and then wet with a few squirts of oil will indicate whether you have ring or valve problems. The fastest compression test is an automated relative compression test performed on an engine analyzer. Use a leak down test to locate the cause of a compression leak. A leak of 20 psi or greater during a leak down test is serious. Listen to find where the air is escaping. You will hear it coming from the: Tailpipe when the exhaust valve is leaking Intake if an intake valve is leaking Crankcase if the rings are bad or the piston is damaged Cooling system filler if the block is cracked, the head is cracked, or the head is warped and the head gasket is leaking

Diagnosing Different Configurations


Since there are so many different valvetrain, fuel system, and ignition system configurations, seriously consider system configuration when analyzing test results. To understand this better, look at the following example:

Configuration Inline 4-cylinder engine Distributor ignition Throttle-body fuel injection Power Contribution CYLINDER NUMBER 1 2 3 4 Compression Test Results All cylinders within specification Ignition Scope Check All cylinders appear O.K. The above engines symptoms are: runs rough, has poor idle quality, and HC emission is high. The cylinder power contribution test result shows number 2 does not contribute its share of power because the drop in engine speed is only 30 rpm. The fuel system configuration dictates that it cannot be a fuel Test Results RPM DROP 110 30 115 105

But none of these tests will disclose an engine breathing problem, such as a worn camshaft lobe or a valvetrain problem that prevents the proper amount of air from entering the cylinder. However, a running compression test will uncover this problem and you should perform it when other tests are inconclusive. Carbon deposits on intake valves can be a difficult problem to diagnose. Intake valve deposits can cause an engine to run lean while cruising and accelerating, and rich during deceleration. During lean conditions, NOx emission is high. During rich conditions, CO emission is high. Intake valve deposits can also cause driveability problems such as a rough idle, stumble, hesitation, and loss of power under load. Often, an engine that displays a rough idle problem runs smooth after a fuel-injector cleaning service is performed. Intake valve deposits that were also removed by the fuel-injector service

Configuration: The organization of related components in a specific order. Hesitation: A sudden loss of power or forward motion.

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Fig. 1-27. A borescope can help spot defects even after a tear down.

THROTTLE BODY ASSEMBLY

Fig. 1-26. Use a flexible fiber optic borescope to see where you normally cannot see.

AIR DUCT

could have been the reason performance improved. All that was really needed was a carbon clean solution administered through the intake manifold, by way of a manifold vacuum port. A borescope inspection is one way to know for sure if there are excessive deposits on the intake valves. By inserting it through the intake, you can see the back sides of the valves. Try a borescope inspection to actually see some problems such as intake valve deposits, or to check for a cracked head or block before condemning the head gasket, figure 1-26. A borescope can eliminate some tear down inspections and improve on others, figure 1-27. This can be a real time-saver for you and a great value for the customer.

AIRFLOW SENSOR

Fig. 1-28. Air leaks at the air duct connections or breaks in the air duct would cause a lean condition.

Insight A final thought to remember that will aid your diagnosis: Most mechanical engine problems that cause engine performance symptoms do so by affecting combustion efficiency, which increases HC emission.

Air Intake System Problems


Remember to check for vacuum leaks. Keep in mind that a vacuum leak does not cause a power imbalance but increases engine speed. If the system uses an airflow sensor, any leak, even in an intake air duct, is air that was not measured, figure 128. Whether its an air duct leak or vacuum leak, if too large, the system cannot compensate, resulting in a lean combustion problem. Lean combustion will cause HC and NOx emissions to increase. When the lean combustion problem is severe

enough to cause a misfire, NOx emission will fall and HC emission will increase dramatically. On systems that use a Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensor, a vacuum leak will cause the engine speed to increase. The faster speed of the engine produces more total mass or volume of emissions. However, the emissions remain proportionally the same. HC emission will increase if the vacuum leak causes a power imbalance. Dirty air filters, unless extremely restricted, are usually compensated for by todays modern fuel injection systems. However, air filters must still be changed when needed because they do protect an expensive airflow sensor and engine.

Insight Carbureted vehicles built in the 80s experiencing an air intake problem could cause a power imbalance and an rpm decrease at idle.

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Borescope: A device used to look inside areas of the engine that usually cannot be seen without disassembly. Misfire: Incomplete combustion resulting in increased emissions and the possibility of catalyst damage. Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP): The pressure in the intake manifold referenced to a perfect vacuum. Since manifold vacuum is the difference between manifold absolute pressure and atmospheric pressure, all the vacuum readings in the Composite Vehicle Preparation/Reference Booklet are taken at sea level (where standard atmospheric pressure equals 101 kPa or 0 in. Hg).

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Chapter One: Basic Powertrain Diagnosis Low octane gasoline can cause spark knock or engine ping and increase NOx emission. Refineries control seasonal gasoline volatility. Higher fuel volatility on an unseasonably warm day can increase NOx production. It can also vaporize in the fuel delivery system, causing a leaner fuel mixture. The leaner mixture will cause an increase of HC emission. When the vaporization problem is severe enough, fuel starvation from vapor lock occurs. Lower gasoline volatility in cold weather can cause hard starting and driveability problems during cold engine operation. When in doubt about the fuel, it is best to test it or replace it with fresh fuel of the proper octane.

Idle System Problems


Curb idle is usually controlled by the ECM on most late-model vehicles. However, most have what is called a minimum air rate, minimum throttle angle, or minimum idle speed adjustment. Check the tune-up procedure section of your shop manual for the proper procedure. If the minimum air rate is incorrect, the vehicle may suffer from: Off-idle hesitation Idle load compensation problems Low or high idle speed Rough idle quality Stall on deceleration

If the Throttle Position (TP) sensor is adjustable, adjustment usually accompanies a minimum idle adjustment. Inspect behind the throttle plate for carbon build-up. Look in the throttle bore and the bypass port, figure 1-29. This build-up of carbon will affect the minimum air rate. Check the OEM recommendations before cleaning. Some throttle bores have a special coating that may be removed by cleaner, exposing it to corrosion and carbon build-up. Carbon build-up in the throttle bore or bypass port may cause: Low idle speed Rough idle quality Off-idle hesitation

Fuel System Tests


Visual inspection for fuel leaks is a first step when there is a lean combustion problem, or a fuel odor complaint. In tight places where there is poor visibility, the gas analyzer can help you search for a leak. Watch the HC reading on the analyzer and use the sample probe to sniff out the leak. Do not neglect to perform fuel pressure and volume tests, figure 1-30. Even if access is difficult, they are absolutely necessary for diagnosing both rich and lean mixture problems. Use pressure and volume tests to help diagnose defects of the: Fuel pump Rest or static pressure check valve Fuel pressure regulator Fuel injector

Fuel Quality
Check for fuel quality problems such as water contamination or alcohol content. Too much alcohol not only decreases engine power, it also damages fuel delivery system components. Test kits are available to check for fuel contamination. Stale or old gasoline that has been stored for a long time may cause hard starting. Old gas can also increase HC due to misfires, but seldom prevents starting.

Fuel injectors can fail in many different ways. Most defects affect a pressure drop or volume flow test. Refer to OEM specifications. Some shops try injector cleaning first, replacing injectors only if cleaning does not solve the problem. Be sure to check the OEMs recommendations because cleaning damages some types of injectors. In this case, the only safe alternative is replacement.

THROTTLE BORE BYPASS PORT EGR PASSAGE

Fig. 1-29. Check the throttle bore, throttle plate, and bypass port for carbon build-up.

Fig. 1-30. Fuel system pressure test with pressure gauge.

Check Valve: A valve that permits flow in only one direction. Compensation: To correct for too much or too little of something. Fuel Starvation: The lack of fuel available for efficient combustion. Fuel Volatility: The lower the temperature at which a fuel vaporizes, the higher the volatility. Vapor Lock: When fuel vaporizes in a line or device and blocks the flow of liquid fuel, usually causes engine stall.

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Chapter One: Basic Powertrain Diagnosis An increase of CO emission, caused by the fuel delivery system, is usually one of the following high-pressure problems: Defective pressure regulator Pinched return hose Crushed return line Fuel injector nozzle leak
15 30

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10

20

If the system is allowed to continue with these rich conditions, it may foul the spark plugs, causing a misfire, resulting in increased HC emission. If a high CO emission, rich condition is so severe it causes all available combustion O2 to be used up, HC emission will also increase. An increase of HC and NOx emissions caused by the fuelinjection system is usually due to one of the following low pressure or volume problems: Weak fuel pump Restricted fuel filter Restricted fuel line Pinched fuel delivery hose External fuel leak Dirty fuel injector or poor spray pattern Punctured fuel pressure regulator diaphragm

10

15

30

10

20

If the lean condition is so severe it causes a misfire, NOx emission will decrease and HC emission will increase dramatically.

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Ignition System Problems


First, lets clear up some OBD II ignition terms: EI is an Electronic Ignition system that is a direct ignition system using either two spark plugs per coil, or a direct ignition system with one coil per spark plug. DI is an ignition system that uses a distributor. Unless you have an engine that is a no-start or an obvious ignition wire problem to repair, start by checking the ignition timing first. Regardless of whether it is an EI type, or not, if it has a specification and a procedure available, be sure to check it. Few crank sensors are adjustable and will change initial timing if not adjusted properly. You should verify the timing advance capability of most models. Acceptable type spark testers, like a High Energy Ignition Tester (HEI), are great for a no-start diagnosis. However, it is difficult to say for certain that the spark is adequate, just by watching it jump the gap of a spark tester. Oscilloscope checks of secondary voltage are best for showing a spark plug, spark plug wire, distributor cap, or rotor problem. EI systems give some problems with scope hook-up, but most manufacturers now have methods for connecting, even on EI systems that have no plug wires.

Fig. 1-31. Examples of common ignition secondary problems displayed on an oscilloscope.

Remember, two things will not change: High voltage on the scope means high resistance in the circuit. Low voltage on the scope means low resistance, or short circuit problems, figure 1-31. Any ignition problem that affects combustion increases HC emission.

Insight When any type of misfire occurs, it may cause the O2 sensor to send a low voltage signal to the ECM. The ECM interprets this to mean the system is lean, when in reality it is not. Unless the ECM recognizes this as a fault, the ECM will adjust the

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Diaphragm: A thin flexible wall, separating two cavities, used to turn a change of vacuum or pressure into mechanical movement, such as the diaphragm in a vacuum advance. Electronic Ignition (EI): An ignition system that has coils dedicated to specific spark plugs (one or two spark plugs) and does not use a distributor; often referred to as distributorless ignition. On Board Diagnostics (OBD): A diagnostic program contained in the PCM that monitors computer inputs and outputs for failures. OBD II is an industry-standard, second generation OBD system that monitors emissions control systems for degradation as well as failures. Nozzle: The opening through which a substance flows. Short Circuit: A condition in which a path is provided around the circuit load to another circuit or ground.

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Chapter One: Basic Powertrain Diagnosis pretty strange readings. The problem with an exhaust leak is that it lets air into the exhaust, as well as letting exhaust gas out. The extra air can cause sudden combustion of hot exhaust gas. The extra air also dilutes the exhaust stream, causing unreliable gas analyzer readings. To check for the location of an exhaust leak, have a helper cover the tailpipe outlet to cause backpressure. Listen for a hissing sound, at the site of a leak, along the length of the exhaust system.

injector on time and fuel trim to increase fuel delivery. However, no amount of fuel will lower the amount of oxygen passing the O2 sensor from the misfire. During this time, the system will be rich and CO emission will be higher. If the ECM recognizes the signal is false, it will set a code and remain in open-loop mode. This mode does not necessarily mean the system will be rich because some systems actually default lean.

