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This module is divided into 2 parts:
Part 1 focuses on Human Resource Employment
Part 2 focuses on Human Resource Development

Lesson 1 Human Resource Management in the work place

Lesson 2 Recruitment

Lesson 3 Selection and the Job Application blank

Lesson 4 Training
Lesson 4A Introduction to Training and Development
Lesson 4B Orienting employees
Lesson 4C Training needs identification
Design and provision of needs related training
Training ethical and intercultural issues
Specific Interventions

Lesson 7 Learning Theory

Lesson 8 Management Development



Before we begin studying the topics required of us in this course, I feel that
it is important that we remind ourselves about what the field of human
resources management entails.

What is Human Resource Management?

Several authors have offered various definitions of Human Resource
Management. Let us examine some of these definitions .By examining each
of these definitions we will get more insight into what human resources
management really is.

Human Resource Management can be defined as the management of
activities undertaken to attract, develop, motivate and maintain a high
performing workforce within an organization. Human Resource
Management involves moving towards corporate goals by integrating the
desires of individuals for growth and development with organizational goals.
(Bowin & Harvey, 2000)

Graham (1998) has defined human resource management in this way
Human Resource Management concerns the human side of the management
of enterprises and employees relations with their firms. Its purpose is to
ensure that the employees of a company i.e. its human resources are used in
such a way that the employer obtains the greatest possible benefit from their
abilities and the employees obtain both material and psychological rewards
from their work. Human Resource Management is based on the findings of
work psychology and uses the techniques and procedures known collectively
as personnel management i.e. that part of human resources concerned with
staffing the enterprise, determining and satisfying the needs of people at
work and the practical rules and procedures that govern relationship between
employees and the organization.

Gary Dessler (1997) defines Human resources management as the practices
and policies you need to carry out the people or personnel aspects of your
management job.
These include:
- Conducting job analysis
- Planning labor needs and recruiting job candidates.
- Selecting job candidates
- Orienting and training new employees.
- Managing wages and salaries.
- Providing benefits and incentives.
- Appraising performance.
- Communicating (interviewing, counseling, disciplining)
- Training and developing
- Building employee commitment

Human Resource Management may also be defined as a process consisting
of the acquisition, development, motivation and maintenance of human
resources.(Decenzo, 1998)

The Human Resource Management model shown below shows the Human
Resource Management components. It reflects the major activities existing
within the functions of acquisition, development, motivation and

Figure 1 HRM Components
- Human Resource
- Recruiting-Internal
- External
- Employee
Employee training
Career Development

Safety and Health

Job Design
Job Evaluation
Source: Adapted from Meg Isaac Sternberg Organizational Model for
Human Resource Planning (Unpublished paper, Baltimore, 1984)
At the hub of this model are the external influences-government regulations,
labor unions and management practice, EEO that have an impact on Human
Relations Management. Human Resource Management activities in any of
the 4 functions are constrained or guided by these external influences.

The outer circles represent the flow of major activities included in Human
Resource Management. There is no beginning or end to the Human
Resource Management process, it is a continual process. Within each circle
are the major subdivisions of each function.

Let us look more closely at these HRM activities and influences:

1. Important environmental influences on Human Resource Management
practices- govt regulations, labour unions , management practices
EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity)

It has been argued that these forces have a major impact on Human Resource
Management by constraining the decision-making discretion of managers.
Who can be hired and fired, how personnel information is disseminated,
what methods can be used for evaluating jobs and employee performance,
what equipment can and cannot be used, how wage rates are determined, are
just a few of the issues that constrained if not most, organizations.

2. Acquisition of Human Resources
The discussion of the Human Resource Management process begins with
human resource planning. It is here that management ensures that it has the
right number and kinds of people, at the right places, and at the right times,
capable of effectively and efficiently completing the work required so that
the organization can achieve its overall objectives. The onset of much of the
human resources planning is job analysis. If human resource planning,
uncovers the need to hire additional employees, one must discover potential
applicants. This requires locating candidates recruiting sources, which we
shall discuss in the lesson on recruitment. These potential applicants must be
screened to identify job applicants who are likely to be successful if hired.
We shall also discuss the selection process and specific selection devices.
The acquisition function is completed when the selected applicants have
been placed in the organization and have adapted to the organizations
culture and their work environment.
The organizations culture conveys how things are done and what matters.
When employees have adapted to the organizations culture they have
learned the ropes. This is also called socializing the new employee.

3. Development of Human Resources
Competent employees will not remain competent forever. Some are
minimally qualified upon entering the organization but require additional
training or education. Others enter the organization capable of performing at
an optimal level but their skills become obsolete over time. And of course,
organizations change over time, and management must ensure that there is
an appropriate match of individual abilities with organizational needs for the
future. Each of these issues is considered in the development function.

Employee training gives individuals specific skills that they will use on the
job. Management development looks at practices for ensuring a continual
flow of managers.
These 3 topics.
- Employee training
- Management development
- Career Development
are the focus of the course.

When human resources have been developed effectively, one can expect to
have competent employees with up-to-date skills and knowledge.

3. Motivation of Human Resources
High performance depends on both ability and motivation. Many employees
with extraordinary talents do not perform satisfactory because they will not
exert the necessary effort. Therefore we desire to have capable employees
who are also highly motivated.
If a person is to perform effectively extrinsic factors such as job design,
working conditions, job security must be seen as satisfactory. But that alone
is not enough. Many people also look for intrinsic factors such as
achievement, recognition and responsibility from their work. For individuals
who place high value on intrinsic factors, the absence of these factors can
reduce ones willingness to exert high degrees of effort.

But other factors can also influence motivation. The performance appraisal
process and its outcome will affect an employees motivation. People expect
their work to be objectively evaluated if they think their efforts will be
unfairly judged, motivation will decrease.
So its important to consider performance appraisals and how they are done.
Furthermore the rewards or punishments that follow the appraisal will influence
motivation. Rewards, compensation administration, benefits are considered in
the motivation function. Discipline too has an effect on motivation.

At this juncture if we have effectively motivated the individual who has up to
date skills and knowledge we can expect to have a competent employee who
desires to exert a high level of effort.

4. Maintenance of Human Resources
The objective of the last function is to retain people who are performing at high
levels. This requires that the organization provide safe and healthful working
conditions and satisfactory labor relations. If these activities are performed
effectively we can expect to have competent employees who are committed to
the organization and satisfied with their jobs.


In this lesson we have seen what comprises the field of human resource
management is. We have examined various definitions but we can simply
define it as a process consisting of the acquisition, development, motivation and
maintenance of human resources. We also examined the various components of
the field of human resources management.


1.What is human resource management and how does it relate to the
management process?

2.What specific functions does the Human Resources Manager perform?



One of the most important Human Resource activities is the recruiting process:
the attracting of a high performing workforce. We exist in a society of large,
medium and smaller organizations. In these organizations, managers and
employees work together to accomplish goals that are too complex to be
achieved by any single individual. Before the organization can hire employees
it must locate and attract people who want the job. More and more it is
recognized that the most significant factor in determining the success of any
organization is the quality of its people.

As Nations Bank CEO put it Employees are our number one priority. They
will continue to be. If you look after employees they will look after customers.
And that is good for shareholders.
HRM activities focusing on recruitment of new employees are becoming a top
priority in organizations.

Emphasizing the essential nature of the recruiting function in todays business
environment, Peter Drucker notes that every organization is in competition for
its most essential resource; qualified, knowledgeable people

An organization needs to hire the most qualified people it can at the most
competitive price. Before an organization is able to hire an individual it must
locate qualified applicants who are looking for work.. How does a company
attract these qualified people to itself? This is the recruiting process and it
represents one of the major responsibilities of the HR Manager.

Successful Human Resource Planning should identify our human resource
needs. Once we know these needs we will want to do something about them.
The next step in the acquisition function therefore is recruitment. This activity
makes it possible for us to acquire the number and types of people necessary to
ensure the continued operation of the organization.

The Recruitment and Selection Process

The recruitment and selection process can best be envisioned as a series of
hurdles as shown in the following section .Specifically recruiting and selecting

1. Doing human resource planning and forecasting to determine the duties of
the positions to be filled.

2. Building a pool of candidates for these jobs by recruiting from internal or
external sources.

3. Having the applicants fill out application forms and perhaps undergo an
initial screening inter view.

4. Utilizing various selection techniques such as tests, interviews, background
investigations and physical exams to identify viable job candidates.

5. Sending to the supervisor responsible for the job one or more viable job
6. Having the candidate(s) go through one or more selection interviews with
the supervisor and other relevant parties for the purpose of finally
determining to which candidate(s) an offer should be made.

Steps in Recruitment and Selection Process

The recruitment and selection process is a series of hurdles aimed at selecting
the best candidate for the job as shown in Diagram 2:

Recruiting; Build a
pool of candidates
Applicants complete
application form
Employment planning
and forecasting

Use selection devices
like tests to screen
out most applicants

Candidate becomes
Figure 2: Steps in the recruitment and selection process

Once you have been authorized to fill a position, the next step is to develop an
applicant pool probably using internal recruiting or one or more of the
recruitment. sources we shall discuss next.

But first let us define recruitment.

Defining Recruitment

Recruiting may be defined as the process of seeking, attracting and identifying a
pool of qualified candidates in sufficient numbers to fill current and future work
force needs.

Recruitment is the first part of filling a vacancy; it includes the examination of
the vacancy, the consideration of sources of suitable candidates, making contact
with those candidates and attracting applications from them.

Recruiting is therefore the discovering of potential candidates for actual or
anticipated organizational vacancies. Or from another perspective it is a linking
activity, bringing together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs.

The ideal recruitment effort will attract a large number of qualified applicants
who will take the job if it is offered. It should also provide information so those
unqualified applicants can self-select themselves out of job candidacy. A good
recruiting program should therefore attract the qualified and not attract the
unqualified. This dual objective will minimize the cost of processing
unqualified candidates. The recruiting process is generally aimed at finding a
pool of applicants with abilities desired by the organization.
Successful recruiting involves attracting an adequate number of qualified
candidates within a specified time frame.

The vacancy may arise because of some new or increased activity. Then in all
probability the need for the new employee has been established and a job
specification complied. The majority of vacancies however occur as
replacements for people who have left the company or as the final event in a
chain of transfers or promotions following on a re-organization.
Even if the vacancy arises and is filled internally ,in the end the vacancy has to
be filled from an external source.

Note: the vacancy may be filled from an internal or an external source.
Both the external and internal sources have various advantages and

Internal Recruiting

Internal recruiting seeks applicants for positions from among those currently
employed. Most organizations seek to fill positions with current employees.

Organizations can use job or skills inventories for identifying applicants for job
openings. It is however unlikely that the Human Resource Manager is aware of
all employees who are interested in a job opening. One method of solving this
problem is:
1. Job posting or job bidding- announcements of positions are made available
to all current employees through company bulletin boards and other
information sources.
2. Referrals Another internal source of recruitment, is one in which present
employees are asked to encourage friends or relatives to apply. This is an
often-used tool for small organizations.

Before determining how many outside candidates to hire you must forecast how
many candidates for your projected job openings will come from within your
organization from the existing ranks.

A qualification inventory can facilitate forecasting the supply of inside
candidates. Qualification inventories contain summary data like each
employees performance record, educational backgrounds and promotability
compiled either manually on in a computerized system. Qualification
inventories on hundreds or thousands of employees cannot be adequately
maintained manually. .Many firms computerize this information.

Computerized information systems. A number of packaged systems are
available for accomplishing this task. Some employers use personnel
replacement charts to keep truck of inside candidates for their most important
positions. These show the present performance and promotability for important

The advantages of filling a vacancy internally rather than externally are:

1. Better motivation of employees because their capabilities are considered and
opportunities offered for promotion.

2. Better utilization of employees, because the company can often make better
use of their abilities in a different job.

3. It is more reliable than external recruitment because a present employee is
known more thoroughly than an external candidate.

4. A present employee is more likely to stay with the company than an external

5. Internal recruitment is quicker and cheaper than external.

Although recruiting may bring to mind employment agencies and classifieds
ads, current employees are often your largest source of recruits.
Some surveys have indicated that up to 90% of all management positions are
filled internally.

Filling open positions with inside candidates has also other advantages:

Employees see that competence is rewarded and morale and performance may
thus be enhanced. Having already been with your firm for some time inside
candidates may be more committed to company goals and less likely to leave
.Promotion from within can boost employee commitment and provide managers
a longer-term perspective when making a business decisions.
It may also be safer to promote employees from within since you are more
likely to have a more accurate assessment of the persons skills that you would
Inside candidates may also require less orientation and training than outsiders.

Yet promotion from within can also backfire.
Employees who apply for jobs and dont get them may become discontented;
informing unsuccessful applicants as to why they were rejected and what
remedial actions they might take to be more successful in the future is thus

Similarly, many employers require managers to post job openings and interview
all inside candidates .Yet the manager often knows ahead of time exactly whom
he or she wants to hire and requiring the person to interview a stream of
unsuspecting inside candidates is therefore a waste of time for all concerned.
Groups may also not be as satisfied when their new boss is appointed from
within their own ranks as when he/she is a newcomer; sometimes for instance it
is difficult for the newly chosen leader to shake off the reputation of being one
of the gang

Perhaps the biggest drawback however is inbreeding. When an entire
management team has been brought up through the ranks, there may be a
tendency to make decisions by the book and to maintain the status quo, when
an innovative and new direction is needed.
Balancing the benefits of morale and loyalty with the drawback of inbreeding is
thus a challenge.

To be effective, promotion from within requires using job posting, personnel
records and skill banks. Job posting means posting the open job and listing its
attributes like qualifications, supervisors, working schedule and pay rate. Job
posting which is basically posting of job openings on company bulletin boards
is an effective recruiting method. Forecasting the supply of inside candidates is
especially important for succession planning. Succession planning refers to
plans a company makes to fill its most important executive positions.

External Sources
Very many vacancies are filled from external sources even when an internal
candidate is transferred or promoted. The final result is usually a vacancy
elsewhere in the company, which has to be filled from outside.

External recruitment can be time consuming, expensive and uncertain, although
it is possible to reduce these disadvantages to some extent with forethought and

External sources can be divided into 2 classes:
Those which are comparatively inexpensive but offer a limited choice e.g.
walk-ins, unsolicited applications.
Those which are comparatively expensive but give the employer access to a
wider range of candidates e.g. advertising, use of private agencies.
Even when unemployment is high certain categories of employees who possess
scarce skills are difficult to find and the employer may have to use the more
expensive means of recruitment. Other types for example unskilled workers can
be found very easily using inexpensive means, the problem then lies in selecting
the suitable candidate from among a very large number of applicants.
Let us consider several external sources of candidates.

1. Advertising as a Source of Candidate
The most popular method of recruitment is to advertise the vacancy and invite
candidates to apply to the company. To use advertisements successfully you
need to address 2 issues.
- The media to be used.
- The ads construction
The selection of the best medium-be it the Daily Nation, the Times or a
technical journal depends on the type of positions for which you are recruiting.
To recruit professionals for example a C.E.O or Accountant you should choose
a suitable medium like the East African Standard, for blue collar help you may
choose other more suitable medium. It would not be appropriate for example to
advertise for the position of CEO on a placard outside the factory building or in
the classified help-wanted section of the dailies nor would it be appropriate to
advertise for a sweeper in the Times. You must always choose the correct

For specialized employees you can advertise in trade and professional journals.
One draw back to this type of trade paper advertising is the long lead-time that
is usually required; there may be a month or more between insertion of the ad
and publication of the journal.
Some media for example the Nation is particularly good for its wide
geographical coverage such that the entire country can be targeted for coverage.

The advertisement can become the first stage in selection by describing the job
and qualifications required so comprehensively that borderline candidates will
be deterred from applying and good candidates encouraged.
The small amount of research that has been done in this field shows that
information about the job contributed much more to the effectiveness of an
advertisement that its style or size. There is also general agreement that
including the word training in an advertisement increases the response.

Advertising may be also made more effective and less expensive if the
following principles are observed.

a. The advertisement should contain a job specification and job description in
miniature, including the following:
- Job Title
- Description of job and employer
- Experience, skills and qualifications required.
- Age range
- Working conditions e.g. wage/ salary, fringe benefits
- Training given
- What action the candidate should take e.g. write a letter, telephone for an
application form, etc.
b. It should appear in the appropriate publication e.g. professional journal for
c. Experiments should be made to test the response for different sizes
headings, wordings, page position, day of the week.
d. Careful records should be kept showing
- Which publication was used
- Which date and day of the week
- Which position on the page
- Which style and size
- Names of the candidates replying to each advertisements
- Names of the candidates who are selected for the interview
- Name of the candidate who was successful.

e. The response should be analyzed so that advertising expenditure can be
directed towards the publication and style of advertisement which give the
best result for a particular type of vacancy.
f. Rejected candidates should be sent a prompt and courteous letter;
Inconsiderate treatment will eventually detract from a companys reputation
and adversely affect the response to future advertisements.

The small amount of research that has been done in this field shows that
information about the job contributes much more to the effectiveness of an
advertisement than its style or size.

Sometimes other considerations besides cost and response must be kept in
mind. The company may decide that small advertisements are not consistent
with its prestige or image and that large advertisements must be used even
though they can be shown to be wasteful. In this case part of the cost of the
advertisement should logically be paid out of the companys general
advertisement account as it is concerned as much with public relations as with

On the other hand, prestige of the company can sometimes be made use of; a
recruitment campaign is very often more successful if it follows a national
advertising campaign for a new product which has brought the company into
the public eye.

Other media, which may be used in advertisement, are billboards, subway and
bus posters, radio and television. For example radio is best when multiple jobs
are involved, such as staffing a new facility. Ads need to be carefully prepared.
If the company name is used, too many people may respond and screening
procedures for a large number of applicants can be costly. This is one of the
decisions in preparing a recruiting advertisement.

In addition the firm must be careful not to violate EEO requirements by
indicating preferences for a particular race, religion, national origin or sex..
While most employers know that discriminating ads are generally illegal,
questionable advertising still appears. Therefore, its important to remember that
ads that are sex-specific (calling for man, woman) are questionable as are sex-
related gender terms like yard man, repairman or ads implying a certain age (
such as student, recent graduate or referee). Similarly also terms like bilingual
or Japanese are also questionable. Employers using ads like these may have to
defend their rationale for limiting their search to the type of person identified in
the ad.

2. The Internet
Many company recruiters are now using the Internet as an easy and subtle
method to contact employed job candidates. This controversial turn is not
restricted to the highly aggressive technology companies but is now spreading
to airlines, banks, oil and biotechnology companies. Some companies have
websites where they post vacant positions.
It is fast and one can recruit globally.

3. Employment Agencies as a source of Candidates
There are 2 basic types of employment agencies.
1. Government owned agencies
2. Privately owned agencies

Private agencies which are run as commercial enterprises for supplying
employers with candidates for jobs are also of 2 main types.
i) Office staff employment agencies-which mainly deal with clerical, typing
and office machine operator vacancies.
ii) Selection agencies for senior staff which usually undertakes the complete
recruitment process and the first stages of selection for managerial and
professional vacancies. The agency analyzes the job, prepares job and
personnel specifications, advertises, sends out application forms, and
interviews selected candidates sometimes testing them also. The
employer is then presented with a short list of candidates, the career and
qualifications of each being described so that he makes the final choice

Private employment agencies are important sources of devices, white-collar and
managerial personnel. Such agencies charge fees for each applicant they place.
Many private agencies now offer temporary help service and provide secretarial
clerical or semi-skilled labour in a short-term bases. These agencies can be
useful in helping you cope with peal loads and fill in for vacationing

Some specific situations in which you might want to turn to an agency include
the following.

1. Your firm does not have its own HR department and is not geared to do
recruiting and screening.
2. Your firm has found it difficult in the past to generate a pool of qualified
3. A particular opening must be filled quickly.
4. There is a perceived need to attract a greater number of minority or female
5. The recruitment effort is aimed at individual who are currently employed
who might feel more comfortable dealing with employment agencies rather
than competing with them.

There are several other reasons to use as employment agency for some or all of
your recruiting needs advantages like
cut down on your interviews
Interview only the right people
Selecting only the most qualified candidates for your final living process.

Employment agencies are no panacea. For example an employment agency
prescreens applicants for your job but this advantage can also backfire. The
employment agencies screening may let poor applicants by pass the preliminary
stages of your own selection process.

Unqualified applicants may thus go directly to the supervisors responsible for
the hiring, who may in turn naively hire them.

Such errors show up in high turnover, absenteeism rates, morale problems, low
quality and productivity. Suitably successful applicants may be blocked from
entering your application pool.
To help avoid such problems
1. Give the agency an accurate and complete job descriptions.
2. Periodically review data on accepted/rejected candidate.
3. Specify devices/tools the employment agency should use in screening.
4. Develop a long-term relationship with one or two agencies.

4. Head Hunting
Very senior managers are sometimes recruited by a process known as
executive search or head hunting. Its advocates believe that the best
candidates are not those who reply to advertisements or look for new jobs in
other ways but those who are successful in their present jobs and are not
thinking of moving elsewhere.

On receipt of a commission from a client the headhunter will search for
potential candidates.
i) In competing businesses (possibly obtaining names from company
reports brochures)
ii) In the membership lists of professional bodies, trade association year
iii) Through confidential head hunting networks.
Selected individuals are then approached discreetly and following a discussion
regarding the job and its remuneration, one or two of them are introduced to the
client firm.

Advantages to Headhunting are:
1. Headhunters should possess expert knowledge of the salary levels and fringe
benefits necessary to attract good calibre candidates. Also they will analyze
the vacancy, and offer an opinion about the type of person required, will
conduct initial screening, administer psychometric tests etc.
This saves the client many administrative and advertising expenses.

2. Possibly, top managers already in employment will not bother to read job
advertisements, newspapers and other conventional means and so might not
be reached by these means.
3. Senior managers prepared to make a move sometimes make this known to
leading headhunters even though they would not openly apply to competing
4. If a targeted candidate does not want the job, he/she may suggest someone
else who is equally suitable and who may be interested.
5. Recruiting firms are assured that candidates presented to them will almost
certainly be well equipped for the vacant position.
6. The anonymity of the recruiting organization is preserved until the final
stage in the procedure.

Criticisms of Executive Search Include:
1. Headhunting is highly disruptive to successful businesses, which stand to
lose expensively-trained senior manager.

2. It can be used to avoid equal opportunities laws on recruitment and

3. A headhunted individual might subsequently be enticed by other headhunted
to leave his/her new firm after a short period.
To avoid this some companies attach golden handcuffs to senior
management positions i.e they pay large cash bonuses, which are only
available to executives who stay with the firm a certain number of years.

4. Arguably head hunters rely too heavily on existing networks and trade
contacts, creating thereby a glorified old boy system which ignores good
people from other sources.

5. Headhunters fees are far higher than for conventional employment

6. An unsuitable candidate may bribe the headhunter to recommend that person
for the vacant job.

7. The headhunter might acquire confidential information about the client
which would then be passed on to competing firms.

8. Headhunters are not subject to the same long-term accountability as
personnel managers employed within the business.

Executive recruiters are special employment agencies retained by employers to
seek out top management talent for their clients. These firms can be very useful.
They have many contacts and are especially adept at contacting qualified
candidates who are not actively working and are good at analyzing jobs. They
can also keep your firms name confidential until late in the search. The
recruiters fee might actually turn out to be insignificant compared to the cost of
the executive time saved. But there are some pitfalls. As an employer it is
essential for you to explain completely what sort of candidate is required- and
remember that some recruiters are more of sales people than professionals.
They may be more interested in persuading you to hire a candidate than in
finding one who will really do the job. Therefore be prepared for some in-depth
dissecting of your request.

