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Strain energy approach

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CEE 201L. Uncertainty, Design, and Optimization Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Duke University Henri P. Gavin Spring, 2014

Consider a force, Fi , applied gradually to a structure. Let Di be the resulting displacement at the location and in the direction of the force Fi . If the structure is elastic, the force-displacement curve follows the same path on loading and unloading.

Fj Dj

000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 11111 00000 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111 000000 111111 00000 11111

Fi Di

F i

Fi

v(x)

111 000 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111

w(x)

00000 11111 11111 00000 00000 11111 11111 00000 00000 11111 00000 11111

111111111 000000000 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 D D+ D

i i

Di

If Fi is increased by Fi and the corresponding increase in the displacement is Di , then as Fi 0, the incremental work, W , done by the load Fi passing through a displacement Di is approximately Fi Di , or, more precisely, W =

Di +Di Di

Fi (Di ) dDi .

(1)

When the structure is elastic and linear, that is Fi (Di ) = ki Di , the work of a force increasing from 0 to Fi , moving through corresponding displacements from 0 to Di is W =

Di 0 Di 0

Fi dDi =

1 11 2 1 2 ki Di dDi = ki Di = F = Fi Di . 2 2 ki i 2

(2)

CEE 201L. Uncertainty, Design, and Optimization Duke University Spring 2014 H.P. Gavin

Fi Di Fj Dj Fn Dn

000 111 111 000 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 11111 00000 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111

F 1 D1

Dn Fn

F1 D

1

00000 11111 11111 00000 00000 11111

D1

00000 11111 11111 00000 00000 11111 00000 11111

F 1

11111 00000 00000 11111 00000 11111

Di Fi Fi Di

Dj Fj Fj Dj

Fn Dn

11111 00000 00000 11111 00000 11111

Figure 2. Point forces and collocated displacements on linear elastic solids and structures.

causing displacements, D1 , D2 , . . . , Dn , in the direction of those forces, then the total external work, W , is given by W = 1 1 {F1 D1 + F2 D2 + + Fn Dn } = {F }T {D} . 2 2 (3)

In the absence of any energy dissipation, this work is stored in the structure in the form of strain energy. In elastic structures carrying static loads, the external work and strain energy are numerically equal to one another. External Work = Strain Energy W =U (4)

Note that forces at xed reaction points, R, do no work because the displacements at the reactions are presumed to be zero. Example: Small element subjected to normal stress xx

Strain Energy in a general state of stress and strain A three dimensional linear elastic solid with loads supplied by external forces F1 , . . . , Fn , and through support reactions R, can be considered to be made up of small cubic elements as shown below.

Fi Di Fj Dj Fn Dn

000 111 111 000 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111

zz xz yy

11111 00000 00000 11111 00000 11111

yz

F 1

11111 00000 00000 11111 00000 11111

xx

xy

The incremental strain energy, dU , for this elemental cube of volume dV can be written: 1 dU = {xx xx + yy yy + zz zz + xy xy + xz xz + yz yz } dV. 2 Integrating the incremental strain energy, dU , over an entire volume, V , the total strain energy, U , is 1 U= {xx xx + yy yy + zz zz + xy xy + xz xz + yz yz } dV. 2 V If the stresses and strains are re-written as vectors, { }T = {xx yy zz xy xz yz } { }T = {

xx yy zz

xy xz yz } ,

then the total strain energy can be written compactly as 1 { }T { } dV. (5) U= V 2 This equation is a general expression for the internal strain energy of a linear elastic structure of any type. It can be simplied signicantly for structures built from a number of prismatic members, such as trusses and frames.

CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin

CEE 201L. Uncertainty, Design, and Optimization Duke University Spring 2014 H.P. Gavin

xx

= u (x)

1111 0000 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111

Nx

Nx

dl

xx dl

xx

Figure 4. Internal axial forces, deformation, and stresses in an axially-loaded prismatic bar.

The normal stress on an element dA is xx = E The corresponding strain is xx = u (x) . E The incremental internal strain energy, dU , in an incremental volume element,

xx xx

Nx . A

2 2 1 xx 1 Nx dV = dA dl xx dV = 2 E 2 EA2 1 1 2 = E 2 xx dV = E (u (x)) dA dl 2 2 and the total strain energy in a bar in tension or compression is

1 dU = xx 2

dA dl

or

U=

1 2

E (u (x))2

dA dl.

