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Preface Students of language have a problem with language structure to learn the theories of language.

They get some problem and difficulties to understand well what the meaning of word is. Students are expected to understand well what they have read by learning english morphology. If they have understood the content of book, they would easier to practise what they have learned. Morphology as the study forms of words consists of morphemes which can be added by affixes and some can stand alone as a word. Students often confuse about the different meaning of word with or without affixes. In this paper, readers will learn about morphology that very needed to understand the word meaning, so they can understand well the content of a book. This paper can help a learner to learn English structure generally. of its improvement. !e would like to thank to our lectures, especially to "ra. Siti Sundari. M as the lecturer of English Morphology. In particular, we are grateful to our #aculty at $ember %niversity. !e hope this paper is useful for the readers. t last the writers look forward to hearing your comments on this paper for the sake

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Table of Contents
Page Preface 1 Table of Contents .. CHAPTER ONE 1.1 The Formulation of the Problem .. 1.2 The Ob!ecti"es of the #tu$% 1. The &imitation of the Problem .. 1.' The #ignificance of the #tu$% ..... CHAPTER T(O 2.1 &iterature Re"ie)................................................... ' 2.1.1 .1 *or+heme base$ mor+holog%. .... ' CHAPTER THREE ,iscussion ........................................ .1.1 .1.2 ,efinition ...... T%+es of mor+hemes ........ 2

CHAPTER FO.R '.1 Conclusion ... '.2 #uggestion REFERENCE# APPEN,/0E# .


(.( The #ormulation of the )roblem a. !hat is the definition of morpheme * b. !hat are the types of English morphemes * (.& a. b. (., The ob+ective of the Study !e have to know the definition of morpheme. !e have to understand types of English morphemes. The -imitation of the )roblem !e ask the definition and types of Morphemes. (.. The Significance of the Study -earning morpheme is one of the ways to know about word structure. In this paper we can learn more about it.


2.1.1 ,efinition of 2rammatical *or+hemes
The literature review begins with definitions and explanations of terms related to this study, such as grammatical morpheme, English as a Second -anguage, English as a #oreign -anguage and Interlanguage. I will then provide a summary of previous first and second language grammatical morpheme ac/uisition order studies, as well as criticisms of the studies and more current related research. morpheme is the smallest unit of language that conveys a meaning or that has a 0ole in grammatical structure 12ook, (33,4. It can be an affix or it can exist as an freestanding word. n inflectional grammatical morpheme is added to the word for purely grammatical reasons, rather than lexical reasons, such as to display verb tenses or noun plurals. Eight inflectional grammatical morphemes exist in the English language, all of which are suffixes5 third person singular present tense 16s4, past tense 16ed4, present progressive tense 16ing4, past participle 16en4, plural 16s4, possessive 167s4, comparative 16er4, superlative 16est4. The bulk of the research done on grammatical morpheme ac/uisition orders has involved mostly English as Second -anguage 1ES-4 learners in the %nited States. 0elatively few studies have included English as #oreign -anguage 1E#-4 learners 1Makino, (38'9 -ightbown, (38,9 Ekiert, &''.4. The difference between the two lies in the cultural environment of the learner. If a student is learning in a .

country where English, !agner is spoken as a first language, then he is considered to be learning English as a Second -anguage. If a student is learning in his own country where English is not spoken as anative language, then he is considered to be learning English as a #oreign -anguage 1:. ;rown, &'''4. ES- learners have many more opportunities to use English outside of the classroom and they are exposed to the language in everyday activities. E#learners are limited in their exposure to the language, and they rarely use English outside of the classroom. ;ecause of this distinction between the two learning styles and the lack of research on E#- learners in the current literature, this study will examine the ac/uisition order of grammatical morphemes of E#- students in #rance. Interlanguage Selinker 1(3<&4 defines 7Interlanguage= as neither the first language 1-(4 nor second language 1-&4 of a language learner, but rather the third, intermediate language that a second language learner constructs. It is not merely a combination of the -( and -&, but a separate and dynamic language system between -( and -& in the learner>s mind. This interlanguage continually changes as the learner progresses in the -&, and it is affected by both the -( and -&. The extent to which -( affects the ac/uisition of -& is described in terms of positive and negative transfer. If a grammatical feature is functionally similar in the -( and -&, such as 6s suffix for plural nouns, then the learner is more likely to transfer the rule from -( to -&. This is considered a positive transfer. If grammatical features are different between the -( and -&, the learner is more likely to negatively transfer the rule. !agner and more errors will be made. These two types of transfer are called 7interference= in language ac/uisition. #urther studies on error analysis concluded that -( transfer could not account for all errors in second language production. Errors do occur in a systematic way, but they cannot be predicted alone with -( transfer. This provides further support for an interlanguage that is separate from, yet somewhere between, the -( and -&. #or example, overgenerali?ation of a rule, such as applying the regular past tense 6ed to irregular verbs, is a common error in first language ac/uisition as well as in second language ac/uisition of English. Therefore, the error is not solely based on