1. Make sure the firm you hire is capable of conducting a thorough search.
2. Meet the individual who will be handling your assignment.
3. Ask how much the search firm charges.
4. Choose a recruiter you can trust
5. Talk to some of their clients.

5. College Recruiting as a Source of Candidates.
Many promotable candidates are originally hired through college recruiting.
This is therefore an important source of management trainees, as well as
professional and technical employees. There are two main problems with
campus recruiting. First it is relatively expensive and time consuming for the
recruiters. Second recruiters are some times ineffective or unprepared. Many
recruiters often do not screen their student candidates. For example students
physical attractiveness often outweighs more valid traits and skills. One main
function as a recruiter is screening, which means determining whether a
candidate is worthy of further consideration and then attract to your firm.

A sincere and informal attitude, respect for the applicant as an individual and
prompt follow up letters can help you sell the employer to the candidates.
Many employers maintain connection with universities, colleges and schools
but candidates are usually available from these sources only at one time of the

Computerized Employee Databases

Some firms sell resume databases. Organizations can quickly and efficiently
gain access to prospective applicants by using a database.
In general data bases can be classified into 5 categories:

1. Databases maintained by executive search firms.
2. Data bases maintained by University alumni groups.
3. Databases owned by private agents .
4. Corporate data bases.
5. Databases open to the general public.

Organization can also gain access to a large pool of potential applicants by
developing partnerships with government affiliated job services

Direct applications made at your office- are a major source of applicants.
They should be treated with respect. Remember to always give a positive image
of your firm as a recruiter.

Recruiting a more diverse work force

It is not just socially responsible, it is a necessity.

Older workers as a source of candidates
Is it practical in terms of productivity to keep old workers on?
The Answer is Yes!
Age related changes in physical ability, cognitive performance and personality
traits have little effect on workers output except in the most physically
demanding tasks.
Similarly creative and intellectual achievements do not decline with age and
absenteeism drops as age increases.
Older workers also usually display more company loyalty than youthful
workers, and tend to be satisfied with their jobs and supervision and can be
trained or retrained as effectively as anyone.

However the company must do several things to make it an attractive place in
which the older worker can work specifically:

- Examine your personnel policies
- Develop flexible work options
- Create or redesign suitable jobs
- Offer flexible benefit plan


Other Recruiting Sources
More and more employers are turning to relatively non-traditional sources of

Moonlighters have often been shunned by employers on the assumption that
workers with full-time jobs at other firms might not have the required
commitment to a second employer. Yet more employers are finding that
moonlighters take a second job because they must and that their commitment
to their second employer is thus high enough to do their jobs well.

Retired and exiting military personnel are another source that a firm may

Line and staff cooperation in recruitment as in all other functions is essential.

The HR manager who recruits and initially screens for the vacant job is not
usually the one responsible for supervising its performance. He must know
exactly what the job entails and this, in turn, means speaking with the
supervisor involved. For example the HR Manager might want to know
something about the behavioral style of the super visor and members of the
work group.
Is it a tough group to get along with, for instance? He/ she might also want to
visit the worksite and review the job description with the supervisor to ensure
that the job has not changed, ensure the description was written and to obtain
any additional sight to the skills) and talents the worker will need.


Recruiting may be defined as the process of seeking, attracting and identifying a
pool of qualified candidates in sufficient numbers to fill current and future work
force needs. Recruitment is the discovering of potential applicants for actual or
anticipated organizational vacancies.

One can consider several external sources so as to build a pool of applicants:
advertising ,the internet ,employment agencies, headhunting, college recruiting
walk-ins, moonlighters, retired or military personnel.

Certain influences constrain managers in determining recruiting sources:
a) Image of the organization
b) Attractiveness of the job
c) Internal policies
d) Union requirements
e) Government requirements
f) Recruiting budgets

Popular sources of recruiting employees include
a) Internal search
b) Advertisements
c) Employee referrals/ recommendations
d) Employment agencies
e) Temporary rental services
f) Schools, colleges and universities
g) Professional organizations
h) Casual or unsolicited applicants

In practice recruitment methods appear to vary according to job level and skill.

Questions for review
1. What is the dual objective of recruitment?
2. What factors influence the degree to which an organization will engage in
recruiting ?
3.What specific constraints may prevent a manager from giving the best
4. What recruiting source gets the most acceptable candidates?
5. Why would a company pay a private employment agency to recruit
candidates for a position when a public employment agency provides its
services for free?
6.What are the advantages and disadvantages of recruiting through?
a) Internal search
b) Employee referrals
c) Casual or unsolicited applicants
7.How can a professional association reduce the supply of qualified labor?
8. What are the most popular recruiting sources for unskilled jobs?
9.What are the most popular recruiting sources for managerial jobs?

Discussion Questions
1. Compare and contrast 5 sources of job candidates.
2. Discuss how equal employment laws apply to personnel recruiting activities?
3. What types of information can an application form provide?

Working individually or in-groups develop an application form for the position
supervisor of manufacturing operations. Compare the application forms
produced by different individuals or groups. Are there any items that should be
dropped out due to equal em0ployment opportunity restrictions?

Are there any items you would add to make your application form more

Working individually or in groups develop an application form for the position
of customer service representative.
Compare the application forms provided by different individuals or groups.

Discussion Questions
1.An organization should follow a promotion from within policy.
Do you agree or disagree?

2.When you go looking for a job upon college graduation.
What sources do you expect to utilize? Why?

4. What improvements might you expect in the make up of an organization
human resources as a result of having an affirmative program?

5. The best candidates are the ones who are hard to find. That is why it is
imperative to pay a service to find these people Do you agree or disagree?

6 Compare and contrast 5 sources of job candidates

6. What types of information can an application form provide?

8. Discuss how equal employment laws apply to personnel recruiting activities.



Once you have a pool of completed application forms, the next step is to select
the best person for the job. In most firms this means whittling down the
applicant pool by using the screening tools, including tests assessment centers,
background and reference checks. The prospective supervisor can then
interview a handful of viable candidates and decide who will be hired.

Defining Selection

Selection is the next stage after recruitment. It involves assessing the candidates
by various means and making a choice followed by an offer of employment.

Once we have recruited a pool of qualified applicants we must now begin the
process of thinning this set, which is one of the major objectives of selection.
We want to assess our applicants against the criteria established in job analysis
in order to predict which job applicants will be successful if hired. All selection
activities from the initial screening interview to the physical examination exist
for the purpose of making an effective selection decision.

Selection may therefore be defined as choosing from a pool of applicants the
individuals who best fit the selection criteria for a given position.

Importance of Selection

The selection process is a critical one for any manager. One must take into
account not only the fact that an incorrect decision can lead to a tremendous
cost in terms of resources and opportunity, but also that many people will be
affected by the decision.

The right choice can mean growth and increased productivity for the entire
work group associated with the new hire. The wrong selection can result in
months of frustration, repetitive training, documentation and low morale prior
to the eventual termination of the recently hired person, after which the
selection process begins all over again. Employee selection is a decision that
needs to be made right the first time.

Although this is true in organizations of any size, the imp act of a wrong
selection decision is magnified in a smaller firm. In a larger organization, one
inappropriate placement can perhaps be reassigned or retrained in the smaller
organization. There may be no such luxury in a smaller organization. Selection
is critical.

Hence employee selection is important firstly because your performance always
depends in part of your subordinates.
Employees who havent the right skills or are abrasive or obstructionist wont
perform effectively and your performance in the firm will suffer. The time to
screen out undesirables is before they are in the door, not after.

Secondly effective screening is important because it is costly to recruit and hire
employees. The total cost of hiring a manager is very high once search fees,
interviewing time, reference checking and travel and moving expenses are taken
into consideration.

The cost of hiring non-executive employees, although not as high
proportionally, is still high enough to warrant effective screening.

Goals of Selection

The basic goal of selection is to hire the employees most likely to attain high
standards of performance. HR managers and all involved in the selection
process most concentrate on the most promising candidates, being as selective
as possible. Identifying potential employees is a highly developed art if not a
science. In the past this meant selecting candidates who had the skills the
company needed now.
Now it means selecting employees who can function at a high level in one job
or with one work group today and later be trained or promoted as needs dictate.
An effective selection process has several goals including:

1. Developing a high performance workforce one which can implement
organizational strategy and achieve bottom line results within legal
2. Increasing the rate of return on recruiting costs (selection expense as an
investment to reduce turnover, training and receive a good value for salary
3. Selecting top performers who will be able to attract others like themselves
and continue a winning process.
4. Legal Implications and Negligent Hiring -Good selection is also important
because of the legal implications of ineffective or incompetent selection.
Equal employment legislation guidelines and court decisions require you to
systematically evaluate the effectiveness your selection procedures to ensure
that you are not unfairly discriminating against minorities, women, the
elderly or handicapped.

Secondly, courts are increasingly finding employers liable for damages when
employees with criminal records or other problems take advantage of access to
customer homes or other similar opportunities to commit crimes. Hiring
workers with such backgrounds without proper safeguards is called negligent

Examples of such cases
In one Ponticas V. K. M.S Investment -an apartment manager with a pass key
entered a womans apartment and assaulted her. Negligence by the owner and
the operator of the apartment complex in not properly checking the apartment
managers background prior to hiring him was found to be the cause of the
womens personal injury.

In another case Henley S. Prince George Comly an employee who turned out to
have a criminal background murdered a young boy; management, aware of the
mans prior murder conviction was held liable.

Two experts argue that the recent increase in negligent hiring cases underscores
the need for employers to carefully think through what the human requirements
are when conducting a job analysis.

Specifically, Negligent hiring litigation points out that ability to do the job is
interpreted beyond the type of information typically collected in a job analysis.
For example non-rapist is unlikely to appear as a required knowledge, skill or
ability in a job analysis of a repair person..Yet it is this type of requirement that
has been the focus of many negligent hiring suits.
On the other hand it could be discriminating to conclude that candidates with
say, conviction records are automatically not right for certain jobs .In other
words the fear of Negligent hiring must be balanced with EEO concerns.

Guidelines for protecting against negligent hiring claims include.

1. Carefully scrutinize all information supplied by the applicant on his/ her
employment application.
For example look for unexplained gaps in employment.
2. Obtain the applicant written authorization for reference checks from
prospective employees, check former employers as references very
3. Save all the records and information you obtain about the applicant during
each stage of the selection process.
4. Reject applicants who make false statement of material facts in the
application or who have records of conviction for offenses directly related
and important to the positions in question.
5. Keep in mind the need to balance the applicants privacy rights with others
need to know when damaging information is discovered.
6. Take immediate disciplinary action if problems develop.

The Selection Process

In many organizations employee hiring is a continuous process. There are
continuing vacancies due to retirement, turnover and other normal attrition.
Even an organization that is downsizing may well be hiring in specific areas.

The selection process begins with the application blank and ends with a
successful hiring decision. The purpose of the selection process is to
differentiate among applicants to predict likely job performance. The selection
process must meet the criteria of efficiency and effectiveness .This is reflected
in measures of absenteeism, turnover, retention and promotion.

The selection process can be illustrated by the diagram shown next:

The Selection Process

The Application Blank
Step 1

The Screening Interview
The employment Interview

Step 2

Step 3

Employment Testing
Reference Checks

Step 4

Step 5

The Conditional Employment Decision
Step 6

Step 6

The Conditional Employment Decision

The Final Employment Decision
The Physical Examination
Step 7

Step 8


The Application Blank

The application blank provides an opportunity to gather certain basic selection
data in a short time period. Whatever methods of recruitment are used the
candidate should be asked to fill in an application form. Firstly to ensure that no
important details are omitted and secondly to provide information about the
candidate in a logical and uniform order.

Several surveys suggest that all organizations, except the very smallest have
applicants complete an application form.
Once the initial screening has been completed, applicants are asked to complete
the organizations application form. The amount of information may be only the
applicants name, address and telephone number. Some organizations require
the completion of a six to ten page comprehensive personal history profile.

In general terms, the application form gives a synopsis of what applicants have
been doing their adult life their skills and their accomplishments.
The application blank is probably the best known form to most employees and
is the most widely used it can be verified for accuracy, it is easy to use and it
has face validity. Perhaps because of this general familiarity its significance in
human resource work is often overlooked or taken for granted. The unfortunate
result may be that the information collected is not fully utilized.

The application form/blank has a variety of uses. It is not only the basis of
selection but its the fundamental document in an employees personnel record
and has legal importance in the contract of employment.

Application forms are also useful for

1. Projecting a favorable image of the recruiting organization.
2. Obtaining names and addresses of people to contact when future vacancies
3. Researching the effectiveness of various recruitment advertising media.
4. Monitoring the effectiveness of equal opportunities policies.

Evidence indicates that a property validated application blank in the hands of a
human resource specialist increases the effectiveness of a companys selection
process. After all, the purpose of using the application blank in the first place is
to assist in predicting the likely future success of the candidate.

The application form/ blank becomes a key link between recruiting and the final
selection process for 3 reasons.

1. It provides the usual record keeping information, date, name, ID no, home
address and telephone number and who to contact is an emergency (name,
address, phone no.
2. It contains information to be used in evaluating the candidate, education,
work history and references.
3. It contains the sign-of section where the recruit agrees to certain
conditions by signing their name and dating it. For blue collar jobs and
possibly other positions, a common statement is
In the event of termination, the employee will promptly return all comp
any property
4. Other affirmations include the truthfulness of statements, falsehoods which
will lead to termination and permission to contact references. An important
disclaimer that may be included (depending upon the laws) in this section
concerns employment at will. That is the company may terminate
employment at any time with or without good cause.

Further the company may change human resource policies regarding pay,
benefits and employment unilaterally without the persons consent.
Any oral statements causing a person to accept employment that are
inconsistent with the employee handbook or company policy are to be
considered invalid. Finally the applicant, by signing the disclaiming, releases
the company from any liability.

In most organizations, application blanks provide an initial screening process.
Before making application forms too detailed, several factors should be

First, excessively long and complex forms may discourage potential applicants
second, all items should be job related.

Finally all questions most adhere to guidelines set forth by the equal
employment opportunity laws. Basically, any application form question which
could which could be constructed as discriminating against a protected class
must be demonstrably job related, or it must be eliminated from the application

The application blank can therefore serve many purposes at once. The
disclaimers such as the employment at will clause may help if it later
becomes necessary to dismiss an employee.

But the main purpose is to aid in the selection process; with this in mind you
can see why some application blanks are complex such as the weighted
application blank.
The weighted application form appears to offer excellent potential. The WAB is
a form designed to be scored as a systematic selection method. The purpose of
the WAB is to relate characteristics to job performance.
To create such a form, individual form items such as no. of years of schooling,
no. of previous jobs, no. of months on last job, reason for leaving last job,
salary increase over all previous jobs military experience, are validated against
performance and turnover measures and given appropriate weights.

Let as assume for example that management is interested in developing a
weighted application form that would predict which applicants for the job of
insurance claims adjuster will, if hired, stay with the company. They would
select from their personnel files the application forms from each of two groups
of previously hired adjusters-one a group that had a short tenure with the
organization (adjusters that stayed less than one year) and the other, a group
with long tenure (say 5 years or more).

These old application forms would be screened, item by item, to determine now
employees in each group responded. In this way, management would discover
items that differentiate groups. These items would then be weighed relative to
their magnitude of differentiation. If 80% of the long tenure group had a college
degree while only 20% of the short tenures had such a degree, then possession
of a college degree might be given a weight of 4 but if 30% of the long tenure
group had prior experience in like insurance industry while 20% of the short-
tenure did this item might be given a weight of only 1.

Notice of course, that the procedure would have to be done on every job. Items
that predict long tenure for an insurance claims adjuster may be totally different
from items that predict long tenure for a grocery clerk.

Other application forms however are the utmost in simplicity. The layout of
application forms varies but most of them contain the following headings,
usually in this order.
It usually starts with instructions on how to complete the form and should
include a statement complete the form and should include a statement that any
applicant who includes unrequested or false information will automatically be
An typical application form will therefore include :
a) Job applied for
b) Name, address, telephone number
c) Date and place of birth
d) Nationality
e) Education
f) Training and qualifications
g) Medical history e.g. any serious illness whether disabled.
h) Employment history (names of previous employers, description of jobs held,
dates of employment reasons for leaving.
i) Any other information the candidate wishes to provide.
j) A signature under the words This information is correct to the best of my
k) Date

As noted some application forms are complex and others simple.
McDonalds restaurant from time to time, print attractive application blanks and
the place mats!
The goals here is to get a pool of applicants quickly. What their application
blank lacks in detail, makes up in utility.

A well designed application blank will be legal. The application blank needs to
be as legally defensible as possible.

Step 2: The Screening Interview

The screening interview is usually done after the applicant fills out the
application. The interview is used to determine key information regarding job
requirements in order to get a general impression of the applicant when the
screening interview process is complete, the result should be a satisfactory pool
of candidates. Although many in the company may participate in the interview
process it is still the responsibility of the HR manager to optimize the solution.
Perhaps because so many untrained individuals participate in interviewing,
several studies criticize the validity of the interview as an appropriate selection
A historic study by W.D Scott found that interviewers for sales positions could
not agree whether the candidates should be placed in the top or bottom ranking.
This amazing result has unfortunately been replicated in other studies. Such
initial studies have continued with may field reviewing 20 years of
interviewing Harvey caupion also finding wise variation among interviewers.
However despite the criticism of the interview its widespread use indicates
the importance it is awarded in selection. This is due in past to the fact that in
an interview, applicants can be asked questions about application black
information and test scores .Also, the interview permits going beyond the
collected data to probe deeper in areas the company is interested in. This might
include probing into the applicants interpersonal skills, central life interests and
value system as they relate to the job. Will the applicant fit in well with the
work team? An application black will not help answer this key question.
The screening interview effectively fills the gaps that are bound to occur
within the tiem limits for obtaining accurate data. Of course the more exposure
to liability for claws of discrimination.
The screening interview would be the first attempt to discover how applicants
are handling stress in their present environment. This early approach in the
interviewely process world be very appropriate for jobs with high demand and
little control over working conditions. This type of job presents the greatest
health risk to employees.

STEP 3: The Employment Interview

The employment interview is the most widely used selection technique.
Organizations incurs tremendous annual expenses in interviewing applicants.
Despite the costs of research suggesting tat the selection interview is not as
other techniques, it nevertheless plays a very important role in the selection

Several studies suggest that it is one of the most important steps in selection.
Depending upon the importance of the job, an applicant may be interviewed by
one person or by several members of the organization although their is some
doubt about the validity of the interview as a selection method, other
researchers suggest several key features of the interview.
1. it is a fast and direct way to differentiate among a small number of
applicants .
2. It serves several purposes-information gathering, public relations tool, & so
3. Skilled interviewers often provide reliable judgements.
Some research has focused on the differences among interviewers rather than
on the interview method. It is suggested that some interviewers valuations may
be more valid than others in the assessment of applicant.
The interview is often used to make assessment regarding the degree of fit
between applicants and jobs.
The interview is used to evaluate applicants and to predict which applicants are
more likely to be successful in the organization.
With todays competitive world of work it is important that the most suitable
candidate is selected the first time around.
Many jobs are continually changing and some just become obsolete. perhaps
employers should look for people who are comfortable adapting to change in
their professional and personal lives. If this is correct, the qualities that should
be looked for include:
1. Awell-developed self-awareness resulting from a varied and emotionally
demandly life experiences.
2. A present need to be productive with a drive to do things differently.
3. A different educational path, such as postponing one, educational to work
or raise a family.
4. A short learning wire and tendency toward boredom

When interviewing such a job candidate, It should be challenging &
conformational not comfortable & cosy. Values should match those of the
organization. The interviewee may have response that are not politically correct
or not typically expected. This means the candidate is answering the questions
honestly at the risk of not getting the job. Interviewing requires an awareness
of developing trends affecting people. Years of prospering appear to have bred
a culture of risk takers. A measure of those who voluntarily left their taste job is
called the quit rate. If is at its highest now. The glamour of job hopping is at a
record pace.

Dunny the interview the interviewer has certain hard data available assist in
the final decision to accept or reject. Such data may include the application
blank, references, resume, psychological test scores of intelligence and
personality and perhaps background checks. While the mix of these data will
vary, the one constant is that an interviewer will make the initial decision to
accept or reject the candidate. Despite all attempts for objectivity, subjectivity
will be present in varying degrees, contributing in large measure to the selection
of effective performers.

When highly paid professional leaves in a short time this can cost the company
quite a great deal in advertising, travel, interview time, training and other costs.

Few people fail in their new jobs because they cannot do them technically. It is
the soft skills that do them in, yet these are the hard ones to deter mine soft
skills such as personality motivation and creativity is through face to face
interviews yet the interview is not perfect with corporate turnover averaging

A study by Harvard University reports nearly 80% of turnover results from
hiring mistake. One must always be careful during the interview process to
avoid any discriminatory bias.
Also, the personal blas of the interviewer needs to be considered to eliminate
as much as possible blased input in the decision making process.
Various interviewing methods have been devise to eliminate a large measure of
this subjective error.
For instance in the structured or patterned interview the interviewers ask a
predetermined list of questioned of all the applicant is similar.
A true structured interview would apply not only to the questions but to the
answers as well.
The answers would be structured similar to a multiple-choice test.
Under these conditioned there would be little or no interview bias. The more
generally used structured interview applies only to the required question with
the applicant replies reflecting
The attitudes and personality of the individual.
Although this format suffers from a lack of flexibility it doe improve the
validity o interviewers judgements.

The unstructured interview
The candidate controls the flow of topic discussed and the interviewer refrains
from directing the applicants remarks. The interviewer merely nod assent on
repeats statements made by the applicant.

Employment Testing
Another step I the selection process is the employment test. An employment test
is method that attempts to measure certain characteristics of job applicants.
These tests include
-Aptitude tests
-Personality tests
- achievement tests
- Polygraph / honesty tests.
- A test is basically a sample of a persons behavior. Some tests are more
clearly representative of the behavior being sample that others.
- A test must meet certain criteria.
1.Valid-validity is the accuracy with which a test /interview measures what it
purports to measure.
2.reliable-reliability refers to the consistency of scores obtained by the same
person when tested with the identical equivalent tests.
Management assessment centers are situations in which management
candidates are asked to make decisions in hypothetical situations and are scored
on their performance.

Step 5. Reference checks
One of the final steps in the selection process is to check references. Generally
telephone checks are preferable because they save time and provide for greater
candor, usually the most reliable information comes from immediate
supervisors who are able to report on an applicants prior work attitudes and

Step 6. The Conditional Employment Decision
At this time a preliminary decision to hire is made. However, final approvals
still is independent upon the results of the physical Examination.

Step 7. The Physical Examination
The physical examination is usually one of the last steps in the selection process
because of costs.
The use of pre employment medical examination varies among industries but
about half of the companies surveyed in one study used pre employment
physical examinations to the test prospective employees.
In the past some unqualified job applicants were eliminated from employment
consideration because of some physical exam result unrelated to the task to be
performed. In the United States this practise eliminated so many otherwise
qualified workers that congress passed the Americans with Disabilities Act of
Employers can still required exams after job off has been made, but must be
ready to accommodate applicants who can be helped to do the job.

Step 8: The Final Employment Decision.
The final step in the selection process is the decision to accept or reject the
applicant based on the results of physical examination. This is an important step
because of the costs of recruiting and selecting, legal considerations the
relatively short probationary time in the most organizations and turnover of
many new employees.