Exhaust System Problems


Sometimes, a loss of power can be caused by a restricted or clogged exhaust system. A first step to check for a restricted exhaust is a vacuum test. To perform this test, warm the engine and attach a vacuum gauge to the manifold vacuum. Run the engine to at least 1500 rpm. Vacuum should be steady at 17 to 21 inches of mercury (in-hg), depending on engine condition. If the exhaust is restricted severely enough, the vacuum may never reach this value. The vacuum will drop as the exhaust backpressure builds. Be aware, some other engine performance problems can cause the same vacuum test results. These include a loss of fuel pressure or volume, weak spark, or low charging voltage. The next step is exhaust backpressure testing. Use a pounds per square inch (psi) pressure gauge in the O2 sensor threaded mounting hole, figure 1-32, in the EGR backpressure transducer exhaust port hose, an OEM gas analyzer exhaust gas test port (if you are lucky), or an aftermarket exhaust gas backpressure test kit. If you cannot find an OEM specification, use a specification of 3psi maximum backpressure at 1500 rpm. Another option is to disassemble and visually inspect to find the restriction. Exhaust system air leaks can cause a safety problem for passengers. Poisonous emissions from the leak could reach the passenger compartment. Exhaust leaks can cause annoying popping sounds in the exhaust and cause your gas analyzer to give some

Transmission and Final Drive Problems


State emission inspections performed on dynamometers have created another reason for periodic drivetrain inspection and repair. A drivetrain problem can be the cause of an aborted or failed emission test. It is important to realize during your drivetrain inspection that any modification of tire circumference, or final gear ratio, will change the ratio of engine speed to vehicle speed. A simple change of tire size now has an effect on emissions. One example would be certain OEMs ECM strategies for EGR system operation. Some systems monitor a ratio of engine speed to vehicle speed for decisions about opening and SOLENOID OFF
ARMATURE

SPRING

EXHAUST TO SUMP SEAT

TO SHIFT VALVE (PRESSURE LOWER THAN INPUT)


ADAPTER

FROM SOLENOID REGULATOR VALVE

SOLENOID ON

O2 SENSOR

ARMATURE
GAUGE

BALL VALVE (SEATED)

EXHAUST MANIFOLD

FULL PRESSURE TO SHIFT VALVE

FROM SOLENOID REGULATOR VALVE

Fig. 1-32. Using a pressure gauge to test exhaust system backpressure.

Fig. 1-33. Two position solenoids are on/off switches that open and close passages to regulate fluid flow in the transmission.

Drivetrain: A reference that describes the parts from the engine to the drive axle(s). Monitor: To watch, observe, or check something. On time: The time when an actuator is energized, as when a fuel injector is signaled to allow fuel to flow.

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Chapter One: Basic Powertrain Diagnosis modulating the EGR valve. A modification here could cause a state emission test failure. A drivetrain problem can create an unsafe condition that would cause an emissions test to be aborted. Diagnosing drivetrain safety problems requires much the same approach as engine problems. Visual inspection of CV boots, U-joints, or axle vibration dampers requires grasping, pushing, and pulling to check for worn joints. Listen while test driving to see if you hear that telltale clicking noise on turns, indicating a bad CV joint. Some defects can affect emissions by adding or changing engine load conditions. Check levels and condition of fluids. Use pressure tests to help diagnose automatic transmission problems. Perform electrical checks of transmission fluid temperature (TFT), transmission turbine speed (TSS), and the transmission range (TR) switch, as well as engine and vehicle speed (VSS) sensors. Electrically check the torque converter clutch lock-up and shift control solenoids, figure 1-33.

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variable signal. Sample the exhaust gases both at idle and at 2,500 RPM. If a dynamometer is used, test under simulated highway load conditions as described by the manufacturer. Refer to Chapter 6 for additional information.

Abnormal HC and CO Readings


High HC levels indicate unburned fuel in the exhaust caused by incomplete combustion. The source of high HC emissions can often be traced to the ignition system, but mechanical or fuel system problems also can increase HC emissions. High levels of HC emissions result from: Advanced ignition timing Ignition misfire from defective spark plug wires or fouled spark plugs An excessively rich or lean air-fuel mixture Leaking vacuum hoses, vacuum controls, or seals Low engine compression Defective valves, valve guides, valve springs, lifters, camshaft, or incorrect valve lash Defective rings, pistons, or cylinder walls Clogged fuel injectors causing a lean misfire The amount of CO in the exhaust stream is directly proportional to the amount of O2 contributing to the combustion process. Richer air-fuel mixtures, with lower oxygen content, produce higher CO levels; leaner air-fuel mixtures, with higher oxygen content, produce lower CO levels. High CO emissions may result from one or more of the following abnormal conditions: Clogged or dirty intake air passages Plugged air filter element Throttle body coking Rich fuel mixture Incorrect idle speed Excessive fuel pressure Leaking fuel injectors

EXHAUST GAS ANALYZERS


To properly diagnose fuel system concerns an exhaust gas analyzer should be used. The analyzers are available in many styles and designs. Current models are designed to sample and analyze either four or five gasses present in the exhaust from the vehicle. The newest models are designed for five gas detection and normally provide digital and/or printed results of each test. Either piece of equipment is generally suitable for diagnosing basic fuel system abnormalities and driveability problems.

Five-Gas Analyzers
Five-gas analyzers measure the parts per million (ppm) of hydrocarbons (HC), the percentage of carbon monoxide (CO), the percentage of oxygen (O2), the percentage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the percentage of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Most properly tuned computer-controlled vehicles will produce about 50 ppm of HC, less than 0.5 percent CO, 1.0 to 2.0 percent O2 and 13.8 to 15.0 percent CO2.

Four-Gas Analyzers
Four-gas analyzers measure HC, CO, CO2 and O2. They do not provide data as to the levels of NOx in the exhaust.

Both HC and CO levels reading high at the same time may be caused by the following conditions: Defective positive crankcase ventilation system Defective catalytic converter Defective manifold heat control valve Defective air pump Defective thermostatic air cleaner

Diagnosing Exhaust Gasses


For an accurate analysis of fuel combustion on catalytic converter-equipped vehicles, prevent the air injection system from supplying oxygen into the exhaust stream. This decreases the amount of O2 at the tailpipe and the efficiency of the converter. The air injection system may be disabled by several means. On some vehicles, disconnecting the air injection pump or plugging the pulse air injection system is effective. For others, the probe of the analyzer can be connected to a port installed upstream of the catalytic converter or to the exhaust opening for the EGR valve. Next, make sure that the engine is at operating temperature, in closed loop, and the HO2S is transmitting a

Abnormal CO2 and O2 Readings


Since the catalytic converter reduces HC and CO, these emissions are unreliable for determining the air fuel ratio. However, CO2 and O2 readings can be useful, provided that the air injection system has been disabled. When air and fuel entering the engine burns with the least amount of wasted energy, at the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, the engine emits the highest amount of CO2. Look for readings

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Carbon Monoxide: An odorless, colorless, tasteless poisonous gas. A pollutant produced by the internal combustion engine. CV Boot: The flexible cover used to prevent road dirt contamination of a CV joint. Hydrocarbons: Chemical compounds in various combinations of hydrogen and carbon. A major pollutant from an internal combustion engine. Gasoline, itself, is a mixture of hydrocarbons.

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Chapter One: Basic Powertrain Diagnosis hydraulic valve lifters. If test results are below specifications, internal engine repairs are required to restore performance.

between 13.8 and 15 percent. As the air-fuel ratio of the mixture leans or enriches, the CO2 level drops. To determine whether a low CO2 level indicates a lean or rich condition, examine the O2 reading. Levels of O2 below approximately 1.0 percent indicate a rich running engine; above 2.0 percent indicates a lean running engine. To perform adequately and operate efficiently, an engine must be in sound mechanical condition. Therefore it is important to determine the overall mechanical condition of the engine before attempting to isolate or repair the cause of a driveability or performance problem. Perform a compression or cylinder leakage test to determine the internal sealing capabilities of the engine. When test results are marginal and indicate valve seating problems, performance can often be restored by adjusting lash or servicing

Variable Valve Timing


The variable valve timing system advances or retards camshaft timing to increase engine output, improve fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. A hydraulic actuator on the cam drive uses oil pressure to rotate the cams position slightly, increasing valve duration. Cam timing is determined by the engine control module (ECM) using the crankshaft position (CKP) sensor and camshaft position sensor (CMP 1 and CMP 2) signals. Each intake camshaft has a separate camshaft position sensor, hydraulic actuator, and control solenoid. If little or no oil pressure is received by a hydraulic actuator, it is designed to mechanically default to the fully retarded position.

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CHAPTER QUESTIONS
1. Voltage drop in a circuit always equals: a. The resistance of each component b. The current flow through the ground circuit c. The source voltage d. None of the above 2. A diode is designed to: a. Allow current flow in both directions b. Prevent current flow in both directions c. Add extra resistance to control circuits d. Allow current flow in one direction only 3. When diagnosing a starting problem, disabling the ignition and fuel or just the fuel system prevents start up. What else is prevented while performing cranking tests? a. Crankcase oil dilution b. Excessive fuel backwash c. False scan tool readings d. Parasitic drains 4. In a series circuit with three 4 ohm bulbs and 12 volts applied, the total circuit voltage drop will be: a. 12 volts b. 4 volts c. 8 volts d. 1 volt 5. The unit of measure for current flow in a circuit is: a. Amps b. Volts c. Ohms d. Watts 6. The unit of measurement for resistance in a circuit is: a. Volts b. Ohms c. Watts d. Amps 7. A circuit that has one path for current flow is called a: a. Complex circuit b. Series circuit c. Parallel circuit d. Bias circuit 8. The voltage drop across an electrical component depends on the voltage applied and the _______ of the component. a. Size b. Resistance c. Electron d. Weight 9. When performing a no-start diagnosis, if fully charged, a battery should measure: a. 12.3V b. 12.4V c. 12.5V d. 12.6V 10. A long warm-up time may be caused by: a. Low ambient temperature b. Stuck-open thermostat c. No thermostat d. All of the above 11. An engine breathing problem, such as a worn camshaft lobe or valvetrain problem that prevents the proper amount of air entering the cylinder, may be diagnosed by running which test? a. Compression test b. Running compression test c. Engine mechanical test d. Standing rhinostatic test 12. Technician A says that watching a spark jump a gap of a spark tester is adequate to determine whether there is a spark problem. Technician B says its important to run an oscilloscope check of secondary voltage to determine whether the problem exists in a spark plug wire. Who is right? a. A only b. B only c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 13. True of false? When you believe a loss of power is being caused by a restricted or clogged exhaust system, the first step to check for a restricted exhaust system is to perform an exhaust backpressure test. a. True b. False 14. Technician A says a five-gas exhaust gas analyzer is used to measure HC, CO, O2, CO2, and NOx. Technician B says a five-gas analyzer is used to measure HC, CO, O2, CO2, and N2. Who is right? a. A only b. B only c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 15. While diagnosing a starting problem, it is determined that the solenoid clicks but does not spin.Technician A says that a defective solenoid may be causing the problem.Technician B says it might be due to excessive resistance in the starter control circuit. Who is right? a. A only b. B only c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 16. In a series circuit containing three 4 ohm bulbs with 12 volts applied, resistance total is: a. 3 ohms b. 12 ohms c. 4 ohms d. 1 ohm 17. In a series circuit with three 4 ohm bulbs and 12 volts applied, current flow is: a. 1 amp b. 12 amps c. 4 amps d. 8 amps

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CHAPTER TWO

COMPUTERIZED POWERTRAIN CONTROLS DIAGNOSIS INCLUDING OBD II


CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
The technician will complete the ASE task list on Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II. The technician will be able to answer 13 questions dealing with the Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II section of the L1 ASE Test.

This chapter focuses on the operation and diagnosis of computerized powertrain control systems. The industry is placing more emphasis on the technicians ability to diagnose these complex control system defects and failures. If you need additional information on engine control systems refer to the A8 study guide. As with any diagnostic routine once you have verified the customers concern, begin your diagnosis by checking for missing, modified, inoperative, or tampered computerized powertrain control components. If any are found, repair or replace and retest the system before continuing. Most OEMs provide diagnostic information for the computerized powertrain control systems either in the Service Manual or in a separate Diagnostic Manual. Locate the correct diagnostic information for the vehicle being serviced. Keep in mind that it is very important to take into account the following when looking up information: Model year Manufacturer/Make Model Production date VIN Engine size Emissions certification type

airflow-type closed-loop sequential multiport fuel injection system. The Engine Control Module (ECM) receives input from sensors, calculates ignition and fuel requirements, and controls engine actuators to provide the desired driveability, fuel economy, and emissions control, figure 2-1. The ECM also controls the vehicles charging system. The powertrain control system has OBD II-compatible sensors and diagnostic capabilities. The ECM receives power from the battery and ignition switch and provides a regulated 5 volt supply for most of the engine sensors. The engine is equipped with a single exhaust system and a three-way catalytic converter, without any secondary air injection. Engine control features include variable valve timing, electronic throttle actuator control (TAC), a data communications bus, a vehicle anti-theft immobilizer system, and onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) EVAP components. The control system software and OBD II diagnostic procedures stored in the ECM can be updated using factory supplied calibration files and PC-based interface software, along with a reprogramming device or scan tool that connects the PC to the vehicles data link connector (DLC).