a learner>s -(. "ue to the limited exposure to English, interlanguage interference should occur more often with students in #rance in this study than with students in the %nited States in previous studies.

2.1.2 *or+heme3base$ mor+holog%

In morpheme6based morphology, word forms are analy?ed as

arrangements of morphemes.

morpheme is defined as the minimal meaningful

unit of a language. In a word like independently, we say that the morphemes are in-, depend, -ent, and ly9 depend is the root and the other morphemes are, in this case, derivational affixes.A@B In a word like frogs we say that frog is the root, and that -s is an inflectional morpheme. In its simplest 1and most naCve4 form, this way of analy?ing word forms treats words as if they were made of morphemes put after each other like beads on a string, is called Item6and6 rrangement. More modern and sophisticated approaches seek to maintain the idea of the morpheme while accommodating non6con tentative, analogical, and other processes that have proven problematic for Item6and6 rrangement theories and similar approaches. Morpheme6based morphology comes in two flavors, one ;loomfieldian and one :ockettian. #or ;loomfield, the morpheme was the minimal form with meaning, but it was not meaning itself. #or :ockett, morphemes are meaning elements, not form elements. #or him, there is a morpheme plural, with the allomorphs -s, -en, -ren etc. !ithin much morpheme6based morphological theory, these two views are mixed in unsystematic ways, so that a writer may talk about Dthe morpheme pluralD and Dthe morpheme -sD in the same sentence, although these are different things.


.1.1 ,efinition

morpheme is the smallest linguistic unit that has a meaning. It cannot be divided into smaller parts. #or example, unreadable has three morphemes5un, read and able. .1.2 T%+es of *or+hemes 1. 4oun$ *or+hemes bound morpheme is a morpheme that cannot stand alone as an independent word, or in other words a bound morpheme is a grammatical unit that never occurs by itself, but it is always attached to some other morphemes. The bound morpheme is not a word. They must be +oined to other free morphemes 1words4. ;ound morpheme consists of derivational and inflectional morpheme. affixes are bound morpheme.. Ex5 -ish, un-, -ness, -li-, -s, -er, etc.


Affi5es 6+refi57 suffi57 infi5 an$ circumfi58 are all boun$ mor+hemes. Circumfi5es 1discontinuous morpheme4 ;ound morphemes that are attached to a root or stem morpheme both initially and finally. Example5 chokma Dhe is goodD ik + chokm + o Dhe isn=t= goodD 12hickasaw -anguage4



/nfi5es ;ound morphemes which are inserted into other morphemes. Example5 fikas DstrongD fumikas Dto be strongD 1;ontoc -anguage4

;ound ;ound morphemes morphemes which occur which occur only before other following morphemes. other Examples5 morphemes. un6 1uncover, Examples5 undo4 6er 1singer, dis6 1displeased, performer) disconnect), 6ist 1typist, pre6 pianist) 1predetermine, 6ly 1manly, prejudge4 friendly) 2.