This lesson focused on several major selection issues. One is that organizations
operate in a dynamic and changing environment and consequently most be
elective in choosing new employees.
We also discussed the selection process and the ways in which it is used to
improve organizational effectiveness.
In order to match the individuals skills knowledge and abilities to
organizational needs the HR manager must be sensitive to changes in markets,
people and competition and be aware of the need for a continuing source of
adaptive and flexible employees for the organization.
The selection process involves an assessment of an individuals predicted
performance. The steps in the process are typical of most organizations. In a
changing environment, managing human resources effectively involves
selecting and developing a high performing work force. In todays global world
learning now to select a multicultural workforce is an emerging challenge.

1. Proper selection can minimize the costs of replacement, training, reduce
legal challenges and result in a more productive work force.

2. The primary purpose of selection activities is to predict which job
applicant will be successful if hired. During the selection process
candidates are also informed about the job and the organization.

3. The discrete selection process would include:
a. Initial screening interview
b. Completion of the application form
c. Employment tests
d. Comprehensive interview
e. Background investigations
f. Physical examination
g.Final employment decision.

4. In the discrete selection process an unsuccessful performance at any stage
results is rejection of the applicant.

5. An alternative to the discreet method of selection is the comprehensive
approach, where all applicants go through every step in the selection
process and the final decision is based as a comprehensive evaluation of
the results of each stage.


6. To be an effective predictor, a selection device should:
a. Be reliable
b. Be valid
c. Predict a relevant criteria.




Behavioural Objectives

When you finish studying Part 2 on Training you should be able to:

Define training

Explain how to develop an orientation and socialization program.

Describe the basic training process.

Discuss at least two techniques used for assessing training needs.

Explain the pros and cons of at least five training techniques.

Describe how to evaluate the training effort.

Explain how the learning theory and learning principles relate to training


By the end of this lesson you should be able to:
Define the concept and purposes of training in an organization
Explain why training is important
4A.1 Background Information:

Todays managers face greater challenges than ever to maintain their position
among the top economic powers. Most businesses are realizing their place at the
top is not guaranteed, and that they must find solutions to the declining
productivity, competitiveness, motivation and creativity of the workforce. One
Human Resource Director said, If you want to be a world-class manufacturer,
the greatest resource is the force working for you.

Every organization needs to have well-trained and experienced people to
perform the activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants
can meet this requirement, training is not important. When this is not the case, it
is necessary to raise the skills levels and increase the versatility and adaptability
of employees.

As jobs have become more complex, the importance of employee training has
increased. When jobs were simple, easy to learn, and influenced to only a small
degree by technological changes, there was little need for employees to upgrade
or alter their skills. But the rapid changes taking place during the last quarter-
century in our highly sophisticated and complex society have created increase
pressures for organizations to readapt the products and services produced, the
manner in which products and services are produced and offered, the types of
jobs required, and the types of skills necessary to complete these jobs.

In fact, trainings purposes are broader today than they have been in the past.
Companies used to emphasize production process training-teaching the
technical skills required to perform jobs, such as training assemblers to solder
wires or teaches to devise lesson plans. However, training and development
programs and their objectives changed in the 1980s and 1990s. Employers had
to adapt to rapid technological changes, improve product and service quality,
and boost productivity to stay competitive. Improving quality often requires
remedial-education training, since quality improvement programs assume
employees can use critical thinking skills, produce charts and graphs, and
analyse data. Employees must also use or acquire skills in team building,
decision making, and communication. Similarly, as firms became more
technologically advanced, employees require training in technological and
computer skills (such as desktop publishing and computer-aided design and
manufacturing) And as increased competition has put a premium on better
service, employers have turned abilities to customers-service training to provide
employees with the tools and abilities they need to deal more effectively with
customers, such as effective listening skills. All told, this shift from purely
production-process training helps to explain whey in one recent year an average
production worker received 37 hours of training compared with only 31 hours
in the previous year.

More employers today are taking advantage of the fact that training can
strengthen employee commitment. Few things illustrate a firms commitment to
its employees more than continuing developmental opportunities to better
themselves, and such commitment is usually reciprocated. This is the reason
why high-commitment firms like Toyota provide about two weeks of training
per year for all employees.

We can therefore say the expansion of trainings role reflects that fact that the
game of economic competition has new rules. In particular, its no longer
enough to just be efficient. Thriving today requires that the firm be fast and
responsive. And it requires responding to customers needs for quality, variety,
customisation, convenience, and timeliness. Meeting these new standards
requires a work force that is more than just technically trained. It requires
people who are capable of analyzing and solving job-related problems, working
productively in teams and switching gears and shifting from job to job as

Unfortunately, a training gap exists and may even be widening. While some
companies IBM, Xerox, Texas Instruments and Motorola, for instance devote
5% to 10% of their payroll dollars to training activities, the average training
investment by U.S. firms (while large in dollar terms) is less than 2% of payroll.
Experts estimate that between 42% and 90% of U.S. workers need further
training to get them up to speed. Unfortunately, in Kenya, when the monies are
low training is the first to be slashed off the budget. In any case, training is
moving to centre stage as a means of improving employers competitiveness.

Nearly 50 percent of all jobs currently being done in the United States did not
exist half century ago. It is becoming increasingly common for individuals to
change careers several times during their working lives. The probability of
any young person learning a job today and having those skills go basically
unchanged during the forty or so years of his or her career is extremely
unlikely, maybe even impossible.

During the 2000s, employee training will become increasingly important
because of the pressure to reduce costs and increase productivity. The
combination of increasing global competition, an expensive workforce, and
cheap computers has severed the link between economic growth and job
growth. Most companies are learning that they cant compete in world markets
unless they boost productivity and invest in a higher-trained and skilled
workforce. Employee training is a key factor in improving levels of
organisation productivity. Therefore, it is important that the organisation enable
employees to upgrade their skills and knowledge to meet these changing

There is a growing body of evidence that suggests workplace training offers a
significant return on the investment. A study reported that firms who spent an
average of $900 per employee increased net salary $386,171 on average per
employee from one year to the next. Firms who spent $275 per employee
increase net salary $245,000. this represents a difference of net sales per
employee of $141,170.

In the future, the only winning companies will be those that respond quickly to
changing conditions, increasing workforce diversity, and the critical issue of
training-related problems. At one company, turnover has been reduced by better
screening, pre-employment requirements, a good benefits program, and a good
training and communication programme. Preparing employees to function in a
high performing system is an important HR activity and is the focus of Part 1 of
this module . The modern HR manager must not only be flexible and adaptive
in a changing environment, but must also be able to develop a system approach
to training. Rapidly changing technology necessitates employees who have the
skills, abilities and knowledge to keep up with new, complex production
processes and techniques.

4A.2 Change in technology as a major factor to consider.

Many companies will have hundreds or thousand of employees in different
jobs. Each job will have its own specific requirements and challenges. The
HRM problem is to be able to match employees skills with job requirements.
Also, it is necessary to identify which important skills they do not have. Then,
for the skills the lack, what type of training will provide those skills? Once all
of this has been determined, how does HRM keep track of the training?

This is a large problem that is time-consuming, but must be accurate or the
costs will be very large. Enter the computer with software to eliminate these
problems. One such software is TRACCESS which will track each employees
training progress. It will also systematically measure employee competencies
and then provide links to a variety of course work to fulfil deficiencies. This is
all structured system the employees complete the instruction at their own pace.

In addition, the trend toward high technology in work processes requires
programmable automation of robots and multifunctional machines and a more
highly trained workforce. So the question becomes: How do we train these less
skilled workers to become more effective performers? In the following sections,
we will provide some possible solutions.

From the HRM viewpoint, it is important to recognise that technology dose not
take away jobs. What it does is create more demands on skills, which require
more training programs. In essence, work is an endless experience because
peoples expectations grow.

The issue for employees is not to worry about their present jobs continuing to
exist, but rather whether they will have the new skills for future employment.
Studies indicate employees will have at least four major job changes in their life
time. Training and retraining programs will be their salvation.

Training is a process that begins with the orientation of the new employee and
continues throughout an employees career. Therefore, it is important that the
HR manager develop training programs to improve employee skills and
performance in a changing labour force. IBM reportedly spends over $1 billion
yearly on the education of its employees.

Training is critical because it provides the skills needed both now and in the
future. The underlying assumption is: if an individual employee becomes more
productive and more involved, the total organization will also be improved.

An overlooked benefit of training is when it is a continuing process rather than
occasional. It has been found that when companies train their employees
continually, not only is there a high level of performance, but it also helps to
eliminate a negative workplace.

In the next couple of lesson we present a successful and effective way of going
about training: developing human potential. We discuss the purpose of and
importance of training and development programs. In the success system,
implementing a successful training program involves not only selecting
appropriate techniques aimed at changing organizations effectiveness, but also
enhancing the development of the organizations employees-its human

In a rapidly changing society, employee training is not only an activity that is
desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it
is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force.

What are Training and Development

Training can be defined as the process of teaching new employees the basic
skills they need to perform their jobs. Training gives new or present employees
the skills they need to perform their jobs. Training might thus mean showing a
machinist how to operate his new machine, a new salesperson how to sell her
firms product or a new supervisor how to interview and appraise employees.

Training may also be defined an attempt to improve performance by the
attainment of specific skills such as typing, welding, running a computer and so
forth, to do the current job. The goal of training is to ensure that a number of
job skills will be performed at prescribed quality levels by training employees.
In essence, training is investing in human resources. It tends to broaden the
focus of the employee being training.

Training is a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change
in an individual that will improve his or her ability to perform on the job. We
typically say training can involve the changing of skills, knowledge, attitudes,
or social behavior. It may mean changing what employees know, how they
work, their attitudes toward their work, or their interactions with their co-
workers or their supervisor.

Although training development are similar, and both critical, there are some
important differences. Whereas training focuses on skills needed to perform
employees current jobs, management development, which we will discuss later
in Part 2 of this module is training of a long-term nature. Its aim is to develop
current or future employees for future jobs with the organization or to solve an
organizational problem concerning, for instance, poor interdepartmental
communication. The techniques used in both training and development are
often the same, however, and the distinction between the two is always
somewhat arbitrary.

For our purpose, training will be presented as it applies primarily to operate
employees in the organization. By that we mean production, clerical, and
maintenance workers. Our emphasis here is on the development of those
employees who do not supervise the activities of others. What an organization
can do to develop supervisory and managerial employees will be the subject of
the lesson 4 on Management Development in Part 2 of this module.

Purposes of Training

Under favorable circumstances, training has the important dual function of
utilization and motivation. By improving employees ability to perform the
tasks required by the company, training allows better use to be made of human
resources; by giving employees a feeling of mastery over their work and of
recognition by management their job satisfaction is increased. When
circumstances are unfavorable, these results may not be obtained, for example
when the trainees see no purpose in the training, when it is regarded as a
punishment or a sign of displeasure or when the training seems irrelevant to the
trainees needs.


We can therefore say that the benefits a firm may obtain from training are:

Greater productivity and quality
Less scrap or spoiled work
Greater versatility and adaptability to new methods.
Fewer accidents
Greater job satisfaction showing itself in lowers labor turnover and less

It is always desirable to attempt to validate a training course to see if any of
these results have been achieved.

Arguments against training are that it is expensive (often, trainees are not
producing while they are being trained, and they might leave the company as
soon as their training ends) and that individual firms can sometimes recruit
competent employees at low cost from outside. Also, workers job expectations
typically increase in consequence of training, so that if trained employees are
not immediately put on to work that requires them to exercise their recently
acquired competencies they might become disaffected and look for other jobs
where they can use their new skills.


Reasons for Training

Sometimes training is routine, for example all new employees in certain jobs
automatically go through a training course. More often training is given as a
response to some event, for example.
a) The installation of new equipment or techniques which require new or
improved skills.
b) A change in working methods.
c) A change in product, which may necessitate training not only in production
methods but also in the marketing functions of the company.
d) A realization that performance is inadequate.
e) Labor shortage, necessitating the upgrading of some employees
f) A desire to reduce the amount of scrap and to improve quality.
g) An increase in the number of accidents.
h) Promotion or transfer of individual employees.

Training which is routine and traditional sometimes becomes out of date,
irrelevant or inadequate. A review may show that the purpose, methods and
standards of the training should be changed.




By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

Explain how to develop an orientation and socialization training program

Once employees have been recruited and selected, the next step is orientation
and training. In this lesson well see that orienting and training employees
means providing them with the information and skills they need to successfully
perform their new jobs. Well start with employee orientation.

What is Employee Orientation
Employee orientation provides new employees with basic background
information about the employer, information they need to perform their jobs
satisfactorily, such as what the work hours are. Orientation is actually one
component of the employers new-employee socialization process.
Socialization is the ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing
attitudes, standards, values, and patterns of behavior that are expected by the
organization and its departments.
The new employees initial orientation if handled correctly, helps him or her
perform better by providing needed information about company rules and
practices. It can also help reduce the new employees first-day jitters and the
reality shock he or she might otherwise experience (the discrepancy between
what the new employee expected from his or her new job, and the realities of
Orientation programs range from brief, informal introductions to lengthy,
formal programs. In the latter, the new employee is usual given a handbook or
printed materials that cover matters like working hours, performance reviews,
getting on the payroll, and vacations, as well as a tour of the facilities. Other
information to be given in an orientation program typically includes employee
benefits, personnel policies, the employees daily routine, company
organization and operations, and safety measures and regulations.
Note that there is the real possibility that courts will find your employee
handbooks contents represents a contract with the employee. Therefore,
disclaimers should be included that make it clear that statements of company
policies, benefits, and regulations do not constitute the terms and conditions of
an employment contract either express or implied. Think twice before including
statements in your handbook such as No employee will be fired without just
cause or statements that imply or state that employee have tenure; they could
be viewed as legal and binding commitments.

The first part of the orientation is usually performed by the HR specialist, who
explains such matters as working hours and vacation. The employee is then
introduced to his or her new supervisor. The latter continues the orientation by
explaining the exact nature of the job, introducing the person to his or her new
colleagues, and familiarizing the new employee with the workplace. An
example of a comprehensive orientation program is presented in the following

Building employee commitment
Orientation and socialization
In many firms today orientation goes well beyond providing basic information
about such aspects of the job as hours of work. More and more companies are
finding that orientation can be used for other purposes, such as familiarizing
new employees with the companys cherished goals and values. Orientation
thus begins the process of synthesizing the employees and the companys
goals, one big step toward winning the employees commitment to the firm.
Orientation (it is called assimilation) at Toyota Motor Manufacturing USA is
a case in point. While it covers traditional topics such as company benefits, its
mostly intended to socialize new employees, that is, to convert Toyotas new
employees to the firms ideology of quality, teamwork, personal development,
open communication, and mutual respect. It lasts four days, as follows:

Day one. The first day begins at 6.30a.m with an overview of the program, a
welcome to the company, and a discussion of the firms organization structure
and human resource department by the firms vice president for human
resources. The vice president devotes about an hour and a half to discussing
Toyota history and culture, and about two hour to employee benefits. Another
two hours are then spent discussing Toyotas policies about the importance of
quality and teamwork.

Day two. The second day starts with about two hours devoted to
communication training-the Toyota Motor Manufacturing way of listening.
Here the importance of mutual respect, teamwork, and open communication is
emphasized. The rest of the day is then devoted to general orientation issues.
These include safety, environment affairs, the Toyota production system, and
the firms library.

Day three. This day also begins with two-and-a half to three hours devoted to
communication training, in this case making requests and giving feedback.
The rest of the day is spent covering matters such as Toyotas problem-solving
methods, quality assurance, hazard communications, and safety.

Day four. Teamwork is stressed in the morning session. Topics include
teamwork training. Toyotas suggestion system, and the Toyota Team Member
Activities Association. This session also covers what work teams are
responsible for and how to work together as a team. The afternoon specifically
covers file prevention and fire and fire extinguishers training.
Employees thus complete the four-day orientation/assimilation/socialization
process having been steeped in and it is hoped converted to-Toyotas ideology.
In particular its mission of quality and its values of teamwork,
kaizen/continuous improvement, and problem solving. That is a big step toward
winning new employees commitment to Toyota and its goals and values.





By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Describe the basic training process

The present expenditure by business firms is very high. Unfortunately, some of
this money is wasted on unnecessary or obsolete training programs. To ensure
that training monies are invested wisely requires the same logic used in all
management decisions. The manager must go through a series of logical steps.

The Six Steps in the Training and Development process

We can conveniently think of a typical training or development program as
consisting of six steps:

Step 1: Training needs assessment
The initial step in a training program is to identify training needs, often termed
as needs assessment or training need analysis. The needs assessment refers to a
systematic, objective identification of training needs. Training needs can
usually be determined by consulting with appropriate managerial personnel,
areas of need revealed through employee performance appraisals, and
determining managers concerns for specific training needs to improve bottom-
line performance. If such needs can be pinpointed by hard data, survey
information, and not by vague concerns of need, training improvements will
result in increased employee efficiency.
Hence you may do the following:
Identify specific job performance skills needed to improve performance
and productivity.
Analyze the audience to ensure that the program will be suited to their
specific levels of education, experience and skills as well as attitudes and
personal motivations.

Step 2 Developing Training Objectives and criteria

The second step in a training program is developing training objectives and
criteria. The instructional objectives and criteria describe the performance in
terms training. One example of an objective would be the attainment of a
specific skill performing a work task within a certain time frame. An example
of a criterion would be a specified score on a test instrument or validation of
performing a specific consideration flawlessly a number of times. You may use
research to develop specific measurable knowledge and performance objectives.

There are two advantages to developing objectives. First, the objectives provide
criteria for evaluating the training program. Second, the objectives provide
trainers with the specific topics and content to focus on. This ensures that
training programs are focusing on important topics and goals that have meaning
to trainees.

Step 3 Instructional Design

Achieving the objectives and criteria can be accomplished through the selection
of an appropriate training approach. The basic training techniques include
coaching, internship, apprenticeship training, job rotation, job instructional
method, mentoring, continuing education, college and correspondence courses,
lecturers, role-playing, programmed instruction, vestibule training. These have
been discussed in detail in the Lesson on Training techniques
At this juncture
Gather instructional objectives, methods, media, description of and
sequence of content, examples, exercises, and activities. Organize them
into a curriculum that supports adult learning theory and provides a
blueprint for program development.
Make sure all materials such as video scripts, leaders, guides, and
participants workbooks, complement each other, are written clearly, and
blend into unified training geared directly to the stated learning
Carefully and professionally handle all program elements whether
reproduced on paper, film, or tape-to guarantee quality and effectiveness.

Step 3 Validation
Introduce and validate the training before a representative audience. Base
final revisions on pilot results to ensure program effectiveness.

Step 4 Implementation

When applicable, boost success with a train-the-trainer workshop that
focuses on presentation knowledge and skills in addition to training

Step 5 Evaluation And Follow-Up

Assess program success accordingly to:

REACTION- Document the learners immediate reactions to the training.
LEARNING Use feedback devices or pre-and post-tests to measure what
learners have actually learned.
BEHAVIOUR- Note supervisors reactions to learners performance
following completion of the training. This is one way to measure the degree
to which learners apply new training and knowledge to their jobs.
RESULTS Determine the level of improvement in job performance and
assess needed maintenance.

The training process can also be described in a diagram form as follows:

Figure 3 An effective and successful model of training
Identify needs for
Design training program
Conduct training
Evaluation of
training program
Identify or develop criteria to
evaluated training outcomes.
Behavior change
Organizational results.

A successful and effective training model should therefore consist of these

1 Identify training needs and
2.Establish specific objectives and evaluation criteria,
2 Design the appropriate training methods and
4.Conduct the training; and
5 Evaluate the results of the training

The purpose of the needs analysis step is to identify the specific job
performance skills needed, to analyze the skills and needs of the prospective
trainees, and to develop specific, measurable knowledge and performance
objectives. (Here make sure that the performance deficiency is attributable to
training rather than caused by, say poor morale due to low salaries).

In the third, instructional design step, the actual content of the training program
is compiled and produced including workbooks, exercise, and activities.

Next there may be a fourth validation step in which the bugs are worked out of
the training program by presenting it to a small representative audience.

Fifth, the training program is implemented, using techniques we shall discuss in
the next lesson (such as on-the job training and programmed learning).

Lastly there should be an evaluation and follow-up step in which the
programs success or failure is assessed.


Introduction to Training Needs Analysis

The first step in training is to determine what training, if any is required. Your
main task in assessing the training needs of new employees is to determine what
the job entails and to break it down into subtasks, each of which is then taught
to the new employee. Assessing the training needs of current employees can be
more complex, since you have the added task of deciding whether or not
training is the solution. For example, performance may be down because the
standards arent clear or because the person isnt motivated.

Task analysis and performance analyses are the two main techniques for
identifying training needs. About 19% of employers reporting in one survey
said they used task analysis- an analysis of the jobs requirements to determine
the training required. Task analysis is especially appropriate for determining the
training needs of employees who are new to their jobs. Performance analysis
appraises the performance of current employees to determine whether training
could reduce performance of problems like excess scrap or low output.

Other techniques used to identify training needs include supervisors reports,
personnel records, management requests, observations, tests or job knowledge,
and questionnaire surveys.

Whichever technique is used- task analysis, performance analysis, or more ,
other employee input is essential. Its often true that no one knows as much
about the job as the people actually doing it so that soliciting employee input is
usually wise.

Task analysis: assessing the training needs of new employees.

Task analysis is used for determining the training needs of employees who are
new to their jobs. Particularly with lower-echelon workers, it is common to hire
inexperienced personnel and train them. Here your aim is to develop the skills
and knowledge required for effective performance, and so the training is usually
based on task analysis, a detailed study of the job determine what specific
skills-like soldering (in the case of an assembly worker) or interviewing (in the
case of supervisor) are required.

The job description and job specification are helpful here. These list the specific
duties and skills required on the job and become the basic reference point in
determining the training required for performing the job.

Task analysis record form. Some employers supplement the current job
description and specification with a task analysis record form. This consolidates
information regarding the jobs required tasks and skills in a form thats
especially helpful for determining training requirements.

A task analysis record form contains six types of information.

Column 1, task list. Here the jobs main task and subtasks are listed. For
example, if one major task is Operate paper cutter, subtasks 1.1 through 1.5
might include Start motor, Set cutting distance, place paper on cutting
table, push paper up to cutter, and Grasp safety release with left hand.

Column 2, how often performed. Here you indicate the frequency with which
the task and subtasks are performed. For example, is it performed only once at
the beginning of the shift, or many times, hour after hour?

Column 3, quantity, quality standards. Here indicate the standards of
performance for each task and subtask. These show the level to be attained by
the trainee and should be as specific as possible. They should be expressed in
measurable terms like 6 tolerance of 0.007 in, Twelve units per hour, or
within tow days of receiving the order, for instance.

Column 4, Performance conditions. Here indicate the conditions under which
the tasks and subtasks are to be performed. This is especially important if the
conditions are crucial to the training-for example, where the person normally
has to work under conditions of turmoil and stress (as in the case of an air
traffic controller).

Column 5, Skills required. This is the heart of the task analysis form.
Here you list the skills or knowledge for each of the tasks and subtasks,
specifically exactly what knowledge or skills you must teach the trainee. Thus,
for the subtask Set cutting distance the person must be taught how to read the

Column 6, Where best learned. Here you indicate whether the task is learned
best on or off the job. Your decision is based on several considerations.
Safety is one: for example, prospective jet pilots must learn something about the
plane off the job in simulator before actually getting behind the controls.

Performance Analysis: determining the training needs of current

Performance analysis means verifying that there is significant performance
deficiency and determining whether that deficiency should be rectified through
training or through some other means (such as transferring the employee). The
first step is appraise the employees performance, since to improve it, you must
first determine the persons current performance compared to what it should be.
Examples of specific performance deficiencies follow:
I expect each sales person to make ten new contracts per week, but John
averages only six.

