BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS

EVANS

J. HARVEY EVANS

BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS
THE AUTHOR

is Associate Professor of Naval Architecture at the Massachussetts Institute of Technology. A native of Rochester, New York, he received the Bachelor of ngineering !egree fro" the #niversity of $iver%ool, ngland, in &'(). *or ten years he was e"%loyed in his %rofession +y the ,entral Technical !e%art"ent, -hi%+uilding !ivision of the Bethlehe" -teel ,o"%any, .uincy, Massachussetts. In &'/) he 0oined the faculty of M. I. T. as an Assistant Professor and +eca"e an Associate Professor in &'12. In &'1) he served as Advisor in ngineering to -eoul National #niversity, -eoul, 3orea. 4e is a for"er "e"+er of the National Research ,ouncil ,o""ittee on -hi% -tructural !esign and %ast ,hair"an of the New ngland -ection, the -ociety of Naval Architects and Marine ngineers. 4e is %resently a "e"+er of the 4ull -tructure ,o""ittee and the Pa%ers ,o""ittee of that -ociety.

Granted that the ultimate end to the endea or! o" all
te#hnolo$% i! to im&ro e the lot o" man'ind( the onl% !i$ni"i#ant di""eren#e )et*een +en$ineer!, and +!#ienti!t!, i! in the immedia#% o" their #on#ern "or the im&lementation o" thi! ideal. In their hi$he!t mani"e!tation! the &ro-e#tion o" #reati it% and the tool o" anal%!i! are e!!ential to )oth ie*!. In edu#ation( the )irth o" *i!dom !hould )e !ou$ht no le!! than the de elo&ment o" intelle#tual )rillian#e. E!&e#iall% in de!i$n inte$ration and o&timi.ation i! the "ormer /ualit% a)!olutel% ne#e!!ar%( and the trainin$ o" en$ineer! !hould re"le#t thi! em&ha!i!( "or de!i$n i! !urel% one o" the &rime "a#et! the% mu!t #o&e *ith therea"ter in their &ro"e!!ional li e!. H. 0. Co1 i! /uoted a! !a%in$ that( +!esign is, after all, an art, and the art of design "ay +e defined as the atte"%t to achieve a %recise o+0ect only vaguely known, +y the a%%lication of strict rules only i"%erfectly understood,. A! an im&ro ement on thi! !tatement one #ould onl% ho&e "or a *ord other than +art, to a#'no*led$e more &ointedl% the #ontri)ution o" the mind

a! *ell a! o" the e%e( "or the &ro#e!! mu!t )e rea!oned and orderl%. 2atter! o" ta!te enter( )ut al!o "ar more.
GENERA0 DESIGN

Should the !tru#tural de!i$n o" a )rid$e )e #ontem&lated( immediatel% it )e#ome! a&&arent that( *hile the li e &ortion o" the total de!i$n load ma% )e 'no*n( the dead load( in#ludin$ the !tru#ture3! o*n *ei$ht( #an not )e 'no*n a##uratel% until the #om&lete de!i$n ha! )een e""e#ted. 4urthermore( the dead load ma% )e a ma-or &art o" the *hole. Thu! an iterati e &ro#edure mu!t )e ado&ted and earl% $ro!! e!timate! mu!t )e made( re"ined !u)!e/uentl% and re5entered into the !olution. In more #om&le1 &ro)lem!( *hi#h ne#e!!aril% in ol e more #om&romi!e! o*in$ to the in#rea!ed !tate o" in#om&ati)ilit% re!ultin$ "rom the man% more re/uirement!( the!e initial e!timate! and de#i!ion! ma% )e #riti#al. The% "orm the nu#leu! a)out *hi#h the "inal de!i$n i! ultimatel% #r%!talli.ed. 6ith a hi$h de$ree o" #om&romi!e( no uni/ue( o&timum !olution ma% )e readil% di!#erni)le. In !u#h a #a!e( onl% time and !er i#e e1&erien#e #an demon!trate the &art that *i!dom ma% ha e &la%ed in the initial !ta$e!.

A. S. N. E. Journal, November 1959, pp. 671-678

BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS Shi&! and air#ra"t are e1am&le! o" !u#h e1tremel% #om&le1 &ro)lem!. Not onl% are the !tru#ture!( )ut ehi#le! a! *ell. 4urthermore( the% are ehi#le! *ho!e e""i#ien#% or( in "a#t( *ho!e a)ilit% to &er"orm at all( i! !tron$l% de&endent u&on *ei$ht e#onom%. 7uite o) iou!l% their !tru#tural loadin$! are o" a d%nami# nature and hi$hl% im&ondera)le. Shi&!( )e#au!e o" their !i.e( #o!t( and len$th o" )uildin$ time are )uilt to an% &arti#ular de!i$n in )ut limited num)er! and no mo#'5u& or te!t model #an )e a""orded. Nor #an the "eed)a#' o" mea!ured loadin$ data or other !er i#e e1&erien#e )e more than a "ra#tion a! oluminou! a! "or air#ra"t. Onl% "ra$mentar% !tati!ti#al !am&le! are a aila)le. I"( in "a#t( there i! an% more #on!er ati!m in the !tru#tural de!i$n o" !hi&! than in air#ra"t( it i! hardl% to )e *ondered at. But #om&etiti e e#onomi# &re!!ure! o&erate to limit an% e1#e!!e!. De!&ite the ri$or o" the limitation!( the demand "or the o er5all o&timum de!i$n !olution i! e/uall% !e ere. 4i$ure 8 i! an attem&t( )% mean! o" a model( to di!&la% a rational o er5all de!i$n &ro#edure a! a&&lied to a

