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Mrs. M.Brindha, M.E, Lecturer, "ept. of Information !echnolog#, $%N College of Engg., & !echnolog#, !irunelveli m'rindhait(gmail.com
Abstract–Image denoising is an important image
A.Radha, B.E, II M.!ech, "ept. of Information !echnolog#, $%N College of Engg., & !echnolog# !irunelveli radhachocostic)(gmail.com
think about the randomness. &mong these filters, the famous ones are the median (M*+ filter (,-., ,/. . The# unconditionall# fulfill on each pi$el without considering whether the pi$el is 0bad1 or not., since the uncorrupted pi$els are altered, the# damage man# image details in the high noise levels! & novel effective filter based on the cloud model (CM for impulse noise removal is presented, called the CM filter. The e$perimental results show that, compared with the traditional filters, the CM filter has the better performance in image denoising.
processing task, both as a process itself, and as a component in other processes. The main properties of a good image denoising model are that it will remove noise while preserving edges. This paper presents a novel adaptive detail-pre-serving ﬁlter based on the cloud model (CM to remove impulse noise! CM is an uncertain cognitive model called the CM ﬁlter. "irst, an uncertaint#based detector identiﬁes the pi$els corrupted b# impulse noise. Then, a weighted multilevel arithmetic mean ﬁlter is applied to remove the noise candidates. Compared with the traditional ﬁlters, the CM ﬁlter makes a great improvement in image denoising. Index terms- Cloud model (CM , image denoising, impulse noise, median filter.
II. CM FIL!ER
The gra# values of the pi$els are usuall# lower than in the other areas. The images restored b# the CM filter basicall# keep the same gra# levels with the original images. Then the impulse noise is added. In the model, the observed gra# level at location (i.2 is given b#,
Image denoising is the recover# of a digital image that has been contaminated b# additive white %aussian noise. &mong the uncertainties involved in impulse noise, the randomness and the fu''iness are the two most important features. The randomness mainl# shows in two aspects, i.e., the pi$els are randoml# corrupted b# the noise and the noise pi$els are randoml# set to the ma$imum or minimum value. The fu''iness focuses on the pi$els with the e$treme values whether the# belong to the noise or not. (ot all of the pi$els, which are set to the e$treme values, will be the noise pi$els. In earl# denoising techni)ues, the filters onl#
is helpful to identif# the noise.
The CM is a natural-language cognitive model with uncertaint#. It combines the fu''iness and the randomness, and forms an inter mapping between the )ualitative and )uantitative information.
The filter replaces the noise pi$el b# using the weighted mean of the remaining pi$els.. . The drops compose the cloud. -. *$ is the e$pectation of the cloud drops6 distribution in the domain *n is the uncertaint# measurement of the )ualitative concept. T&?>* I C*@T&I(TA +*%@** B" *&C5 CID*> The cloud emplo#s its three parameters to represent the )ualitative concept. we input *$. 7 and /44 are the noise pi$els and if cloud e$ists. and .Then the distribution of $ on 3 is called the cloud. The fi$ed value is the e$pectation value of the certaint# degree. /. the drop communities contribute to the concept with the different contribution degrees.:. /. 7.-4. C.= represents the neighborhood in (a . 9hen the drops are approaching e$. Table I shows that the certaint# degrees of the noise pi$els are far less than that of the uncorrupted pi$els (the certaint# degree of each pi$el. then the certaint# degree of each drop will change to be a fi$ed value. "or e$ample. >et each pi$el be a cloud drop and input them into the backward CM generator C% --. *n. The cloud can be characteri'ed b# three parameters.. The outputs of C%-. /(a ! "ig. &ll the drops and their e$pectations of certaint# degrees can compose a curve.g. and the uncorrupted pi$els are located near the central region of the Cloud. the certaint# degree of each drop is a random value.