Other plants our size averages no more than two serious accidents per month;
were averaging five.

Distinguishing between cant do and wont do problems is the heart of
performance analysis. First, determine whether its a cant do problem and, if
so, its specific causes: The employees dont know what to do or what your
standards are; there are obstacles in the system such as lack of tools or supplies;
job aids are needed, such as color-coded wires that show assemblies which wire
goes where; poor selection results in hiring people who havent the skills to do
the job; or training is inadequate. On the other hand, it might be a wont do
problem. Here employer could do a good job if they wanted to. If so, the reward
system might have to be changed perhaps by installing an incentive system.

Setting training objectives.
After training needs have been analysed, concrete, measurable training
objectives should be set. Training, development, or (more generally)
instructional objectives are defined as a description of a performance you
want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent. For

Given a tool kit and a service manual, the technical representative will be able
to adjust the registration (black line along paper edges) on this Xerox duplicator
within 20 minute according to the specifications stated in the manual.

Objectives specify what the trainee should be able to accomplish after
successfully completing the training program. They thus provide a focus for the
efforts of both the trainee and the trainer and a benchmark for evaluating the
success of the training program.



After you have determined the employees training needs, set training
objectives, and designed the program, the training program can be
implemented. A description of the most popular training methods follows.


By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

Describe several training methods and techniques
Explain the pros and cons of several training techniques
Training techniques and methods can use two main approaches:

On the job training
Off-the-job training


On the job training is probably the most widely used method of training
On-the-job training (OJT) means having a person learn a job by actually
performing it.
In on-the job training, the employee is placed in the work situation and the
supervisor instructs the employee in how the job is done directly at the
Virtually every employee, from mailroom clerk to company president, gets
some on-the-job training when he or she joins a firm. In many companies, OJT
is the only type of training available. It usually involves assigning new
employees to experienced workers or supervisors who then do the actual

On the-job training has several major advantages. First, it is cost efficient.
Workers actually produce while they learn. Second, it builds motivation and
involves a feedback situation. Finally, it minimizes problems of transfer of
training. When employees learn in the actual job situation, the skills learned are
the ones needed.
OJT has therefore several advantages. It is relatively inexpensive; trainees learn
while producing, and there is no need for expensive off-job facilities like
classrooms of programmed learning devices. The method also facilitates
learning since trainees learn by actually doing the job and quick feedback about
the correctness of their performance.

1. However, there are several trainer-related factors to keep in mind when
designing OJT programs. The trainers themselves should be carefully trained
and given the necessary training materials. (Often, instead, an experienced
worker is simply told to go train John) experienced workers who are
chosen as trainers should be thoroughly trained in the proper methods of
instruction-in particular the principles of learning and perhaps the job
instruction technique that we address next.

Although on the job training is usually low cost and practical, it does have some
disadvantages. Because training is conducted at the normal production point,
trainees may damage equipment, cause excessive waste materials and involve
significantly higher accident rates.
Another major disadvantage of on-the-job training centers around the trainer. In
the majority of cases, the instructions are either supervisors or experienced line
workers. In either case, the trainer may not have the training skills, interest, or
time necessary to properly train the new employee. These conditions could
produce improperly trained employees who, through no fault of their own, are
not performing the job at high level of productivity and safety.


There are several types of on-the-job training:

1.Apprenticeship training

Among the oldest type of on-the-job training is apprenticeship training. This
training is commonly used by industries including metalworking, construction,
and auto repair, where the apprentices are trainees who spend a set period of
time (usually 2 to 3 years) working with an experienced journeyman.
Apprenticeship training is a structured process by which individuals become
skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job
training. When used properly an apprenticeship program allows the worker to
earn wages while learning in both on-and off the job situations.
The major disadvantage to apprenticeship training seems the set time period
placed on all enrolled in the program. People have different abilities and
learning rates, but all must serve the predetermined training period.
It is widely used to train individuals for many occupants including electrician
and plumber, and it is essentially the type of training new medical interms get
during the several years they spend working in hospitals after graduation.

Apprenticeships are often used by unions, and industries. The apprentice agrees
to work at less than trade wages in exchange for training at a specific trade (i.e
plumber, electrician, etc). On-the-job training is provided by fully qualified
union personnel. Depending upon the trade, there are varying amounts of
classroom training. Although the apprenticeship may run from 2 to 5 years, the
programs are very comprehensive and may actually result in over training.
In the changing technological environment of the 2000s apprenticeship
programs also face new challenges. A trainee may spend several years learning
a specific job skills, then find upon completion of the apprenticeship that these
job skills are no longer needed.

2.Job rotation
Job rotation training involves moving trainees around among different jobs
within the organization. This system is often used for management level
training and self managed work team programs. Job rotation allows the
employees to learn several job skills and a wide range of operations within an
organization. Cross-trained personnel also provide greater flexibility for
organizations where unexpected transfers, absence, promotions, or other
replacement may become necessary. Job rotation usually takes place at the
same pay rate. It often occurs when the job is temporarily vacant due to a
vocation, illness, or termination. The employee benefits from learning a variety
of skills. The company benefits from having a group of experienced candidates
from whom to choose when vacancies occur.
An example is the electronics company, Graphic Controls corporation, that
established a program to cross-train workers for highly skilled positions in its
twenty-department manufacturing area. The programs goals were to produce a
versatile, qualified workforce, willing to work in departments where there was a

3.The job instruction method
The job instruction method (JIM) is a formalized on-the-job training method
where the employee follows a series of written instructions to complete a
procedure or to operate machinery. These written instructions may be provided
by the manufacturer of the equipment or by skilled company employees. The
JIM is effective for repetitive situations.
A useful step-by step job instruction approach for giving a new employee on-
the-job training is as follows:

Step 1: preparation of the learner
1. Put the learner at ease-relieve the tension
2. Explain why he or she is being taught.
3. Create interest, encourage question, ,find out wheat the learner already
knows about his or her job or other jobs.
4. Explain the why of the whole jobs and relate it to some job the worker
already knows.
5. place the learner as close to the normal working position as possible.
6. familiarize the worker with the equipment, materials, tools and trade terms.

Step 2: presentation of the operation
1. Explain quantity and quality requirements
2. Go through the job at the normal work pace.
3. Go through the job at a slow pace several times, explaining each step.
Between operations, explain the difficult parts, or those in which errors are
likely to be made.
4. Again go through the job a slow pace several times, explain the key points.
5. Having the learner explain the steps as you go through the job at a slow

Step 3: performance tryout
Have the learner go through the job several times, slowly, explaining each step
to you. Correct mistakes and, if necessary do some of the complicated steps the
first few times.
You, the trainer, run the job at the normal pace.
Have the learner do the job gradually building up skill and speed.
As soon as the learner demonstrates ability to do the job, let the work begin, but
dont abandon his or her.

Step 4: follow-up
Designate to whom the learner should go for help if he or she needs it.
Gradually decrease supervision, checking work from time to time against
quality and quantity standards.
Correct faulty work patterns that begin to creep into the work, and do it before
they become a habit. Show why the learned method is superior.
Compliment good work, encourage the worker until he or she is able to meet
the quality/quantity standards.

Many jobs consist of a logical sequence of steps and are best taught step by
This step-by step process is called job instruction training (JIT). To begin, list
all necessary steps in the job, each in its proper sequence. Alongside each step
also list a corresponding key point (if any). The steps show what is to be
done, while the key points show how its to be done-and why. Here is an
example of a job instruction training sheet for teaching a trainee how to operate
a large motorized paper cutter.

Steps key points
2. Start motor none
3. Set cutting distance carefully read scale-to prevent wrong sized cut
4. Place paper on cutting table make sure paper is even-to prevent uneven cut
5. Push paper up to cutter make sure paper is tight to prevent
uneven cut
a. Grasp safety release Do not release left hand to prevent
hand from being
with left hand caught in cutter
i. Grasp cutter release with Do not release left hand to
prevent hand from being
right hand caught in cutter
6. Simultaneously pull cutter keep both hands on corresponding releases
and safety releases to avoid hands being on cutting table

7. Wait for cutter to retract keep both hands on releases- to avoid having
hands on cutting table.
8. Retract paper make sure cutter is retracted; keep both hands
away from releases
Shut off motor none
Programmed instruction (PI) provides the employees with short segments of
information who then respond to selected questions. If the answer is correct, the
employee moves on to newer, more complicated segments of information. If the
answer is wrong, the employee returns to the previous short segment of
information and tries again. Because this approach is self-correcting, it is fast
and for some individuals, is a more effective learning tool.

4.Computer assisted instruction
One popular method of training is programmed instruction or computer-assisted
instruction. This involves a self-taught, self-paced learning system, usually
using computers, which eliminates the need for an instructor. Material is
presented to trainees in written form, or by computer programs through a series
of self-paced steps. Each step consists of factual material to be mastered, which
is directly followed by a question. The trainees responses are immediately
verified after each question. If the replies are correct, the trainees proceed to the
next item. If the responses are incorrect, the question is repeated. One survey
suggests that 80 percent of fortune 500 firms are using computers for training.
Computer-aided instruction offers the advantage of individualised training.
Trainees progress at their own pace, receive immediate feedback, and are
active, as opposed to passive, learners. The potential of computer-aided
instruction is limited only by the amount of training needs, and is becoming one
of the most popular training methods.

5.Vestibule training
The vestibule is one of the earliest methods used in business training. It
originally referred to a hallway where the employee learned to operate
equipment correctly and then proceeded to the shop floor for the real thing.
Today, it would be a room that duplicates the shop floor. It provides an
environment where the employee can learn to produce a high-quality volume of
goods with a minimum loss to the employer in defective goods and costly
In vestibule training the trainee learns the job in an off-site environment that
simulates the actual workplace. Many companies have a small area within the
plant set up for this type of training. Many larger organisations actually develop
training schools. One example would be the flight simulators, which duplicate
airplane cockpits, used by Boeing to train airline pilots.
Vestibule or simulated training is a technique in which trainees learn on the
actual or simulated equipment they will use on the job but are actually trained
off the job. Therefore, it aims to obtain the advantages of on-the-job training
without actually putting the trainee on the job. Vestibule training is virtually a
necessity when it is too costly or dangerous to train employees on the job.
Putting new assembly-line workers right to work could slow production, for
instance, and when safety is a concern-as with pilots-vestibule training may be
the only practical alternative.

There are several advantages to vestibule training. It provides on-the-job
training in a controlled environment with a professionally trained staff.
Motivation is usually high, the trainees receive individual attention and training
focuses on job skills. The disadvantage, however is higher cost. Unless an
organization is experiencing rapid growth or is continually hiring large numbers
of new employees, the cost of vestibule programs may not be justified.
Vestibule training may just place in a separate room the equipment the trainees
will actually be using on the job. However, it often involves the use of
equipment simulators. In pilot training, for instance, the main advantages of
flight simulators are as follows:
Safety : crews can practice hazardous flight maneuvers in a safe, controlled
Learning efficiency: The absence of the conflicting air traffic and radio chatter
that exists in real flight situations allows for total concentration on the business
of learning how to fly the craft.
Money: The cost of flying simulators is only a fraction of the cost of flying an
aircraft. This includes savings on maintenance costs, pilot cost, fuel cost, and
the cost of not having the aircraft in regular service

6.Strategic Partners
There is a new breed of HRM executives who take a broader, more strategic
view of employee training. One of these is the supervisor for training and
organizational development at the U.S Steel groups Monongahela Valley plant
in Pennsylvania.
In a 2 month training program, every member of the plants 2,400 employee
learned every aspect of the operation. They started with the mechanics of
customer orders and on to the effect of market economics. The goal of the
program is to have a partnership in which all partners have the same
information so they can make quality decisions.
The reason for the program is the great competitive changes in the steel industry
in the Pittsburgeh area over 40,000 steel worker jobs were lost due to the
competitive pricing.
The plan is to move the partners and skills quickly within the different work
areas. It will be a quick, agile, fast turnaround involving everyone. Both top-
level management and the union approved the strategic program which was
prepared in 18 months by an outside vendor.

The most familiar is the coaching or understudy method. Here an experienced
worker or the trainees supervisor trains the employee on the job. At lower
levels trainees may acquire skills for, say, running a machine by observing the
supervisor. But this technique is also widely used at top-management levels.
The position of assistant is often used to train and develop the companys future
top managers, for instance. Job rotation, in which an employee (usually a
management trainee) moves from job to job at planned intervals, is another OJT
technique. Special assignments similarly give lower-level executives first hand
experience in working on actual problems.


Mentoring establishes a formal relationship between junior and senior
colleagues or between a person with superior knowledge and less experienced
employee. It is similar to a parent child relationship in that one provides
guidance and tutorship in the ways of career success, including sponsorship,
coaching, and protection of the colleague, exposure to important contacts, and
assignment of challenging work.
A mentor can be an important aid in the development of the junior person, and
may also be valuable for improving the job involvement and satisfaction of the
mentor. Several companies who offer formal mentoring programs include
federal express, Xerox, Merrill lynch, and the jewel companies.
The mentor begins by determining the employees job and the direction of the
subsequent career path. Together, the mentor and the employee should develop
career goals based on abilities and company promotional opportunities. One
approach is for both parties to maintain a diary of events both as feedback and
agreement of the progress attained.
An evaluation format should be established at the start of the mentoring
program. This can be simple as both parties discussing progress or evaluation
by other managers of the employee, or more formal committee reviews at
various points in the program.


Aside from initial orientation, on-the-job apprenticeship, and vestibule training
programs, most other industry training probably occurs away from the actual
job location. Staff, professional trainers and consultants, or university faculty
may teach these programs.
Off-the job training provides a variety of training, which would not otherwise
be available to smaller companies. Programs can be designed to meet training
needs without being restricted by the lack of organizational resources.
Typically, off-the-job training creates an environment for learning.
Employers not only need to know the training needs of their employees, but
also need to understand their learning preferences. This point is emphasized in a
report done by Peggy Stuart, who found that many companies use a learning
style inventory to determine employee preferences for learning.

Once the training program is completed, if the employee can continue self-
directed learning, then it becomes cost-effective to teach and demonstrate
learning style theory. One approach to transfer of training is to provide a mentor
in the workplace to reinforce what has been learned. This way, the learning
experience continues in the workplace.

Continuing Education
Colleges or professional organizations may offer continuing education courses.
They are usually of short duration and take place away from the organization.
Topics range from self-improvement and learning particular skills to
maintaining a desired level of professionalism (such as in nursing or
College and correspondence courses include educational, vocational and
technical. As a result of their broad range, they provide a valuable supplement
to a companys training program. From the companys viewpoint, problems that
occur include the course content may not satisfy the organizations specific
needs and employee progress is difficult to monitor.

There are several types of training methods an organization can use to train its
employees. Some are on-the-job while others are off the job. On-the-job
training methods include apprenticeship training, job-rotation, job-instruction
method, computer assisted instruction, vestibule training, strategic partners,
coaching and mentoring. Job instruction training is useful for training on jobs
that consist of a logical sequence of steps. Vestibule training combines the
advantages of on-and of-the-job training.On-the-job training is a third basic
training technique. It might take the form of the understudy method, job
rotation, or special assignment and committees. In any case, it should have four
steps: preparing the learner, presenting the operation (or nature of the job),
doing performance tryouts, and following up. Other training methods include
audiovisual techniques, lectures and computer-assisted instruction

Off-the job training includes continuing education and correspondence courses.
Training Techniques


Lecturing has several advantages. It is a quick and simple way of providing
knowledge to large groups of trainees, as when the sales force must be taught
the special features of a new product. While written material like books and
manuals could be used instead, they may involve considerable printing expense,
and they dont permit the give and take of questioning that lectures do.

Guidelines for making your lectures more effective

Some useful guidelines for presenting your lecture follow:
Give your listeners signals to help them follow your ideas. For instance, if
you have a list of items, start by saying something like These are four
reasons why the sales reports are necessary The first . The second..

Dont start out on the wrong foot. For instance, dont open with an irrelevant
joke or story or by saying something like, I really dont know why I asked
to speak here today.

Keep your conclusions short. Just summarize your main points in one or two
succinct sentences.

Be alert to your audience. Watch body language for negative signals like
fidgeting and crossed arms.

Maintain eye contact with the trainees in the program. At a minimum you
should look at each section of the audience during your presentation.

Make sure everyone in the room can hear. Use a mike or talk loudly enough
so that people in the last row can hear you and if necessary repeat questions
that you get from trainees from the front of the room before you answer.

Control your hands. Get in the habit of leaving them hanging naturally at
your sides rather than letting them drift to your face, then your pockets, then
your back, and so on. Putting your hands near your face can block your
voice projection and also give the impression that you lack confidence in
what you are saying.

Talk from notes rather than from a script. Write out clear, legible notes on
large index cards and then use these as an outline rather than memorizing
your whole presentation.

Eliminate bad habits. Beware of distracting your listeners by jigging coins in
your pocket or pulling on an earlobe.

Practice. If you have the time, make sure to rehearse under conditions
similar to those under which you will actually give your presentation.

Audiovisual techniques.

Audio-visual techniques like films, closed-circuit television, audiotapes, and
videotapes can be very effective and are widely used. At Weyerhaeuser
Company, for instance, portions of films like Bridge on the River Kwai have
been used as a basis for discussing interpersonal relationships in the companys
management school. The Ford Motor Company uses film in its dealer training
sessions to simulate problems and sample reactions to various customer

Audiovisuals are more expensive than conventional lectures but offer some
advantages. Consider using them in the following situations:
1. When there is a need to illustrate how a certain sequence should be followed
over time, such as when teaching soldering or telephone repair. The stop
action, instant reply, or fast or show motion capabilities of audiovisuals
can be useful.
2. When there is a need to expose trainees to events not easily demonstrable in
live lectures, such as a visual tour of factory or open-heart surgery.
3. When the training is going to be used organization and it is too costly to
move the trainers from place to place.

There are three options when it comes to video: you can buy an existing
videotape or film, you can make your own, or you can have a production
company produce the video for you. Dozens of businesses issue catalogue
listing audiovisual programs on topics ranging from applicant interviewing to
zoo management.

Companies today are also experimenting with teletraining, through which a
trainer in a central location can train groups of control employees at remote
locations via television hookups. For example, AMP incorporated uses
satellites to train its engineers and technicians at 165 sites in the United States
and 27 other countries. (The firm makes electrical and electronic connection
devices). To reduce costs for one training program, AMP supplied the program

Video conferencing is an increasingly popular way to train employees. It has
been defined as . A means of joining two or more distant groups using a
combination of audio and visual equipment. Videoconferencing allows people
in one location to communicate live with people in another city or country or
with groups in several other cities. Communication links are established either
by sending specially compressed audio and video signals over telephone lines
or via satellite.
Given that videoconferencing is by nature visual, interactive, and remote, there
are several things to keep in mind before getting in front of the camera. Because
the training is remote, its particularly important to prepare a training guide
ahead of time, specifically a manual the learners can use to keep track of the
points that the trainer is making. A sampling of other hints would include:

Avoid bright, flashy jewellery or heavily patterned clothing.
Arrive at least 20 minutes early.
Test all equipment you will be using.
Adjust lights (if necessary and if possible); put lighting in front of participants
to avoid shadows.
Have all participants introduce themselves.

Avoid focusing just on one group at one remote site (if there are several) and
avoid presenting just to the video camera and not to the in-house participants.
Project your voice ;and speak clearly; particularly if people at the remote site
have a different native language, keep yours free of jargon and needlessly
complex words.
Remember that excessive physical movement will cause distortion of the video
image where compressed telephone transmission is being used.
Whether the programmed instruction device is a textbook or a computer,
programmed learning consists of three functions:
Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner.
Allowing the person to respond.
Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers.

The main advantage of programmed learning is that it reduces training time by
about one-third. In terms of the principles of learning listed earlier, programmed
instruction can also facilitate learning since it lets trainees learn at their own
pace, provides immediate feedback, and (form the learners point of view)
reduces the risk of error. On the other hand, trainees do not learn much more
from programmed learning than they would from a traditional textbook.
Therefore, the cost of developing the manuals and/or software for programmed
instruction has to be weighted against the accelerated but not improved learning
that should occur.

Computer based training

In computer based training the trainee uses a computer-based system to
interactively increase his or her knowledge or skills. While vestibule or
simulated training doesnt necessarily have to rely on computerization,
computer-based training almost always involves presenting trainees with
computerized simulations an the use of multimedia including videotapes to help
the trainee learn how to do the job.
Consider two other examples of computer assistant. A computer-based
training (CBT) program enables a major employer in the Pacific Northwest to
do a better job of training personnel interviewers to conduct correct and legally
defensible interviews. Trainees start with a compute screen that shows the
applicants completed employment application, as well as information about
the nature of the job. The trainee then begins a simulated interview by typing in
questions, which are answered by a videotaped model acting as the applicant
and whose responses to a multitude of questions have been programmed into
the compute. Some items require follow-up questions, and as each question is
answered the trainee records his or her evaluation of the applicants answer and
makes a decision about the persons suitability for the position. At the end of
the session the computer tells the trainee where he or she went wrong (perhaps
in asking discriminatory questions, for instance) and offers further instructional
material to correct these mistakes.

As another example, Anderson Consulting uses a multimedia CBT program to
dramatically reduce the six weeks of training most new consultants received
before their consulting assignments. The new system, known as the business
practices course (BPC), is self-paced, interactive computer-based training
program. The BPC consist of 15 modular computerized components that
simulate a business situation the Andersen staff member might encounter in a
consulting engagement at a hypothetical printing and book publishing
company. Using audio and vide clips stored on CD-ROM, the consultant-
trainee interviews the companys personnel, receives phone calls, gets advice
from senior Andersen consultants, reviews internal Andersen memos, and
attends meetings with senior members of the clients management staff. At the
end of the computer-based program, the consultant-trainee delivers a
presentation outlining the kinds of findings and recommendations that would
normally be delivered to a client.

CBT programs can be very beneficial. Studies indicate that interactive
technologies reduce learning time by an average of 50%. They can also be very
cost-effective once designed and produced: Federal Express reportedly expects
to save more than $100 million by using an interactive system for employee
training. Other advantages include instructional consistency (computers, unlike
human trainers, dont have good days and bad days), mastery of learning (if the
trainee doesnt learn it, he or she generally cant move on to the next step in the
CBT), increased retention, and I increased trainee motivation (resulting from
the responsive feedback of the CBT program).




Increasingly today training does more than just preparing employees to perform
their jobs effectively. Training for special purposes-dealing with AIDS and
adjusting to diversity, for instance is required too. A sampling of such special-
purpose training programs follows.

Literacy Training Techniques

Functional illiteracy is a serious problem for many employers. By some
estimates there are 25 million American adults 17 years and older who are
functionally illiterates, either because they cant read at all or because they can
only read up to third-or fourth grade level. Yet as the U.S economy shifts from
goods to services, there is corresponding need for workers who are more
skilled, more literate, and better able to perform at least basic arithmetic skills.
Employers are responding to this problem in two main ways. First, companies
are testing prospective employees basic skills. Of the 1,005 companies that
respond to an American Management Association (AMA) survey on workplace
testing, for instance, 345 (34.3%) indicated they conduct basic skill testing. In
89% of the responding companies, job applicants who are deficient in basic
skills are refused employment. At about 3% of the other companies, current
employees and candidates for promotion are tested (and often rejected) on their
literacy scores.

The second response is to institute basic skills and literacy programs. According
to the AMA survey, the areas in which remedial training is needed are
mathematics, reading, and writing.