EVANS h%&otheti#al )ut t%&i#al( !ur"a#e #ar$o !hi& &ro)lem. The &ur&o!e i! to a!!i!t in or$ani.in$ the thou$ht &ro#e!!( ha in$ in mind &arti#ularl% the u!e "or !u#h( !o a! to ena)le !hi& de!i$n &ro)lem! to )e !ol ed mo!t e""i#ientl%( and m% mean! o" automati# #om&uter!( i" de!ired. The radial line! o" the dia$ram re&re!ent the !alient #on!ideration! o" the de!i$ner arran$ed( it i! )elie ed( in the lo$i#al order mo!t #ondu#i e o" ra&id #on er$en#e on the ultimate( re"ined and )alan#ed !olution indi#ated )% the inner #lo!ed #ir#le. A#hie ement o" thi! end re!ult ma% #on#ei a)l% )e initiated "rom an% o" !e eral &oint!( )ut the &re"eren#e e1&re!!ed )% the dia$ram i! "ir!t "or a rudimentar% #on#e&t o" the !hi&3! $eneral arran$ement *hi#h *ill #ome in mind a! !oon a! #ar$o den!it% and the !i.e o" unit !hi&ment are !&e#i"ied. A #ar$o den!it% in the re$ion o" 9: "t;<ton !eem! to mar' the )oundar% )et*een tho!e #ar$o !hi&! de!i$ned a! *ei$ht limited a! o&&o!ed to tho!e *hi#h are olume limited. The dou)le hulled )ul' ore #arrier t%&e i! #hara#teri!ti# o" one e1treme and the dee& !helter de#'er o" the other.

A. S. N. E. Journal, November 1959, pp. 671-678

BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS

EVANS

Figure 1. General Design Diagram

Al!o an ar)itrar% )ut tentati e #hoi#e o" the t%&e o" main &ro&ul!ion ma#hiner% i! a &ra#ti#al ne#e!!it%. 6hether the e!!el )e a )ul' or olumetri# #arrier( the dead*ei$ht ratio &ro ide! the "ir!t mean! o" tran!latin$ the #ar$o dead*ei$ht into a !hi& di!&la#ement and thu! a "ir!t im&re!!ion o" !hi&3! !i.e i! $ained. Thi! third #on!ideration o" the "ir!t de!i$n #%#le ma% )e #on enientl% de!i$nated III58. Gro!! e!timate! o" the &rin#i&al dimen!ion! o" the under*ater "orm( i.. len$th( )readth and dra"t( "ollo* naturall% *ith !ome $uidan#e "rom a##umulated data on the $eometri# &ro&ortion! o" earlier( $ood de!i$n!. The under)od% "orm #oe""i#ient! re/uire attention at a)out thi! &oint and the% are #ho!en mo!t lo$i#all% *ith re!i!tan#e and &ro&ul!ion in mind. 4rom !u#h elementar% )e$innin$! !ome e!timate o" &o*er re/uirement! ma% al!o )e made )% in#or&oratin$ the additional "a#tor o" !&eed re/uired( a! &re!#ri)ed )% the o*ner. The de&th o" !hi& and to&!ide #hara#teri!ti#! then "ollo*( to !uit olume re/uirement!( mo!t o" *hi#h *ill )e de oted to #ar$o or &a%load o" *hate er t%&e. O er5 all hull "orm #oe""i#ient! e1tra&olated "rom the under*ater #ounter&art! *ill )e "ound u!e"ul "or thi! &ur&o!e. The e!!el3! ran$e o" o&eration( &lu! the !ha"t hor!e&o*er &re iou!l% e!timated( &ermit e aluation o" that &ortion o" the olume to )e o##u&ied )% "uel. The "ore$oin$ &ro#edure! are not dealt *ith here in detail !in#e the% are *ell 'no*n and ma% )e a##om&li!hed *ith the aid o" !u#h material a! i! &re!ented in Re"eren#e! 8 throu$h 8=( *hi#h li!t i! )% no mean! all in#lu!i e. The rou$h outline i! in#luded !im&l% to illu!trate the manner in *hi#h( *ith &ro&er !e/uen#in$( one item )uild! on other! &re iou!l% e!ta)li!hed and ho* it in turn *ill #ontri)ute to the !olution o" !u##eedin$ !hi& #hara#teri!ti#!. To #om&lete the "ir!t rou$h he*n #%#le( a &reliminar% li$ht !hi& *ei$ht e!timate mu!t )e made( &ro)a)l% in term! o" the !e eral ma-or *ei$ht $rou&in$! !u#h a! hull !teel( ma#hiner% and out"it *hi#h latter ma% )e !u)5 $rou&ed de&endin$ u&on *hether it i! aria)le *ith #ar$o( num)er! o" &a!!en$er! and #re*( or *ith !i.e o" !hi&. A! re"eren#e!( the !ort o" data and the method! o" item! ;( 9( >( 8?( and 8> throu$h @; o" the Bi)lio$ra&h% *ill )e o" u!e and then a ne*( !ome*hat more re"ined( e!timate o" total di!&la#ement *ill )e &o!!i)le *hi#h #an al!o in#or&orate a more e1a#t "uel oil *ei$ht no* that a "ir!t e!timate o" &o*er ha! )een made. In the "ore$oin$ remar'!( it ha! )een a!!umed that the o*ner3! !hi& &er"orman#e re/uirement! ha e )een !et "orth )% hi! !&e#i"%in$( a! a minimum( merel% A8B total *ei$ht and den!it% o" #ar$o or &a%load to )e #arried( A@B