2 1 Nx 1 2 U= dl or U= EA (u (x)) dl. (6) 2 l EA 2 l A prismatic bar with a constant axial force, Nx , and a constant strain xx = x /L, along its length, is like a truss element, and the strain energy can be

expressed as

2 1 Nx L U= 2 EA

or

U=

1 EA 2 . 2 L x

(7)

CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin

5

xx

= v (x) y

y v" dl

M zz

M zz

1111 0000 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 000 0000111 1111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 x 000 111 000 111 000 111

xx

dl

The normal stress on an element dA at a distance y from the neutral axis is xx (y ) = E The corresponding strain is xx = y v (x) y. E The incremental internal strain energy, dU , in a volume element, dV , in terms of bending moments, Mz (x), or transverse displacement, v (x), is

xx (y ) xx (y )

Mz y . Iz

2 2 2 1 xx 1 Mz y dV = dA dl xx dV = 2 2 E 2 EIz 1 1 2 = E 2 xx dV = E (v (x) y ) dA dl , 2 2 and the total strain energy in a beam under pure bending moments is

1 dU = xx 2

1 U= 2

2 Mz l EI 2 z

y 2 dA dl

or

U=

1 2

E (v (x))2

y 2 dA dl.

Since the bending moment of inertia, I , is A y 2 dA, provided that the origin of the coordinate system lies on the neutral axis of the beam ( A yz dy dz = 0), U= 1 2

2 Mz dl l EIz

or

U=

1 2

(8)

CEE 201L. Uncertainty, Design, and Optimization Duke University Spring 2014 H.P. Gavin

Shear Strain Energy, xy = Vy Q(y )/Iz t(y ), xy = vs (x) Consider a beam subjected to a shear force, V , (and bending moment):

y

y

00000 11111 11111 00000 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111

t(y) d

000000 111111 111111 000000 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111

Vy

dl

v s

Vy

xy

xy (y ) = Gxy (y ) =

Vy Q(y ) Iz t(y )

d/2 y

t(y )y dy

2 1 1 xy 1 Vy2 Q(y )2 dU = xy xy dV = dA dl = dA dl 2 Gt(y )2 2 2G 2 Iz Q(y )2 1 Vy2 Q(y )2 1 Vy2 A U= dA dl = dA dl 2 G A t(y )2 2 A t(y )2 2 l Iz 2 l GA Iz This last integral reduces to a constant that depends only upon the shape of the cross-section. This constant is given the variable name .

A = 2 Iz

Q(y )2 dA A t(y )2

Values of for some common cross-section shapes are given below ( > 1). solid circular sections: solid rectangular sections: thin-walled circular tubes: thin-walled square tubes: 1.08 1.15 1.95 2.35

I-sections in strong-axis shear: A/(td) With this simplication, the internal strain energy due to shear forces is 1 U= 2 Vy2 1 dl = l GA 2 Vy2 dl . l G(A/) (9)

CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin

The term (A/) is called the eective shear area. As a review of shear stresses in beams, consider the shear stress in a rectangular section (with section d b). xy =

d/2 y d/2 y

Vy Q(y ) Iz t(y ) y2 y dy = b 2 y

d/2

Q(y ) =

t(y )y dy = b xy

d2 y 2 =b 8 2

Vy = 2Iz

d2 y2 . 4

This stress varies parabolically along the direction of the applied shear. It is maximum at the centroid of the section and zero at the ends. The corresponding shear strain energy equation in terms of displacements is a bit more subtle 1 G(A/)(vs (x))2 dl . (10) U= 2 l where the total transverse displacement is a combinastion of bending-related vb (x) and shear-related vs (x) displacements, v (x) = vb (x) + vs (x). For example, Vz (x) Mzz (x) dx and vs (x) = dx . vb (x) = EIzz (x) GA(x)/

CEE 201L. Uncertainty, Design, and Optimization Duke University Spring 2014 H.P. Gavin

Torsional Strain Energy, x = Tx r/J, x = r Consider a circular shaft subjected to a constant torsional moment, Tx :

y r z Tx dl

Figure 7. Internal torsional moments, deformation, and stresses in a prismatic rod.

y R Tx

00000000 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111

The circumferential shear stress x (r) is x (r) = Gx (r) = and the corresponding shear strain is x (r) = x (r) =r . G Tx r J

The incremental internal strain energy, dU , in terms of torsional moments, Tx (x), or torsional rotations, (x), is

2 2 2 1 x 1 Tx r 1 dV = dA dl dU = x x dV = 2 2G 2 GJ 2 1 2 1 = Gx dV = G(r )2 dA dl 2 2

and the total strain energy for the shaft is 1 U= 2 Since the term

2 Tx l J 2G Ar 2 A

r2 dA dl

or

U=

1 2

G( )2

r2 dA dl.