Fuel System
Sequential Multiport Fuel Injection (SFI) Returnless Fuel Supply with electric fuel pump mounted inside the fuel tank Fuel pressure is regulated to a constant 50 psi (345 kPa) by a mechanical regulator in the tank. Minimum acceptable fuel pressure is 45 psi (310 kPa). The fuel system should maintain a minimum of 45 psi (310 kPa) for two minutes after the engine is turned off.

Most service and diagnostic procedures begin with a short description of system operation to familiarize you with the designed operating strategies for the system. Make it a habit to always read this information before jumping into the diagnostic routine.

Ignition System
Electronic (Distributorless) Ignition (EI) with six ignition coils (coil-over-plug) Firing order: 1-2-3-4-5-6 Cylinders 1, 3, and 5 are on Bank 1; cylinders 2, 4, and 6 are on Bank 2 Ignition timing is not adjustable Timing is determined by the ECM using the Crankshaft Position (CKP) sensor signal The ignition control module is integrated into the ECM

COMPOSITE VEHICLE TYPE 3 INFORMATION


General Description
This generic four cycle, V6 engine has four overhead chaindriven camshafts, 24 valves, distributorless ignition, and a mass

Sequential Multiport Fuel Injection (SFI): A fuel injection system that uses one electronic fuel injector for each cylinder. The injectors are pulsed in the sequence of each cylinders intake stroke.

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Fig. 2-1. The ASE composite vehicle Type 3 wiring diagram shows ECM sensors, actuators, and related circuits. (Part 1 of 3)

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Fig. 2-1. The ASE composite vehicle Type 3 wiring diagram shows ECM sensors, actuators, and related circuits. (Part 2 of 3)

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Fig. 2-1. The ASE composite vehicle Type 3 wiring diagram shows ECM sensors, actuators, and related circuits. (Part 3 of 3)

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Idle Speed
Non-adjustable closed throttle stop (minimum air rate) Normal no-load idle range is 850 to 900 rpm with an idle air control value of 15% to 25%

Automatic Transmission
Four-speed automatic overdrive transaxle, with shifting controlled by a transmission control module (TCM). The TCM communicates with the ECM and other modules through the data bus.

Overdrive: A condition in which the drive gear rotates slower than the driven gear. Output speed of the driven gear is increased, while output torque is reduced. A gear ratio of 0.70:1 is an overdrive gear ratio. Transaxle: The combination of a transmission and differential gears, used in front wheel drive and rear engine vehicles.

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The TCM provides its own regulated 5 volt supply, performs all OBD II transaxle diagnostic routines, and stores transaxle diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs). The control system software and OBD II diagnostic procedures stored in the TCM can be updated in the same way as the ECM. Failures that result in a pending or confirmed DTC related to any of the following components will cause the TCM to default to fail-safe mode: range switch, shift solenoids, turbine shaft speed sensor, and the vehicle speed sensor. The TCM will also default to fail-safe mode if it is unable to communicate with the ECM. When in fail-safe mode, maximum line pressure will be commanded, the transmission will default to 2nd gear and the torque converter clutch will be disabled.

position will provide a fast idle speed of 1400 to 1500 rpm, with no load and all accessories off. Normal no-load idle range is 850 to 900 rpm at 5% to 10% throttle opening. No idle relearn procedure is required after component replacement or a dead battery.

Data Communications Bus


The serial data bus is a high-speed, non-fault tolerant, two wire twisted pair communications network. It allows peer-to-peer communications between various electronic modules, including the engine control module (ECM), transmission control module (TCM), instrument cluster (including the MIL), immobilizer control module, and a scan tool connected to the data link connector (DLC). The Data-High circuit switches between 2.5 (rest state) and 3.5 volts (active state), and the Data-Low circuit switches between 2.5 (rest state) and 1.5 volts (active state). The data bus has two 120 ohm terminating resistors: one inside the instrument cluster, and another one inside the ECM. Any of the following conditions will cause the data communications bus to fail and result in the storage of network DTCs: either data line shorted to power, to ground, or to the other data line. The data bus will remain operational when one of the two modules containing a terminating resistor is not connected to the network. The data bus will fail when both terminating resistors are not connected to the network. Data communication failures do not prevent the ECM from providing ignition and fuel control.

Variable Valve Timing


Intake camshaft timing is continuously variable using a hydraulic actuator attached to the end of each intake camshaft. Engine oil flow to each hydraulic actuator is controlled by a camshaft position actuator control solenoid. Exhaust camshaft timing is fixed. A single timing chain drives both exhaust camshafts and both intake camshaft hydraulic actuators. While valve overlap is variable, valve lift and duration are fixed. Cam timing is determined by the ECM using the crankshaft position (CKP) sensor and camshaft position sensor (CMP 1 and CMP 2) signals. At idle, the intake camshafts are fully retarded and valve overlap is zero degrees. At higher speeds and loads, the intake camshafts can be advanced up to 40 crankshaft degrees. Each intake camshaft has a separate camshaft position sensor, hydraulic actuator, and control solenoid. If little or no oil pressure is received by a hydraulic actuator (typically at engine startup, at idle speed, or during a fault condition), it is designed to mechanically default to the fully retarded position (zero valve overlap), and is held in that position by a spring-loaded locking pin.

Immobilizer Anti-Theft System


When the ignition switch is turned on, the immobilizer control module sends a challenge signal through the antenna around the ignition switch to the transponder chip in the ignition key. The transponder key responds with an encrypted key code. The immobilizer control module then decodes the key code and compares it to the list of registered keys. When the engine is started, the ECM sends a request to the immobilizer control module over the data bus to verify the key validity. If the key is valid, the immobilizer control module responds with a valid key message to the ECM to continue normal engine operation. If an attempt is made to start the vehicle with an invalid ignition key, the immobilizer control module sends a message over the data bus to the instrument cluster to flash the antitheft indicator lamp. If the ECM does not receive a valid key message from the immobilizer control module within 2 seconds of engine startup, the ECM will disable the fuel injectors to kill the engine. Cycling the key off and cranking the engine again will result in engine restart and stall. The immobilizer control module and ECM each have their own unique internal ID numbers used to encrypt their messages, and are programmed at the factory to recognize each other. If either module is replaced, the scan tool must

Electronic Throttle Control


The vehicle does not have a mechanical throttle cable, a cruise control throttle actuator, or an idle air control (IAC) valve. Throttle opening at all engine speeds and loads is controlled directly by a throttle actuator control (TAC) motor mounted on the throttle body housing. Dual accelerator pedal position (APP) sensors provide input from the vehicle operator, while the actual throttle angle is determined using dual throttle position (TP) sensors. If one APP sensor or one TP sensor fails, the ECM will turn on the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) and limit the maximum throttle opening to 35%. If any two (or more) of the four sensors fail, the ECM will turn on the MIL and disable the electronic throttle control. In case of failure of the electronic throttle control system, the system will default to limp-in operation. In limp-in mode, the spring-loaded throttle plate will return to a default position of 15% throttle opening, and the TAC value on the scan tool will indicate 15%. This default

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be used to program the replacement module, using the VIN, the date, and a factory-assigned PIN number. Up to eight keys can be registered in the immobilizer control module. Each key has its own unique internal key code. If only one valid key is available, or if all keys have been lost, the scan tool can be used to delete lost keys and register new keys. This procedure also requires the VIN, the date, and a factory-assigned PIN number. The ECM, TCM, and the immobilizer control module do not prevent operation of the starter motor for anti-theft purposes.

behind the balancer pulley. Each tooth is ten crankshaft degrees apart, with one space for a missing tooth located 60 degrees before top dead center of cylinder number 1, figure 2-2.

Camshaft Position (CMP 1 and CMP 2) Sensors


A pair of three-wire solid state (Hall-effect or optical-type) sensors that generate a signal once per intake camshaft revolution. The leading edge of the bank 1 CMP signal occurs on the cylinder 1 compression stroke, and the leading edge of the bank 2 CMP signal occurs on the cylinder 4 compression stroke, figure 2-2.When the intake camshafts are fully retarded (zero valve overlap), the signals switch at top dead center of cylinders 1 and 4. When the intake camshafts are fully advanced (maximum valve overlap), the signals switch at 40 crankshaft degrees before top dead center. These signals allow the ECM to determine fuel injector and ignition coil sequence, as well as the actual intake valve timing. Loss of one CMP signal will set a DTC, and valve timing will be held at the fully retarded position (zero valve overlap). If neither CMP signal is detected during cranking, the ECM will store a DTC and disable the fuel injectors, resulting in a no-start condition. Located at the rear of each valve cover, with an interrupter mounted on the intake camshafts to generate the signal.

On-Board Refueling Vapor Recovery (ORVR) EVAP System


The on-board refueling vapor recovery EVAP system causes fuel tank vapors to be directed to the EVAP charcoal canister during refueling, so that HC vapors do not escape into the atmosphere The following components have been added to the traditional EVAP system for QRVR capability: a one inch I.D. fill pipe, a one-way check valve at the bottom of the fill pipe, a fuel vapor control valve inside the fuel tank, and a 12 inch I.D. vent hose from the vapor control valve to the canister. The fuel vapor control valve has a float that rises to seal the vent hose when the fuel tank is full. It also prevents liquid fuel from reaching the canister and blocks fuel from leaking in the event of a vehicle roll-over.

Mass Airflow (MAF) Sensor


Senses airflow into the intake manifold. The sensor reading varies from 0.2 volt (0 gm/sec) at key-on, engine-off, to 4.8 volts (175 gm/sec) at maximum airflow, figure 2-3. At sea level, noload idle (850 rpm), the sensor reading is 0.7 volt (2.0 gm/sec). Located on the air cleaner housing.

SENSORS
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
A magnetic-type sensor that generates 35 pulses for each crankshaft revolution. It is located on the front engine cover, with a 35-tooth iron wheel mounted on the crankshaft just

Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor


Senses intake manifold absolute pressure. The MAP sensor signal is used by the ECM for OBD II diagnostics only. The sensor reading varies from 4.5 volts at 0 in. Hg vacuum I 101 kPa

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Fig. 2-2. CKP and CMP sensor waveforms. Hall-Effect Sensor: A signal-generating switch that develops a transverse voltage across a current-carrying semiconductor when subjected to a magnetic field. Magnetic Type Sensor: Magnetic pulse generator, a signal-generating device that creates a voltage pulse as magnetic flux changes around a pickup coil. Optical Sensor: Uses a light-emitting diode and shutter blade to trigger the switching of a photo-sensitive transistor, sends a square wave signal used for engine rpm and/or piston position.

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Fig. 2-3. MAF signal voltage increases as airflow increases.

Fig. 2-4. MAP sensor signal voltage increases as intake manifold vacuum decreases and manifold absolute pressure increases.

pressure (key on. engine off, at sea level) to 0.5 volts at 24 in. Hg vacuum /20.1 kPa pressure, figure 2-4. At sea level, no-load idle with 18 in. Hg vacuum (40.4 kPa absolute pressure); the sensor reading is 1.5 volts. Located on the intake manifold.

Throttle Position (TP 1 and TP 2) Sensors


A pair of redundant non-adjustable potentiometers that sense throttle position The TP 1 sensor signal varies from 4.5 volts at closed throttle to 0.5 volts at maximum throttle opening (decreasing voltage with increasing throttle position), figure 2-5. The TP 2 sensor signal varies from 0.5 volts at closed throttle to 4.5 volts at maximum throttle opening (increasing voltage with increasing throttle position). Failure

of one TP sensor will set a DTC and the ECM will limit the maximum throttle opening to 35%. Failure of both TP sensors will set a DTC and cause the throttle actuator control to be disabled, and the spring-loaded throttle plate will return to the default 15% position (fast idle). Located on the throttle body.

Engine Coolant (ECT) Sensor


A negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor that senses engine coolant temperature. The sensor values range from -40F to 248F (-40C to 120C). At 212F (100C), the sensor reading is 0.46 volt, figure 2-6. Located in the engine block water jacket.

Fig. 2-5. TPS signal voltage increases as the throttle is opened. Potentiometer: A variable resistor with three terminals. Signal voltage comes from a terminal attached to a movable contact that passes over the resistor.