e!!el3! !&eed and A;B len$th o" o%a$e( the!e ha in$ re!ulted "rom an e#onomi# anal%!i! o" the o*ner3! e1&erien#e and "uture &lan!. 4i1in$ additional #hara#teri!ti#!( !u#h a! ma1imum dra"t( t%&e o" ma#hiner%( e a&orator #a&a#it%( et#.( althou$h redu#in$ the num)er o" de#i!ion! to )e made )% the na al ar#hite#t( ma% ma'e the ultimate( a)!olute o&timum de!i$n more di""i#ult to a#hie e. In !ome*hat more !&e#i"i# na al ar#hite#tural term! a! a&&lied to the $eneral #arrier t%&e( thi! o&timum de!i$n *ill re/uire that the e!!el( *hen laden *ith the !&e#i"ied #ar$o &lu! "uel( "re!h *ater and !tore! !u""i#ient "or the !&e#i"ied o%a$e at the !&e#i"ied !&eed( !hall ha e all hold! #om&letel% "ull and )e do*n to her ma1imum limitin$ dra"t )a!ed on #on!ideration! o" her "ree)oard( internal !u)di i!ion and !tren$th o" hull. In thi! +"ull and do*n, #ondition the #o!t o" the o%a$e !hall )e a minimum( al!o the #o!t o" #on!tru#tion( in!o"ar a! the!e are #om&ati)le. Thi! re&re!ent! ideali.ed o&eration o" the !hi& )ut it !er e! to #lari"% the i!!ue! in ol ed. 4or de!i$n &ur&o!e!( the na al ar#hite#t !hould al!o a!!ume the #ar$o to )e homo$eneou!( i. e. ha in$ the !ame den!it% in all hold! unle!! the o*ner3! re/uirement! !&e#i"i#all% di#tate other*i!e. Thi! i! the one in"le1i)le #ondition o" loadin$ and thu! it )e#ome! the *or!t rea!ona)le one. 6ith a !hi&ment o" ar%in$ den!it%( the manner o" !to*a$e #an )e made to im&ro e tran! er!e !ta)ilit%( trim and !hi& )endin$ moment !ituation! o er the homo$eneou! #ar$o #a!e. True( !to*a$e o" non5homo$eneou! #ar$o #an al!o ma'e the!e !ituation! *or!e )ut it need not do !o. 6hene er the !hi&3! de!ired &er"orman#e #hara#teri!ti#! "all *ithin u!ual limit!( the &ro#edure outlined !o "ar i! more a matter o" minute! than o" hour!( e en i" manuall% &er"ormed( &ro ided a "ull ran$e o" )a#'$round data i! a aila)le and in readil% u!a)le "orm. De!&ite #on!idera)le re"eren#e to &a&er! o" alue "or thi! "ir!t &ha!e o" de elo&ment( there i! a#tuall% no !u)!titute "or !u#h material ha in$ )een anal%.ed and #om&iled )% the u!er him!el" or *ith hi! "ull 'no*led$e. Thi! i! )e#au!e #ertain uni"%in$ !te&! *ill ha e )een ta'en to redu#e the in"ormation "rom ea#h !hi& to !ome #ommon )a!i! "or &lottin$ and the u!er !hould )e a*are o" their nature. In addition( !hi& data &oint! o" !u#h a $ro!!( o er5 all !ort #annot )e e1&e#ted to &lot a! a *ell de"ined "air #ur e re$ardle!! o" *hi#h !im&le #oordinate !%!tem i! #ho!en. The in"eren#e here i! that an% o" !e eral )a!e! ma% )e e/uall% !uita)le "or !ome o" the data !in#e an% one )% it!el" ne$le#t! &arameter! *hi#h ma% )e im&ortant. The #oordinate !%!tem to )e &re"erred i! the one *hi#h !ho*! the $reate!t #on!i!ten#% amon$ the &oint! )% minimi.in$ their !&read and mo!t nearl% ali$n! them alon$ a "air #ur e. In the ultimate( ho*e er( it *ill !till remain that a detailed 'no*led$e o" the uni/ue