One simple approach is to have supervisors focus on basic skills by giving
employees writing and speaking exercise. After the exercise has been
completed, the supervisor can provide personal feedback. One way to do this is
to convert materials used in the employees jobs into instructional tools. For
example, if an employee needs to use a manual to find out how to replace a
certain machine part, he or she should be taught how to use an index to locate
the relevant section. Another approach is to bring in outside professionals like
teachers from a local high school or community college to institute, say, a
remedial reading or writing program. Having employees attend adult education
or high school evening classes is another option.
Another approach is to use a interactive video (IVD). This technique combines
the drama of video with the power of microcomputers. An example is principles
of Alphabet Literacy (PALS). It uses animated video and a computer stored
voice to enable non-readers to associate sounds with letters and letters with
words, and to use the words to create sentences. A second IVD program is
called SKILLPAC. This program, subtitled English for Industry, was designed
mostly for non active English speakers. It combines video, audio, and
computers technologies to teach language skills in the context of the specific
workplace situation in which those skills will be used.

Aids Education

Many of the estimated 1 million Americans infected with the AIDS virus are in
the work force, and this creates anxiety for many non infected employees and a
dilemma for their employers. In Kenya too there is a substantial proportion of
the workforce that is infected. On the one hand, infected individuals must be
allowed to remain on their jobs, for both moral and legal reasons. On the other
hand, the infected persons co-workers often require some type of training in
order to reduce anxieties and maximize the chances that the employees will be
able to work together effectively as a team.
Many firms therefore institute AIDS education programs. The program
instituted in the Wellesley, Massachusetts office of Sun Life of Canada, a life
insurance company, is typical. Groups of 20 to 30 employees attended 90-
minute seminars. In addition to providing detailed information about AIDS, the
seminars of

Crosscultural Training

As firms expand operations abroad, it becomes more important to train foreign
nationals. For example, Gillege International brings foreign talent to its Boston
headquarters for training in the techniques, policies, and values of the firm
before they assumed new jobs in their home country.
Training foreign nationals requires more than translating existing programs into
other languages. Cultural differences influence both the applicability of training
material and the reactions of trainees to the programs. H ere are suggestions for
conducting training programs abroad.

1. Understand the taboos and turn-ones the participants culture. For example,
in Japan risk taking is by-and large taboo. Therefore, you may find that you
get no volunteers to participate in a training role-play exercise because doing
so is taking a risk. Similarly, in the Middle East, role-plays are games for
children, not for adults.

2. To critique other people in public is taboo in some Far Eastern cultures. For
example, getting a volunteer to be an observer in a training discussion or
role-play could be difficult because the role of the observer is often to
critique the other participants behaviour.

3. Saving face and not putting people in embarrassing situations is important
not just in the Far East. In Middle Eastern countries, and in East and West
Africa and some European culture including Spain and Italy, criticising
trainees or making them look foolish is not advisable. In fact putting them in
any activity in which their behaviour will be discussed, debriefed, and/or
criticized can create problems.

4. In some culture youll find it difficult to get feedback on your own
effectiveness as a trainer. Even if you violate a taboo, the trainees may be
reluctant to tell so because to do so would be to criticize you and cause you
to lose face.

5. Make sue to understand how the job you are training your trainees to do is
viewed in their native culture. In the U.S for instance, its appropriate to tell
the salesperson to write introductory letters to high-level executives to gain
entry to their organizations. In Japan doing so would be highly unusual,
instead repeated personal visits to drop off business cards is often required.

6. Consider the effects of jet lag and diet changes. For example, while it may
be 4.00 p.m. in Boston where youre doing your training, your French
participants body clocks may be set to a more tried 9.00 p.m. similarly,
Japanese participants may expect a rice meal, and all participants fresh from
overseas would probably do better with mineral water than soda.

Values Training

Many training programs today are aimed at educating employees about the
firms most cherished values and (it is hoped) convincing employees that these
should be their values as well.
The orientation training programs at Saturn Corporation, similar to Toyotas,
illustrate this. The first two das are devoted to discussions of benefits, safety
and security, and the companys production process just-in-time delivery,
materials managements and so forth. However, in the third and fourth days the
focus shifts. The firms top managers spend about an hour and a half discussing
Saturns values. Then all new employees get their copy of Saturns mission
card. This allows the trainees and trainer to go through each of the Saturn
values listed on the card-teamwork, trust and respect for the individual, and
quality, for example to illustrate its meaning. Short exercises are also used
here. Thus ,the new employees might be asked if you saw a team member do
this.. what would you do? Or, if you saw a team member, living this value,
what would you see?

For their part, Saturns supervisors get converted to Saturns values in part
through a special two day leadership seminar called Values and beliefs. The
programs basic aims are to familiarize supervisors into actions. The first part,
for instance, explains how values influence behaviour and cautions managers to
beware of any disparities between stated and operative values: Its what you
do, not what you say that sends the real signal to workers about what your
departments operative values are, say the trainers. Thus, talking trust:
while insisting on time clocks may be contradiction because the time clocks
seem to say we dont trust you. (there are no time clocks at Saturn).

Succeeding sessions use lectures and exercises to explain and illustrate each of
Saturns basic values. Illustrations of core Saturn values such as respecting
people, making our employees full partners, building customer satisfaction
through teamwork, and putting quality in all we do are presented here. The
aim is to make believers of Saturn leaders through illustrating what these values

Diversity training

With an increasingly diverse work force, many more firms find they have to
implement diversity training programs. As a personnel officer for one firm put
it, Were trying to create a better sensitivity among our supervisors about the
issues and challenges women and minorities face in pursuing their careers.
Diversity training creates better cross-cultural sensitivity among supervisor and
non-supervisors with the aim of creating more harmonious working
relationships among a firms employees.

Diversity training is no panacea, and a poorly conceived program can backfire.
Potential negative outcomes include the possibility of post-training
participant discomfort, reinforcement of group stereotypes, perceived
disenfranchisement or backlash by white males, and even lawsuits based on
managers exposure of stereotypical by white males, and even lawsuits based
on managers exposure of stereotypical beliefs blurted out during awareness
raising sessions.

Strictly speaking its probably more accurate to talk about diversity-based
training programs than about diversity training. According to one survey of
HR Directors, specific training programs aimed at offsetting problems
associated with a diverse work force including (from most used to least used):
improving interpersonal skills; understanding/valuing cultural differences;
improving technical skills; socializing employees into corporate culture;
reducing stress; indoctrinating into U.S work ethic; mentoring; improving
English proficiency; improving basic math skills; improving bilingual skill for
English-speaking employees.

A supervisory training program at Kinney Shoe Corp. provides an example. The
firm conducts eight-hour seminars for Kinney Shoe executives and store
managers. The program is called Valuing Diversity. In part, the seminars are
aimed at showing participants how their own upbringing affects the
assumptions they make and their behaviour. For example, the firms studies
indicated that manages responsible for hiring might make an assumption about
an applicants intelligence based on the persons accent and poor English-
speaking skills. The manager might assume, in other words that the person
hasnt the skills to sell shoes, although he or she certainly could sell effectively.
The program also shows how people from various cultures react differently to
workplace situations. It does this by presenting a number of hypothetical
situations. For example, one situation illustrates the fact that a Native American
worker might be embarrassed by public praise from his or her supervisor.

Customer service training

Today almost two-thirds of U.S workers are in customer-service (rather than
manufacturing) jobs, and more and more companies are finding it necessary to
compete based on the quality of their service. Its no longer enough, for
instance, to offer a clean room at a decent price when a customer checks into a
Hilton. To stay competitive, employers like Hilton find they have to provide
total customer service, from courteous bellhops to easy parking to speedy

Many companies are therefore implementing customer service-training
programs. The basic aim here is to train all employees to treat the companys
customers in a courteous and hospitable manner. The saying The customer is
always right is being emphasized by countless service companies today.
However, putting the customer first requires employee customer-service
The customer service training at Alamo Rent-a-Car is called the Best
Friends program. Carried out in the early 1990s at a cost of millions of dollars,
it introduced new customer-service policies and indoctrinated and retained
Alamo employees in the practices of excellent customer service.
In addition to these general sessions, Alamo employees received customer
service training related specifically to their jobs. For example, service agents
got training on the firms extensive car preparation test, which aims to ensure
that customers get cars that are clean and running properly.
Early results suggest the training program has been successful. While other
factors may have contributed to the improvements, sales complaints were down
15% from the year before training commenced. Similarly, rudeness complaints
were down 50% from pretraining levels. The firms business transactions
jumped by 30% in one year.

Training For Teamwork And Empowerment

An increasing number of firms today use work teams and empowerment to
improve their effectiveness. They adopt teamwork as a value and then organize
work around close-knit work teams empowered to get their job done, which
means theyve been given the authorization and the ability to do their jobs. Both
the team approach and worker empowerment are components of what many
firms call workers involvement programs. Worker involvement programs aim
to boost organization effectiveness by getting employees to participate in the
planning, organizing, and general managing of their jobs.

However, many firms find that teamwork doesnt just happen: Instead
employees must be trained to be good team members. That is why firms like
Toyota and Saturn spend considerable time training new employees to be good
team members. You may recall, for instance, that Toyota devotes hours to
training new employees to listen to each other and to cooperate. And throughout
the training process, Toyotas dedication to teamwork is stressed. Short exercise
are used to illustrate examples of good and bad teamwork and to mold new
employees attitudes regarding good teamwork.

Some firms use outdoor training such as Outward Bound programs to build
teamwork. Outdoor training usually involves taking a firms management team
into rugged, mountainous terrain. There they learn team spirit and cooperation
and the need to trust and rely on each other by overcoming physical obstacles.
As o ne participant put it, Every time I climbed over a rock, I needed
someones help. An example of one activity is the trust fall. Here an
employee has to slowly lean back and fall backward from a height of, say, 10
feet into the waiting arms of five or ten team members. The idea is to build
trust, and particularly trust in ones colleagues.
Not all employees are eager to participate in such activities. Firms such as
outward Bound have potential participants fill out extensive medical
evaluations to make sure participants can safely engage in risky outdoor
activities. Others feel that the outdoor activities are too contrived to be
applicable back at work. However, they do illustrate the lengths to which
employers will go to build teamwork.
Empowering employees (either individually or as teams) also almost always
requires extensive training. It is rarely enough to just tell group members that
theyre empowered to do all the buying and selling and planning involved in
producing, say, the auto component for which they are responsible. Instead
extensive training is required to ensure that have the skills to do the job.
Similarly, many companies today use work teams or special quality to do the
job. Similarly, related problems and to come up with solutions. (A quality circle
is group of five to ten employees, often a work team, who meet for an hour or
two each week during the work day to analyze a problem on their job and to
develop solutions to it.)
Therefore, much of the approximately 320 hours of training a new Saturn
employee receives aims to develop the problem solving and analysis skills
required to help the work team be empowered-in this case, to analyse and solve
Training in how to use basic statistical analysis tools and basic accounting is an

Small Business Applications

It does not pay to spend a lot of time hiring the best employees if the employees
you hire arent properly trained. In the book Made in America, a group of MIT
researchers concluded, for instance, that superior training is one reason
Japanese firms have often pulled ahead of U.S. firms within the same industries,
Japanese firms will spend weeks in meticulous training programs developing
their workers expertise, while comparable U.S. firms often all but ignore the
training process.

Step 1. Set training objectives.
First, write down your training objectives. For example, your objective might
be to reduce scrap, or to get new employees up to speed within two weeks.

Step 2. Write a detailed job description
A detailed job description is the heart of any training program. It should list the
daily and periodic tasks of each job, along with a summary of the steps in each
task. Thus, for the job presented in Table 7.1. a main task is operate paper
cutter. The press operators job description should thus explain how the paper
cutter should be operated, including steps such as start motor, set cutting
distance, and place paper on cutting table. In other words, the job description
should list what is to be done as well as how to do it.

Step 3. Develop an abbreviated task analysis record form
For practical purposes, the small business owner can use and abbreviated task
analysis record form containing just four columns. In the first, list tasks
(including what is to be performed in terms of each of the main task, and the
steps involved in each task). In column B, list performance standards (in terms
of quantity, quality, accuracy, and so on). In column C, list trainable skills
required, , things the employee must k now or do to perform the task. This
column provides you with specific skills (such as Keep both hands on
releases) that you want to stress. In the fourth column, list aptitudes required.
These are the human aptitudes (such as mechanical comprehension, tolerance
for boredom, and so on) that the employee should have to be trainable for the
task and for which the employee can be screened ahead of time.

Step 4. Develop a job instruction sheet
Next develop a job instruction sheet for the job. As explained on page 257, a
job instruction training sheets shows the steps in each task as well as key points
for each.

Step 5. Prepare training program for the job
You should now be ready to prepare all the final training documents and media
for the job. Build the training manual for the job around the training sequence,
listing steps in each job task and key points.
At a minimum, your training program should include the job description,
abbreviated Task Analysis Record Form, and job instruction sheet, all collected
in a trainers manual. The latter should also contain a summary of the training
programs objectives, the three forms mentioned earlier, and a listing of the
trainable skills required. For the trainee, a separate manual might then consist of
an introduction to the job, an explanation of how the job fits with other jobs in
the plant or office, a job description, and a job instruction sheet.

You also have to make a decision regarding which media to use in your training
program. A simple but effective on-the-job training program using current
employees or supervisors as trainers requires only the materials we just
described. However, it could turn out that the nature of the job or the number of
trainees producing or purchasing special audio or visual tapes or films, a slide
presentation, or more extension printed materials.

Many smaller companies are saving on training expenses by entering into
cooperative agreements with other firms in their geographic areas. For
example, if a companys employees need generic courses (on topics like time
management or computer skills, for instance) the firm can probably cut training
costs by obtaining training time for an outside supplier as part of a cooperative
employers group. Thus, if one firm has eight employees who need more
management training and one down the street has a similar need, together they
can hire a training supplier to each a full class of 16 participants, thus sharing
the trainers costs.

After trainees complete their training (or perhaps at planned intervals during the
training) the program should be evaluated to see how well its objectives have
been met. Thus, if assemblers should be able to solder a junction in 30 seconds,
or a Xerox technician repair a machine in 30 minute, then the programs
effectiveness should be measured based on whether these objectives are met.
For example, are your trainees learning as much as they can? Are they learning
as fast as they can? Is there a better method for training them? These are some
of the questions you can answer by properly evaluating your training efforts.

Overall there is little doubt that training and development can be effective.
For example, many companies that invested heavily in workplace training have
substantially improved their positions. While it may not be just the training,
Xerox retained over, 110,000 employees worldwide in the early 1980s and soon
regained market share in its industry. General motors is another firm that has
used training to help recapture market share. Formal studies of training
programs also substantiate the potential positive impact of such programs. A
study conducted in the early 1990s concluded that firms that establish
workplace education programs and reorganize work report noticeable
improvements in their workers abilities and the quality of their products.
Another study found that businesses that were operating below their expected
labour productivity levels have significant increases in productivity growth after
implementing new employee training programs.


There are two basic issues to address when evaluating training program. The
first is the design of the evaluation study and, in particular, whether controlled
experimentation will be used. The second is the training effect to use in
evaluating a group (that receives no training) are used. Data (for instance, on
quantity of production or quality of soldered junctions) should be obtained both
before and after spending work period in the control group. In this way it is
possible to determine the extent to which any change in performance in the
training group resulted raise in pay; we assume the latter would have affected
employees in both groups equally. In terms of current practices, however, one
survey found that something less than half the companies responding attempted
to obtain before-and-after measures from trainees; the number of organizations
using control groups was negligible. One expert suggests at least using an
evaluation form like the one shown in figure 7.4 to evaluate the raining

Table 7.0 A sample of an outside training evaluation form.

Four basic categories of training outcome can be measured :
1. Reaction. First, evaluate trainees reactions to the program. Did they like the
program? Did they think it worthwhile?
2. Learning. Second, you can test the trainees to determine whether they
learned the principles, skills and facts they were supposed to learn.
3. Behaviour. Next ask whether the trainees behaviour on the job changed
because of the training program. For example, are employees in the stores
complaint department more courteous toward disgruntled customers than
4. Results. Last, but probably most important, ask: What final results were
achieved in terms of the training objectives previously set? Did the number
of customer complaints about employees drop? Did the reject rate improve?
Did scrappage cost decrease? Was turnover reduced? Are production quotas
now being met? and so forth. Improved results are, of course, especially
important. The training program may succeed in terms of the reactions from
trainees, increased, then in the final analysis, the training has not achieved its
goals. If so, the problem may lie in the training program. Remember,
however, that the results may be inadequate because the problem was not
amenable to training in the first place.


Purpose: The following items assess the overall value of this training experience:
1. Did you find the quality of this program to be (select one):
___ ____ _____ ___ _____
Poor Fair Average Good Outstanding

2. Do you feel that this program was worthwhile in terms of cost and your time
away from normal job duties?
Yes___ No____ Undecided_____

3. Would you recommend this program to your peers?
Yes____ No_____ Undecided____
4. Rate the program for the following qualities

Poor Outstanding
a. Practical value ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
1 2 3 4 5

b. Thoroughness ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
c. New ideas gained ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
d. Helpful to self-development ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
e. Relevance to your job ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
f. Efficient use of time ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
g. Maintaining your interest ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
h. Clear, understandable ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

Check the degree to which the kinds of follow-up to this workshop listed here
would be useful:
Necessary Desirable Unnecessary
a. Talking with workshop
members to share experiences
in applying ideas _______ _______ _______
b. Opportunity to consult with
trainer if a problem arises _______ _______ _______
c. Advanced workshop in this area _______ _______ _______
d. Briefing for my superior on
what Ive learned here ______ _______ _______
e. Other _______ _______ _______


In gauging the effectiveness of a training program there are four categories of
outcomes you can measure: reaction, learning, behaviour, and results. In some
cases where training seems to have failed, it may be because training was not
the appropriate solution.

Summary - Training

In this lesson on training we focused on technical skills training for new
employees and for present employees whose performance is deficient. For
either, uncovering training requirements begins with analyzing the cause of the
problem and determining the training that may be needed. Remember to ask
whether it is a training problem or a more deep-rooted problem like poor
selection of low wages.

The training process consists of five steps: needs analysis; instructional design;
validation; implementation; evaluation.

Some principles of learning theory include: Make the material meaningful (by
providing a birds eye view and familiar examples, organizing the material,
splitting it into meaningful chunks, and using familiar terms and visual aids)
make provision for transfer of training; and try to motivate your trainee.

Part I1 Training Review Questions

1. How would you determine training needs in an organization?
Why is it important to identify training needs?

2. What are the major goals of an orientation program?

3. Present an example of your first day on the job. What orientation did you receive?

4. How important is motivation in employee training?

5. How do learning principles apply to training?

6. Do you feel training will become more or less important in the future? Why?

7. What is a social learning theory?
How does it relate to training?

8 What is a learning curve?
What are its implications for training?

9. What kind of signals can warn a manager that employee training may be necessary?

10. What role do goals play in training?

11. Contrast apprenticeship programs with job instructional training

12. What is a simulation exercise?
Give some examples.

13. Contrast employee training with management development training.

14. Why is the evaluation of training effectiveness necessary?

15. Define reactions, learning, behaviour and results as they apply to evaluate training
Give an example of each.

16. What are some typical on the job training techniques? Describe each in detail giving the
pros and cons?

17. We pointed out that one reason for implementing special global training programs is the
need to avoid business .due to cultural insensitivity. What sort of cultural
insensitivity do you think is referred to and how might that translate into lost business?
What sort of training program would you recommend to avoid such cultural insensitivity?


Training Activities

1. Present to your colleagues an example of your first day on the job.
What orientation did you receive?

2. Read a book or view a video, and identify training needs or programs.

3. Pick out some task with which you are familiar-moving the lawn, tuning a car-and
develop a job instruction training sheet for it.

4. Working individually or in groups you are to develop a short programmed learning
program on the subject.
Guidelines for giving a more effective lecture
Use any information you may have to develop your programmed learning program.


TRAINING Discussion Questions

1. A well- thought out orientation program is especially important for employees (like recent
graduates) who have had little or no work experience.
Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.

2. You are the supervision of a group of employees whose task it is to assemble, tuning
devices that go into radios. You find that the quality is not what it should be and that many
of your groups tuning devices have to be brought back and reworked; your own boss says
that youd better start doing a better job of training your workers.

a) What are some of the staffing factors that could be contributing to this

b) Explain how you would go about assessing whether it is in fact a training

3. Explain how you would apply our principles of learning in developing a lecture, say on
orientation and training.

4. Peter Kamau is an undergraduate student majoring in accounting. He has just failed the
Accounting course CAC 101,and is understandably upset. Explain how you would use
Performance analysis to identify what if any are Peters training needs.

18. You are to give a short lecture on the subject.
Guidelines to keep in mind when presenting a lecture.
Give a 5 or 10 minute lecture on the subject making sure of course to follow the
guidelines as enumerated in the lesson.

19. We have presented examples of how diversity training can backfire such as the
possibility of post-training participant discomfort

20. How serious do you think potential negative outcomes like these are and what you would
do as an HR manager to avoid them?

21. Training programs are frequently the first items eliminated when management wants to
cut costs. Why do you believe this occurs?

22 Describe how selection and training are related.

23. What criteria would you use to determine whether a training program was effective.


Training Case The Nyeri District Hospital

Mr John Kamau has decided that in order to ensure a properly staffed cardiac surgery unit at
the Nyeri District Hospital, the hospital would have to provide its own training program
Wachira and Njoroge have agreed that 3 nurses currently assigned to the area should be sent
for a retraining of their skills and should then be utilized as in-house trainers. These nurses
have agreed to assume the new duties and have also persuaded Dr. Onyango, the chief
cardiac surgery doctor to participate.

Working with Dr.Onyango, Mweni, Njeri and Akinyi were able to establish the procedures
that he uses. They have also recently attended another hospitals training program and are
ready to began training the new nurses. Each, incidentally has been certified by the state
Board of examiners, as a qualified trainer.

With everything seemingly going as planned Mweni asked Njeri.
Do you have any idea now well set this up?
We know what to do and how to do it, but where and using what type of training approach is
Before Njeri had a chance to answer Akinyi chimed in
I overheard your concerns Mweni and I think I have a solution. You see my brother is the
Training Director of Excel Professional Training Consultants and he has given me some
advice. He suggests that we consider removing the trainees from the unit initially, for the
formal education past of the session. Then we should provide actual hands on experience for
the nurses, each of us taking the trainee under our wing for six weeks while we perform the
actual nursing duties
That sounds great Akinyi said Mweni, but what about the costs?
This hospital will not go for 6 nurses working in a unit where only 3 are needed. You may
be right Mweni, but they have to make that decision.

Case Questions

1. What types of training programs have been identified in the case?

2. How would you structure the sessions?
What type of training do you believe would work best? Why?

3. Do you believe that the cost of Akinyis proposed training method would be
prohibitive. Discuss.

4. Justify your types of training with regard to cost/benefit.

Application exercise
Running case: Onyango Cleaning company

The new training program.