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Fig. 2-6. ECT, IAT, and TFT sensors signal voltage decreases as temperature increases.

Accelerator Pedal Position (APP 1 and APP 2) Sensors


A pair of redundant non-adjustable potentiometers that sense accelerator pedal position. The APP 1 sensor signal varies from 0.5 volts at the released pedal position to 3.5 volts at maximum pedal depression (increasing voltage with increasing pedal position), figure 2-7. The APP 2 sensor signal varies from 1.5 volts at the released pedal position to 4.5 volts at maximum pedal depression (increasing voltage with increasing pedal position, offset from the APP 1 sensor signal by 1.0 volt). The ECM interprets an accelerator pedal position of 80% or greater as a request for wide open throttle. Failure of one APP sensor will set a DTC and the ECM will limit the maximum throttle opening to 35%. Failure of both APP sensors will set a DTC and cause the throttle actuator control to be disabled, and the springloaded throttle plate will return to the default 15% position (fast idle). Located on the accelerator pedal assembly.

when the valve is fully opened, figure 2-8. Located on top of the EGR valve.

Knock Sensor
A two-wire piezoelectric sensor that generates an AC voltage spike when engine vibrations within a specified frequency range are present, indicating spark knock. The signal is used by the ECM to retard ignition timing when spark knock is detected. The sensor signal circuit normally measures 2.5 volts DC with the sensor connected. Located in the engine block.

Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor


A negative temperature coefficient (NTC) sensor that senses air temperature. The sensor values range from -40F to 248F (-40C to 120C). At 86F (30C), the sensor reading is 2.6 volts, figure 2-6. Located in the air cleaner housing.

Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS)


A magnetic-type sensor mat senses rotation of the final drive and generates a signal that increases in frequency as vehicle speed increases. The TCM uses the VSS signal to control upshifts, downshifts, and the torque converter clutch. The

EGR Valve Position Sensor


A three-wire non-adjustable potentiometer that senses the position of the EGR valve pintle. The sensor reading varies from 0.50 volts when the valve is fully closed to 4.50 volts

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Fig. 2-7. APP sensors signal voltage increases as the accelerator pedal is depressed. Downshift: To shift into a lower gear ratio. Frequency: A measurement in Hertz (cycles per second) of how often something occurs in a specific amount of time. Upshift: To shift into a higher gear ratio.

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Fig. 2-8. EGR valve position sensor signal voltage increases as sensor is opened.

TCM communicates the VSS signal over the data communications bus to the ECM to control high-speed fuel cutoff, and to the Instrument Cluster for speedometer operation The signal is displayed on the scan tool in miles per hour and kilometers per hour. Located on the transaxle housing.

Heated Oxygen Sensors (HO2S 11, HO2S 21 and HO2S 12)


Electrically heated zirconia sensors that measure oxygen content in the exhaust stream. Sensor 11 is located on the Bank 1 exhaust manifold (cylinders 1, 3, and 5). Sensor 21 is located on the Bank 2 exhaust manifold (cylinders 2, 4, and 6). Both up-

stream sensor signals are used for closed loop fuel control and OBD II monitoring. Sensor 12 is mounted in the exhaust pipe after the catalytic converter (downstream). See figure 2-9 to view the relative locations of upstream and downstream HO2S sensors. The HO2S sensor signal is used for OBD II monitoring of catalytic converter operation. The sensor outputs vary from 0.0 to 1.0 volt. When a sensor reading is less than 0.45 volt, oxygen content around the sensor is high; when a sensor reading is more than 0.45 volt, oxygen content around the sensor is low. No bias voltage is applied to the sensor signal circuit by the ECM. With the key on and engine off, the sensor readings are zero volts. Battery voltage is continuously supplied to the oxygen sensor heaters whenever the ignition switch is on.

Fig. 2-9. ASE Composite Type 3 vehicle. (Part 1 of 2).

Fig. 2-9. ASE Composite Type 3 vehicle. (Part 2 of 2).

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Power Steering Pressure (PSP) Switch


A switch that closes when high pressure is detected in the power steering system. The signal is used by the ECM to adjust idle airflow to compensate for the added engine load from the power steering pump. Located on the P/S high pressure hose.

the sensor reading is 3.5 volts. Used by the ECM when testing the evaporative emission (EVAP) system. Located in the fuel tank.

Fuel Tank (EVAP) Pressure Sensor


Senses vapor pressure or vacuum in the evaporative emission (EVAP) system compared to atmospheric pressure, figure 2-11. The sensor reading varies from 0.5 volt at 1/2 psi (14 in. H2O) vacuum to 4.5 volts at 1/2 psi (14 in. H20) pressure. With no pressure or vacuum in the fuel tank (gas cap removed), the sensor output is 2.5 volts. Used by the ECM for OBD II evaporative emission system diagnostics only. Located on top of the fuel tank.

Brake Pedal Position (BPP) Switch


A switch that closes when the brake pedal is depressed (brakes applied). The signal is used by the ECM to release the torque converter clutch. Located on the brake pedal.

A/C On/Off Request Switch


A switch that is closed by the vehicle operator to request A/C compressor operation. Located in the climate control unit on the instrument panel.

Transmission Fluid Temperature (TFT) Sensor


A negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor that senses transmission fluid temperature. The sensor values range from -40F to 248F (-40C to 120C). At 212F (100C), the sensor reading is 0.46 volts. This signal is used by the TCM to delay shifting when the fluid is cold, and control torque converter clutch operation when the fluid is hot. Located in the transaxle oil pan.

A/C Pressure Sensor


A three-wire solid-state sensor for A/C system high-side pressure, figure 2-10. The sensor reading varies from 0.25 volt at 25 psi to 4.50 volts at 450 psi. The signal is used by the ECM to control the A/C compressor clutch and radiator fan, and to adjust idle air flow to compensate for the added engine load from the A/C compressor. The ECM will also interrupt compressor operation if the pressure is below 40 psi or above 420 psi. Located on the A/C high side vapor line.

Transmission Turbine Shaft Speed (TSS) Sensor


A magnetic-type sensor that senses rotation of the torque converter turbine shaft (input/mainshaft) and generates a signal that increases in frequency as transmission input speed increases. Used by the ECM to control torque converter clutch operation and sense transmission slippage. Located on the transaxle housing.

Fuel Level Sensor


A potentiometer that is used to determine the fuel level. The reading varies from 0.5 volt/0% with an empty tank to 4.5 volts/100% with a full tank. When the fuel tank is 14 full, the sensor reading is 1.5 volts. When the fuel tank is 34 full,

Fig. 2-10. A/C pressure sensor signal voltage increases as high-side pressure increases.

L1

Fig. 2-11. Fuel Tank (EVAP) pressure sensor signal voltage increases as pressure increases. A/C Compressor Clutch: An electromagnetic device that engages the otherwise freewheeling A/C pulley. Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure caused by the weight of the earths atmosphere. At sea level, this pressure is 14.7 psi (101 kPa).

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Chapter Two: Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II causes the actuator to retard the camshaft position. When the ECM determines that the desired camshaft position has been achieved, the duty cycle is commanded to 50% to hold the actuator so that the adjusted camshaft position is maintained. The solenoid winding resistance spec is 12 2 ohms.

Transmission Range (TR) Switch


A six-position switch that indicates the position of the transaxle manual select lever: Park/Neutral, Reverse, Manual Low (1), Second (2), Drive (3), or Overdrive (OD). Used by the PCM to control transmission line pressure, upshifting, and downshifting. Located on the transaxle housing.

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Valve


A duty cyclecontrolled solenoid that, when energized, lifts the spring-loaded EGR valve pintle to open the valve. A value of 0% indicates an ECM command to fully close the EGR valve, and a value of 100% indicates an ECM command to fully open the EGR valve The solenoid is enabled when the engine coolant temperature reaches 150F (66C) and the throttle is not closed or wide open. The solenoid winding resistance spec is 12 2 ohms.

ACTUATORS
All coils, injectors, solenoids, and relays receive a constant battery positive voltage feed from the ignition switch and are controlled by the ECM providing a ground connection.

Fuel Pump Relay


When energized, this relay supplies battery voltage (B+) to the fuel pump. The relay coil resistance spec is 48 6 ohms.

Fan Control (FC) Relay


When energized, this relay provides battery voltage (B+) to the radiator/condenser fan motor. The ECM will turn the fan on when engine coolant temperature reaches 210F (99C) and off when coolant temperature drops to 195F (90). The fan also runs whenever the A/C compressor clutch is engaged. The relay coil resistance spec is 48 6 ohms.

Fuel Injectors
Electro-mechanical devices used to deliver fuel to the intake manifold at each cylinder. Each injector is individually energized once per camshaft revolution timed to its cylinders intake stroke. The injector winding spec is 12 2 ohms.

Ignition Coils
These six coils, mounted above the spark plugs, generate a high voltage to create a spark at each cylinder individually. Timing and dwell are controlled by the ECM directly, without the use of a separate ignition module. The coil primary resistance spec is 1 .5 ohms. The coil secondary resistance spec is 10K 2K.

A/C Clutch Relay


When energized, this relay provides battery voltage (B+) to the A/C compressor clutch coil. The relay coil resistance spec is 48 ohms.

Throttle Actuator Control (TAC) Motor


A bidirectional pulse-width modulated DC motor that controls the position of the throttle plate. A scan tool data value of 0% indicates an ECM command to fully close the throttle plate, and a value of 100% indicates an ECM command to fully open the throttle plate (wide open throttle). Any throttle control actuator motor circuit fault will set a DTC and cause the throttle actuator control to be disabled, and the spring-loaded throttle plate will return to the default 15% position (fast idle). When disabled, the TAC value on the scan tool will indicate 15%.

Generator Field
The ECM supplies this variable-duty cycle signal to ground the field winding of the generator (alternator), without the use of a separate voltage regulator. Increasing the duty cycle results in a higher field current and greater generator (alternator) output.

Evaporator Emission (EVAP) Canister Purge


A duty cycle-controlled solenoid that regulates the flow of vapors stored in the canister to the intake manifold. The solenoid is enabled when the engine coolant temperature reaches 150F (66C) and the throttle is not closed. A duty cycle of 0% blocks vapor flow, and a duty cycle of 100% allows maximum vapor flow. The duty cycle is determined by the ECM, based on engine speed and load. The solenoid is also used for OBD II testing of the evaporative emission (EVAP) system. The solenoid winding resistance spec is 48 6 ohms. There is also a service port with a Schrader valve and cap installed on the hose between the purge solenoid and the canister.

Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)


The MIL is part of the instrument cluster and receives commands from the ECM and TCM over the data communications bus. If the instrument cluster fails to communicate with the ECM and TCM, the MIL is continuously lit by default. Under normal conditions, when the ignition switch is turned on the lamp remains lit for 15 seconds for a bulb check. Afterward, the MIL will light only for emissions related concerns. Whenever an engine misfire severe enough to damage the catalytic converter is detected, the MIL will flash on and off.

Evaporative Emission (EVAP) Canister Vent Solenoid


When energized, the fresh air supply hose to the canister is blocked. The solenoid is energized only for OBD II testing of the evaporative emission (EVAP) system. The solenoid winding resistance spec is 48 6 ohms.

Camshaft Position Actuator Control Solenoids


A pair of duty cyclecontrolled solenoid valves that increase or decrease timing advance of the intake camshafts by controlling engine oil flow to the camshaft position actuators. When the duty cycle is greater than 50%, the oil flow from the solenoid causes the actuator to advance the camshaft position. When the duty cycle is less than 50%, the oil flow from the solenoid

Torque Converter Clutch (TCC) Solenoid Valve


A duty cyclecontrolled solenoid valve that applies the torque converter clutch by redirecting hydraulic pressure in the

Duty Cycle: Describes the time of a complete cycle of action, including both the on (energized) and off (deenergized) time of a solenoid.

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Chapter Two: Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II transaxle. With a duty cycle of 0%, the TCC is released. When torque converter clutch application is desired, the pulse width is increased until the clutch is fully applied. The solenoid will then maintain a 100% duty cycle until clutch disengagement is commanded. Then the pulse width is decreased back to 0%. If the brake pedal position switch closes, the duty cycle is cut to 0% immediately. The solenoid is enabled when the engine coolant temperature reaches 150F (66C), the brake switch is open, the transmission is in 3rd or 4th gear, and the vehicle is at cruise (steady throttle) above 40 mph. In addition, whenever the transmission fluid temperature is 248F (120C) or more, the ECM will command TCC lockup. The solenoid winding resistance is 48 6 ohms.