A. S. N. E. Journal, November 1959, pp. 671-678

BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS idio!%n#ra!ie! o" indi idual !hi& !&ot! i! ne#e!!ar% in order that their #om&lian#e or non#om&lian#e *ith the norm ma% )e e1&lained and the &ro&er em&ha!i! &la#ed on the norm a! re&re!entati e o" the ne* de!i$n. De!&ite the &ra#ti#al &ro)lem! indi#ated( relian#e on uni"ied data "rom man% !hi&! i! &re"era)le to de&enden#e on one #lo!e &rotot%&e( e en *hen the detail! o" !u#h a !hi& i! a aila)le. The +*ei$ht e/uation, i! a alua)le mean! o" em&ha!i.in$ the interrelation!hi& o" di""erent $rou&! and the )alloonin$ e""e#t on di!&la#ement o" addin$ to one. Ho*e er it! &re#i!ion !u""er! mar'edl% i" the e1tra&olation "rom &rotot%&e to ne* de!i$n i! an%thin$ )ut er% !mall. 6or!e !till i! the dan$er o" un*ittin$l% &er&etuatin$ redundan#ie! and other "ault! o" the &arent de!i$n alon$ *ith it! irtue!. In the "i$ure( the inter!e#tion! de!i$nated )% #ir#um!#ri)ed dot! denote "ir!t #on!ideration! or e!timate! o" the!e item!. A !im&le( !olid dot indi#ate! that the &re iou! e!timate o" that item i! eri"ied or modi"ied to !uit #han$e! at other &oint! made earlier durin$ that #%#le and u!in$ more #om&lete in"ormation and more &re#i!e method! o" #al#ulation *hene er a aila)le and *arranted. Relo#ation o" a &oint on a radial line Aor the error o" #lo!ureB i! e iden#e that a #han$e in the &re iou! e!timate o" that item ha! )een or that !ome ne* in"ormation ha! )een added. Thu!( ea#h !u##eedin$ !&iral re&re!ent! a more and more re"ined and "irml% #r%!talli.ed #on#e&tion o" the ultimate de!i$n. On the a!!um&tion that( in thi! h%&otheti#al e1am&le( there i! no #all "or #han$e! in di!&la#ement and &rin#i&al dimen!ion! $reat enou$h to radi#all% di!tur) the other "ir!t #%#le e!timate!( the under*ater !e#tional area #ur e and the *aterline !ha&e !hould )e de elo&ed a! indi#ated at VI5@ ARe"eren#e! 8( @9( ;:B. The mo!t elemental mea!ure o" a e!!el3! !ta)ilit% i! $i en )% it! tran! er!e meta#entri# radiu! and thi! ma% )e o)tained )% lo#atin$ the in!tantaneou! meta#enter "rom the $eometr% o" the under)od% and e!timatin$ erti#al #enter! o" $ra it% "or #om&onent *ei$ht item! o" the dee& di!&la#ement and amal$amatin$ them to $i e the o er5all #enter in the u!ual *a%. In re#on!iderin$ &o*er re/uirement! under C5@( it i! &ro)a)l% not too earl% to ma'e u!e o" re!iduar% re!i!tan#e data !u#h a! "ound in Ta%lor3! *or' ARe"eren#e @:B or in the Serie! D? hull "amil% ARe"eren#e @DB. A&&ro&riate do CI5@ i! the delineation o" a !mall !#ale !hi&3! )od% &lan in#ludin$ onl% a "e* !tation!. The !e#tional area and *aterline #ur e! o" VI5@ &ro ide the )a!i!. The!e +line!, !hould e1tend to the u&&er de#' !o that an underde#' area #ur e !ho*in$ the "ore and a"t olume di!tri)ution *ithin the hull ma% )e o)tained. 4rom thi! *ill #ome the "ir!t relia)le e!timate! o" #ar$o #u)i#.

EVANS An% &re#on#ei ed notion that the ma#hiner% !&a#e *ill )e lo#ated amid!hi&! ma% *ell )e e1amined *ith re#on!ideration o" the internal arran$ement under I5; and a de#i!ion ma% )e "orth#omin$ "rom the !tud% o" ma#hiner% la%out! at II5; and the dee& di!&la#ement trim #al#ulated at III5;. In e!!el! #arr%in$ more than t*el e &a!!en$er! an anal%!i! o" "looda)le len$th i! mandator%( o" #our!e( )ut in other #a!e! al!o it ma% )e "elt de!ira)le. 6e)!ter3! a&&ro1imate method ARe"eren#e @EB ha! the ad anta$e! o" )ein$ /ui#' and !im&le. 6here er the mar$in line "ollo*! other than a !tandard &ara)oli# !heer( ho*e er( it! re!ult! are /ue!tiona)le( e!&e#iall% to*ard the end! o" the !hi&. A !horthand a&&roa#h to the le$al "ree)oard determination ARe"eren#e @=B i! hardl% *orth*hile a! the "ull #al#ulation i! not len$th%. I"( therea"ter( !i$ni"i#ant #han$e! are made to the e!!el3! #hara#teri!ti#!( the% ma% )e rein!erted into the ori$inal #om&utation /uite readil%. At C5; it ma% )e ad anta$eou! to !ele#t the )a!i# #hara#teri!ti#! o" the &ro&eller and( a! a re!ult( an im&ro ed e1tra&olation "rom e""e#ti e hor!e&o*er to !ha"t hor!e&o*er !hould )e &o!!i)le. The un#ertaintie! remainin$ in thi! &ro#edure &re!entl% are the &redi#tion o" thru!t dedu#tion and *a'e. Con!ideration o" the !hi&3! tonna$e ARe"eren#e @>B i! anti#i&ated at CII5;. B% CIII5; the )a!i# !tru#tural element! !u#h a! mid!hi& !e#tion and t%&i#al )ul'head! !hould )e a aila)le "or *hate er aid the% ma% a""ord in ma'in$ &o!!i)le *ei$ht e!timate! "rom a more detailed )rea'do*n a! de!ired "or CIV5;. The +li$ht and air, !&a#e anomal% in &re!ent tonna$e re$ulation! ma% ma'e minor arran$ement alteration! in the re$ion o" the ma#hiner% !&a#e )ene"i#ial. Al!o( at a)out I59( detailed de#' and #ar$o handlin$ la%out! are ne#e!!ar%. Car$o handlin$ i! o" !u#h im&ortan#e to the o&eration e#onomi#! that it! "ir!t #on!ideration !hould ha e )een in#luded in the earl% arran$ement! !tudie!. At lea!t in the !team &o*er &lant!( o&timi.ation o" o er5all thermal e""i#ien#% throu$h the !ele#tion o" the #om&onent &art! i! a matter *orth% o" in e!ti$ation at II5 9. 4or the &ur&o!e! o" thi! illu!trati e outline it *ill &ro)a)l% )e !u""i#ient to mention onl% a "e* additional &oint!. A "looda)le len$th #al#ulation )% one o" the +e1a#t, method! i! intended at VI59 and at VII59 #ur e! o" !tati#al and d%nami#al !ta)ilit% are &re!umed. 4or &a!!en$er e!!el! the ne#e!!ar% anal%!i! o" !ta)ilit% in dama$ed #ondition "all! mo!t naturall% in thi! #%#le.

