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An Energy Efficient Algorithm to avoid Hot Spot effects in Wireless Sensor Networks

Pramod Kumar
Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering. Manipal-576104, India Abstract: In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to minimize the hot spot effect to improve the life time of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) based on energy of each sensor node. To implement the proposed approach, the spatial locations of geographical area under surveillance are motioned using binary location index. The simulation work is carried out for two different case studies; in first case the sink/base station is remains stationary during entire observation, whereas in other case the sink is reallocated to appropriate locations at suitable time instants. Timely varying pattern of residual energy of all network nodes and total number of queries supported by entire network till it attains targeted life time is presented and discussed. Key Words: Hot spot, Life Time, Query Based Network, Binary location index [BLI]. I. INTRODUCTION

Ashvini Chaturvedi
Centre of Excellence- WSN division National Institute of Technology Karnataka Mangalore-575025, India

In a typical wireless sensor network, most of the sensor nodes are battery operated and replacing battery is a difficult task. These physical constraints of sensors node and the prohibitive costs to replace the failure sensors node in the sensor network make energy a crucial consideration to design asensor network for relatively longer lifetime. So far, how to improve the lifetime of sensor network has been an interested topic in the research field of sensor network. Many algorithms have been developed to achieve this goal by using energy efficient protocols [1-4], that usually consider the maximum available power, minimum energy consumption, minimum hops etc. It is also reported in many studies that improving the life time of a sensor node results into an overall improvement in the life time of whole WSNs. The life time of sensor network can be improved by selecting of one node or many nodes at a time [510].The former is too pessimistic since when one node fails the rest nodes still can provide appropriate functionality. We propose an algorithm that makes uses of energy estimation by considering the relationship between the lifetime of a single sensor and that of the whole sensor network, the importance of sensors at different

positions, the link quality in the communication, and the connectivity and coverage of the sensor network. In this work, we evaluate query based protocols to minimize the hot spot effect in WSNs to improve the life time of sensor networks. Considering the dependency of transmission or communication overhead and the associated energy consumption that a node is supposed to handle, it can be concluded that a node with high communication overhead will consume more energy and thus have less energy reserve and vice versa. These specific sensor nodes are most likely to be inactive or may attain hibernate state in near future. So as to avoid this situation for relatively fair coverage, and thereby refraining islanding of some local measures, that is popularly termed as hot spot. In this paper, a scheme is proposed to overcome hot spot effect with low overhead [11]. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Related work based on the geographical location based routing protocols which avoid the hot spot condition are described in section 2; proposed scheme is described in section 3, section 4 contains simulation results while section 5 concludes the paper. II. RELATED WORK

Storage and retrieval methods can be classified into 3main categories: 1-local storage 2data-centric storage and 3- external storage. In local storage, by detecting an event it is stored in the sensor nodes local memory. Since the sink node doesnt know which sensor nodes store the interested data, it typically executes blind flooding over the whole wireless sensor network for sending a query packet. External storage proposes an alternative mechanism. Once a sensor node detects an event, it stores it at sink. Although there is no cost for sink query, it may waste so much energy to transmit to the sink node. In data-centric storage, data is stored by sensor nodes in the network. Nodes have an event-location table which specifies where to store data according to its event type. When an event is detected by a sensor node, the