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Clear Flood Mode


When the throttle is wide open (throttle opening of 80% or greater) and the engine speed is below 400 rpm, the ECM turns off the fuel injectors.

Run Mode: Open and Closed Loop


Open Loop When the engine is first started and running above 400 rpm, the system operates in open loop. In open loop, the ECM does not use the oxygen sensor signal. Instead, it calculates the fuel injector pulse width from the throttle position sensor, the coolant and intake air temperature sensors, the MAF sensor, and the CKP sensor. The system will stay in open loop until all of these conditions are met:
Both upstream heated oxygen sensors are sending varying signals to the ECM The engine coolant temperature is above 150F (66C) Ten seconds has elapsed since startup Throttle position is less than 80%

Transmission Pressure Control (PC) Solenoid


This pulse width modulated solenoid controls fluid in the transmission valve body that is routed to the pressure regulator valve. By varying the duty cycle of the solenoid, the ECM can vary the line pressure of the transmission to control shift feel and slippage. When the duty cycle is minimum (10%), the line pressure will be maximized. When the duty cycle is maximum (90%) the line pressure will be minimized. The solenoid winding resistance spec is 6 1 ohms.

Transmission Shift Solenoids (SS1 and SS2)


These solenoids control fluid in the transmission valve body that is routed to the 1-2, 2-3, and 3-4 shift valves. By energizing or de-energizing the solenoids, the ECM can enable a gear change, figure 2-12. The solenoid winding resistance is 12 4 ohms.

SFI SYSTEM OPERATION AND COMPONENT FUNCTIONS


Starting Mode
When the ignition switch is turned on, the ECM energizes the fuel pump relay for 2 seconds, allowing the fuel pump to build up pressure in the fuel system. Unless the engine is cranked within this two-second period, the fuel pump relay is de-energized to turn off the pump. The fuel pump relay will remain energized as long as the engine speed (CKP) signal to the ECM is 100 rpm or more.

Closed Loop When the oxygen sensor, engine coolant temperature sensor, and time conditions are met, and the throttle opening is less than 80%, the system goes into closed loop. Closed loop means that the ECM adjusts the fuel injector pulse widths for Bank 1 and Bank 2 based on the varying voltage signals from the upstream oxygen sensors. An oxygen sensor signal below 0.45 volt causes the ECM to increase injector pulse width. When the oxygen sensor signal rises above 0.45 volt in response to the richer mixture, the ECM reduces injector pulse width. This feedback trims the fuel control program that is based on the other sensor signals.

Acceleration Enrichment Mode


During acceleration, the ECM uses the increase in mass airflow and the rate of change in throttle position to calculate increased fuel injector pulse width. During wide open throttle operation, the control system goes into open loop mode.

Deceleration Enleanment Mode


During deceleration, the ECM uses the decrease in mass airflow, the vehicle speed value, and the rate of change in throttle position to calculate decreased fuel injector pulse width.

Fuel Cut-Off Mode


The ECM will turn off the fuel injectors, for safety reasons, when the vehicle speed reaches 110 mph, or if the engine speed exceeds 6000 rpm.

OBD II SYSTEM OPERATION


Comprehensive Component Monitor
The OBD II diagnostic system continuously monitors all engine and transmission sensors and actuators for shorts, opens, and out-of-range values, as well as values that do not logically fit with other powertrain data (rationality).

L1

Fig. 2-12. This chart shows transmission solenoid applications for the complete vehicle.

Comprehensive: Inclusive or complete. Freeze Frame: Operating conditions that are stored in the memory of the PCM at the instant a diagnostic trouble code is set. (The current stored PCM data of what was sensed and what commands were being given at the instant in time the most current trouble was set).

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Chapter Two: Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II ENGINE THERMOSTAT This monitor confirms that the engine warms up fully within a reasonable amount of time. If the coolant temperature remains too low for too long, a DTC is set. OXYGEN SENSORS This monitor checks the maximum and minimum output voltage, as well as switching and response times for all oxygen sensors. If an oxygen sensor signal remains too low or too high or switches too slowly or not at all, a DTC is set. OXYGEN SENSOR HEATERS This monitor checks the time from cold start until the oxygen sensors begin to operate. If the time is too long, a DTC is set. Battery voltage is continuously supplied to the oxygen sensor heaters whenever the ignition switch is on.

On the first trip during which the comprehensive component monitor detects a failure that will result in emissions exceeding a predetermined level, the ECM will store a DTC, illuminate the MIL, and store a freeze frame.

System Monitors
The OBD II diagnostic system also actively tests some systems for proper operation while the vehicle is being driven; fuel control and engine misfire are checked continuously. Oxygen sensor response, oxygen sensor heater operation, catalyst efficiency, EGR operation, EVAP integrity, variable valve timing, and thermostat operation are tested once or more per trip. When any of the System Monitors detects a failure that will result in emissions exceeding a predetermined level on two consecutive trips, the ECM will store a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) and illuminate the malfunction indicator lamp (MIL). Freeze frame data captured during the first of the two consecutive failures are also stored. FUEL CONTROL This monitor will set a DTC if the system fails to enter Closed Loop mode within 5 minutes of startup, or the Long Term Fuel Trim is excessively high or low anytime after the engine is warmed up, indicating the loss of fuel control. This is always the case when the Long Term Fuel Trim reaches its limit (30% or -30%). ENGINE MISFIRE This monitor uses the CKP sensor signal to continuously detect engine misfires both severe and non-severe. If the misfire is severe enough to cause catalytic converter damage, the MIL will blink as long as the severe misfire is detected. CATALYTIC CONVERTER This monitor compares the signals of the two upstream heated oxygen sensors to the signal from the downstream heated oxygen to determine the ability of the catalyst to store free oxygen. If the converters oxygen storage capacity is sufficiently degraded, a DTC is set. EGR SYSTEM This monitor uses the MAP sensor signal to detect changes in intake manifold pressure as the EGR valve is commanded to open and close. If the pressure changes too little or too much, a DTC is set. EVAP SYSTEM This monitor first turns on the EVAP vent solenoid to block the fresh air supply to the EVAP canister. Next, the EVAP purge solenoid is turned on to draw a slight vacuum on the entire EVAP system, including the fuel tank. Then the EVAP purge solenoid is turned off to seal the system. The monitor uses the fuel tank (EVAP) pressure sensor signal to determine if the EVAP system has any leaks. If the vacuum decays too rapidly, a DTC is set. In order to run this monitor, the engine must be cold (below 86F/30C) and the fuel level must be between 14 and 34 full. VARIABLE VALVE TIMING This monitor compares the desired valve timing with the actual timing indicated by the CMP sensors. If the timing is in error, or takes too long to reach the desired value, a DTC is set.

Monitor Readiness Status


The monitor readiness status indicates whether or not a particular OBD II diagnostic monitor has been run since the last time that DTCs were cleared from ECM and TCM memory. If the monitor has not yet run, the status will display on the Scan Tool as Not Complete. If the monitor has been run, the status will display on the scan tool as Complete. This does not mean that no faults were found, only that the diagnostic monitor has been run. Whenever DTCs are cleared from memory or the battery is disconnected, all monitor readiness status indicators are reset to Not Complete. Monitor readiness status indicators are not needed for the Comprehensive Component, Fuel Control, and Engine Misfire monitors because they run continuously. The readiness status of the following system monitors can be read on the scan tool: Oxygen Sensors Oxygen Sensor Heaters Catalytic Converter EGR System EVAP System Variable Valve Timing Engine Thermostat

Warm-Up Cycle
Warm-up cycles are used by the ECM for automatic clearing of DTCs and Freeze Frame data. To complete one warm up cycle, the engine coolant temperature must rise at least 40F (22C) and reach a minimum of 160F (71C).

Trip
A trip is a key-on cycle in which all enable criteria for a particular diagnostic monitor are met and the diagnostic monitor is run. The trip is completed when the ignition switch is turned off.

Drive Cycle
Most OBD II diagnostic monitors will run at some time during normal operation of the vehicle. However, to satisfy all of the different trip enable criteria and run all of the OBD II diagnostic monitors, the vehicle must be driven under a variety of conditions. The following drive cycle will meet the enable criteria to allow all monitors to run on the composite vehicle.

Decay: To decline or decrease gradually in activity, strength, or performance. Degraded: Worn down, performing at less than usual standards.

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Chapter Two: Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II 1. Ensure that the fuel tank is between 14 and 34 full 2. Start cold (below 86F/30C) and warm up until engine temperature is at least 160F (71C) one minute minimum 3. Accelerate to 4055 mph at 25% throttle and maintain speed for five minutes 4. Decelerate without using the brake (coast down) to 20 mph or less, then stop the vehicle. Allow the engine to idle for 10 seconds, turn the key off, and wait one minute 5. Restart and accelerate to 4050 mph at 25% throttle and maintain speed for two minutes 6. Decelerate without using the brake (coast down) to 20 mph or less, then stop the vehicle. Allow the engine to idle for 10 seconds, turn the key off, and wait one minute

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OBD II SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS


OBD II General Description
On-board Diagnostics Second Generation (OBD II) is a government-mandated system designed to monitor fuel system performance, engine misfire, and emission systems operation during normal vehicle operation. The system includes industry-wide standardization intended to improve the diagnostic process by allowing all technicians (dealership and aftermarket) equal access to on-board computer information using a Generic Scan Tool (GST). Important features common to all OBD II vehicles include: A common Data Link Connector (DLC) Access to on-board vehicle information using a GST Standardized Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) MIL operation Standardized terminology for fuel, ignition, and emission systems components Expanded emissions related on-board testing (readiness tests and system monitors) New emission related diagnostic procedures Performance feedback from selected actuators (bi-directional actuator control)

Freeze Frame Data


A Freeze Frame is a miniature snapshot (one frame of data) that is automatically stored in the ECM/TCM memory when an emissions-related DTC is first stored. If a DTC for fuel control or engine misfire is stored at a later time, the newest data are stored and the earlier data are lost. All parameter ID (PID) values listed under Scan Tool Data are stored in freeze frame data. The ECM/TCM stores only one single freeze frame record.

Storing and Clearing DTCs & Freeze Frame Data, Turning the MIL On & Off
ONE TRIP MONITORS: A failure on the first trip of a one trip emissions diagnostic monitor causes the ECM to immediately store a DTC and freeze frame, and turn on the MIL. All comprehensive component monitor faults require only one trip. TWO TRIP MONITORS: A failure on the first trip of a two trip emissions diagnostic monitor causes the ECM to store a temporary DTC. If the failure does not recur on the next trip, the temporary DTC is cleared from memory. If the failure does recur on the next trip, the ECM will store a DTC and freeze frame, and turn on the MIL. All the system monitors are two trip monitors. Engine misfire that is severe enough to damage the catalytic converter is a two trip monitor, with the additional condition that the MIL will blink while the severe misfire is occurring. AUTOMATIC CLEARING: If the vehicle completes three consecutive good trips (three consecutive trips in which the monitor that set the DTC is run and passes), the MIL will be turned off, but the DTC and freeze frame will remain stored in ECM memory. If the vehicle completes 40 warm-up cycles without the same fault recurring, the DTC and freeze frame are automatically cleared from the ECM memory. MANUAL CLEARING: Any stored DTCs and Freeze Frame data can be erased using the scan tool, and the MIL (if lit) will be turned off. Although it is not the recommended method, DTCs and Freeze Frame data will also be cleared if the ECM power supply of the battery is disconnected.

Data Link Connector (DLC)


OBD II standards establish guidelines for the DLC. It is a 16pin connector, figure 2-14, used to access on-board computer information through a GST. The DLC must be located in a standard position, in plain view under the drivers side dash, and be easily accessed by the technician. Between 1994 and 1996, locations varied slightly because manufacturers were allowed a grace period to make production changes.