A. S. N. E. Journal, November 1959, pp. 671-678

BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS A! a "inal re"inement to the &o*er e!timate( &ro&eller &er"orman#e( under*ater "orm or !ea*a% &er"orman#e( to*in$ tan' model te!t! are uni/uel% alua)le. The "i$ure attem&t! to !ho* that a"ter a !u""i#ient num)er o" de!i$n! #%#le! ha! )een ne$otiated the di""eren#e! in ol ed )e#ome !o !mall a! to )e in!i$ni"i#ant. Fltimatel% all the mutuall% de&endent aria)le! are in a##ord and the "inal re"ined and )alan#ed de!i$n i! a#hie ed. The #lo!ure i! !ho*n here to o##ur *ith the !tru#tural de!i$n )ut thi! i! o" no !i$ni"i#an#e and mi$ht -u!t a! *ell ha e )een at an% other &oint. The la!t #%#le #ould a&&ro&riatel% )e de!i$nated the +anal%!i!, #%#le a! the &ro#e!!e! ta'in$ &la#e *ithin it are in the "orm o" anal%!e! o" #hara#teri!ti#! &re iou!l% e!ta)li!hed and the de!i$n i! re!ha&ed "rom the "indin$!. The "ir!t #%#le! are !%nthe!i.in$ !ta$e! and "rom thi! inter&la% it i! #lear that )oth thou$ht &ro#e!!e! are e!!ential to the "inal o)-e#ti e. Con!idera)le #on"iden#e i! "elt *ith the order o" o&eration! &re!ented here "or a&&li#ation o er a *ide ran$e o" mer#hant !hi& t%&e!. Ho*e er( uni/ue #ondition! "or !ome t%&e! ma% ma'e it de!ira)le to &er"orm #ertain o" the detailed e!timate! durin$ earlier #%#le! than in the illu!tration. 4or e1am&le( "or a den!e #ar$o #arrier it ma% )e ad i!a)le to determine the "ree)oard limit !ooner *herea!( *ith an e1tremel% li$ht #ar$o( !ta)ilit% #on!ideration! ma% )e un#ommonl% #riti#al. 4urthermore( a "e* matter! o" not !u#h $eneral #on#ern and not in#luded in the "i$ure ma% di#tate !ome de!i$n a!&e#t! in other !&e#ial #a!e!. In &a!!en$er !hi&!( "ire &rote#tion re/uirement! mu!t )e #om&lied *ith. 6ith hi$h &o*er!( i)ration )e#ome! o" more im&ortan#e and it i! &o!!i)le that !ome &re enti e !te&! ma% )e ta'en in the!e de!i$n &ha!e!. O" !ome*hat more uni er!al intere!t are the li$ht dra"t !hi& #hara#teri!ti#! in *hi#h #onne#tion Com!to#'3! data o" Re"eren#e ;? !hould )e noted. A! an in#idental #omment( it mi$ht )e added that a "ilin$ !%!tem "or de!i$n data )a!ed on the dual num)erin$ !%!tem ada&ted herein ha! )een "ound er% #on enient( and it a&&ear! to o""er !ome &romi!e "or u!e *ith li)rar% #odin$ and retrie al or !imilar te#hni/ue! o" ele#troni# data &ro#e!!in$. 4or the de!i$n no* in hand( the t%&e o" &o*er &lant *a! held #on!tant. 4or an% other! *hi#h are &ertinent( a !imilar de!i$n iteration i! re/uired to a##ount "or the di""erin$ "uel rate! and !&e#i"i# den!itie!( ma#hiner% *ei$ht! and the li'e. 4rom amon$ them the "inal !olution ma% )e made or at lea!t the dire#tion "or "urther !tudie! i! #lari"ied. A! another inde&endent aria)le( i" the ma#hiner% !&a#e lo#ation ha! )een a !u)tle matter( it *ill )e ad i!a)le to *or' out the o er5all !hi& de!i$n in !ome detail *ith the ariou! lo#ation! "i1ed "or ea#h.

EVANS Returnin$ on#e more to the model ... . The &eri&heral #%#le i! #learl% indi#ati e o" the in"inite *idene!! o" #hoi#e a aila)le to the initiatin$ &reliminar% de!i$ner )ut *ith ea#h round the maneu erin$ room dimini!he! and the latitude "or #han$e )e#ome! !maller a!( in "a#t( do the alteration! deemed ne#e!!ar%. The !maller am&litude! and the in#rea!in$ amount o" la)or in ol ed in ea#h !u##e!!i e !&iral ma'e it )oth &o!!i)le and ne#e!!ar% to in#rea!e &ro$re!!i el% the #on#entration o" man &o*er until numerou! !u)$rou&! ma% )e &ro#eedin$ !imultaneou!l% and inde&endentl% to anal%.e the a!&e#t! in *hi#h the% !&e#iali.e. In the !en!e that a modi"i#ation ma% )e *rou$ht in !ome area o" the total &ro-e#t a! a re!ult o" hi! de elo&ment( e en the detail dra"t!man ma% #ontri)ute to the "inal !ta$e! o" +de!i$n,. Thu! the !e eral man hour! o" the "ir!t #%#le ad an#e to hundred! o" thou!and! in the la!t. ANo* the model ha! a third dimen!ion G an altitude in term! o" man hour! G and ha! )e#ome a trun#ated #oni#al !&iral( )ut the !#ale had )etter )e lo$arithmi#HB Some o" the #ontri)utor% !tudie! a&&ro&riate "or the late de!i$n !ta$e! ma% them!el e! )e #on#ei ed a! o&eration! re!ear#h &ro)lem! and treated !o *ith ad anta$e. In "a#t( the one! in mind are alread% *ell ad an#ed to*ard the &o!!i)ilit% o" &ro$rammin$. The !team #%#le( heat )alan#e anal%!i! o" II59 i! one o" the!e and a !uita)le anal%ti#al o&timi.ation method "or it *a! &re!ented )e"ore the Ne* En$land Se#tion o" the So#iet% o" Na al Ar#hite#t! and 2aine En$ineer! in 2a% 8>:> )% E. C. Hou!e and B. B. 6ooden. AIB
STRFCTFRA0 2IDSHIP SECTION G 0ONGITFDINA00Y 4RA2ED