<. "or e$ample.. &ccording to the normal cloud generator (C% . It is how we can distinguish the noise pi$els from the uncorrupted ones.are the three parameters of cloud. "inall#. and 5e into the forward C%. . in the cloud. cloud *$ *n 5e is shown in "ig. which is calculated through the C*C . .. Noise Removal The impulse noise is removed from the image. and their weights are the certaint# degrees of them. the certaint# degree of each drop is a probabilit# distribution rather than a fi$ed value. Then. the e$pected value *$.. It means that the certaint# degree of each drop is a random value in a d#namic range. the certaint# degrees and the contribution degrees of the drops are increasing. which is determined b# both the randomness and the fu''iness of the concept. i. In fact. In the cloud. The contribution degrees and the certaint# degrees are usuall# lower than the others. and h#per entrop# 5e. cloud comes out as the output of the C%. entrop# *n. (a Calculated the cloud that represents the observed neighborhood. -.e. there is an observed neighborhood (the left s)uare region of "ig. the red curve is the C*C of cloud (see "ig. the value is also the unbiased estimation for the average value of the certaint# degrees in the range. and the curve is the cloud e$pectation curve (C*C . (b Cloud C (-74. e.. "ig. Thus. Cloud C (7. the noise pi$els are usuall# distributed on the both sides of the cloud.:. If 5e of the cloud is 7. Calculate *$ and *n. and each $ is called a drop .8 . Therefore. which can represent the neighborhood.
are also tested.-. It means that the filters tr# to identif# the noise pi$els and then replace the noise pi$el b# the median value. which is the same to the traditional filters. the pi$el is identified as a corrupted candidate. regulari'ation noise detectors filter and . such as the pi$el locations. RE%+L!% AN" "I%C+%%I*N A. Those filters not onl# increase the memor# spaces but also decrease the computational efficienc#. Bnl# the corrupted candidates are replaced. Thus. the window si'e will be adaptivel# increased. the other filters (.. Algorithm II II. 3ntil in the :$: window. the CM filter removes a pi$el immediatel# after the pi$el has been identified as a corrupted candidate.8. to increase the computational efficienc# and the robust stabili'ation of the CM filter. the adaptive median (&M median-t#pe 5owever. The# identif# the noise pi$els first and then use a noise map to record the information of the noise pi$els. the pi$el naturall# keeps its original value..4. and the fast median ("M filter .1 Then. "or comparative purposes. when the noise level is higher than F7G. Thus. >ena and ?ridge are selected in the simulations. in the CM filter. according to the map. and the CM filter removes the pi$el in the same :$: window immediatel#.. To overcome this drawback. . the filters remove the noise pi$els one b# one. "or e$ample. Weighted Multilevel Arithmetic Mean lter Algorithm I Bnce the CM filter identifies a pi$el as a 0good1 one. These filters can remove the salt-and-pepper noise in the high noise levels. the# scan the noise image twice.=. Therefore. in a 8$8 window. 5owever. It means that the window si'e of the post filter is the one that is used b# the noise detection at the last time.. man# switching methods are two-stage filters. the detail-preserving the boundar# minimumEma$imum e$clusive mean (MM*M filter. the filter also uses the C*C to calculate the certaint# degree for each pi$el. Man# denoising methods are also switching median filters.D. filter . the (&M-*C@ discriminative noise detection (?+(+ filter. "inall#. the noise detector and the post filter use the same windows. the CM filter cannot identif# if a pi$el is 0good1 or 0bad. 5owever. in the cloud. The images are corrupted b# e)ual probabilit# 0salt1 (with value /44 and 0pepper1 (with value 7 noise. the certaint# degree of each drop is a random value.-/. cannot remove the noise with good . Con!iguration Two commonl# tested 4-/$4-/ =-bit gra#scale images.