Generic Scan Tool (GST)


The GST connects to the 16 pin DLC connector and relays specific OBD II information used in enhanced diagnosis. The technician can also use the GST to activate selected actuators when performing a system diagnosis. Although manufactured by numerous companies, the GST has the following features that are required by OBD II regulation: Record and display the OBD II alphanumeric, five digit DTCs Display the status of on-board computer readiness tests Record and display freeze frame data Display sensor and actuator information when requested by technician Clear DTCs and freeze frame data from vehicle computer memory

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Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs)


DTCs identify faults in ECM system sensors and circuits or indicate individual system conditions. An OBD II DTC is a fivecharacter, alphanumeric fault identifier, figure 2-15. Since a letter is included in every DTC, the only way to retrieve codes is with a scan tool. The first character of an OBD II DTC is a letter. Composite vehicle questions in the L1 test will refer to

Scan Tool Data


Figure 2-13 shows the different types of information that can be displayed on the OBD II scan tool.

Snapshot: A technician-recorded scan tool record or movie of PCM data during an event, so that the data can be played back.

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Fig. 2-13. The above data can be accessed by the technician using the OBD II scan tool and the Data Link Connector (DLC).

3 - Ignition system or misfire faults 4 - Auxiliary emission controls 5 - Vehicle speed control and idle control system 6 - Computer output circuit faults 7 - Transmission 8 - Transmission

Fig. 2-14. The Data Link Connector (DLC) has the same shape and pin designations for all OBD II vehicles.

powertrain codes, designated by a capital P. Powertrain codes tell the technician there is a problem in the fuel, air metering, ignition, or an emission control system. Refer to figure 2-15 for an explanation of other letter codes. The second character is a number that indicates if the code is common to all OBD II vehicles (0) or specific to one vehicle manufacturer (1). Remember, only emissions related, P0 codes will activate the MIL. The third character is a number used by all manufacturers to identify which system has a fault. This designation will be the same for P0 (OBD II) or P1 (manufacturers) codes. Following is the established numbering system: 1 - Air/Fuel metering system input faults 2 - Air/Fuel metering output faults

The fourth and fifth characters indicate the actual problem associated with the code, (e.g., signal voltage low, system always lean, etc.) The intent of OBD II code designation is to help the technician identify the system at fault, then pinpoint the actual problem or specific circuit causing the fault. Once a problem is identified by code, the technician must use appropriate service manuals to complete the diagnosis and repair.

MIL Operation
The most significant difference to remember when using the MIL to begin diagnosis on an OBD II vehicle is that there are no soft codes. If the MIL is on, a DTC and freeze frame data are recorded in computer memory and there is definitely a problem. The OBD I practice of clearing codes and driving the vehicle to see if codes reset must not be used on OBD II vehicles. All system monitor codes and many comprehensive component monitor codes require specific driving conditions before they will test a system or set a DTC. A quick trip around the block to confirm repairs often will not set a DTC, so the

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Fig. 2-15. OBD II DTCs use a standard format to help all technicians interpret problems more easily.

technician has no way of knowing if the problem still exists. It is best to clear DTCs only when instructed to do so by the manufacturers diagnostic procedure, because freeze frame data and readiness test status are also erased when DTCs are cleared. Instead, use the stored freeze frame data to see what driving conditions were present when the code was set. Look for unusual readings from other sensors that may give a clue to the cause of the problem. Try to develop a total picture of vehicle operating conditions at the time the DTC was recorded. The same information is useful to help simulate driving conditions on a test drive as you verify the symptoms. Remember, the MIL will be activated only for failures that cause excessive emissions. Problems in related systems or components may be recorded in ECM memory as OBD II (P0) or manufacturer-designated (P1) DTCs. All powertrain codes should be reviewed and investigated as part of the diagnostic process for driveabilty complaints.

cycle, the readiness status will be NO. If there is an electrical problem or component failure in a monitored system, the monitor will not run. A DTC may be recorded that points to the electrical or component failure, but the system cannot be tested by the monitor, so the readiness status will be NO. A readiness status of NO for any of the five monitored systems, catalyst, EGR, EVAP, Oxygen sensors, and Oxygen sensor heaters, does not mean a failed monitor, only that the monitor has not been completed. At the same time, a YES status does not mean the system passed the monitor, only that the test was completed. In both cases, you must check for codes to investigate further.

Fuel Control Monitor


The fuel control monitor is designed to constantly check the ability of the ECM to control the air/fuel ratio. On the composite vehicle, the ECM program that fine tunes the air/fuel ratio is called Fuel Trim. It is divided into a short term program and a long term program. Both trim programs are presented as diagnostic data when a freeze frame is recorded. Separate short term and long term data are displayed for cylinder bank 1 and cylinder bank 2. The oxygen sensor (HO2S) drives the fuel trim program anytime the vehicle is in closed loop. The starting point for fuel trim is 0% correction, figure 2-16. When the ECM sees a lean (low voltage) signal from an upstream HO2S, the fuel trim program adds fuel to compensate for the detected leaness. The short term fuel trim display on the scan tool will move to the positive (+) side of 0% to indicate more fuel is being added. When the ECM sees a rich (high voltage) signal from the HO2S, the fuel trim program subtracts fuel to lean the mixture. The scan tool will display a percentage on the negative (-) side of 0%. If short term fuel trim is necessary in one direction (rich or lean correction) for a period of time, the ECM will command a correction of long term fuel trim. When A/F control is out of acceptable range for too long a time, a DTC will set. On the composite vehicle, if long term fuel trim reaches +30% (lean correction) or -30% (rich correction) on two

Comprehensive Component Monitors


Comprehensive component monitors are most like the OBD I monitoring system that watches engine and transmission sensor inputs and actuator outputs for shorts, opens, and out-of-range values. OBD II computer (ECM) programs are enhanced to include identification of sensor values that dont logically fit with other powertrain data. For instance, if the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) is reporting wide-open throttle (4.5 volts on the composite vehicle), but other sensors are reporting idle speed values, the ECM will set a DTC for the TPS. Remember, comprehensive component monitors are one trip monitors. The ECM will activate the MIL and store DTC and freeze frame data the first time an emissions-related fault is detected. If a misfire or fuel control problem is detected after the original DTC was recorded, freeze frame date for the misfire or fuel control code will replace the original data.

L1

Readiness Status and System Monitors


You will recall that the monitor readiness status tells the technician if a particular diagnostic monitor (test) has been completed since the last time DTCs were cleared from memory. There are two important concepts to understand when viewing monitor readiness status: First, the vehicle must be driven under specific conditions for some monitors to run, and second, the emissions system being monitored must be operational. If battery power is disconnected and the vehicle isnt driven through an entire drive

Fig. 2-16. On the composite vehicle, fuel trim corrections are displayed on the scan tool as percentage of correction.

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Chapter Two: Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II compression, ignition, or fuel, crankshaft speed is affected. The ECM is programmed to notice the intermittent change in CKP pulses, figure 2-17. Camshaft position is used to identify which cylinder misfired. Because outside factors such as electrical interference and rough roads can mimic a misfire, most ECM programs keep track of how many times a cylinder misfires in a given number of engine rotations. The ECM activates the MIL when misfire reaches a predetermined percentage of rpm. Remember, misfire monitoring, like fuel trim monitoring, is a two trip monitor. The MIL will glow steadily once a misfire is detected. If misfiring becomes severe enough to damage the catalytic converter, the MIL will blink continuously until the misfire becomes less severe.

consecutive trips, the ECM will activate the MIL and record a DTC and freeze frame data. Long term fuel trim represents correction to fuel delivery over time. If the oxygen sensor voltage is fluctuating, but is mainly below 450 mV, indicating a lean A/F ratio, long term fuel trim will increase and the ECM will command longer injector pulse width. If oxygen sensor voltage is fluctuating, but remains mostly above 450 mV, indicating a rich mixture, long term fuel trim will decrease and the ECM will command shorter injection pulse width to adjust fuel delivery. Short term fuel trim is useful when confirming fuel control. Observe short term fuel trim on the scan tool while adding propane through the intake system. The additional fuel will cause a rich mixture. If the fuel system is in closed loop, short term fuel trim will move in a negative direction as the fuel trim program shortens fuel injector pulse width in response to a higher HO2S voltage signal. Driving the system lean by pulling a vacuum line will cause short term fuel trim to increase injector pulse width. The scan tool display will move in a positive direction. During diagnosis, be sure to look at both short and long term fuel trim. A problem that has existed for some time will cause long term fuel trim to record high or low. Once the problem is repaired, long term fuel trim will not change for a while, but short term fuel trim will begin immediately to move in the opposite direction. A restricted fuel filter, for instance, will cause a lean mixture. Long term fuel trim will eventually show a positive percentage (more fuel) as the system compensates for the lean mixture. Once the fuel filter is replaced, the A/F ratio is suddenly too rich. Comparing short and long term fuel trim immediately after the filter is replaced will reveal opposite readings: a negative percentage reading in short term fuel trim because the ECM is attempting to return the A/F ratio to normal by subtracting fuel, and a positive percentage reading in long term fuel trim because the long term program still remembers the lean correction and is waiting to see what happens.

Catalytic Converter Monitor


As mentioned earlier, the catalytic converter monitor checks converter efficiency by comparing upstream HO2S signals with the downstream HO2S signal. In normal operation the upstream HO2S signals will switch frequently between 200 mV and 900 mV and the downstream HO2S signal will show very little fluctuation and a voltage that tends to stay above the 450 mV threshold, figure 2-18. As catalyst performance begins to degrade, less oxygen is used in the converter and so less ends up in the exhaust, causing voltage fluctuations and a lower voltage bias, figure 2-19. When the downstream HO2S voltage signal begins to fluctuate within about 70% of the upstream HO2S signal on two consecutive trips, the ECM will record freeze frame data, set a DTC, and actuate the MIL.

EVAP Monitor
A vehicle will fail the EVAP monitor if the ECM, using information from the fuel tank pressure sensor, sees vacuum decrease too quickly after the EVAP vent and EVAP purge solenoids have been closed. Keep in mind that simple problems like a loose, damaged, or missing gas cap will cause this code to set. Be careful when making quick repairs. For example, after replacing a damaged gas cap on a vehicle brought in for a lit MIL, you may be tempted to clear the DTC and return the car

Misfire Monitor
Engine misfire monitoring uses the CKP signal as the primary sensor. When a misfire occurs, whether due to engine

Fig. 2-17. The ECM is programmed to notice the sudden change in CKP sensor pulses.

Intermittent: Occurring infrequently, not often, or rarely. Threshold: The upper limit of or beginning of something.

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Some technicians use a sensor simulator to simulate a cold start so the monitor will run. A scan tool can be used to check EVAP system integrity, even with a full tank of gas. Refer to figure 2-9 to trace the following test procedure on the composite vehicle. First, idle the engine. Then, using a scan tool, close the EVAP vent solenoid and open the EVAP purge solenoid. Intake manifold vacuum will draw a vacuum in the EVAP system. Now close the EVAP purge solenoid to trap vacuum in the system. Observe the fuel tank pressure sensor reading on the scan tool. The composite vehicle will show 0.5 volt at 12 psi vacuum. If the system is leaking, voltage will climb toward 2.5 volts as pressure increases. As always, test and repair procedures must be followed exactly. Some test procedures, the IM 240 for example, specify testing EVAP system integrity with pressure instead of vacuum.

Diagnostic Strategy
Fig. 2-18. When the catalyst is working efficiently, most oxygen is used for oxidation and reduction, so post converter voltage fluctuations are minimal.

Fig. 2-19. As catalyst performance becomes less efficient, less oxygen is used and voltage fluctuations from the post converter begin to increase.

to the customer after a short road test. However, the EVAP monitor wont run if the engine is warm (above 86F) or if the fuel level is not between 14 and 34 full. If the EVAP system has other problems and the EVAP monitor doesnt run during the road test, the MIL will come on after you return the vehicle to the customer.