The !tru#tural de!i$n o" lon$itudinall% #ontinuou! material amid!hi&!( a&&ro&riate to CIII5;( i! another. 6here the "ore and a"t !ti""enin$ mem)er! are more #lo!el% !&a#ed than the tran! er!e( a! in a t%&i#al lon$itudinall% "ramed !hi&( St. Deni! in Re"eren#e ;; ha! &re!ented and orderl% a&&roa#h a&&li#a)le to na al &ra#ti#e. 4or lon$itudinall% "ramed mer#hant !hi&! a !imilar &ro#edure !hould )e "ound u!a)le )ut #riteria in!urin$ the !ati!"a#tion o" #la!!i"i#ation !o#ietie! ha e %et to )e #om&letel% *or'ed out. 4i$ure @ i! a re&re!entation o" the $eneral method e1&re!!ed in the "lo* dia$ram "orm o" 4i$ure 8. 4ir!t( tentati e and ar)itrar% !&a#in$! o" tran! er!e *e) "rame! and lon$itudinal! mu!t )e !ele#ted *hi#h therea"ter are held #on!tant and &ro ide the )a!i! o" that &arti#ular !olution. Thu! the #orre!&ondin$ radial line! I and II are !ho*n dotted to indi#ate that( on#e e!ta)li!hed( the% are not re#on!idered *ith ea#h #%#le. In an o&eration! re!ear#h anal%!i!( the!e are the re!traint!. In )rie"( limitin$ alue! "or three t%&e! o" !tre!! are e!ta)li!hed AIII58B. 6ith the "ir!t a!!um&tion that the lon$itudinal! and *e) "rame! "orm &anel )oundarie! o"

A. S. N. E. Journal, November 1959, pp. 671-678

BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS the &latin$ *hi#h remain &lane( the!e !tren$th limit! to$ether *ith in!ta)ilit% #on!ideration! re!ult in t*o e!timate! o" re/uired &latin$ thi#'ne!! AIV58B. The more !e ere re/uirement rule!( o" #our!e. JJJJJ
AIB Thi! &a&er al!o #ontained an intere!tin$ e1am&le o" an o&timi.ed $eneral de!i$n !tud%.

EVANS &ro&o!al and #riti#i!m *hi#h ideall% mu!t #ontain &re#i!el% #orre#t de$ree! o" ima$ination and &ra#ti#alit%. 4or o&timi.in$( !e eral inde&endent !olution! *ith ar%in$ #om)ination! o" *e) "rame and lon$itudinal !&a#in$ are ne#e!!ar%. Stru#tural *ei$ht i! the mo!t alid( "ir!t )a!i! o" #om&ari!on a! *ell a! the mo!t !trai$ht"or*ard "or /uantitati e &ur&o!e!.
STRFCTFRA0 2IDSHIP SECTION G TRANSVERSE0Y 4RA2ED

Figure 2. Mi s!i" Se#$i%n S$ru#$ural Design Diagram & '%ngi$u inal Framing

Both !tren$th and in!ta)ilit% #riteria are al!o u!ed to determine !#antlin$! o" the lon$itudinal !ti""enin$ mem)er! *hi#h are !u)-e#ted to ten!ile and #om&re!!i e load! a! the !hi& ho$! and !a$! AV58B. 6hen all lon$itudinall% #ontinuou! &latin$ &anel! and lon$itudinal! ha e thu! )een tentati el% !i.ed to meet their lo#al #ondition!( the !hi& !e#tion modulu! ma% )e "ound AVI58B. A "ir!t e!timate o" !hi& $irder )endin$ moment AIC58B ma% )e !u""i#ient to indi#ate *hether or not the !e#tion modulu! i! ade/uate or mu!t )e in#rea!ed to 'ee& the !hi& )endin$ !tre!! *ithin it! limit. 0o#atin$ the true &o!ition o" the neutral a1i! ma%( )% it!el"( )rin$ a)out minor !#antlin$ #han$e! "rom tho!e )a!ed u&on the ori$inall% a!!umed &o!ition o" the a1i!. A! modi"i#ation! and )alan#in$ &ro#eed to*ard re"inement( the tran! er!el% oriented !ti""enin$ mem)er! are !i.ed AVII5 @B and a $ood e!timate o" hull !tru#tural *ei$ht #an "ollo* AVIII5@B. Thi! ena)le! #al#ulation o" a more e1a#t )endin$ moment AIC5@ or IC5;B and another #%#le )e$in!. Here a$ain( o" ne#e!!it%( the earl% de!i$n !te&! de&end on !im&li"%in$ a!!um&tion! and elementar% relation!hi&! to %ield a re!ult on *hi#h the anal%!e! o" the la!t #%#le! ma% o&erate. A! in the $ainin$ o" all !i$ni"i#ant ne* 'no*led$e( thi! i! the uni er!al t*o5!te& &ro#e!! o"