with the noise level sharpl# increased. 5owever. Thus. If. the ma$imum window si'e of the adaptive window is limited to :$: in all our simulations. The "M filter creates man# stripe regions because it often replaces the corrupted pi$el b# the left neighborhood pi$el. Restoration Per!ormance The restoration performances are )uantified b# the peak signal to-noise ratio (CH(@ It denotes the pi$el values of the restored image and the original image. "irst. "inall#. the filters appl# on the noise images in a wide range of noise levels var#ing from -7G to =7G with increments of -7G. which often results in detection errors. The MM*M filter discards all pi$els whose values are e)ual or similar to the ma$imum or minimum values in 8$8 or 4$4 windows and then calculates the average value (&I% of the remaining pi$els or the four neighboring pi$els. ¬her parameter of the &M-*C@ filter is the pertinent choice factor. B. with the noise level sharpl# increased. respectivel#. the differences between each filter result more and clearer. Noise Detection Per!ormance The denoising performances of the switching filters are usuall# higher than the standard median filter and its varieties. 9hen the noise level is lower than F7G. To detect the noise patches and filter out the noise. Hecond. Therefore. the &M-*C@ filter is ver# robust with respect to. but staircases appear. and to increase the )ualities of the restored images.image )ualities. to increase the computational efficienc# of the CM filter. 5owever. we fi$ in all our simulations. most of the noise is suppressed. "or an in-depth stud# in the denoising performance of the selected filters. man# noise patches will be formed. In order to avoid severe blurring of image details at high-noise-densit# cases. and it will be replaced b# &I%. 9e observe that. The main ob2ective is to characteri'e the robustness to the threshold parameter . "inall#. Thus. The e$periment aims to stud# the detailpreserving abilities of the filters when the images are affected b# a severe noise. "inall#. the fine details are not seriousl# distorted. The &M filter uses an adaptive si'e window to identif# the noise pi$els and then replaces the noise pi$els b# the median values.in the first-stage simulations. It uses the &M detector to identif# the noise pi$els and then replaces the noise pi$el b# using the variation method to preserve the image details. In addition. It focuses on two aspects. This fact causes man# detection errors and makes. The pi$els in the noise patches are eas# to be identified as the 0good1 ones. then the detected pi$el is a noise pi$el. the accurac# of the noise detection and the )ualit# of the restored image. set in all our simulations. the detection threshold is alwa#s .The "M filter directl# regards all pi$els whose values are set7 and /44 in a fi$ed-si'e (8$8 detection window as the corrupted pi$els and then uses the median values or the left neighborhood values to replace the noise pi$els. but the noise cannot be full# suppressed. the ma$imum window si'e should be chosen such that it increases with the noise level. the filters that passed the first stage will be applied on the nois# images with the highest noise level (<7G . if (is the detected pi$el . the noise patches will be formed. the CM filter with different values applies on the noise image in a wide range of the noise levels var#ing from -7G to <7G with increments of -7G. Therefore. . the performance of the CM filter is similar to the ?+(+ filter and the &M-*C@ filter. because the switching filters onl# remove the noise without altering the uncorrupted pi$els. C. In addition. for the &M-*C@ filter. the accurac# of the noise detection can directl# influence the )ualities of the restored images. Therefore. The ?+(+ filter uses two si'e windows (8$8 and /-$/to identif# the noise and then uses a noise map to recorder all noise pi$el addresses. The &M-*C@ filter combines the &M filter and a variation method. the noise detection pla#s a ke# role in image denoising. it uses an adaptive window to remove the noise. we choose as the edgepreserving function. onl# the filters that can restore the images without noise and distortion will enter the ne$t stage. the simulations are divided into multiple stages. Thus. changes to 8 in the second stage. In tests. if. we also set in all our simulations.