The most valuable aspect of diagnosis with a scan tool is the ability to compare data from many sensors and actuators. However, scan tool data should not be used alone. Vehicle symptoms, driving conditions, and an understanding of operational principles are also important diagnostic tools. Todays vehicles require todays technicians to be aware of the ways traditional technology blends with newer, more complex system-based technologies. Vehicles manufactured before the 1970s controlled fuel and ignition timing through vacuum and mechanical weights and springs. Exhaust emissions were not seriously considered until the early 1970s. Modern vehicles use computerized controls to control fuel and ignition timing precisely. The tradeoff, however, for this technological advancement is that todays drivetrain problems can result in repeated and multiple component failures that require a system-based approach. For example, a late-model vehicle has the following symptoms: hard starting when cold, an engine miss, and a failed emission test. The initial diagnosis finds a fouled spark plug. Replacing the spark plug and retesting emissions results in a passing report and a smoothly running engine. While this approach addresses the immediate symptom, it does not deal with the underlying cause of the fouled spark plug. The result? The customer returns the next day with the same symptoms. Only then does the technician examine further to determine that a faulty injector is leaking when the engine is turned off. This leak floods a cylinder. The flooded cylinder causes its associated spark plug to fail. This would also drain the fuel rail, causing extended cranking on a cold start. This example clearly illustrates that a systems-based approach to the diagnostic process is vital to help eliminate multiple and repeated component failures that result in dissatisfied customers. When approaching any diagnostic problem, take the time to define vehicle symptoms. How is the vehicle running? Does it have rich symptoms like poor gas mileage or a failed emissions test? Does it surge or idle rough? Is it hard to start? Next, do a thorough inspection for obvious problems such as

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Scan Tool Data: Information from the computer that is displayed on the scan tool, including data stream, DTCs, freeze frame, and system monitor readiness status.

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Chapter Two: Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II Review freeze frame data to identify all sensors and actuators that are out of range. Many times a sensor will be out of range and not set a DTC, especially when the out-of-range sensor is responding to an unusual condition. Try to determine if the suspect sensor is reporting an unusual vehicle condition or sending a signal that doesnt match the actual symptoms or other sensor data. When you have gathered all necessary informationvehicle symptoms, driving conditions, DTCs, and sensor/actuator datause your knowledge and experience to pick out the most probable cause of the symptom. Always refer to appropriate service manuals for proper test procedures when testing sensors, actuators, and related circuits.

vacuum leaks and damaged electrical connections. Dont forget to consider the basics such as low fuel pressure, incorrect ignition timing, low or uneven engine compression, and fuel quality. If possible, a review of recent vehicle service may yield valuable diagnostic clues. For recent vehicle service information, check dealership resources and communicate with the vehicle owner. Connect the scan tool and retrieve stored DTCs and freeze frame data. Record your findings, then check the service manual to learn the specific conditions that cause the DTC. Take the time to thoroughly understand what caused the DTC. Check the readiness status of system monitors. If the readiness status is NO for all monitors, review recent service history; the battery may have been changed or the vehicle may have been in another shop where DTCs were erased. The vehicle must be driven through the complete drive cycle to ensure all monitors run. If readiness status is NO for only one or two sensors, check sensors, actuators, and related circuitry for problems that would prevent the monitor from running. Again, the vehicle may have to complete an entire drive cycle to provide the time and conditions to run the remaining monitors. When there is more than one DTC in memory, diagnose and correct component-related DTCs before diagnosing system failure DTCs. A sensor or actuator problem may prevent a monitor from running or cause a system to fail the monitor. Once a component failure is repaired, drive the vehicle through the specified drive cycle to be sure the system is fully repaired. For example, when discovering a code P0125, excessive time to enter closed loop, and a code P0155, HO2S/1, Bank 2 Heater Malfunction, the best procedure is to diagnose and repair the HO2S/1 heater malfunction first, even though its DTC is a higher number. Next, clear codes and drive the vehicle as directed in the service manual. In this example, it is probable that the failed oxygen sensor heater caused the system to be slow entering closed loop. Misfire and fuel control DTCs are considered priority codes and should always be diagnosed first. When using the drive cycle to confirm repairs, review freeze frame data for the driving conditions present at the time the DTC was recorded. It is especially important when confirming misfire and fuel control repairs to closely match the engine rpm, calculated load, and engine temperature values recorded in the freeze frame. How close is close? Before the PCM will deactivate the MIL for misfire and fuel control codes, engine speed must be within 375 rpm of the engine speed when the code was set, and the calculated load value must be within 10% of the load present when the code was set. Be aware that some manufacturers may direct you to drive a portion of the drive cycle to confirm a particular repair. Drive cycles vary between manufacturers and must always be followed exactly. Freeze frame and scan tool data must be analyzed with care. Use service manuals to learn the normal parameters for each sensor and actuator.

Insight The following section will present some examples of ECM inputs and explain how unusual readings might affect vehicle operation. Tips for testing various components are also included.

Battery Voltage
The ECM uses battery voltage as an input for the computercontrolled charging system. A low voltage signal may cause the ECM to increase both idle speed and alternator field current to generate higher alternator output. When idle speed is above specification and fuel system control based on HO2S and fuel trim data appears normal, check battery voltage, generator, and idle air control (IAC) data. If battery voltage is low and generator field and IAC percentages are higher than normal, test the battery and charging system for defects. Also, check accessory load sensors for false signals. A power steering pressure switch that sticks closed, for example, will cause the ECM to raise idle speed.

Brake Pedal Position (BPP) Switch


The BPP switch is used on the composite vehicle as an input to control the torque converter clutch. On some systems, however, the BPP switch is also part of the ABS (anti lock brake) system. Many of these vehicles use information from the ABS wheel speed sensors as an input for the misfire monitor. When traveling over rough roads, tire slip and driveline torque affect the smooth rotation of the crankshaft, simulating engine misfire. At the same time, wheel speed sensors send erratic signals to the ECM. When the ECM sees the erratic signals, it suspends the misfire monitor. If the BPP switch fails to close or open as expected, the ECM disables ABS braking and ignores wheel speed data. The misfire monitor is again suspended because the ECM has incomplete information.

Idle Air Control (IAC) Valve


The IAC valve regulates idle speed by controlling the amount of air that bypasses the throttle plate. Lower than-normal IAC percentage means the ECM is trying to reduce idle speed; higher percentage means the ECM is trying to increase idle speed. For example, a vacuum leak will cause idle speed to increase. The ECM will command a lower percentage opening from the IAC

Priority Codes: Codes that are more important than, and take precedence over, others.

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Chapter Two: Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II to compensate. An EGR that doesnt fully close at idle will reduce idle speed and quality. The ECM will command a larger IAC opening, in an attempt to maintain specified idle speed. A quick way to test IAC performance is to view IAC percentage on the scan tool while increasing engine load at idle. If the IAC percentage increases when the A/C is turned on (or the steering wheel is turned) and the idle speed remains steady, the system is working normally. If the IAC doesnt respond or idle speed decreases with increased load, physically check the IAC valve for damage or passages clogged with carbon.

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Intake Air Temperature (IAT) Sensor


The IAT sensor measures the temperature of air in the intake system. IAT data are used as the air density input for air/fuel ratio calculations. In the composite vehicle, the IAT sensor has the same temperature/voltage signal relationship as the Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) and Transmission Fluid Temperature (TFT) sensors. To confirm IAT sensor accuracy, measure air temperature near the sensor and compare with the temperature reading on the scan tool. After turning off the engine and waiting for 10 minutes with the hood down, the measured temperature should be within 5F of the IAT temperature on the scan tool. Compare IAT with ECT temperature readings after turning off the engine and waiting for 1520 minutes. The two readings should be almost identical. When the vehicle is cold, before being started in the morning, IAT signal voltage should be the same as voltage signals from the ECT and TFT sensors.

RPM and there is a low power complaint, suspect a restricted air filter. If there are lean symptoms, suspect air leaks between the MAF sensor and the throttle plate usually caused by cracked air ducts. When the complaint is hesitation on acceleration, check that cracks in the air ducting arent opening as the engine torques on the motor mounts. When faced with a no-start problem, unplug the MAF sensor. If the vehicle starts, check the electrical circuit for a shorted 5-volt reference wire. Some systems will shut down ignition and fuel injection if the 5-volt reference is lost. Unplugging the sensor restores the signal. Also, check for a lean system. Some vehicles will default to a rich mixture when the MAF signal is lost. The vehicle will start because added fuel compensates for the lean problem.

No Start Diagnosis
To run, an engine requires four things: air, fuel, compression and ignition, all at the right time. Perform the following tests to find what the problem is: Observe the engines cranking speed; if it is too slow check the battery and starting system. Check fuel pressure and volume Verify the electrical signal to the injector with a 12V test light, depending on the OEMs recommendation Use a properly gapped spark tester to check for spark Check compression by performing a cranking vacuum or compression test Check the ignition timing Verify camshaft drive integrity and valve timing

Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor


The MAP sensor is used on the composite vehicle to monitor EGR operation. It senses changes in manifold pressure as the EGR valve opens and closes. Typical MAP sensor problems like a cracked vacuum hose or a poor electrical connection will lead to EGR trouble codes. It is important to remember that manifold pressure can be described two ways, as pressure or vacuum. When the EGR valve opens, the intake manifold fills more quickly. Intake manifold vacuum drops toward 0 in. Hg, but manifold absolute pressure rises toward 100 kPa. Pay attention to your scan tool displays and read all MAP sensor questions carefully.

Hard Start Diagnosis


A variety of sensor or physical conditions may result in a hard start condition without setting a diagnostic trouble code (DTC). In order to determine if any of these conditions exist, perform the following actions: Inspect for an engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor that has shifted in value. Inspect the mass air flow (MAF) sensor for proper installation. Inspect the camshaft position (CMP) sensor for proper mounting and/or a bad connection. An extended crank occurs if the engine control module (ECM) does not receive a CMP signal. Verify proper operation of the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor. Inspect the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system for proper sealing/connections and operation.

Mass Airflow (MAF) Sensor


The MAF sensor measures the volume of air flowing into the intake manifold. The voltage values of the composite vehicle sensor range from 0.2 volt with no flow (0 gm/sec) to 4.8 volts at maximum air flow (175 gm/sec). The sensor is located in the air intake system before the throttle plate, usually near the air cleaner. When diagnosing driveability problems, observe MAF and RPM on the scan tool as the engine is accelerated. MAF signal voltage (or gm/sec value) will increase at about the same rate as engine RPM. Dont forget, the ECM is capable of computing a default MAF value based on engine speed and throttle position signals. The only sure way to check the MAF signal is to verify the signal at the sensor, not on the scan tool. If the MAF signal increases more slowly than engine

Engine Misfire Diagnosis


Inspect the engine control module (ECM) grounds for being clean, tight, and in the proper locations. Inspect the heated oxygen sensors (HO2S). The HO2S should respond quickly to different throttle positions. If they do not, inspect the HO2S for silicon or other contaminants from fuel or the use of improper RTV sealant.

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Default Value: A value used in place of another value known to be unreliable.

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Chapter Two: Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II The sensors may have a white, powdery coating and result in a high but false signal voltage rich exhaust indication. The ECM will then reduce the amount of fuel delivered to the engine, causing a severe driveability problem. Inspect the air intake ducts for being collapsed, damaged, loose, improperly installed, or leaking, especially between the mass air flow (MAF) sensor and the throttle body. Test the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system for proper operation. Inspect for proper operation of the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor. Inspect for an engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor that has shifted in value. Inspect the MAF sensor and intake air system for proper operation. Inspect the air intake system and crankcase for air leaks. Inspect the crankcase ventilation valve for proper operation. Inspect for an inaccurate speedometer.

Engine Surges Diagnosis


Engine power variation under steady throttle or cruise. Feels like the vehicle speeds up and slows down with no change in the accelerator pedal position. Inspect the engine control module (ECM) grounds for being clean, tight, and in the proper locations. Inspect the heated oxygen sensors (HO2S). The HO2S should respond quickly to different throttle positions. If it does not, inspect the HO2S for silicon or other contaminants from fuel or the use of improper RTV sealant. The sensors may have a white, powdery coating and result in a high but false signal voltage rich exhaust indication. The ECM will then reduce the amount of fuel delivered to the engine, causing a severe driveability problem. Inspect the mass air flow (MAF) sensor for any contamination on the sensing element. Inspect the air intake ducts for being collapsed, damaged, loose, improperly installed, or leaking, especially between the MAF sensor and the throttle body. Test the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system for proper operation. Inspect for proper operation of the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor. Inspect for an engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor that has shifted in value.

Engine Hesitation Diagnosis


Momentary lack of response as the accelerator is pushed down. Can occur at any vehicle speed. Usually more pronounced when first trying to make the vehicle move, as from a stop. May cause the engine to stall if severe enough. Inspect the engine control module (ECM) grounds for being clean, tight, and in the proper locations. Inspect the heated oxygen sensors (HO2S). The HO2S should respond quickly to different throttle positions. If they do not, inspect the HO2S for silicon or other contaminants from fuel or the use of improper RTV sealant. The sensors may have a white, powdery coating and result in a high but false signal voltage rich exhaust indication. The PCM will then reduce the amount of fuel delivered to the engine, causing a severe driveability problem. Inspect the air intake ducts for being collapsed, damaged, loose, improperly installed, or leaking, especially between the mass air flow (MAF) sensor and the throttle body. Test the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system for proper operation. Inspect for proper operation of the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor. Inspect for an engine coolant temperature (ECT) sensor that has shifted in value. Inspect the MAF sensor and intake air system for proper operation.