Althou$h it i! hardl% li'el%( i" the "ramin$ !%!tem i! al!o an o&en /ue!tion( the o&timum !olution "or the tran! er!e "ramin$ !%!tem mu!t al!o )e "ound. The author3! &a&er ARe"eren#e ;9B &re!entin$ a de!i$n inte$ration "or the mid!hi& !e#tion o" tran! er!el% "ramed !hi&! i! !uita)le( and 4i$ure ; i! a model o" the method. The t%&i#al tran! er!el% "ramed !hi& a"loat at &re!ent ha! onl% er% "e*( *idel% !&a#ed lon$itudinall% #ontinuou! !ti""enin$ mem)er! and o" the!e( )% la* and )% #la!!i"i#ation !o#iet% &ra#ti#e( ri$htl% or *ron$l%( onl% the erti#al 'eel i! $i en #redit "or #ontri)utin$ to lon$itudinal !tren$th. The "i$ure i! there"ore !li$htl% !im&ler. 4urthermore( !e eral o" the detailed method! o" #al#ulation are di""erent a! *ell a! the loadin$! and #riteria *hi#h( in their &re!ent "orm( ha e )een de elo&ed to !ati!"% the re/uirement! o" a #la!!i"i#ation !o#iet%( namel% the Ameri#an Bureau o" Shi&&in$. Value! "or an% other !tandard or in #om&lian#e *ith ne* 'no*led$e #an )e "ound ea!il%. Ha in$ made a tentati e !ele#tion o" the !&a#in$ o" tran! er!e "rame!( in )road &hilo!o&hi#al term!( the method de elo&ed in the &a&er &ro#eed! a! )e"ore *ith ea#h #%#le )uildin$ on in"ormation $enerated in the one! &re#edin$. The !tre!! !#hedule a! !u#h i! not em&lo%ed in the &a&er( )ut it! e""e#t i! in#luded in the "ormulation! $i en. A! re$ard! the mer#hant !hi& )endin$ moment( a !ome*hat "ru!tratin$ !ituation e1i!t! in that( e en !hould the )endin$ moment )e unu!uall% !mall in a &arti#ular !hi&( there i! a lo*er limit on !hi& !e#tion modulu! *hi#h *ill a&&l% and i! im&o!ed )% la* o" #la!!i"i#ation !o#iet% edi#t. In !u#h a !ituation( the #al#ulation o" )endin$ moment !er e! onl% to ena)le the na al ar#hite#t to de#ide i"( in hi! -ud$ment( a $reater !e#tion modulu! than the mandator% one i! de!ira)le. 2an% tran! er!el% "ramed e!!el! o" #urrent de!i$n em&lo% a #lo!er !&a#in$ o" inter#o!tal !ide $irder! than "ormerl% *a! u!ual. Thi! i! entirel% "ittin$ and i! no dou)t a trend *hi#h *ill )e &er&etuated. Ho*e er( *ith thi! de elo&ment( man% &rimar% !tru#ture &late &anel! *ill ha e a!&e#t ratio! le!! than three to one( in *hi#h #a!e the #riti#al !tren$th o" the &anel! )e#ome! a mu#h !tron$er "un#tion o" the !&a#in$ o" the!e lon$itudinall% #ontinuou! mem)er! "ormin$ the "ore and a"t &anel )oundarie! and the e1a#t !&a#in$ mu!t )e re#'oned *ith.

A. S. N. E. Journal, November 1959, pp. 671-678

BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS In time it i! rea!ona)le to e1&e#t that the #ontri)ution o" the lon$itudinal! to !hi& $irder !tren$th *ill al!o )e a#'no*led$ed althou$h thi! ma% ta'e international a#tion. Pro i!ion "or the!e modi"i#ation! i! indi#ated in 4i$ure ; and it then )e#ome! !imilar to 4i$ure @ in it! !u&er"i#ial a!&e#t!.