2 Tx dl l GJ

U=

or

U=

1 2

GJ ( )2 .

(11)

Total Strain Energy arising from Combined Axial Stresses As a review of the material above, consider a three-dimensional bending problem with a super-imposed normal force, Nx .

y My Nx z Mz x

dl

Figure 8. Internal axial force and bending moments in a prismatic beam.

Nx Mz y My z + . A Iz Iy The total strain energy arising from axial and pure bending eects is 2 1 xx 1 1 1 2 xx xx dV = xx dA dl. dV = Un = V V l A 2 2 E 2 E 2 The term xx in the integral above can be expanded as follows. xx =

A 2 xx dA = N2 x A A2 2 2 2 2 My z Mz y Nx Mz y Nx My z Mz My zy + + 2 + 2 2 dA. 2 2 Iz Iy AIz AIy Iz Iy

But, since the coordinate axes are assumed to pass through the centroid of the cross-sectional area,

A

y dA =

z dA =

yz dA = 0

Therefore, the total potential energy is simply the sum of the potential energies due to axial and bending moments individually. 2 2 2 My 1 Nx Mz Un = dl + dl + dl . l EIz l EIy 2 l EA

CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin

10 CEE 201L. Uncertainty, Design, and Optimization Duke University Spring 2014 H.P. Gavin

Total Strain Energy arising from Combined Shear Stresses Just as a structural element can be subjected to combined normal and bending stresses, combined shear stresses can also act together.

y Vy Tx z Vz x

dl

Figure 9. Internal shear forces and torsional moment in a prismatic beam.

xy =

Vy Qy (y ) Iz tz (y )

xz =

Vz Qz (z ) Iy ty (z )

x =

Tx r J

Through mathematical manipulations similar to those above, it can be shown that 2 Vy2 Vz2 Tx 1 Uv = dl + dl + dl , l G(A/z ) l GJ 2 l G(A/y ) where A y = 2 Iz A z = 2 Iy Total Strain Energy The total strain energy for solids subjected to axial, bending, shear, and torsional forces is the sum of Un and Uv above.

CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin

Q (y ) y dA A tz (y ) Q (z ) z dA A ty (z )

2

11

Summary Strain energy is a kind of potential energy arising from the deformation of elastic solids. For structural elements (bars, beams, or shafts) strain energy is expressed in terms of the elasticity of the material (E or G), the dimensions of the element (L, A, I , J , or A/), and either the internal forces (or moments) in the element (N (x), M (x), V (x), or T (x)), or the deformation of the element (u (x), v (x), vs (x), (x)).

force deformation force-based strain-energy

Nx (x)2 L x=0 E (x)A(x) dx Mx (x)2 L x=0 E (x)I (x) dx Vx (x)2 L x=0 G(x)(A(x)/) dx Tx (x)2 L x=0 G(x)J (x) dx

L x=0

E (x)A(x)(u (x))2 dx E (x)I (x)(v (x))2 dx G(x)(A(x)/)(vs (x))2 dx G(x)J (x)( (x))2 dx

L x=0

L x=0

L x=0

where: E (x) G(x) A(x) I (x) A(x)/ J (x) Nx (x) Mz (x) Vy (x) Tx (x) u ( x) v (x) vs (x) (x) is is is is is is is is is is is is is is Youngs modulus the shear modulus the cross sectional area of a bar the bending moment of inertia a beam the eective shear area a beam the torsional moment of inertia of a shaft the axial force within a bar the bending moment within a beam the shear force within a beam the torque within a shaft du(x)/dx, the axial strain, u(x) is the axial displacement along the bar d2 v (x)/dx2 , the curvature, v (x) is the transverse bending displacement of the beam dvs (x)/dx, the shear deformation, vs (x) is the transverse shear displacement of the beam d(x)/dx, the torsional deformation, (x) is the torsional rotation of the shaft

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