corresponding storage node is determined by the event location table and data is sent to that node. Thus, data-centric storage can clearly conserve energy in the wireless sensor network. Data-centric storage with a geographic hash table (DCS GHT) is an event-driven data dissemination paradigm [12]. Data centric storage uses a geographic hash table to map an event type into a geographic location. Therefore each sensing node finds the event storage location using the map and so does sink to send queries for different events. In order to route data and queries to the destination, GHT uses Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), a popular and efficient geographic routing algorithm proposed in [13]. Zhang et al. proposed a huge amount of data is sensed but only a small portion of them are queried. In this paper sensing data are collected, processed, and stored at the nodes close to the detecting nodes, and the location information of these storing nodes is pushed to some index nodes, which act as the rendezvous points for sinks and sources. Like GHT a hash function is used but this time the hash function is only used by the sink node to find out the index node of an event. Sink sends request to that node and the query is forwarded to the storage node that responses back. To address the issues of fault tolerance and load balance, the scheme is extended with an adaptive ring-based index (ARI) technique in which the index nodes for one event type form a ring surrounding the location which is determined by the event type, and the ring can be dynamically reconfigured. This method performs for static event-location mapping which results in hot spot [14]. Yu z et al. proposed utilizes data rates and locations of multiple producers and consumers to determine optimal data storage positions. It formulates the adaptive data storage problem by explaining the data storage process and involved communication overheads. After that it defines the optimal data storage strategy as to find the storage node position with the minimum cost. Although using a centralized method and broadcasting information are some problems of this method, but uneven load distribution is the most important problem that results in hot spot creation [15]. Dynamic GHT improves GHT by introducing a mechanism that updates the hash function according to networks status. To prevent some nodes from being overloaded a concept named

node contribution potential has been introduced. The network is divided into several cells. Nodes belonging to a cell send their potential contribution to a specific node in that cell. This node uses nodes contribution potentials to compute the cell contribution potential and later sends this parameter along with the node having the highest potential to the sink. Sink selects cells with a contribution potential higher than a defined threshold as storage cells and the node in that cell with the highest potential, as the storage node of an event and broadcasts the new mapping hash function to all cells [16]. III. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

In this approach; entire service is divided into four zones and indexed as (I, II, III & IV), further these zones are subdivided into subzones, subzones are subdivided into regions, regions are subdivided into sub-regions, and sub-regions are subdivided into grids. Locations of each grid are represented by the Binary location Index (BLI) frame.In a hierarchical manner, these grids are further decomposed into smallest size of infinitesimal area and are known as cells [11]. In query based protocol every query is passes through the initially selected local aggregators (LAs), As time passes; consistent uses pattern of these LAs and simple nodes might leads to a situation, where these LAs as well as the sensor nodes attains pre specified lowest possible energy level (threshold) and it leads to a phenomenon HOT SPOT. For life time maximization of entire network selection of LAs (from the set of nodes) should be done in such a way that likelihood of the HOT SPOT effect can be prolonged till the occurrence of horizon time (maximum expected life time). IV. SIMULATION PARAMETERS & RESULT ANALYSIS

In this work, the entire serviced area is simulatedin two conditions (a) sink is stationary at the top right hand side corner of service area (b) sink is moveable around the periphery of service area. For both condition adopted the practical values of sensor parameters including the initial energy and the energy consumption rate. Two 1.5 V batteries rated at 575 mAh are used for each sensor, so the initial total energy of each sensor is 1.725J. The energy to transmit and receive a single bit is 1J and 0.5J respectively. It is assume the size of query message and reply message to be 240 bits and 1200 bits separately. Thus it takes 240 J to transmit a query message and 120 J to receive a query message; and it takes 1200 J and 600 J to transmit and receive a reply message [17]. To simulate the above proposed scheme a simulation parameters are shown in table -1.

Table-1 Sr. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Network Parameters Service area; square in shape having its area Maximum No. of query a node can handle before it drains out completely Number of sensor nodes deployed Number of clusters & respective heads Average number of sensor nodes in each cluster Initial energy of each sensor nodes Set threshold of sensor node when its attains critical residual energy status (RES) Value 100X100 m2 2400 350 44 8 1.7250 J 10% of Total Energy 0.17250J 8. Set threshold for a node to relinquish the job of cluster head & subsequently passes onus to other member of cluster having better energy profile 9. Energy consumed at each participating node (per query basis) 70% of Total Energy 1.2075J 2.2mJ