At the present time the Onyango Cleaning Centres have no formal orientation or training
policies or procedures, and Jennifer believes this is one reason way the standards to which
she and her father would like employees to adhered are generally not followed.
The Onyangos would prefer that certain practices and procedures in dealing with the
customers in the front counters. For example, all customers would be greeted with what Jack
refers to as a big hello. Garments they drop off should immediately be inspected for any
damage or unusual stains so these can be brought to the customers attention, lest the
customer later return to pick up the garment and erroneously blame the store. The garments
are then supposed to be immediately placed together in a nylon sack to separate them from
other customers garments. The ticket also has to be carefully written up, with the customers
name and telephone number and the date precisely and clearly noted on all copies. The
counterperson is also supposed to take the opportunity to try to sell customer additional
services such as waterproofing or simply notify the customer that Now that people are doing
their spring cleaning, were having a special on drapery cleaning all this month. Finally, as
the customer leaves, the counter person is supposed to make a courteous comment like have
a nice day or Drive safely. Each of the other jobs in the stores-pressing, cleaning and
spotting, periodically maintaining the coin laundry equipment, and so forth-similarly contain
certain steps, procedures, and most important, standards the Onyangos would prefer to see
The company has also had other problems, Jennifer feels, because of a lack of adequate
employee training and orientation. For example, two new employees became very upset last
month when they discovered that they were not paid at the end of the week, on Friday, but
instead were paid (as are all Onyango employees) on the following Tuesday. The Onyangos
use the extra two days in part to give them time to obtain everyones hours and compute their
pay. The other reason they do it, according to Jack, is that frankly, when we stay a few days
behind in paying employees it helps to ensure that they at least give us a few days notice
before quitting on us.

While we are certainly obligated to pay them anything they earn, we find that
psychologically they seem to be less likely to just walk out on us Friday evening and not
show up Monday morning if they all havent gotten their pay from the previous week.
This way they at least give us a few days notice so we can find a replacement.
Other matters that could be covered during an orientation, says Jennifer, include company
policy regarding paid holidays, lateness and absences, health and hospitalisation benefits
(there are none, other than workers compensation) and general maters like the maintenance
of a clean and safe work area, personal appearance and cleanliness, time sheets, personal
telephone calls and mail, company policies regarding matters like substance abuse, and
earning or smoking on the job.
Jennifer believes that implementing orientation and training programs would help to ensure
that employees know how to do their jobs the right way.
And she and her father further believe that it is only when employees understand the right
way to do their jobs that there is any hope their jobs will in fact be accomplished the way the
Onyangos want them to be accomplished.


1.Specifically what should the Onyangos cover in their new employee orientation program
and how should they cover this information?

2.In the personnel management course Jennifer took, the book suggested using a task
analysis record form to identify tasks performed by an employee. Should we use a form like
this for the counterpersons job, and if so, what would the filled-in form look like?

3.Which specific training techniques should Jennifer use to train her pressers, her cleaners
spotters, her managers, and her counter people, and why?




By the end of this lesson you should be able to:

Discuss the relationship between effective training programs and various learning principles

Introduction -Training and Learning

We have previously described training as a learning experience. Of course, a lot of an
employees learning about a job takes place outside of specific training activities. This was
clearly demonstrated in our previous chapter on socialization. But if we are to understand
what training techniques can do to improve an employees job performance, we should begin
by explaining how people learn. Later in this lesson , we will show how an understanding of
learning principles should be valuable in structuring effective training experience.

Learning is concerned with bringing about relatively permanent change as a result of
experience. This can be done through direct experience-by doing or indirectly, through
observation. Regardless of the means by which learning takes place, we cannot measure
learning per se. we can only measure the changes in attitudes and behaviour that occur as a
result of learning. For our discussion, we will emphasize how we learn rather than what we

Two major theories have dominated learning research over the years. One position is the
cognitive view. Its proponents argue that an individuals purposes or intentions direct his or
her actions. The other position is the environmental perspective, whose proponents believe
the individual is acted upon and his or her behaviour is a function of its external

More recently an approach has been offered that blends both of these theories learning is a
continuous interaction between the individual and the particular social environment in which
he or she functions. This is called social-learning theory. This theory acknowledges that we
can learn by observing what happens to other people and just by being told about something,
as well as by direct experiences. Since much of training is observational in nature, this theory
would appear to have considerable application potential.

The influence of models is central to the social-learning view point, research indicates that
much of what we have learned comes from watching models-parents, teachers, peers, motion
picture and television performers, bosses, and so forth. Four processes have been found to
determine the influence a model will have on an individual.

1. Attention processes. People only learn from a model when they recognize and pay
attention to its critical features. We tend to be most influenced by models that are
attractive, repeatedly available, that we think are important, or that we see as similar to

2. Retention processes. A models influence will depend on how well the individual
remembers the models action, ,even after the model is no longer readily available.

3. Motor reproduction processes. After a person has seen a new behaviour by observing
the mode, the watching must be converted to doing. This process then demonstrates that
the individual can perform the modelled activities.

4. Reinforcement processes. Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modelled
behaviour if positive incentives or rewards are provided, behaviour

Social-learning theory offers us insights into what a training exercise should include.
Specifically, it tells us training should provide a model; it must grab the trainees attention;
provide motivational properties; help the trainee file away what he or she has learned for
later use, and if the training has taken place off the job, allow the trainee some opportunity to
transfer what has been learned on the job.

Principles of Learning

The above processes derived from social-learning theory are frequently
presented in more specific terms as principles of learning. In this section, we
will briefly review these principles. You should, of course, be able to see how
they closely align with social-learning theory.

Learning is enhanced when the learner is motivated. An individual must
want to learn. When that desire exists, the learner will exert a high level of
effort. There appears to be valid evidence to support the adage, you can take a
horse to water, but you cant make him drink.
The learning experience, therefore, should be designed so learners can see how
it will help them achieve those goals they have set for themselves. If for
example, the new trainees desires the security and fulfilment that comes from
being a skilled compute word processor operator, he or she is more likely to be
highly motivate to learn how to perform that job successfully.

Learning requires feedback. Feedback or knowledge of results, is necessary
so the learner can correct his mistakes. Only by getting information about how I
am doing can I compare it against my goals and correct my deviations. And
feedback is best when it is immediate rather than delayed. The sooner
individuals have some knowledge of how well they are performing, the easier it
is for them to correct their erroneous actions.

Additionally, feedback can provide intrinsic motivation. When individuals
obtain information on their performance, the task becomes more intrinsically
interesting and acts to motivate them.

Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a learned behaviour will be
repeated. The principles of reinforcement tell us that behaviours that are
positively reinforced (rewarded) are encouraged and sustained. When the
behaviour is punished, it is temporarily suppressed but is unlikely to be
extinguished. Punishment tells learners they are doing something wrong. What
is desired, however, is to convey feedback to the learners when they are doing
what is right to encourage them to keep doing it.

Providing feedback through positive reinforcement will facilitate learning.
For instance, if workers are verbally praised when they have properly
performed a task, they are likely to continue doing the task this way and be
motivated to strive toward performing better work.
Practice increases a learners performance. When learners actually practice
what they have read, or seen, they gain confidence and are less likely to make
errors or to forget what they have learned. Active involvement through practice,
therefore, should be made part of the learning process.

There are three ways a worker can practice a job. One is to practice the whole
job at once. The second is to break the job into parts and practice each part
independently. The third is to break the job into two parts, then three and so on.
Which way is best? The answer lies in the type of job being done. It appears
that if the total work the person does is small and relatively simple, practice
should cover the whole job. If the job is complicated, the independent part
approach is best unless the parts are interdependent, in which case the
progression approach will probably be most effective.

Learning must be transferable to the job. It doesnt make much sense to
perfect a skill in the classroom and then find that you cant successfully transfer
it to the job. Therefore training should be designed to foster transferability.

Transfer can be positive or negative. The ability to type on a manual
typewriter will aid in learning to type on an electric one. This is appositive
transfer, for its improves performance. But knowledge of Spanish may impede
students learning to speak French if the harsh pronunciations used in Spanish
are carried over and attempted on the light pronunciations needed for French.
This latter case is an illustration of negative transfer, which hampers
performance. Management will obviously be concerned with maximizing
positive transfer and minimizing negative transfer in any training activity.

Learning Curve

Learning begins rapidly, then plateaus. Learning rates can be expressed as a
curve that usually begins with a sharp rise, then increases at a decreasing rate
until a plateau is reached. Learning is very fast at the beginning, but then
plateaus as opportunities for improvement are reduced.
The learning curve principle is illustrated by considering individuals who begin
training to run the mile. At first, their time improves rapidly as they get into
shape. Then, as their conditioning develops, their improvement plateaus.
Obviously, knocking one minute off a ten minute mile is a lot easier than
knocking one minute of an experience that somewhat follows the pattern shown
in Figure 10-1. the specific criterion is words typed per minute, and the time
element is in months.

Note the shape of the curve in figure 10-1. during the first three months, the rate
of increase is slow as the subject learns the typing technique and become
familiar with the keyboard. During the next three months, leaning accelerates as
the subject works on developing speed. After six months, learning slows as
progress evolves into refinement of technique.

Learning and training: the implications
The social-learning model and learning principles tell us training should
provide the trainee with a given model to follow, specific goals to achieve, an
opportunity to perfect the skill, feedback on how well the trainee is progressing,
and praise for transferring the acquired skills to the job. These
recommendations should guide the human resource manager in designing,
implementing, and operating any employee training.
The value of these recommendations was shown in a training experiment at a na
international company in the north-western United States. Forty employees, all
supervisors, were identified for the experiment-twenty assigned to the training
group and twenty to the control group. The training focused on ways of
orienting new employees, giving recognition, motivating a poor performer,
correcting poor works habits, discussing potential disciplinary action, reducing
absenteeism, handling a complaining employee, reducing turnover, and
overcoming resistance to change. The training was done in nine two hour
sessions, ,one session taking place each week.
The training group received the following: introduction of the topic by two
trainers, presentation of a film that depicted a supervisor model effectively
handling a situation by following a set of three to six learning points that were
shown in the film immediately before and after the model was presented; group
discussions of the effectiveness of the model in demonstrating the desired
behaviours; practice in role playing the desired behaviours in front of the entire
class; and feedback from the class on the effectiveness of each trainee in
demonstrating the desired behaviours. Half of the control group were given
only the set of learning points to see if knowledge alone of what one is
supposed to do was sufficient to obtain the desired behaviours. The
researchers argued that if giving the supervisors the learning points as
guidelines to follow was as effective as requiring them to attend the nine
training sessions, considerable time and expense could be saved by the
company. The other half of the control group receive no special information.
This results confirmed the value of training based on social-learning theory.
Specifically, in independent evaluations of how all forty subjects responded to a
set of tape-recorded role plays requiring the resolution of supervisor-employee
problems, the trained group performed significantly better than either control
group. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the control groups.
In other words, merely providing a list of desirable behaviors did not result in
job-transferable learning. Furthermore, the researchers found that the
performance appraisals of these supervisors, though similar before the
experiment, differed significantly afterward. The supervisors who had the
training received significantly higher performance appraisals than did those in
the control groups.


9.1 Introduction

Management development is more future oriented, and more concerned with
education, than is employee training. By education, we mean that management
development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes and enhance
ones ability to understand and interpret knowledge- rather than imparting a
body of serial facts or teaching a specific set of motor skills. Development
therefore focuses more on the employees personal growth.

9.2 Management development defined:

We can define management development as any attempt to improve managerial
performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes or increasing skills.
It thus includes in-house programs like seminars and university programs like
the MBA program which is now being offered by many universities world-
wide. More and more Kenyans are participating in these development programs
each year. Short courses are also popular and a number of very large UK
companies have their own management training centres.
It is probably the case, however, that managers in smaller enterprises receive
fewer days of training annually than their counterparts in France or Germany.

9.3 Why is Management Development Important?

Management Development is important for several reasons. For one thing,
promotion from within is a major source of management talent. One survey of
84 employers report that about 90 % of supervisors, 73% of all middle level
managers and 51% of executives were promoted from within; virtually all these
managers in turn required some development to prepare them for their new
jobs. Similarly management development facilitates organizational continuity
by preparing employees and current mangers to smoothly assume higher level
positions. It also helps to socialise management trainees by developing in them
the right values and attitudes for working in the firm. And it can foster
organisational responsiveness by developing the skills that managers need to
respond faster to change.

Business studies is an extremely popular subject in British and Kenyan
Universities and colleges, and large numbers of students prepare for
qualifications on a part-time bases. Training for the professions has a long and
prestigious history in this country and large numbers of young people take this
route take this particular route to a management career.

The popularity of professional qualifications is due perhaps to:
a) Their practical orientation
b) The ability of a professionally qualified person to make an immediate
contribution to the work of a firm without need for extensive further
c) The fact that individuals learn while they earn hence ensuring that
they have relevant work experience by the time they qualify.
d) Their widespread recognition among employers, making a
professional qualification an entry ticket to well paid and interesting

9.4 The Changing Nature of Management Development

Some managers development programs are company wide and involve all or
most new (or potential) management recruits. Thus, new college graduates may
join Enormous Corp. and (with two dozen colleagues) become part of the
company wide management development program. Here they may be rotated
through a pre-programmed series of departmental assignments and educational
experiences; the aims are identifying their management potential, and at
providing the breadth of experience (in, say, production and finance) that will
make the new managers more valuable in their first real assignment as group
product leaders. Then superior candidates may be slotted onto a fast track, a
development program that prepares them more quickly to assume senior-level
On the other hand, the management development program may be aimed at
filling a specific position, such as CEO, perhaps with one of two potential
candidates. When an executive position is to be filled, the process is usually
called succession planning. Succession planning refers to the process through
which senior-level openings are planned for and eventually filled.
Such a succession program typically takes place in stages, first, an organisation
projection is made, here you anticipate your departments management needs
based on factors like planned expansion or contraction. Next the HR department
reviews its management skills inventory to identify the management talent now
employed. These inventories, you may recall, contain data on things like
educational and work experiences, career preferences, and performance
appraisals. Next management replacement charts are drawn. These summarise
potential candidates for each of your management slots, as well as each
persons development needs. The development needs for a future division vice
president might include job rotation (to obtain more experience in the firms
finance and production divisions), executive development programs (to provide
training in strategic planning), and assignment for two weeks to the employers
in-house management development centre.

9.5 Human Resource Management and The Responsive Organization

For the few years management developments focus has been shifting from
preparing managers to fill higher-level slots to preparing them to meet the
challenges of managing in a fast-paced environment. Increasingly, therefore,
the emphasis is on developing a managers ability to learn and make decisions
under conditions of rapid change.
Two experts put it this way: As decision makers take on increasing
responsibility across their careers, their learning needs move from the arena of
task learning to behavioural learning to conceptual or policy-level learning?
for example, todays corporate managers are under enormous pressure to find
the strategic opportunities their competitors have yet to find. This means more
emphasis on developing their conceptual ability to search for internal strategic
opportunities to improve quality, service, and prices.

Similarly, all managers-not just those to be posted overseas-have to be well
schooled in global economic, foreign markets, and cross-cultural negotiating.
And to manage in flatter, more empowered organisations the leader must
increasingly become a teacher, coach and consultant rather than a boss.

This is causing a corresponding change in the techniques that are emphasised in
management development programs. Historically on-the-job experience,
including on-the-job training, coaching, and rotational assignments, have been
far and away the most popular management development techniques. The
problem is that these techniques tend to emphasise showing managers current
procedures or (at best) getting them to think about how to do what were doing
today a little better. Today theres a shift toward development techniques that
teach managers how to learn to develop the competencies they need to cope
with change, such as sizing up foreign markets and searching for new strategic
opportunities. Special in-company executive development programs, action
learning and lifelong learning, are examples to be discussed later.




There are many techniques you can use to develop managers off the job and on
the job

Managerial on-the-job training

On-the-job training is one of the most popular development methods. Important
techniques here include job rotation, the coaching/understudy approach, junior
boards, and action learning.

Job Rotation
Job rotation means moving management trainees from department to
department to broaden their understanding of all parts of the business. The
trainee often a recent college graduate-may spend several months in each
department; this helps not only broaden his or her experience , but also discover
the jobs he or she prefers. The person may just be an observer in each
department but more commonly gets fully involved in its operations. The
trainee thus learns the departments business by actually doing it whether it
involves sales, production, finance, or more some other function.

Job rotation has several other advantages. In addition to providing a well-
rounded training experience for each person, it helps avoid stagnation through
the constant introduction of new points of view in each department. It also tests
the trainee and helps identify the persons strong and weak points. Periodic job
changing can also improve interdepartmental co-operation; managers become
more understanding of each others problems while rotation also widens the
trainees acquaintances among management.
Rotation does have disadvantages. It encourages generalisation and tends to be
more appropriate for developing general line managers than functional staff
experts. You also have to be careful not to forget inadvertently a trainee at some
deserted outpost.
There are several things you can do to improve a rotation programs success.
The program should be tailored to the needs and capabilities of the individual
trainee and not be a standard sequence of steps that all the trainees take. The
trainees interests, aptitudes, and career preferences should be considered,
along with the employers needs; the length of time the trainee stays in a job
should then be determined by how fast he or she is learning. Furthermore, the
managers to whom these people are assigned should themselves be specially
trained to provide feedback and to monitor performance in an interested and
competent way.
The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Companys training program for college
graduates is a good example of job rotation. Each trainees program is tailored
to match his or her experience, education, and vocational preference. Programs
vary from 6 to 15 moths, beginning with three weeks in an orientation program
to make the trainees thoroughly acquainted with Goodyear. (Here they study
the organizations structure, company objectives, and basic manufacturing
processes and participate in informal meetings with top company officials).
After an additional month of factory orientation, trainees, discuss their career
interests with top-level managers and select up to six assignments in special
departments, each of which will last about one month. (for example, a chemical
engineering graduate might rotate through departments for fabric development,
chemical materials development research, central process engineering, process
development, and chemical production). Trainees then select specific job
assignments as the starting point of their careers.

Global job rotation and management

As firms expand multinationally, job rotation is taking on a new meaning. At
firms like Shell and British Petroleum (BP), rotating managers globally is a
primary means through which the firms maintain their flexibility and
responsiveness even as they grow to an enormous size.

The rationale for extensive global job rotation is summarized as follows by a
Shell senior executive:
The word summarizing todays business outlook is uncertainty, and the
response must be flexibility. For a complex, international, multifunctional
organization like the Shell group, the prerequisite for flexibility is a highly
skilled, international body of staff.
The advantage of global job rotation (rotating managers from, say, Sweden to
New York, and from New York to Japan) is that it builds a network of informal
ties an information network that ensures superior cross-border
communication and mutual understanding as well as tight interunit co-
ordination and control.

Improved communication and understanding stem from the personal
relationships that are forged as managers work in the firms various locations.
These activities can also enhance organizational control. When employees from
a firms global locations are rotated or brought together at, say, Harvard
Business School or Europes INSEAD for a management training program, the
aim is more than just teaching basic skills. It is also to build a stronger
identification with the companys culture and values. By creating shared values
and a consistent view of the firm and its goals, management development
activities like these can facilitate communication and ensure that through a
sense of shared values and purpose the firms are followed, even with a
minimum on more traditional forms of control.

Coaching/understudy approach

In the coaching/understudy approach, the trainee works directly with the
person he or she is to replace; the latter in turn responsible for the trainees
coaching. Normally, the understudy relieves the executive of certain
responsibilities, thereby giving the trainee a chance to learn the job. This helps
ensure that the employer will have trained managers to assume key positions
when such positions are vacated due to retirement, promotions, transfer, or
terminations. It also helps guarantee the long-run development of company-
bred top managers.

To be effective, the executive has to be a good coach and mentor. Furthermore,
this persons motivation to train the replacement will depend on the quality of
relationship between them. Some executives are also better at delegating
responsibility, providing reinforcement, and communicating than are others;
this also will affect the results.

Junior Boards
Unlike job rotation, which aims to familiarise the trainees with the problems of
each department, junior boards aim to give promising middle managers
experience in analysing overall company problems. The idea of a junior board
(also called multiple management) is to give trainees top-level analysis and
policymaking experience by having 10 to 12 trainees sit on a junior board of
directors. The members of such boards come from various departments. They
make recommendations regarding top-level issues like organizations structure,
executive compensation, and interdepartmental conflict to the official board of
directors. This technique provides middle-management trainees with on the job
training and experience in dealing with organization wide problems.

Action Learning
Action learning gives managers released time to work full time on projects,
analysing and solving problems in departments other than their own. The
trainees meet periodically with a four-or five person project group, where their
findings and progress are discussed and debated.
Action learning is similar to and grounded in other development methods.
It is similar to the junior boards previously discussed except that trainees
generally work full time on their projects, rather than analysing a problem as a
committee as they would on junior boards. It is also similar to giving a
management trainee a special assignment or project. However, with action
learning several trainees work together as a project group to compare notes and
discuss each others projects. Action learning often requires cooperation among
several employers. For example, an employee from General Electric might be
assigned to a government agency for a research project, while the agency might
assign one of its managers to G.E.

The idea of developing managers this way has pros and cons. It gives trainees
real experience with actual problems, and to that extend it can develop skills
problem analysis and planning. Furthermore, working with the others in the
group, the trainees can and do find solutions to major problems. The main
drawback is that in releasing trainees to work on outside projects, the employer
loses, in a sense, the full-time services of a competent manager.

Off-the-Job Management Development Techniques

There are many techniques you can use to develop managers off the job,
perhaps in a conference room at headquarters or off the premises entirely at a
university or special seminar. These techniques are addressed next.

The case study method
The case study method presents a trainee with a written description of an
organisational problem. The persons then analyses the case in private,
diagnoses the problem, and presents his or her findings and solutions in a
discussion with other trainees. The case method approach is aimed at giving
trainees realistic experience in identifying and analysing complex problems in
an environment in which their progress can be subtly guided by a trained
discussions leader.
Through the class discussion of the case, trainees learn that there are usually
many ways to approach and solve complex organisational problems. Trainees
also learn that their solutions are often influenced by their own needs and

The case method ideally has five main features. (1) The use of actual
organizational problems; (2) the maximum possible involvement of participants
in stating their views, inquiring into others views, confronting different views,
and making decisions, resulting in (3) a minimal degree of dependence on the
faculty members; who, in turn, (4) hold the position that there are rarely any
right or wrong answers, and that cases are incomplete and so is reality; and (5)
who still strive to make the case method as engaging as possible through
creation of appropriate levels of drama. As you can see, the instructor plays a
crucial role.

Problems to avoid unfortunately, the case approach often falls far short of this
mark. In practical, faculty often dominate classroom discussions by asking
students questions that they then themselves proceed to answer, through
answering specific questions asked by students and through presenting
statements of the facts about the case. Faculty also use mystery to achieve
mastery by intentionally withholding information (for instance, regarding
what the company actually did and what its competitors were doing at the time
when the case was written) with the aim of maintaining control of the classroom
discussion. In one study of the case method, Argyris found that there were
inconsistencies between the approach that the faculty espoused and what they
actually did. For example, (1) faculty said there are no right or wrong answers,
yet some faculty members did take positions and give answers (2) faculty said
there are many different points of view possible; yet they seemed to select
viewpoints and organize them in a way to suggest that they have a preferred
route. Finally, few attempts were made by the faculty to relate the trainees
behaviour in the classroom to their behaviour back home.
There are several things you can do to make the case approach more effective.
If possible, the cases should be actual cases from the trainees own firms. This
will help ensure that trainees understand the background of the case, as well as
make it easier for trainees to transfer what they learn to their own jobs and
situations. Argyris also contends that instructors have to regard against
dominating the case analysis and make sure that they remain no more than a
catalyst or coach. Finally, they must carefully prepare the case discussion and
let the students discuss the case in small groups before class.