Rough, Unstable, or Incorrect and Stalling Diagnosis


Engine runs unevenly at idle. If severe, the engine or vehicle may shake. Engine idle speed may vary in RPM. Either condition may be severe enough to stall the engine. Inspect the engine control module (ECM) grounds for being clean, tight, and in the proper locations. Remove and inspect the air filter element for dirt or for restrictions. Inspect the air intake ducts for being collapsed, damaged areas, looseness, improper installation, or leaking, especially between the MAF sensor and the throttle body. Inspect the Transaxle Range Switch input with the vehicle in drive and the gear selector in drive or overdrive.

Poor Fuel Economy Diagnosis


Fuel economy, as measured by an actual road test, is noticeably lower than expected. Also, fuel economy is noticeably lower than the economy was on this vehicle at one time, as previously shown by an actual road test. Inspect the engine control module (ECM) grounds for being clean, tight, and in the proper locations. Discuss driving habits with the owner. Is the A/C on or the defroster mode on full time? Are the tires at the correct pressure? Are the wheels and tires the correct size? Are there excessively heavy loads being carried? Is the acceleration rate too much, too often? Remove the air filter element and inspect for dirt or for restrictions.

Circuit Testing Using Serial Data


Using serial data to test ECM circuits can be of great value during driveability diagnosis; however, there are some items to remember. The data that are being read on the scan tool could actually be a default value that the ECM substitutes to compensate for possible circuit failures. Also, serial data transmitted by the ECM to the scan tool is an interpretation of what the ECM thinks it is seeing. The true readings may be different. You can confirm actual signal values by testing the circuit live with a DVOM, breakout box, or lab scope, depending on what you need to test. False data stream values may be caused by an internal ECM fault or an ECM ground circuit problem. The

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Chapter Two: Computerized Powertrain Controls Diagnosis Including OBD II following are examples of using serial data to test and diagnosis driveability and intermittent problems: Thermistors: disconnect or short across thermistor circuit to check the maximum range of the sensor. For example, disconnect the ECT to create an open circuit. Temperature reading should drop to -40F (-40C). Install a jumper wire across the connector to create a short circuit. Temperature should go to a maximum reading, about 266F (130C) Create the opposite circuit problem to see if a DTC sets. For example, a P0117 code in memory tells you an ECT sensor circuit voltage went low, indicating a short. To create an open circuit, disconnect the ECT sensor and see if the ECM sets a P0118 (circuit high). If it does, then the circuit and ECM are operational and the problem is probably in the sensor Intermittent problem testing: Wiggle, tap, heat up, or cool down a component or circuit to see if the serial data for that circuit changes Testing the effect of one circuit on another by manipulating the input signal. Manipulate the signal by disconnecting circuits or substituting values. Here are some examples: IAT, ECT, TP sensor, MAP, MAF, and HO2S signals effect on injector pulse width. ECT, ACT, TP sensor signals effect on Idle speed control. IAT, ECT, TP, MAP, and MAF signals effect on ignition timing control. ECT, TP sensor, and EVP signals effect on EGR control ECT and TP sensor signals effect on canister Purge VSS, TP sensor, ECT, and MAP signals effect on torque convert clutch operation.

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Fig. 2-20. Checking voltage to a throttle position sensor.

Circuit Testing Operations


While scan tools are an important part of any diagnosis, once you locate a problem you must use either a DVOM or lab scope to accurately check a circuit. The following section covers circuit testing procedures and guidelines for using the proper test equipment.

severe driveability problems. One example of this may be a car that idles too high because the ECM monitors the battery voltage. If the supply voltage is low the ECM may raise the idle speed so the charging system could charge what the ECM thinks is a low battery. To check resistance, make sure that the circuit to be tested is not under power. Place the leads across the circuit or component to be tested, figure 2-21. To read ohms, place the

Voltage
When using a DVOM to check voltage in and out of sensors, always check the voltage using the signal ground return at the sensor, rather than using an engine or battery ground, figure 2-20. Sensors are grounded directly through the ECM, rather than being connected directly to a chassis ground. This way sensors avoid noise interference. Sensors need a clean ground for reliable operation. An open signal ground return will cause the ECM to see a high voltage on the sensor signal line. An example would be a TP sensor that always sends a wide open throttle (high voltage) signal to the ECM.

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Resistance
Ohms law says that even very low resistance in an automotive computer circuit will cause sensors and actuators to work improperly because of low voltage. For example, an on-board ECM ignition feed circuit drawing 365 milliamps with a resistance in the ignition feed wire of 2.5 ohms will cause a voltage supply drop of 1.5 volts. This voltage drop will cause

Fig. 2-21. When checking resistance, the part must not be under power or you will probably destroy your meter.

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meter on auto-ranging or start at the higher scales and work down.

Voltage Drop
Checking voltage drop is one of the most important tests that a technician can perform on a circuit. A voltage drop test measures the difference in electrical pressure between two points in a live circuit. Voltage drops can cause major driveability symptoms in on-board computer systems. A voltage drop on a ECM power ground can cause sensor voltage references to be higher than normal, throwing off the overall sensor calibration of the entire engine control system, figure 2-22. Another example of a driveability symptom might be a car with an idle speed that continuously hunts. To start diagnosis, you connect the scan tool to check trouble codes and the idle smooths out. This is usually caused by a poor ground. To check voltage drop, the circuit must be powered up and have current flowing. The circuit also must have the maximum amount of current flowing under normal conditions by which the circuit was designed. Although there is no exact amount voltage drop that is considered acceptable, you should remember that low current circuits that draw milliamps will be affected by very small voltage drops. A good rule of thumb would be a drop of 0.2 volt or less. However, even this is too much for some circuits. A power ground circuit should have a voltage drop of no more than 0.1 volt. A computer ground circuit should have a voltage drop of no more than 0.05 volt.

Fig. 2-23. Checking amperage draw through a solenoid driver circuit.

Amperage
Too much amperage flow through a ECM actuator driver circuit can partially damage that circuit and cause severe driveability problems. Most ECM actuator components carry milliamps through their circuits. Using a ohmmeter and calculating amperage draw from resistance and voltage readings is not always accurate because the device under test does not carry the actual load it was designed to carry. Most actuator devices carry about 180 ma (12.6 volts at 70 ohms) to 500 ma (12.6 volts at 25 ohms), but there are always exceptions to the rule. Fuel injectors may carry much more amperage through their circuit (as much as 8 amps depending on the type of injector).

To check amperage draw, the circuit must be powered up and have current flowing. Set your meter for amperage draw and connect it in series between the solenoid negative terminal and ground, or the actual driver circuit if you can energize it, figure 2-23. Start by checking amps first, then move down to milliamp scale. Leave the circuit energized for 1 to 2 minutes to check draw. Remember, this test is for solenoids such as Canister Purge, EGR, and Air Management only. Do not check fuel injectors in this manner. Holding an injector on for any length of time destroys it.

AC Ripple
On-board automotive computers do not like to see AC ripples pass through the internal components. This effect can cause logic problems as well as many other types of driveability problems. For example, a bad alternator with a dropped diode can severely affect an automotive computer system. To check for AC ripple voltage, switch your DVOM to AC and connect the black lead to a good ground and the red lead to the BAT, or power, terminal on the back of the alternator (not the battery), figure 2-24. A good alternator should measure less than 0.5 volts AC with the engine running and the headlights on. A higher reading indicates damaged alternator diodes.

Frequency
Frequency is the number of times a signal repeats itself in one second. Frequency is measured in hertz. A signal that repeats itself 10 times a second is operating at a frequency of 10 hertz. Many automotive computer systems read the frequency of a signal instead of the voltage. Ford MAP sensors and AC Delco Mass Airflow Sensors are examples of sensors that produce this type of signal.

Fig. 2-22. Checking voltage drop at the ECM ground connection.

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Fig. 2-24. Checking for voltage ripple from an AC generator.

For example, a Ford EEC-IV MAP sensor has a 5 volt reference voltage applied to it. At a duty cycle of 50 percent (half of the time on and half of the time off), the DVOM will average the reading so you would see 2.5 volts. However, the number of times the signal switches on and off in one second will change depending on manifold vacuum. To accurately diagnose these signals, you must have a meter that can read frequency, figure 2-25.

Fig. 2-26. Checking the duty cycle of a canister purge solenoid.

Duty Cycle
Duty cycle is the percentage of time a digital signal is high verses low. When measuring duty cycle, one complete cycle is

considered 100 percent. For a 5 volt signal at a 50 percent duty cycle, the voltage would read 2.5 volts. For automotive applications, when dealing with digital waves, and especially with ECM outputs, we are concerned with the amount of time the signal is low, rather then high. This is because the low time is when the driving transistor is on, completing the circuit to ground. You can measure duty cycle with a DVOM that has a duty cycle setting. Attach the red lead to the signal wire and the black lead to a good engine ground, figure 2-26.

IMMOBILIZER ANTI-THEFT SYSTEM DIAGNOSIS


The following are possible causes for Immobilizer Anti-Theft System failures: The ignition key is not registered with the immobilizer unit Poor communication between the immobilizer antenna and ignition key caused by low battery voltage or interference from a metal key chain Immobilizer unit failure ECM failure Ignition key failure Incorrect ignition key used Poor communication between the ECM and immobilizer unit caused by low battery voltage or noise interference Open or short in wiring harness Blown fuse

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Fig. 2-25. Checking the frequency of a MAP sensor.

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CHAPTER QUESTIONS
1. True or false? The type 3 composite vehicle has a four cycle, V6 engine with four overhead chain-driven camshafts, 24 valves, distributorless ignition, and a speed density type closed loop sequential multiport fuel injection system. a. True b. False 2. Which of the following statements is NOT true? The ECM on the composite vehicle: a. Controls the vehicles charging system. b. Receives power from the battery and ignition switch and provides a regulated 5 volt supply for most of the engine sensors. c. Controls the shifting of the composite vehicles four speed automatic overdrive transmission. d. Receives input from sensors, calculates ignition and fuel requirements, and controls engine actuators to provide the desired driveability, fuel economy, and emissions control. 3. Which of the following sensor signals is NOT used during open loop engine operation? a. MAF sensor b. O2 sensor c. CKP sensor d. TPS 4. True or false? OBD II is a governmentmandated system designed to monitor fuel system performance, engine misfire, and emission systems during normal vehicle operation. It includes industry-wide standardization intended to improve the diagnostic process by allowing all technicians equal access to on-board computer information using a GST. a. True b. False 5. On U.S designed vehicles built after 1996, where would you find the DLC? a. In plain view under the passengers side dash b. In plain view under the exact center of the dash c. In plain view under the drivers side of the dash d. Location varies, depending on manufacturer and/or model. 6. Technician A is diagnosing an OBD II vehicle and is about to clear the DTCs and take the vehicle for a short drive to see if the DTCs reset. Technician B says that a quick trip around the block may not set a DTC so it may not be possible to confirm whether a problem has actually been corrected. Who is right? a. A only b. B only c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 7. True or false? Since a scan tool has the ability to compare data from many sensors and actuators, its data, used alone, provide sufficient diagnostic information to diagnose all problems. a. True b. False 8. Technician A says when viewing monitor readiness, the vehicle must be driven under certain specific conditions for some monitors to run. Technician B says the emissions system being monitored must be operational. Who is right? a. A only b. B only c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 9. The engine misfire monitor uses the signal of which of the following primary sensors? a. ECT b. IAT c. CKP d. MAP 10. Which of the following DTCs are considered priority codes and should be diagnosed first? a. Auxiliary emission controls b. Misfire and fuel control c. Transmission d. Vehicle speed control 11. True or false? The MAP sensor is used on the composite vehicle to monitor EGR operation. a. True b. False 12. When using a DVOM to check voltage in and out of a sensor: Technician A says to always use an engine or battery ground. Technician B says to always use the ground return at the sensor. Who is right? a. A only b. B only c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 13. A computer ground circuit should have a voltage drop of no more than: a. 0.1 volt b. 1.0 volt c. 0.5 volt d. 0.05 volt