in which the gra# values of the pi$els are usuall# lower than in the other areas.(e and 4(e . Thus.FF d? . (c CM filters.4 d? . (a +ifference image of >ena using the CM filter at the =7G noise level.87 d? ./.:7 d? . (d +ifference image of ?ridge using the &M-*C@ filter. (c CM filter (/-. (C CM filters (//.F: d? . the )ualities of the images restored b# the &M-*C@ filter are usuall# better than the &M filters. (b Briginal image. (c CM filters (/F. (b +ifference image of >ena using the &M-*C@ filter. (b Briginal image.FF d? . @estoration results of different filters. (g "M filters (/7. +ifferent outcomes between two filters are represented b# difference images. >ocal restoration results (>ena of different filters. (b Briginal image. (e &M filter (/. the images restored b# the &M-*C@ filter appear to have man# speckles. (c CM filters (/=. (h &M-*C@ filter (/-. It means that the differences between the pi$el and its neighborhood pi$els are smaller than the others. (b . (a Corrupted >ena image with =7G salt-and-pepper noise (F. (c CM filter. at the edges of the >ena hair. @estoration results of different filters. (c +ifference image of ?ridge using the CM filter at the =7G noise level. (d MM*M filters (/-. (d ?+(+ filters (/4. (e &M filter (/7. <hough having the same noise detector as the &M filter./8 d? . (a Corrupted ?ridge image with =7G salt-and-pepper noise (F. In the images.:. the &M-*C@ filter makes a great progress in the post filtering.image restored b# the &M-*C@ to decrease. (a is darker than that of "ig. the edge-preserving abilit# of the CM filter is better than that of the &M-*C@ filter.see "igs. @estoration results of different filters. (a (oise image.-8 d? . (a >ena with the noise level of <7G (4.=/ d? . (h &M-*C@ filter (/:.d? . i. (b Briginal image. d? . Therefore. . the &M-*C@ filter combines the &M filter and a variation method to preserve the image details. These two reasons reduce the sensitivit# of the detail-preserving method and cause the )ualities of the >ocal restoration results (?ridge of different filters.// d? . particularl# in the regions of the >ena hair and the bottom right corner of ?ridge. The &M filter cannot preserve the edges well at the high noise level ..7= d? . (a ?ridge with the noise level of <7G (4.F8 d? . (d MM*M filter (/:. (d ?+(+ filters.=< d? . (d ?+(+ filters (/7. in these high activit# regions. (b Briginal image./. (d ?+(+ filter. (f ?+(+ filter (/:. To overcome this drawback. (g "M filter (/8./ d? .e. (f ?+(+ filters (/-. because it is a switching median filter. The difference images are derived from the absolute value error images b# using both original and restored images after filtering.FF d? . the color of "ig.<7 d? .. @estoration results of different filters. these regions are the highest activit# regions..=4 d? .d? . . (b Briginal image. (a (oise image.. 5owever..
and the edges of the images restored b# the CM filter are preserved with good visual effect. /77:. . vol. Hep. Image Process. no.4. (b ?ridge (/7..@.. 0Impulse noise detection and removal using fu''# techni)ues. /. Mar. M. $ignal Process. 4. &ett.. -<<<.. vol.. -7.-J.=. and . 9ang and +. Mhang and M. /77/. vol. 8:=E8:<. Ma. Jun. /77-.7= d? .8. 0& new efficient approach for the removal of impulse noise from highl# corrupted images. &ett. and &. Image Process. The e$perimental results show the CM filter is the best one among the tested filters. the proposed filter identifies the noise pi$el without needing to sort the pi$el gra# values. (euvo. pp. -. (c Ceppers (/. vol. -7.. 