In the entire square shaped service area (sensor network) sensor nodes are deployed uniformly, and let initially all sensor nodes having the same energy status. On making uses of k-mean algorithm clusters are formed for the entire network, where kmean take cares for uniform formation of clusters. In present work, with listed parameters in Table 1, approximately 44 clusters are formed in entire network; in this exercise, on an average eight sensor nodes are allocated to each cluster. Initially out of these eight sensor nodes, one arbitrary node assumes the job of cluster head (CH) and later on with changing time and based on residual energy status some other node performs the job of cluster head. In this work, typical communication range of a sensor node is taken as approximately 30m of radius. For a query based network, energy estimation of individual nodes, average energy of entire network along with number of queries handled is estimated for following two cases: (a) Sink is stationary-In this approach, a particular node relinquishes the job of CH if its energy reaches to 10% of total energy. The sensor node having BLI-209 which is near to the sink node in current design scenario process approximately 12,000 queries till this node attains its critical residual energy status (RES) which is shown in Fig.1.The nodes which are near to the sink or having proximity to the region of interest of queries, are participated as CH very frequently and their energy pattern is indicated in Fig.2. (b)Sink is moveable- In this scheme, the movement of a sink from its current location to any other arbitrarly location on the periphery of geographical area is done based on average RES (ARES)

estimation of entire network nodes.The energy status of node having BLI-126 is shown in Fig.3.The energy status of this shows that Initially this node acts as CH till approximately 800 queris, after that its does the job of simple sensing for a every 400 queries.In this methods all the sensor nodes gets an opportunity to participate as CH because of the movement of sink.Therefore,the life time of entire network is improved and also creation of hot spot can be avoided which is shown in Fig.4.

Figure 1:Number of queries supported by a node(BLI-209) till attains its critical RES in stationary sink.



Figure 2: Energy status of all network nodes in proposed scheme for stationary sink.

In this work, a geographical location based hierarchical routing algorithm is presented for possible avoidance of islanding in any part of the network; As the network life time depends upon the energy of individual nodes; to utilize this resource more proficiently, the routing algorithm is amended in such a way that it highly depends upon locational information. The simulation design scenario of stationary sink is compared with that of moveable sink. Further,it is observed that a relatively good RES for most of the network nodes results in moveable sink case study due to participation of large number of nodes as CH. Hence, it is concluded that properly framed heuristics which utilizes residual energy level of each sensor and its location index may infer avoidance of the hot spot effect till network attains its set/targeted span of lifetime. REFERENCES [1] T.He, J.A.Stankovic, C.Lu, and T.Abdelzaher ,Proc. of IEEE ICDCS03 46 (2003). C.Intanagonwiw at, R.Govindan, and D.Estrin, Proc. of ACM/IEEE MobiCom00 56 (2000). N.Sadagopan, B.Krishnamachari, and A.Helmy ,Proc. of the First International Workshop on Sensor Network Protocol and Applications 149 (2003). R.Shah and J.Rabae y, Proc. of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC02) 1, 812 (2002). J.H.Chang and L.T assiulas, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 12, 609 (2004). W.R.Heinzelman, A.Chandrakasan, and H.Balakrishnan, IEEE Transactions on WirelessCommunications 1, 660 (2002). K.Kalpakis, K.Dasgupta, and P.Namjoshi, Proc. of IEEE Networks Conference 685 (2002). I.Kang and R.Poovendran, Proc. of IEEE ICC 2003 3, 2256 (2003). E.Duarte-Melo and M.Liu, Proc. of IEEE Globecom02 1, 21 (2002). Y.Xu, J.Heidemann, and D.Estrin, Proc. of ACM/IEEE Mobi- Com01 70 (2001). Pramod Kumar, Ashvini Chaturvedi & M. Kulakarni, Geographical Location Based HierarchicalRouting Strategy for Wireless Sensor Networks IEEE International Conference on Devices Circuits and Systems (ICDCS12),pp. 9-14, March 15-16, 2012, Liao W., Wu W., Effective hot spot storage management schemes in wireless




Figure 3: Energy status of a node (BLI-126) for moveable sink




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Figure 4: Energy status of all network nodes for moveable sink [12]




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