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Original Title: Springs

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Version: 28 Feb 06

Introduction The elasti !ro!erties of "atter are in#ol#e$ in "an% !h%si al !heno"ena. &hen "atter is $efor"e$ ' o"!resse$( t)iste$( stret he$( et etera* an$ the $efor"in+ for es are s,ffi ientl% s"all( the "aterial )ill ret,rn to its ori+inal sha!e )hen the $efor"in+ for es are re"o#e$. -n s, h ases( the $efor"ation is sai$ to ta.e !la e )ithin the elastic limit of the "aterial( i.e.( there is no !er"anent $efor"ation. The sli+ht stret hin+ of a r,bber ban$ is an e/a"!le of an elasti $efor"ation. Steel )ires( on rete ol,"ns( "etal bea"s an$ ro$s an$ other "aterial ob0e ts an also ,n$er+o elasti $efor"ations. For "an% "aterials( it is a!!ro/i"atel% tr,e that )hen the "aterial is stret he$ or o"!resse$( the resistin+ or restorin+ for e that ten$s to ret,rn the "aterial to its ori+inal sha!e is !ro!ortional to the a"o,nt of the $efor"ation b,t !oints in a $ire tion o!!osite to the stret h or o"!ression. This i$eali1e$ beha#ior of "atter is alle$ Hooke's Law. To$a%2s lab )ill allo) %o, to test the a ,ra % of Hoo.e2s la) for a si"!le ob0e t( a s!rin+. Simplified Theory Hoo.e2s 3a) is the state"ent that the restorin+ for e a tin+ on an ob0e t is !ro!ortional to the ne+ati#e of the $is!la e"ent '$efor"ation* of the ob0e t. -n s%"bols( F 4 -k x '1*

Here( F is the restorin+ for e !ro#i$e$ b% )hate#er is bein+ stret he$ 'or s5,ee1e$*( x is the $is!la e"ent of the thin+ bein+ stret he$ 'or s5,ee1e$*.( an$ k is the onstant of !ro!ortionalit%. The ne+ati#e si+n '6* is i"!ortant an$ 0,st sa%s that the restorin+ for e is o!!osite in $ire tion to the $is!la e"ent. For e/a"!le( if a s!rin+ is stret he$ b% so"ethin+ in a ertain $ire tion( the s!rin+ )ill e/ert a restorin+ for e on that so"ethin+ b,t in the o!!osite $ire tion. E5,ation '1* also sa%s that for an ob0e t )hi h obe%s Hoo.e2s la) 's, h as a s!rin+*( the "ore it is stret he$ or s5,ee1e$( the +reater )ill be the restorin+ for e s,!!lie$ b% the ob0e t on )hate#er is $oin+ the stret hin+ or the s5,ee1in+. 7n a!!lie$ for e 'F* a tin+ on o,r 8Hoo.ean9 ob0e t )ill a,se it to be $is!la e$ 'stret he$ or s5,ee1e$* b% so"e a"o,nt 'x). The ratio of the han+e in a!!lie$ for e 'F* an$ the han+e in the res,ltin+ $is!la e"ent 'x* is alle$ the spring constant 'k* an$ an be )ritten as follo)s: k 4 '2*

To$a%2s e/!eri"ent )ill test this relationshi! for a lar+e s!rin+. :% han+in+ $ifferent "asses fro" the s!rin+ )e an ontrol the a"o,nt of for e a tin+ on it. &e an then "eas,re for ea h a!!lie$ )ei+ht the a"o,nt that the s!rin+ ;stret hes.9 Sin e E5,ation

'1* is the e5,ation for a strai+ht line( a +ra!h of F 'the )ei+ht* #ers,s x 'the ;stret h;* )ill sho,l$ %iel$ a line )ith slo!e k . E5,ation '2* tells ,s the sa"e thin+ an$ its a!!earan e sho,l$ re"in$ %o, of ho) to o"!,te the slo!e of a strai+ht line. Procedure 1. -nstall a table ro$ )ith a ro$ la"! near its to!. S,s!en$ a heli al s!rin+ fro" the la"! )ith the lar+e en$ ,!. 2. 7tta h a <0 + )ei+ht hoo. )ith a <0 + slot "ass on it to the s!rin+. =e or$ the initial "ass of 100 + as m1. The !ara"eter m )ill re!resent the total "ass on the s!rin+. 3. Pla e the "eter sti . #erti all% alon+si$e the han+in+ "ass. >eas,re the elon+ation of the s!rin+ an$ re or$ it as x1. 7l)a%s be s,re to "eas,re startin+ at the sa"e !la e( either on the table or on the la"!. ?. 7$$ a <0 + slot "ass to the hoo. an$ re or$ m2 '1<0 +*. =ea$ the "eter sti . an$ re or$ x2. =e!eat( fin$in+ x3 ( x4 ( x5 ( an$ x6 )ith total "asses 200 +( 2<0 +( 300 +( an$ 3<0 +. =e or$ all the "asses an$ elon+ations on the for" !ro#i$e$. Analysis 1. Con#ert all "asses to @e)tons an$ all "eter sti . rea$in+s to "eters. 2. Plot all the $ata on the +ra!h !a!er. F )ill be !lotte$ in the #erti al $ire tion( )hile x )ill be !lotte$ in the hori1ontal $ire tion. Label the a/es of %o,r +ra!h an$ in l,$e units. 3. Ta.e a strai+ht e$+e an$ $ra) a single ;best fit; line thro,+h all the $ata !oints. ?. >eas,re the ;rise o#er r,n; 'the slo!e* of this line. This is %o,r e/!eri"ental #al,e for the s!rin+ onstant. -n )hat ,nits sho,l$ k be re!orte$A onclusions 1. &rite $o)n %o, +eneral on l,sions for this e/!eri"ent. These on l,sions sho,l$ in l,$e the #al,e of the s!rin+ onstant k an$ an esti"ate of its error. 2. Bi$ %o,r !lotte$ $ata for" a strai+ht lineA Boes the $ata fro" another sha!e( !erha!s a !arabolaA 3. -f %o,r +ra!h )as not a strai+ht line( )hat $oes this tell %o, abo,t the s!rin+A

?. Consi$er a set of t)o i$enti al s!rin+s ea h of s!rin+ onstant k onne te$ in !arallel 'si$e b% si$e* to a sin+le "ass. &hat )o,l$ %o, e/!e t the total s!rin+ onstant to be of the s%ste"A &h%A 'Hint: thin. abo,t the s!rin+ for e as a #e tor.*

M !rror Analysis 3oo. at ho) ", h the !oints s atter aro,n$ %o,r ;best fit; line. The "ore the% s atter( the !oorer the !re ision. Boes the +ra!h for" so"e other sha!e besi$es a strai+ht line( s, h as a !arabolaA 'This o,l$ "ean that Hoo.eCs 3a) is not #ali$ for this s!rin+.* &hat is %o,r esti"ate of the error in k an$ ho) $i$ %o, esti"ate this errorA &hat are the so,r es of error for %o,r $ata !oints an$ )hat is the rele#an e of these errors in %o,r $eter"ination of kA

Hooke's Law

PHYS 1313 Prof. T.E. Coan

Version: 2D E,l DD

%ata

n 1 2 3 ? < 6 k 4

onclusions

F 4 mg

&raph Separately.

!rror Analysis$

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