Free *or+hemes 6.nboun$ *or+hemes8 <

free morpheme is a morpheme that can stand alone, or a free morpheme is a grammatical unit that can occur by itself. They, the free morphemes are a word. Ex5 boy, girl, man, gentle, cat, bag, house, etc. . /nflectional *or+hemes n inflectional morpheme is a morpheme that can only be a suffix. Inflectional morphemes do not create new meaning. n

inflectional morpheme creates a change in the function in the word, but ccording toFule 1(33E4, English has only eight 184 inflectional morphemes, as follows5 G & used with ad+ectives 5 6er 1comparative4 H 6est 1superlative4 G & used with nouns5 6s 1plural4,6's 1possessive4 G . used with verbs 56s 1,rd person singular4 ,6ed 1past tense4 ,6en 1past participle4 H 6ing 1present progressive4 CHART 1
Morpheme Function
NOUNS Plural Possessive VERBS Present Tense (3rd-person singular) Past Tense Past Participle Present Participle A !ECTIVES Comparative uperlative -er -est big + -er big + -est biger bigest -s -ed -en -ing walk + -s walk + -ed eat + vowel change walk + -en eat + -en walk + -ing walks walked ate walked eaten walking -s -s book + -s Barbara + -s books Barbara's

English Inflectional Morphemes

Form Combined Form Resulting Word


,eri"ational *or+hemes derivational morpheme is a morpheme that can be added to a word

"erivational morphemes are also known as the opposite of inflectional morphemes. to create or to drive another word. This type changes the meaning of the word or the part of spech or both 1a new word with a new meaning4. Ex5 6ation, un6, 6al, 6i?e, 6ous, 6y, etc. In rationali?ation 1ration6al6i?6ation6s4 the final 6s is inflectional, and appears at the every end of the word, outside the derivational morphemes 6al, 6i?, 6ation. -. Closing *or+hemes 9 Nonclosing *or+hemes

morpheme such a ize in the words in the words formalize andlegalize is not a closing morpheme 1nonclosing morpheme4, because we can add other words after it. Ex5 formalizer and legalization. erand ion in those words are not a closing morpheme 1nonclosing morpheme4, because we can still add plural s, and the Is is a closing morpheme. :. Affi5es ; Prefi5es 9 #uffi5es

a.)refixes 5 a form like e -, anti-, un-, ad6, com-, dis-, in-, re-, mis- orinter- which can be added to the front of a word to give an additional or different meaning. Ex5 e 6wife, anti6british, unhappy. b.Suffixes 5 a form like 6 ology, -ance!-ence), -ful, ness, ment, -able, orese, which can be added to the end of a word to give an additional or different meaning. Ex5 understandable, believable, biology, 4ases Affi5es

"ouns #erbs $djectives $dverbs %refi es &uffi es dog chart word child have silly touch hot be stay strong new /uick very too now again then anti con di pro re ness ion ity or al

student go


Root mor+heme root morpheme is the primary lexical unit of a word, and cannot be reduced

into smaller constituents. the term DrootD is generally synonymous with Dfree morphemeD, but the roots may sometimes be bound morpheme. The bound roots are relatively few, but some are found, such as I ceive, 6tain, and I cur in receive, retain, contain,recur, etc. Example5 run is the root of running dog is the root of dogs child is the root of children mouse is the root of mice rupt is the root of interrupt

nother example 5 0oot Stem !ord 0oot Stem Stem Stem !ord =. believe 1verb4 believe J able 1verb J suffix4 un J believe J able 1prefix J verb J suffix4 system 1noun4 system J atic 1noun J suffix4 un J system J atic 1prefix J noun J suffix4 un J system J atic J al 1prefix J noun J suffix J suffix4 un J system J atic J al J ly prefix J noun J suffix J suffix Jsuffix #tem mor+heme stem is a part of a word. The term is used with slightly different meanings. >Stem> and >root> have more or less the same meaning5 the form of a word after all affixes have been removed. So the root or stem of >unreadable> is read. !e can say that read is a morpheme, stem and root at the same time. Similarly in the words manly the form man6 is at the same time a root and a stem. ;ut in the word break'aters the stem is break'ater, and it=s not a single root. There are two morphemes, break and 'ater. nother example; The stem of theverb 'ait is 'ait5 it is the part that is common to all its inflected variants.