5owever. and >. we can further improve the CM filter b# using different noise detectors or restoration methods to solve it.-8... 8.4 d? . >i. +ec. :.-K. vol.&. /.1 I""" #rans. In sum. 8F7E8F8. %abbou2. K. -. H. 0Helective removal of impulse noise based on homogeneit# level information. Chen.1 "lectron. vol.<<E47/.. .=4.1I""" #rans.Circuits $yst. vol. no. II% Analog Digit. -<<F..74 d? . vol. Mar.. no. Chan. vol.<. pp.E<<8. (ikolova. vol. Image Process. -. -<<F. 4=<E4</. no. II% Analog Digit. 8=.. 0(oise adaptive soft-switching median filter. A. 5. H. . Cok. 8. no.1 I""" $ignal Process. pp. compared with the traditional filters. 5. and M. vol.-. . -/. Crno2evic. --. 88.1 Int. 0Tri-state median filter for image denoising. I.-C. 5o.. no.+.. 0&daptivemedian filtersL (ew algorithms and results. Image Process. pp.-7.. 0& new fast and efficient decision based algorithm for removal of highdensit# impulse noises. pp. H. III. 9ang. &. -<<4. pp. Mhang. & weighted multilevel arithmetic mean ﬁlter is applied to remove the noise candidates. and A..->. &n uncertaint#-based detector identiﬁes the pi$els corrupted b# impulse noise.. . . /. the te$ture. . Circuits $yst. no. '.-/.1 I""" #rans. -4:E-</. /77<.F. -E8. . Intell. . Mar.E-=8=. Jan. pp. I. >ee. &pr. &breu.1 I""" #rans. 0Center weighted median filters and their applications to image enhancement. Ain.8. This paper presents a novel adaptive multilevel ﬁlter based on the cloud model (CM to remove impulse noise.. -<<-. Karim. 0&daptive impulse detection using center weighted median filters. Image Process. J. 0& new cognitive modelL Cloud model.F. 84:E8:4. vol. <. pp. pp. Chen. >iu. no. Jan.:. /778. -=<E-</. 9u.. . which is helpful in detecting and removing the noise. >iu. . -<<<. -<<:. A. &ett. and 9. no. the details. --. $ignal Process.:=E=7. no. <=./E/4-. "eb.K. (d ?aboon (-<. M.1 I""" #rans. /77. The e$perimental results show that. H.-...-4.1 I""" $ignal Process. H.. A. (air. C. M.1 I""" #rans. compared with the traditional ﬁlters.%. "eb. -/. Chen and 5. 8. -7-/E-7/4. the restored images have some blurring edges in some local areas. . <hough the CM filter can onl# detect the fi$ed-valued impulse noise../. vol. pp. /77-. pp. F. Bct. pp.:<E-. Hrinivasan and +.1 I""" #rans. pp. .-K. no. no. @.+. K. In addition.-9. which immensel# increases the computational efficienc# in noise detection.1 I""" $ignal Process. Nenk. %an. -. no. pp. Mhang and M.--. C.(ov. $yst. pp. T. REFERENCE% . /774. 09eighted median filtersL & tutorial. C*NCL+%I*N & novel filter with uncertaint# for impulse noise removal has been proposed. Images with the noise level of <4G restored b# the CM filter. Jan. no. *.. the CM filter is a moderatel# fast denoising filter with good detail preservation. 0& new impulse detector for switchingmedian filters. Trpovski.5addad. the CM filter makes a great improvement and has the higher performances. &ett. -. -.1 I""" #rans.1 I""" $ignal Process. .-5.. and K. 5wang and @. 0Halt-andpepper noise removal b# median-t#pe noise detectors and detail-preserving regulari'ation. Image Process. Ko and H. >. *ven if the noise level closes to <4G. . and at the <4Gnoise level. . -=8.<: d? . Jul. >ightstone. vol. =. Aang. It represents the uncertainties of the noise perfectl# b# using the CM.1 I""" #rans.Ma. . &rakawa.. Mitra. (a >ena (/. <. . *bene'er. =4E</. T. &ett.% vol. the CM ﬁlter makes a great improvement in image denoising. Circuits $yst. =. . .-J. 0&dvanced impulse detection based on pi$el-wise M&+. 0Crogressive switching median filter for the removal of impulse noise from highl# corrupted images. 5. *ng and K.
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