Management games
A development technique in which teams of managers compete with one
another by making computerised decisions regarding realistic but simulated
companies. In a computerised management game, trainees are divided into
five-or six person companies, each of which has to compete with the other in a
simulated marketplace. Each company sets a goal (such as maximize sales)
and is told it can make several decisions. For example, the group may be
allowed to decide (1) how much to spend on advertising, (2) how much to
produce, (3) how much inventory to maintain, and (4) how much of which
product to produce. Usually the game itself compresses a two-or three year
period into days, weeks, or months. As in the real world, each company usually
cant see what decisions the other firms have made, although these decisions do
affect their own sales. For example, if a competitor decides to increase its
advertising expenditures, that firm may end up increasing its sales at the
expense of yours.
Management games can be good development tools. People learn best by
getting involved in the activity itself, and the games can be useful for gaining
such involvement. Games are almost always interesting and exciting for the
trainees because of their realism and competitiveness. They help trainees
develop their problem-solving skills, as well as focus their attention on the need
for planning rather than on just putting out fires. The companies also usually
elect their own officers and develop their own divisions of work; the games can
thus be useful for developing leadership skills and for drawbacks. One is that
the game can be management games also have their drawbacks. One is that the
game can be expensive to develop and implement. Games also usually force the
decision makers to choose alternative from a closed list (for instance, they
might have choices of only three levels of production); in real life managers are
more often rewarded for creating new, innovative alternatives. On the whole,
though, trainees almost always react favourably to a well-run game, and its a
good technique for developing problem-solving and leadership skills.

Cutside Seminars
Many organisations offer special seminars and conferences aimed at providing
skill-building training for managers. The American Management Associations
(AMA), for instance, provide thousands of courses in areas such as the
General management
Human resources
Sales and marketing
International management
Information systems and technology
Manufacturing and operations management
Purchasing, transportation, and physical distribution
Research and technology management
General and administrative service
Insurance and employees benefits.

The courses themselves range from how to sharpen your business writing
skills to strategic planning and assertiveness training for managers.. Topics
covered include review of management and organisation concepts, developing
effective interpersonal skills, communication, motivation, and developing
leadership skills. Many of the AMA courses can also be presented on site at the
employers place of business if ten or more employees are enrolled.

Who should attend:
An advanced course for first-line manufacturing supervisors with 3-5 years
experience who want to enhance their management skills. Especially useful for
supervisors who have completed course.
The management course for new manufacturing supervisors, or course
productivity improvement methods and techniques.

Key topics
Review of management and organization concepts and how they relate to
todays employees: planning, organizing, coordinating, controlling,
authority, responsibility, accountability, reportability, dollar relationship to
human resources utilization and lost time.
How to develop effective interpersonal skills, understanding behaviour and
personality, relating to people as individuals, selfawareness and
opportunities to develop, how to positively affect attitudes and working
relationships, team development, how to develop a warmer, more relaxed
climate in dealing with people, how to come across firmly but fairly.
The communication workshop for supervisors: develop increased listening
kills, writing and speaking clearly, concisely, and with more organization,
how to use communication to reduce stress and fear, assertiveness in
communication, how to sell your ideas to management.
The motivation workshop for supervisors, analysing management style and
its role in motivation, creating an environment where employees will work
effectively, behavioural foundation for self-motivation, relating program
content to actual problem situations.
Developing your leadership skills, how you are perceived by others, habits
that reduce your leadership potential, applying course content to leadership

Special feature:
Examination of the supervisors role-defining responsibilities, duties, authority
and the restriction of authority. Discussion on work psychology how the
supervisor can effectively motivate, and the importance of communications.
Discussion of various discipline techniques-when and where to use them and
their effects on performance and morale, presentation on reviewing employee
performance with emphasis on improving their production and morale.

Harvard Business School executive education offers dynamic and thought-
provoking study in a wide spectrum for disciplines. These intensive programs
are specifically designed to provide you with the fresh perspectives and
strategic focus needed to improve the performance of your company.
In 1996, the Harvard business school offered more than twenty courses that run
form two and one-half days to eleven weeks. Two programs will be of
particular interest to CEOs their direct reports, and senior level executives.
Advanced management program is for senior level general managers with more
than 15 years experience. The program fosters a greater appreciation of
complex business challenges and new strategies to change and lead
organizations in todays global marketplace.

Program of management development is designed for new general managers as
well as senior-level functional managers in succession for a general
management role.
This course helps executives improve their overall efficiency, develop a new
framework for problem solving and expand their range of responsibility.
Join your colleges in the learning experience that has had measurable impact on
companies and corporations around the world for more than fifty years. Then
see the results for yourself. Explore the opportunities with executive education
at the Harvard Business School.

University Related Programs

Colleges and universities provide three types of management development
activities. First, many schools provide continuing education programs in
leadership, supervision, and the like. As with the AMA, these ranges from one-
to four- day program to executive development programs lasting one to four
months. The advanced management program of the graduate school of business
administration at Harvard University is an example of one of these longer
programs.. The program uses cases and lecturers to provide top-level
management talent with the latest management skills, as well as with practice in
analysing complex organization problems. Similar programs include the
Executive program of the graduate school of business administration at the
university of California at Berkeley, the management Development seminar at
the university of Chicago, and the Executive in business administration
program of the Graduate of Business at Columbia University. Most of these
programs take the executives away from their jobs, putting them in university-
run learning environments for their entire stay. The Colombia University
program, for instance, is offered at Arden House in the Ramapo Mountains of
New York and the MBA program of Kenyatta University.

Second, many colleagues and universities also offer individualized courses in
areas like business, management, and health care administration. Managers can
take these as matriculated or no matriculated students to fill gaps in their
Thus, a prospective division manager with a gap in experience with accounting
controls might sign up for a two-course sequence in managerial accounting.
Finally, of course many schools also offer degree programs such as the MBA or
Executive MBA. The latter is a Master and above, who generally take their
courses on weekends and proceed through the program with the same group of

The employers contribution the employer usually plays a role in university
related programs. First, many employers offer tuition refunds as an incentive for
employees to develop job-related skills. Thus, engineers may be encouraged to
enroll in technical courses aimed at keeping them abreast of changes in their
field. Supervisors may be encouraged to enroll in programs to develop them for
higher level management jobs.
Employers are also increasingly technical and professional employees extended
sabbaticals periods of time off the attending a college or university to pursue
a higher degree or to upgrade skills. For example, Lucent Corporation has a
program that includes a tuition refund and released time for up to one year of
on-campus study. In addition, the company has a doctoral support program that
permits tuition refund and released time for studies one day a week (and, for
some, a full years study on campus to meet residence requirements).
Some companies have experienced with offering selected employees in house
degree programs in cooperation with colleges and universities. Many also offer
a variety of in-house lectures and seminars by university staff.

For example, Technician, a high-tech medical instruments company, asked Pace
University to offer an executive education program for its key middle
managers. The theme of the 14-month program was successful management of
high-tech business. the coursework covered topics ranging from finance to
executive communication.

Universities and cooperations are also experimenting with video-linked
classroom education. For example, the school of business and public
administration at California State University, Sacramento, and a Hewlett-
Packard facility in Roseville, California, are video-linked. A video-link allows
for classroom learning on campuses with simultaneous broadcasting to other
locations via telephone communication lines.

Figure 8.4 typical role in a role playing exercise.
Walt Marshall supervisor of repair crew
You are the head of a crew of telephone maintenance workers, each of whom
drives a small service truck to and from the various jobs. Every so often you get
a new truck to exchange for an old one, and you have the problem for deciding
to which of your crew members you should give the new truck. Often there are
hard feelings, since each seems to fee entitled, to the new truck, so you have a
tough time being fair. As a matter of fact, it usually turns out that whatever you
decide is considered wrong by most of the crew truck, a Chevrolet, has just
been allocated to you for assignment.

In order to handle this problem you have decided to put the decision up to the
crew. You will tell them about the new truck and will put the problem in terms
of what would be the fairest way to assign the truck. Do not take a position
yourself, because you want to do what you think is most fair.

Role Playing
The aim of role playing is to create a realistic situation and then have the
trainees assume the parts (or roles) of specific persons in that situation.
One such role from a famous role-playing exercise called the New Truck
Dilemma is presented in Figure 8.4 when combined with the general
instructions for the role playing exercise, roles like these for all of the
participants can trigger a spirited discussion among the role players, particularly
when they all throw themselves into the roles. The idea of the exercise is to
solve the problem at hand and thereby develop trainees skills in areas like
leadership and delegating.

Role playing can be an enjoyable and inexpensive way to develop many crew
skills, with the New Truck Dilemma exercise, for instance, participants learn
the importance of fairness in bringing about acceptance of resource allocation
decisions. The role players can also give up their inhibitions and experiment
with new ways of acting. For example, a supervisor could experiment with both
a considerate and autocratic leadership style, whereas in the real world the
person might not have this harmless way of experimenting. According to Maier,
role playing also trains a person to be aware of and sensitive to the feelings of

Role playing has some drawbacks. An exercise can take an hour or more to
complete, only to be deemed a waster of time by participants if the instructor
doesnt prepare a wrap-up explanation of what the participants were to learn.
Some trainees also feel that role playing is childish, while others who may have
had a bad experience with the technique are reluctant to participate at all.
Knowing your audience and preparing a wrap-up are thus advisable.

Behaviour Modelling
Behaviour modelling involves (1) showing trainees the right (or model) way
of doing something, (2) letting each person practice the right way to do it, and
then (3) providing feedback regarding each trainee performance. It has been
used for example, to:

1. Train first-line supervisors to handle common supervisor-employee
interactions better. This includes giving recognition, disciplining,
introducing changes, and improving poor performance.
2. Train middle manages to better handle interpersonal situations, for example,
performance problems and undesirable work habits.
3. Train employees and their supervisors to take and give criticism, ask and
give help, and establish mutual trust and respect.
4. modeling, first, trainees watch films or videotapes that show model persons
behaviour effectively in a problem situation. In other words, trainees are
shown the right way to behave in a simulated but realistic situation. The film
might thus show a supervisor effectively disciplining a subordinate, if
teaching how to discipline is the aim of the training program.
5. role playing, next and trainees are given roles to play in a simulated
situation, here they practice and rehearse the effective behaviours
demonstrated by the models.
6. social reinforcement. The trainer provides reinforcement in the form of
praise and constructive feedback based on how the trainee performs in the
role playing situation.
7. transfer of training. Finally, trainees are encouraged to apply their new skills
when they are back on their jobs.

In-house Development Centres.
Some employees have in-house development centres. These centres usually
combine classroom learning (lectures and seminars, for instance) with other
techniques like assessment centers, in-basket exercises, and role playing to help
develop employees and other managers.

For example the CBs management school is set in country club surroundings in
Old Westbury, New York. Its basic aim is to give young managers first hand
experience at decision making.

To accomplish this, both the general management program (for upper-level
managers) and the professional management programs (for entry-level
managers) stress solving concrete business problems. The programs use various
teaching methods but stress computerised case exercises. In one exercise, for
instance, each student acts as a regional sales manager and has to make
decisions regarding how to deal with a star saleswoman who wants to leave. As
trainees make decisions (like whether or not to boost the saleswomans salary to
entice her to stay), the computer indicates the implications of the decision; thus
if she is paid more, others may also want that increase in pay. At the end of
each day students get printouts evaluating their decisions with respect to setting
goals, organising work, managing time, and supervising subordinates.

HRs Role in Building Learning Organizations
Firms like GE have successfully made the leap into rebuilding themselves as
learning organisations. A learning organisation is an organisation skilled at
creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behaviour
to reflect new knowledge and insights. Learning organisations engage in five
activities, which well discuss next: systematic problem solving,
experimentation, learning from experience, learning from others and
transferring knowledge. HR can play a crucial role in each activity of building
learning organisations.

HR and systematic problem solving. The learning organisation depends on the
scientific method rather than on guesswork for diagnosing problems.
Employees and managers here dont make decisions based on assumptions,
instead they insist on having data and using simple statistical tools to organize
data and draw inferences.
Training and development is crucial for fostering such systematic problem
solving skills. At Xerox, for instance, employees receive skill training in four
areas. They are trained in using technique like interviewing and surveying to
generate ideas and collect information, to reach consensus by using simple
statistical charts, and to plan the actions they will take to solve the problem
using special planning charts.

Hr and experimentation.The learning organisations depends on
experimentation, which means the systematic searching for and testing of new
For example, Corning Glass continuously experiments with new formulations
to increase yields and provide better grades of glass. Steel maker Allegheny
Ludlam continually experiments with new rolling methods and improved
technologies to raise productivity and reduce costs.

HR is crucial for developing such an experimentation orientation on the part of
employees and managers. For example, Chaparral Steel regularly sends its first
line supervisors on development trips around the globe to visit industry leaders
and foster a better understanding of new work practices and technologies. GE
sends manufacturing managers to Japan to study factory innovations. Both
firms have training programs for building the skills required to perform and
evaluate experiments, such as how to use statistical methods and design
experiments. Its also HRs role to formulate incentive plans that ensure that
employees who experiment with new processes or produces arent inadvertently
punished fro trying a new approach.

HR and learning from others
A learning organization is also one that effectively learns from others.
Sometimes, in other words, .. the most powerful insights come from looking
outside ones immediate environment to gain a new perspective.
Training and development plays a role in obtaining such expertise. For
example, ,employees have to be trained to cultivate the art of open, attentive
listening in order to gain the fullest understanding of the other companys
operations. Employees and managers also must be trained to benchmark, the
process through which the best industry practices are uncovered, analyzed,
adopted, and implemented.

HR and transferring knowledge
Finally, learning organizations are adept at transferring knowledge, in other
words, spreading knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the
Training and development plays an important role in cultivating such expertise.
For example, rotating assignments can be useful for transferring knowledge.
The CEO of Time Life shifted the president of the companys music division
(who had produced several years of rapid growth through innovative marketing)
to the presidency of the book division where profits were flat. As another
example, in the late 1980s workers in one PPG glass plant were organized by
the plant manager into small, self-managing teams with responsibility for work
assignments. Several years later in an attempt to transfer the knowledge gained
from this experience, the plant manager was promoted to director of human
resources for the entire glass group. He then developed a training program for
teaching first level supervisors the behaviours they needed to manage
employees in a participative, self-managing environment.
In summary, learning organizations are skilled at creating, acquiring, and
transferring-knowledge, and at modifying their behaviour to reflect new
knowledge and insights. Learning organizations are built on a foundation of
systematic problem solving, experimentation, learning from past experience,
learning from others, and transferring knowledge. HR and particularly training
and development play entire roles in developing employees and managers
skills and expertise in each of these areas.

Providing employees with lifelong learning
Employers cant build learning organizations just around managers. In todays
downsized, flattened, high-tech, and empowered organizations, employers must
also depend on their first-line employees the team members building the
Saturn cars, or the Microsoft programmers to recognize new opportunities,
identify problems, and react quickly with analyses and recommendations. As a
result, the need has arisen for encouraging lifelong learning, in other words, for
providing extensive continuing training from basic remedial skills to advanced
decision making techniques throughout employees careers.

The experience at one Canadian Honeywell manufacturing plant provide an
example. This plant called its lifelong learning program the Honeywell-
Scarborough Learning for Life Initiative. It was a concerted effort to
upgrade skill and education levels so that employees can meet workplace
challenges with confidence.

Honeywells Lifelong Learning Initiative had several components. It began
with adult basic education. Here the company, in partnership with the
employees union, offered courses in English as a second language, basic
literacy, numeracy, and compute literacy.
Next the factory formed a partnership with a local community college. Through
that partnership Honeywell provides college-level course to all factory
employees-hourly, professional and managerial giving them the opportunity to
earn college diplomas and certificates. This includes a 15 hour skills for
success program designed to refresh adults in the study habits required to
succeed academically. All courses take place at the factory immediately after
In addition, job-related training is provided for two hours every other week.
These sessions focus on skills specifically important to the job, . Such as the
principles of just-in-time inventory systems, team effectiveness, interpersonal
communication skills, conflict resolution, problem solving and dealing with a
diverse work force.

Executive Development: Key Factors For Success
The idea that there are several keys factors for an executive development
programs success is illustrated by the results of a survey of executive
development practices in 12 leading corporations. This study found a
surprisingly high degree of consensus among the 12 firms regarding the
characteristics of effective and ineffective executive development processes. In
particular, five major success criteria were listed by over 75% of the survey

Five key factors for success
These five key factors were as follows:
1. Extensive and visible involvement the chief executive (CEO) is critical.
In all but one of the companies, extensive and visible involvement by the CEO
was described as essential and the single most important determinant of
success for the executive development program. This extensive involvement
helped guarantee that the companys executive development process was
consistent with the direction the CEO wanted the company to follow. It also
lent the process a credibility unachievable in any other way.

2. Corporations with a successful executive development process have a
clearly articulated and understood executive development policy and

For example, 10 of the 12 companies surveyed listed four common objectives
of their executive development processes. Ensuring that qualified executives
would be available to fill current and future assignments, serving as a major
vehicle to perpetuate the organizations heritage and shape its culture by
communicating its mission, beliefs, values, and management practices,
preparing executives to respond to the complex business issues of the changing
environment by providing managers with the experience, knowledge, and skills
they need in future assignments, and developing a cadre of individuals prepared
to assume senior-level general management responsibilities.

3. Successful executive development policies and strategies are directly
linked to the corporations business strategies, objectives challenges.

Nine of the 12 companies emphasized that their executive development policies
and strategies. For example, plans to expand overseas, diversify into new
product lines, or consolidate manufacturing operations have implications for
management/executive development activities. In the successful programs the
development process was molded around the companys plans.

4. Successful executive development processes include three main
elements. An annual succession planning process, planned on-the-job
development assignments, and customized, internal, executive education
programs supplemented by the selected use of university programs.
First, in all 12 companies succession plans were in place and were actively
managed for key positions and individuals. Second, development needs were
continually identified (based on these plans), and plans were developed and
implemented to address these development needs. Third, a formal annual
planning and review phase was in place to assess each candidates progress and
to review the companys replacement plans.
With respect to on-the-job development, all the study participants agreed that
it was the single effective developmental tool available to organizations. The
four types of on-the-job experience used most often were, assignment of people
to membership on task forces assembled to address specific issues, job rotation
experiences lasting from one to two years, overseas assignments, and
temporary assignments of relatively short duration.
With respect to executive education, all the companies offered a mix of external
university-type programs and customized internral programs. Some of the
companies expressed concern about the prohibitive costs of the external
programs, although virtually all sent selected employees to them.
5. Executive development is the responsibility of line management rather
than of the HR function.
In all but one of the companies in this survey, the role of HR department was
seen s crucial but advisory HR serves as a resource for line management
regarding the development programs and activities to use and how to use them.
However, the actual responsibility for achieving the goals of the executive
development program deciding who will fill future positions, or how to
eliminate current managers shortcomings, for instance is line management

Executive development in Global companies.

Selecting and developing executives to run the employers overseas operations
present management with a dilemma. One expert cites an alarmingly high
failure rate when executives are relocated overseas. This failure rate is usually
caused by inappropriate selection and poor replacement development. Yet in an
increasingly globalized economy, employers must develop mangers for
overseas assignments despite these difficulties.
A number of companies, including Dow, Colgate-Palmolive, and Ciba-Geigy,
have developed and implemented international executive relocation programs
that are successful. In addition to the general requirements for successful
executive development programs previously listed, preparing and training
executives for overseas as assignments should also include the following

1. Choose international assignment candidates whose educational backgrounds
and experiences are appropriate for overseas assignments. As in most other
endeavours, the best predictor for future performance is often a persons
past performance. In this case the person who has already accumulated a
track record of successfully adapting to foreign cultures (perhaps through
overseas college studies and summer internships) will more likely succeed
as an international transferee.
2. Choose those whose personalities and family situations can withstand the
cultural changes they will encounter in their new environments. When many
of these executives fail, it is not because these individuals couldnt adapt but
because their spouses or children were unhappy in their new foreign setting.
Thus, the persons family situation probably should have more influence on
the assignment than it would in a domestic assignment.

3. Brief candidates fully and clearly on all relocation policies. Transferees
should be given a realistic preview of what the assignment will entail,
including the companys policies regarding matters such as moving
expenses, salary differentials, and benefits such as paid schooling for the
employees children.

4. Give executives and their families comprehensive training in their new
companys culture and language. At Dow Chemical, for instance, orientation
begins with a briefing session, during which the transfer policy is explained
in detail to the relocating executive. He or she is also given a briefing
package compiled by the receiving area containing important information
about local matters, such as shopping and housing. In addition, an advisor,
who is often the spouse of a recently returned expatriate, will visit the
transferee and his or her spouse to explain what sort of emotional issues they
are likely to face in the early stages of the move-such as feeling remote from
relatives, for instance. The option of attending a two-week language and
cultural orientation program offered by a school like Berlitz is also extended.

5. provide all relocating executives with a mentor to monitor their overseas
careers and help them secure appropriate jobs with the company when they
repatriate. At Dow, for instance, this person is usually a high-level
supervisor in the expatriates functional area. The overseas assignee keeps
his or her mentor up to date on his or she is overseas. Specifically, all job
changes and compensation actions involving the expatriate must be reviewed
with and supported by the mentor. This helps to avoid the problem of
having expatriates feel lost overseas, particularly in terms of career

6. Establish a repatriation program that helps returning executives and their
families readjust to their professional and personal lives in their home
country. At Dow, for instance, ,the head of the overseas assignees
department or division gives the transferee a letter stating that the foreign
subsidiary guarantees that he or she will be able to return to a job at least at
the same level as the one he or she is leaving. As much as a year in advance
of the expatriates scheduled return to headquarters, his or her new job is
arranged by the persons mentor.

Small business applications
The president of a smaller enterprise faces both unique advantage and
disadvantages when it comes to developing employees for higher-level
executive roles. On the negative side, this president has neither resources nor
time to develop full-blown executive succession programs or to fund many
outside programs like sending potential executives to the Harvard Business
School. Yet at the same time the president of a smaller firm has the advantage
of working more closely with and knowing more about each of this or her
employees than does the CEO of a bigger, less personal firm.
A relative lack of resources notwithstanding, the smaller firms president has
few needs more important than that of developing senior managers. For most
small firms with successful products, it is not a lack of financing that holds
them back but a lack of management talent. This is so because all growing firms
inevitably reach the point where the entrepreneur/owner can no longer solely
make all the decisions. For the Dows and Mercks of the world, the question of
succession planning and executive development is mostly a question of
selecting the best of the lot and then developing them. There is usually an
adequate supply of talent given these companies enormous influx of new
recruits. For the smaller company, the problem usually is not of selecting the
best of the lot. Instead its main sure that key positions are filled and that the
president will have the foresight to know when to surrender one set of reins
over a part of the companys operations.
There re thus four main steps in the smaller companys executive development
Step 1. problem assessment
Particularly here the executive development process must begin with an
assessment of the companys current problems and the owners plans for the
companys future. Obviously, if the owner/entrepreneur is satisfied with the
current size of the firm and has no plans to retire in the near future, no
additional management talent may be required.
On the other hand, if plans call for expansion, or current problems seem to be
growing out of control, management development/succession planning might be
the key. It often happens, for instance, that as a small company evolves from a
mon-and pop operation to a larger firm, the management system that
adequately served that were previously profitable now incur overtime costs and
excessive waste, and the informal order-writing process can no longer keep up
with the volume of orders.

At this point the president must assess the problems in his or her firm. Begin
with an analysis of the companys financial statements. For example, what is
the trend of key financial ratios, such as the ratio of manufacturing costs to
sales, or of sales overhead to sales? Are your profit margins level, or heading up
or down? Are fixed costs remaining about the same, or heading up as a
percentage of sales? Next analyze the organization function by function. In
sales, is the backlog or orders growing? In manufacturing are there inventory
problems that required attention? In accounting, are you getting the accounting
reports that you need and are the monthly and end-of year reports produced in a
timely fashion? Does the company have a personal system in place such that as
many personnel matters as possible-recruitment, testing, selection, training ,
and so forth are routinized and carried out in an effective manner? The point
is that the owner must assess the problems in his or her firm with an eye toward
determining whether and when new management talent is required.