(. 'ait 1infinitive4 &. 'ait 1imperative4 ,. 'aits 1present, ,rd person, singluar4 .. 'ait 1present, other persons andKor plural4 @. 'aited 1simple past4 E. 'aited 1past participle4 <. 'aiting 1progressive4 Look5 base( reactions stem( reaction 1s4 root5 1re4 act 1ion4 1s4 The stem is the base with all inflectional suffixes removed, whereas the root is what remains after all affixes have been taken off. >. Nuclear an$ Peri+heral #tructure nuclear consists nucleus. peripheral morpheme usually consists of a

nonroot and is always 7outside= of the nuclear. Ex5 the word formal the nuclear element 1nuclear strutcure4 is form6, and the peripheral element 1peripheral morpheme4 is Ial. In the wordformalize the nuclear strutcure er. 1?. Com+oun$ *or+heme Some stem morphemes or words contain two or more roots9 they are said to be compound morphemes. s black bird K blkb rdK is a compound morpheme containing two root morphemes, i.e blackK blak and bird b rdK. ;lackbirds K bla kb rd?K contains a compound morpheme and an affixial morpheme. 11. #temformati"e mor+heme 2ertain affixial morpheme form stem morpheme and as such have little meaning other than the linguistic functions. Such morphemes may be called stem6 formative morphemes. Example 5 ThermometerK o m mitK is composed of stem is formal6, and the peripheral morpheme is Iize. Similarly in formalizer the nuclear structure is formalize6, and the peripheral morpheme is I


formative K6K and K mitK. The first of these is formed from the root thereby adding the stem formativeK6 6K. 12. .ni@ue *or+heme cranberry morpheme or uni/ue morpheme is one with extremely limited distribution so that it occurs in only one word. popular example is cran- in cranberryD 1hence the term Dcranberry morphemeD4, although this example is something of a technicality given that it is an alteration or contraction of the free morpheme DcraneD 1see the !ikipedia article D2ranberryD for more details4. %ni/ue morphemes are examples of the linguistic notion of fossili?ation5 loss of productivity or usage of grammar units5 words, phrases, parts of words. ;esides fossili?ed root morphemes, there are also fossili?ed affixes 1suffixes and prefixes4. Some morphemes are of special kind and they are known as uni/ue morphemes. s in cranberry Kkra nb riK, 7cran= Kkra nK is a uni/ue morpheme. gain Kkra nb riK is different from strawberry K str b riK or Though 7cran= does not occur anywhere except in this combination, it clearly carries a meaning. raspberry K ra ?b riK . So whatever be the meaning of Kkra nK it differs from the other kinds of 7berries=. :ere it might be hard to describe the meaning of cran KkranK, but it is easily demonstrated in a fruit market. So cran Kkra nK is a uni/ue morpheme. 1 . Aero *or+heme The use of ?ero morphs and morphemes were first suggested by Sanskrit grammarians. ?ero morph of the english noun phrasal morphemes has been assumed by same to occur in a word like sheep 1plural4. It would be present in LThe sheep are gra?ingM, but it would not be clear whether or not it is present in L The sheep must gra?eM, since the sentence is ambiguous. ;ecause of this difficulty some linguists prefer to say that it is a /uestion. 7plural= simply fails to occur with


words of this type, e.g. sheep9 for them this word would thus have neither a singular nor a plural form but a 7numberless= one.


This paper tries to describe the types of English morphemes. morpheme

is the smallest linguistic unit that has a meaning. It cannot be divided into smaller parts. There are thirteen types of English Morphemes such as ; ;ound Morphemes, #ree Morphemes 1%nbound Morphemes4, inflectional morphemes, derivational morphemes, closing morphemes and non closing morphemes, affixes 1preffixes and suffixes4, root morphemes, stem morphemes, nuclear and peripheral structure, compound morphemes, stemformative morphemes, uni/ue morphemes and ?ero morphemes. morphological pattern is a set of associations or operations that build the various forms of a lexeme, possibly by inflection, agglutination, compounding or derivation. Morphology consists of Morpheme which can also set up the words. !ords will occur to the perfect sentence with grammar. #rom the structure we mean morphemes and combinations of morphemes described according to their classes and in terms of their pertinent environments by immediate constituents. ..&

Morphology is The author hopes this paper can be useful to readers.


0E#E0EN2ES (. http5KKenglishahkam.blogspot.comK&'('K((Kdefinition6and6types6of6 morphemes.html &.