Step 2. Management audit and appraisal
One reason management selection and development are so important in small
firms is that the problems assessed in step 1 are often just symptoms of
inadequate management talent in smaller firms. Its simply not possible for the
owner/entrepreneur to run a $5million company the way he or she did when the
company was one-tenth the size.
Therefore, the lack of adequate management is a depressingly familiar cause for
many of the problems in the small growing firm.
Use the problems found in step 1 as a starting point conducting a management
audit and appraisal of the people now helping you manage your firm. One
simple and effective way do this is by evaluating them on the traditional
management functions of planning, organizing staffing, leading, and
controlling. For example, within their own areas of responsibility have they
instituted plans, policies, and procedures that enable their activities to be carried
out efficiently? Have they organized their activities in such a way that their
subordinates have job descriptions and understand what their responsibilities
are? In terms of staffing, have they selected competent employees, are their
people adequately oriented and trained, and are the pay rates within their group
viewed as fair and equitable?

In terms of leadership, is the morale in their department satisfactory, and do
their people seem to enjoy what they are doing? Are each persons interpersonal
relations with other members of your team satisfactory? And in terms of
control, has each person recommended and/or instituted a set of reports that
provides both of you with the information you need to assess adequately how
that department is doing?

Step 3. Analysis of development needs
Your next step is to determine whether any inadequacies uncovered in step 2
can be remedied via some type of development program. At one extreme, the
person may not have the potential to grow beyond what he or she is now, and
here development may serve no purpose. At the other extreme, the problems
uncovered may just reflect a lack of knowledge. For example, sending your
bookkeeper/accountant back to school for a course or two in management
accounting could alleviate the problem. Another question to answer here is
whether you (as the owner/entrepreneur) may be responsible for some of the
problems yourself, and whether you should direct yourself direct yourself to a
management development program (or out of the firm altogether).

Step 4 identify replacement needs
Your assessment may uncover a need to recruit and select new management
talent. Here, as explained in Chapter 3, you should determine ahead of time the
intellectual, personality, interpersonal and experience criteria to be used. You
should map out an on-the-job development program that gives the person the
breadth of experience he or she needs to perform the job.


1. Management development is aimed at preparing employee for future jobs
with the organization, or at solving organization wide problems concerning,
for instance, inadequate interdepartmental communication.

2. On-the-job experience is by far the most popular form of management
development. However, the preferred techniques differ by organisational
level, with in-house programs being preferred for first-line supervisors and
external conferences and seminars more widely used for top executives.

3. Managerial on-the-job training methods include job rotation, coaching,
junior boards, and action learning. Basic off-the-job techniques include case
studies, management games, outside seminars, university related programs,
role playing, behaviour modelling, and in-house development centres.

4. HR can contribute to building the learning organization through its impact
on: systematic problem solving, experimentation, learning from experience
and from others, transferring knowledge, and providing employees with
lifelong learning.

5. Successful development programs require CEO involvement, a clear
development policy, linkage to plans, succession planning and development
and line responsibility.


Key Terms
Management development role playing survey
Succession planning behaviour modeling
sensitivity training
Job rotation in-house development team building
Junior board centres managerial grid
Action learning organizational 9, 9
Case study method development (OD)
Management game


Part 11 Management Development - Discussion Questions

Q1. Sending someone on a course is often the last resort of a guilty manager.


a) The reasons why courses may not be the best forms of management
development and training
b) What other approaches could be more fruitful

Q2. You cant develop managers. People either have the ability to manage or
dont. Do you agree or disagree. Discuss

Q3. Management development should downplay job knowledge and leadership
abilities and emphasise the ethical issues in managerial decision-making, Do
you agree or disagree. Discuss.

4.Describe the pros and cons of 5 Management Development methods

5.Discuss the key consideration in a typical small business management
development program

6.Do you think that job rotation is a good method for developing management
Trainees? Why or why not?

7. How does the involvement approach to attitude surveys differ from simply
administering surveys and returning the results to top management?
8. Compare and contrast three organizational development techniques.
9. Describe the pros and cons of five management development methods.
10. Discuss the key considerations in a typical small business management
development program.
11. Do you think job rotation is a good method to use for developing
management trainees? Why or why not?


1. Working individually or in groups, contact a provider of management
development seminars or a consultancy firm that providing training/seminars
for manager

At what levels of manager do they aim their seminar offering?

What seems to be the most popular types of development programs?
Why or Why not?

Application Exercise
Running Case: Carter-cleaning company developing managers.

Management development? Did you say management development? Jennifer,
youre my daughter and I love you I cant believe that with all the problems
were facing here-strong competition, softening economy, 400% turnover,
employee theft, and supply and waste management cartage costs that are going
through the roof-you actually want me to consider setting up some kind of
program that will turn that bunch of deadbeats that we have as manages into
nice guys. I love you, Jennifer, but please lets focus on the problems that we
have to get solve today.

Actually, Jennifer was not altogether surprised with her fathers reaction, but
she did believe that her dad was being more than a little short-sighted.
For example, she knew that some successful organizations, like Club Med had a
policy of rotating managers annually to help avoid their getting, stale, and she
wondered whether such a program would make sense at Carter. She also felt
that some type of simulations might help managers do a better job of dealing
with their customers and subordinates, and she further believed that periodic
off-site meetings between her, her father, and the store managers might help to
identify and solve problems with the stores.

Outside seminars in areas like modern cleaning techniques might also help to
boost the current store managers interest and performance and, of course, there
is also the possibility of scheduling potential managers (like a few of the current
cleaner-spotters) for management development as well. The company really
didnt have much money to spend on matters like this though, and Jennifer
knew that to sell the idea to her father she would need a very concrete, tight set
of recommendations.

1. Given a budget of $750, what type of management development program
can Jennifer formulate for her current store managers? The proposal must
include the specific activities (like job rotation) in which her managers
should engage over the next four months.
2. Would it be worthwhile for the company to administer an attitude survey of
all their employees? Jennifer knows she doesnt have a big company, but she
is curious as to whether employees would anonymously express their
concerns, their likes and dislikes, and perhaps even help identify problems
like employees theft that they are encountering on their job. If the company
does go ahead with the survey, what questions should they ask?


CASE INCIDENT: What We Need Around Here Is Better
Human Relations

Kamau called his three highest-ranking managers tougher for a surprise
luncheon meeting. Have lunch of United Mutual, said Kamau I have an
important topic I want to bring to your attention.

After Madeline, Raymond, and Allen ordered lunch, Kamau launched into the
agenda: As office manager, I think we have to move into a rigorous human
relations training and development program for our front-line supervisors. Its
no longer a question of whether we should have a program, its now a question
of what and when.
Allen spoke out, Okay, Kamau dont keep us in suspense any longer. What
makes you think we need a human relations program?

Look at the problems we are facing: 25% turnover among the clerical and
secretarial staffs; and productivity lower than the casualty insurance industry
national standards. What better reasons could anybody have for properly
training our supervisory staff?
Madeline commented, Hold on, Kamau. Training may not be the answer. I
think our high turnover and low productivity are caused by reasons beyond the
control of supervision. Our wages are low and we expect our people to work in
cramped, rather dismal office space.

Kamau retorted, Nonsense. A good supervisor can get workers to accept
almost any working conditions. Training will fix that.
Kamau, I see another problem, said Allen. Our supervisors are so
overworked already that they will balk at training. If you hold the training on
company time, they will say that they are falling behind in their work. If the
training takes place after hours or on weekends, our supervisors wills ay that
they are being taken advantage of.
Nonsense, replied Kamau. Every supervisor realizes the importance of good
human relations. Besides that, they will see it as a form of job enrichment.

So long as were having an open meeting, Ill give you my input,
volunteered Raymond. We are starting from the wrong end by having our first
line supervisors go through human relations training. Its our top management
who needs the training the most. Unless they practice better human relations,
you cant expect such behaviour form our supervisors.
How can you have a top management that is insensitive to people and a lower-
level management that is sensitive? The system just wont work.
What you say makes some sense, said Kamau, but I wouldnt go so far as to
say top management is insensitive to people. Maybe we can talk some more
about the human relations program after lunch.

1. What do you think Kamau means by human relations training?
2. Should Kamau go ahead with his plans for the human relations training and
development program? Why or why not?
3. What do you think of Raymonds comment that top management should
participate in human relations training first?
4. What is your opinion of Kamaus statement that good leadership can
compensate for poor working conditions?
5. If you were in Kamaus situation, would you try to get top management to
participate in a human relations training program?
6. What type of training and development activities would you recommend for
first-line supervisors at United Mutual? How would you analyze the need for
such a program?
7. What other factors could be causing the problems referred to by Kamau?



Learning Theories Or Theories Of Learning

Learning is concerned with bringing about relatively permanent change. This
can be through direct experience by doing or indirectly through observation
regardless of the means by which learning takes place, we cannot measure
learning per se. We can only measure the changes in attitudes and behavior that
occur as a result of learning.
Training is a learning experience i9n that it seeks a relatively permanent change
that will improve his/ her ability to perform as the job. Training can change
ones skills, knowledge, attitudes or social behavior.
Two major theories have cominated learning research over the years .
One position is the cognitive view.
Its proponents argue tat an individual purposes or intentions direct his/ her
actions .
The other position is the environmental perspective, whose proponents believe
the individual is acted upon and his/ her behavior is a function of its external

More recently an approach that blends both these theories learning is a
continuos interaction between the individual and the particular social
environment in which he or she functions.
This is called social learning theory-
This theory acknowledges that we can learn by observing what happens to other
people and just by being told about something, as well as by direct experiences.
Still much of training is observational in nature, this theory would appear to
have considerable application potential.
The influence of models is central to the social learning view point.
Research indicates that much of what we have learned comes from watching
models- parents, teachers, peers, motion picture and television performers,
bosses and so forth.

Four process have been found to determine the influence a model will have as
an individual.

1.Attentional Processes.
People only learn from a model when they recognize and pay attention to its
critical features. We tend to be influenced by models that are attractive
,repeatedly available, that we think are important or that we see as similar to us.
2. Retention process. A models influence will depend as how well the
individual remembers the models action ,even after the model is on longer
readily available.
3.Motor reproduction process. After a person has seen a new behavior by
observing the model, the watching must be converted to doing. This process
them demonstrates that the modified activities.
4. Reinforcement processes. Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the
modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. Behaviors that
are reinforced will be given more attention learned better and performed more

Social learning theory offers us insight into what a training exercise should
include. Specifically it tells us training:
1. should provide a model
2. It must grab the trainees attention
3.-Provide motivational properties
4.Help the trainee file away what he/ she has learned for later use;
5. And if training has taken place off the job, allow the trainees some
opportunity to transfer what has been learned on the job.

Principles Of Learning

The above processes derived from the social learning theory are frequently
presented in more specific learning. You should of coarse be able to see how
they closely align with social- learning theory.

5. Learning and Motivation
-Learning is enhanced when the learner is motivated.
An individual must wait to learn. When that desire exists the learner will exert
a high level of effort.
These appears to be valid evidence to support the adage.

You can take a hoarse to water, but you can not make him drink,
The learning experience therefore, should be designed so learners can see how
it will help them achieve those goals they have set for themselves.
If for example the new trainee desires the security and fulfillment that comes
from being a skilled word processor operation, he or she is more likely to be
highly motivated to learn how to perform the job successfully.

2.Learning requires feedback
Feedback or knowledge of results is necessary so the learner can correct his
mistakes. Only by getting information about how I am doing can I compare it
against my goals and correct my deviations.
The sooner individuals have some knowledge of how well they are performing,
the easier it is for them to correct their erroneous actions.
Additionally, feedback can provide inartistic motivate them.

3. Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a learned behavior will be
The principles of reinforcement tells us that behaviors that are positively
reinforced (rewarded)are encouraged and sustained.
When the behavior is punished, it is temporarily suppressed but is unlikely to be
extinguished punishment tells learners that they are doing something wrong.
What is desired, however is to convey feedback to the learners when they are
doing what is right and to encourage them to keep doing it.
Learning will be facilitated by providing feedback through positive
For instance, if workers are verbally praised when they have properly
performed a task, they are likely to continue doing the task this way and be
motivated to strive toward performing better work.

4.Practice increases a learners performance.
When learners actually practice what they have red, heard or seen they gain
confidence and are less likely to make errors or to forget what they have
Active involvement through practice there for should be made part of the
learning process.

There are 3 ways a worker ca practice a job.
1. To practice the whole job at once.
2. To break the job into two parts and practice each part independently.
3.To break the job into two parts and then3 and so on.
Which way is best?
The answer lies in the type of job being done
It appears that if the total work the person does is small and relatively simple,
practice should cover the whole job. If the job is complicated the independent
past approach is best unless the parts are interdependent in which case the
progress approach will probably be more effective.

Learning must be transferable to the job.
It doesnt make much sense to perfect a skill in the classroom and then find that
you cant successfully transfer it to the job. Therefore training should be
designed to faster transferability.

Learning begins rapidly then plateaus.
Learning rates can be expressed as a curve that usually begins with a sharp rise,
then increases at a decreasing rate until a plateau is researched.
Learning is very fast at the beginning but then plateaus as opportunities for
improvement are reduced.

The learning wire principle is illustrated by considering individuals who begin
training to run the mile. At first, their time improves rapidly as they get into
shape. Then as their conditioning develops, their improvement plateaus.
Obviously knocking one minute off a ten minute mile is a lot easier than
knocking one minute off a five minute mile.
If you have ever learned to type you may have as experience that somewhat
follows the pattern shown in the figure.

Learning curve for a typist
The specific criterion is words typed per minute, and the time element is in
Note the shape of the curve is the figure during the first three month, the rate of
increase is slow as the subject learns the typing technique and becomes familiar
with the keyboard. During the Next 3 months, learning accelerates as the
subject works on developing speed.
After six months, learning slows as progress evolves into refinement of
Another problem that occurs in the training process is the learning curve. Some
employees learn quickly, others more slowly. Generally more knowledge is
accumulated early in the training program but as time increase, units of further
learning decrease. The amount of further learning is large in the beginning but
as time goes on, the amount of further learning decreases as there is now a need
to assimilate the material learned. Thus the learning wire raises rapidly at the
start, but dismisses at the end.

When the material becomes more complex the opposite may occur initial
learning may be slow at first due to the difficulty of the material but as the
employee develops basic understanding, the more time spent results in
increased learning.
In some learning situation combination of the previous situations may occur.
Learning starts out slowly and then suddenly increases, only to slow down at
the later stages. This type of learning core is generally most common.
At first the training material is new and unfamiliar so one learns slowly. Then
as one understands the fundamental of the material, learning greatly increases
now, as one attempts to apply and refin3e the learned material in application the
account of learning slows down.

Learning and training: The implications
The trainer must be alert to the appropriateness of the training material content,
as well as the behavior characteristics of the employees being trained. Both
require constant reappraisal and review if the training function is to be effective.

The social learning model and learning principles tell us training should:-
- provide the trainee with a given model to follow
- specific goals to achieve
- An opportunity to perfect the skill
- Feedback on how well the trainee is progressing.
- Praise for transferring the acquired skill to the job.


Training -Review Questions.

1.How would you determine training needs in an organization?

2.What are the major goals of an orientation program?

3.How important is motivation in employee training?

4. How do learning principles apply to training?

5.How would you determine training needs in an organization?

6.Do you feel training will become more or less important in the future why?

7. What is social learning theory?
How does it relate to training?

8. What is a learning curve?
What are its implications for training?

9. What kind of signals can warn a manager that employee training may be

10. What role do goals play in training?

11.Contrast apprenticeship programs with the job instructional training?

12. What is a simulation exercise?
Give some examples.

13.Contrast employee training with management development training?

14.Why is the evaluation of training effectiveness necessary?

15.Define reaction, learning, behavior, and results as they apply to evaluate
training effectiveness.
Give an example of each.

Training -Activities.

Q1. Present to your colleagues an example of your first day at the job.
What orientation did you receive?

Q2.Read a book or view a video, and identify training needs or programs.

Q3. Pick out some task with which you are to develop a short programmed
learning program on the subject
Guidelines for giving a more effective lecture
use any information for your programmed learning program.


1.Why is it important to identify training needs?

2. How would you determine training needs in an organization?

3.What are some typical on the job training techniques? Describe each in detail
giving the pros and cons.

4.We pointed out that one reason for implementing special; global training
programs is the need to avoid business
due to cultural insensitivity.
What sort of cultural insensitivity do you think is referred to and how might that
translate into lost business?
What sort of training program would you recommend to avoid such cultural

Training- Discussion Questions.

1. A well thought out orientation program is especially important for
employees (like recent graduates) who have had little or no work experience.
Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.

2. You are the supervisor of a group of employees whose task it is to assemble
tuning devises that go into radios. You find that the quality is not what it should
be and that many of your groups tuning devises have to be brought back and
reworked; your own boss says that youd better start doing a better job of
training your workers.
a) what are some of the staffing factors that would be contributing to this
b) Explain how you would go about assessing whether it is in fact a training

3. Explain how you would apply our principles of learning in developing a
lecture, say as orientation and training.

4.Peter Kamau, is an undergraduate student majoring in accounting.
He desires to pursue accountancy as a career. How would you advise him to
proceed ?




Management development is more future oriented, and more concerned with
education, than is employee training. By education, we mean that management
development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes i.e to
enhance ones ability to understand and interpret knowledge rather than
imparting a body of serial facts or teaching a specific set of motor skills.
Development therefore focuses more as the employees personal growth.

Management Development defined

We can define management development as any attempt to improve
management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes or
increasing skills.
If thus includes in house programs like seminars and university programs like
the MBA program which is now being offered by many universities worldwide.
More and more Kenyans are participating in these development programs each
year. Short courses are also popular and a number of very large UK companies
have their own management training centers.
It is probably the case, however, that managers in smaller enterprises receive
fewer days of training annually than their coaster parts in France or German.

Business studies is an extremely popular subject in births and Kenyan
universities and colleges, and large numbers of students prepare for
accountancy and other professional qualifications as a part time bases. Training
for the professions has a long and prestigious history in this country and large
numbers of young people take this particular route to a management career.
The popularly of professional qualifications is due perhaps to:
a) Their practical orientation.
b) The ability of a professionally qualified person to make an immediate
combination to the work of a firm without need for extensive further
c) The fact that individuals learn while they earn hence ensuring that they
have relevant work experience by the time they qualify.
d) Their widespread recognition among employers making as professional
qualification an entry ticket to well paid and interesting jobs.
Why is management development important.
Management Development is important for several reasons. For one thing,
promotion from within is a major source of management talent. One survey of
84 employers report that about 90% of supervisions, 70% of all middle. Level
managers and 51% of executives were promoted from within; virtually all these
managers in turn required source development to prepared them for their new
jobs. Similarly management development facilities organizational continuity by
preparing employees and current managers to smoothly assume higher level
positions. It also helps to socialize management trainees by developing in them
the right values and attitudes for working in the firm. And it can foster
organizational responsiveness by developing the skills that managers need to
respond faster to change.

6. Managerial on the job training
On-the job training is one of the most popular development methods important
techniques here include;

1.Job rotation
2. Coaching/ understanding approach
3.Junior boards
4.Action Learning.

Off the job management Development techniques.
There are many techniques you can use to develop managers off the job,
perhaps in a conference room at headquarters or off the premises entirely at a
university or special seminar.
1. The case study method.
2. management causes
3.outside seminars
4.University related programs
5.role playing
6.behavior modeling
7.In house development centers.

Management is more future oriented and more concerned with education than is
employee training or assisting a person to become a better performer.
By education we mean that management development activities attempt to
instill sound reasoning processes to enhances ones ability to understand and
interpret knowledge, rather than imparting a specific set of molar skills.
Development, therefore focuses more on the employees personal growth.

Recruitment and selection
Q1. what is the difference between recruitment and selection?
Q2, What are the advantages of filling a vacancy internally
Q3. Describe with comments, three inexpensive external sources of recruitment.
Q4. What are the advantages of using a headhunter?
Q5. Outline the steps in selection, which occur before the candidate is called for interview.
Q6. what should the initial job offer contain?
Q7. what information must be given in writing to an employee?
Q8. In what circumstances is racial discrimination in the recruitment of employees lawful?

Once personnel needs are projected, the next step is to build up a pool of qualified applicants.
We discussed several sources of candidates, include internal sources (or promotion from
within), and external sources advertising employment agencies, executive recruiters college
recruiting, the internet, referrals and walk ins.
Remember that its unlawful to discriminate against any individual with respect to
employment because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin or age. Conless religion,
sex or origin are bona fide occupational qualifications.

Revision Questions
1. Compare and contrast 5 sources of job candidates.
2. What types of information can an application form provide?

Working individually or in groups, develop an application form for the position supervisor of
manufacturing operations. Compare the application forms produced by different individuals
or groups: Are there any items that should be dropped out due to equal employment
opportunity restrictions?
Are there any items you would add to make your application form more complete.

Questions for Discussion
1. An organization should follow a promote from within policy. Do you agree or disagree?
2. When you go looking for a job upon college graduation what sources do you expect to
utilize? Why?
3. What improvements might you expect in the make up of an organizations human
resources as a result of having an affirmative?
4. The best candidates are the ones who are hard to find. That is why it is imperative to pay
a service to find these people. Do you agree or disagree? Discuss.

6. Activity

Workings individually or in groups develop an application form for the position of customer
service representative.
Compare the application forms provided by different individuals or groups.

1. Compare and contrast 5 sources of job candidates.
2. What types of information can an application form provide?
3. Discuss how equal employment laws apply to personnel recruiting activities.

1. proper selection can minimize the costs of replacement, training, reduce legal challenges
and result in a more productive work force.
2. The primary purpose of selection activities is to predict which job applicant will be
successful if hired. During the selection process candidates are also informed about the job
and the organization.

3. The discreet selection process would include
a) Initial screening interview
b) Completion of the application form
c) Employment tests
d) Comprehensive interview
e) Background
f) Physical examination
g) Final employment decision.

4. In the discrete selection process an unsuccessful performance at any stage results in
rejection of the applicant.

5. An alternative to the discreet method of selection is the comprehensive approach where all
applicants go through every step in the selection process and the final decision is based as a
comprehensive evaluation of the results of each stage.

6. To be an effective predictor, a selection device should
a) be reliable
b) be valid
c) Predict a relevant criterion
d) Predict a relevant criterion

Questions for review.
1. What is the relationship between selection, recruitment and job analysis.
2. Contrast reject errors to accept errors which one is likely to open an employee to changes
of discrimination. Why?
3. What are the two objectives of selection why is it possible for them to conflict?
4.Describe the selection process.
5. Is there anything management can do to increaser the probability that an applicant to
whom an offer has been made will accept?
6. Contrast discrete and comprehensive selection. Which is more typical in practice?
7.When might an employer choose to use the comprehensive rather than discrete approach.

Discussion for Discussion

1. The E.E.O guidance have resulted in a selection process that selects in candidates rather
than selecting out candidates. Do you agree or disagree?

2. Since everyone has strengths and weaknesses. It is logical that all comprehensive
approach Do you agree or disagree. Discuss.

3.The responsibility of or conducting a thorough background lives lies with the personnel
director. If someone is revealed at a later date as having misrepresented himself/ herself the
personnel director must suffer the consequences.
Do you agree or disagree?

4. How much freedom should a personnel director have in gathering background
Cant this be neived as an invasion of privacy?


Questions for Review

1.What is the dual objective of recruitment?


Questions for Discussion

1.What are the advantages of filling the vacancy internally rather than

2.Discuss the advantages of filling the vacancy from external sources