EVANS de!i$n o" e1treme or undul% re!tri#ted #hara#ter. A !e/uen#e o" #om&le1 anal%!e! *ill )e re/uired )e"ore thi! )are outline i! "illed out and readied "or #om&letel% automati# !olution. But e en a! thin$! no* !tand( it i! ho&ed that !ome #lari"i#ation o" de!i$n &ro#e!!e! and &ro)lem! ha! )een a#hie ed. On the other hand( the !tru#tural model! alread% are !o "ar ad an#ed a! to )e almo!t immediatel% u!a)le in automati# #om&utation. 6ith modern #om&uter!( !tru#tural o&timi.ation i! no* &o!!i)le Aand on a mu#h )roader )a!eB de!&ite the &re!!ure o" &rodu#tion !#hedule!. The orderin$ o" thou$ht! attem&ted here im&lie! a$reement *ith a !tatement o" Her)ert S&en#er that + If a "an5s knowledge is not in order, the "ore of it he has the greater will +e his confusion., 4e*( i" an%( o" man3! #reation! o""er a! man% o&&ortunitie! "or the em)odiment o" !u#h a *ide ran$e o" man3! 'no*led$e a! doe! a !hi&. Yet the &hilo!o&h% e1&re!!ed i!uall% )% the model! i! not #on"ined to !hi& de!i$n. It ha! mu#h )roader im&li#ation! and i! )ounded onl% )% the *ord +de!i$n, it!el" and it alone.
BIB0IOGRAPHY 8. Com!to#'( J. P.( +Introdu#tion to Na al Ar#hite#ture,( APart IIB. Rid$el%5Ne itt( C.( +The de elo&ment o" Gra&hi#! Aid! to Preliminar% De!i$n,( A.S.N.E.( 2a% 8>:?( &. ;?;. Bu!tard( E. E.( +Preliminar% Cal#ulation! in Shi& De!i$n,( N.E.C.I.E.S( 8>9?598( &. 8E>. S#ho''er( P. C. A.( Nu er)ur$( E. 2. and Vo!!na#'( E. J.( +The De!i$n o" 2er#hant Shi&!,. 2unro5Smith( R.( +Shi& De!i$n G Preliminar% Determination o" the Dimen!ion! and other Te#hni#al Chara#teri!ti#!,( The Shi&)uilder and 2arine En$ine5Builder( O#to)er 8>:D( &. :=:. Calder( J. D.( +The 0en$th<Beam Ratio,( Shi&)uildin$ and Shi&&in$ Re#ord( Se&tem)er 8D( 8>:9( &. ;D>. 6itte( N.( +Die Ent*ur"re#hnun$ "ur 4ra#ht!#hi""e,( S#hi"" und Ha"en( 2ar#h 8>::( &. 8@;. Diede( G.( +Ent*ur" on 0inienri!!en "ur 2oderne Handel!#hi""e,( S#hi"" und Ha"en( 4e)ruar% 8>:D( &. =:. Ben"ord( H.( +En$ineerin$ E#onom% in Tan'er De!i$n,( S.N.A.2.E.( 8>:E( &. EE:. Ben"ord( H.( +O#ean Ore5Carrier E#onomi#! and Preliminar% De!i$n,( S.N.A.2.E.( 8>:=. 2unro5Smith( R.( +The De!i$n o" Coa!ter!,( Shi&)uildin$ and Shi&&in$ Re#ord( Jul% @9( 8>98( &. E>. Todd( 4. H.( +The 4undamental! o" Shi& 4orm,( I. 2ar. E(. 8>995 9:( &. 8. A%re( 6.( +The Pro&ul!i e E""i#ien#% o" Car$o Shi&!,( I.E.S.S.( 8>;85;@( &. 8E>. Troo!t( 0.( +A Sim&li"ied 2ethod "or Preliminar% Po*erin$ o" Sin$le S#re* 2er#hant Shi&!,( S.N.A.2.E.( 8>:E( &. E;E. 2inor!'%( V.( +A Nomo$ra&h "or the Preliminar% Po*erin$ o" 2er#hant Shi&!,( International Shi&)uildin$ Pro$re!!( Vol. @( No. >( 8>::( &. @@D. Bo#ler( H.( +The Po!ition o" 0on$itudinal Centre o" Buo%an#% "or 2inimum Re!i!tan#e,( I.E.S.S.( 8>:;5:9( &. 88. @. ;. 9. :.

Figure (. Mi s!i" Se#$i%n S$ru#$ural Design Diagram & Trans)erse Framing

The model !imilarit% a! )et*een 4i$ure! @ and ; ma'e! it &o!!i)le to ado&t the !olution outline "or a *ide #om)ination o" the t*o )a!i# !%!tem! and "rom one or the other ARe"eren#e ;; or ;9B detailed &ro#edure! *hi#h are !uita)le #an )e ta'en. 4or a #om&lete o&timi.ation( there"ore( the &arameter! #an )eK t%&e o" "ramin$ !%!tem( !&a#in$ o" lon$itudinal! and *e) "rame!( or "loor!( !ide "rame! and !ide $irder!. Ba!i#all%( *hen "ound( the net !#antlin$! !hould )e in#rea!ed in the amount o" a #orro!ion allo*an#e a! de!ired. A#tuall%( the e1&re!!ion! o" Re"eren#e ;9 ha e alread% in#luded it. The $eneral im&re!!ion intended )% thi! di!#u!!ion i! that a "rame*or' e1i!t! *hi#h !hould &ermit !olution o" the o er5all !hi& de!i$n &ro)lem and !e eral o" it! mo!t im&ortant !u)!idiar% de!i$n &ro)lem! )% o&eration! re!ear#h method! i" de!ired. No o er!im&li"i#ation o" the de elo&ment !till ne#e!!ar% i! intended( althou$h the im&re!!ion ma% ha e )een $i en that the end re!ult i! more immediatel% &o!!i)le than i! a#tuall% the #a!e. It i! #learl% under!tood that one or t*o minor di!lo#ation! !till e1i!t and that mu#h de!i$n in"ormation no* in $ra&hi#al "orm mu!t )e e1&re!!ed in di""erent term! and &erha&! e en )e reanal%.ed. Some o&eration! *ithin the &rimar% model ne#e!!itate a !mall amount o" dra"tin$ !o the &ro#e!! i! intermittent. 4urthermore( the e1a#t u!e o" the 4i$ure 8 model *ill not )e ideal in all it! a!&e#t! "or

D. E. =. >. 8?. 88. 8@. 8;. 89. 8:.

8D.

A. S. N. E. Journal, November 1959, pp. 671-678

BASIC DESIGN CONCEPTS
8E. 8=. Allan( J. 4.( +Im&ro ement! in Shi& Per"orman#e,( I. 2ar. E.( 8>:;( &. 88E. 2unro5Smith( R.( +The Determination o" Car$o Ca&a#it% and it! Centroid,( The Shi&)uilder and 2arine En$ine5Builder( A&ril 8>:=( &. @?:. Arnott( D.( +De!i$n and Con!tru#tion o" Steel 2er#hant Shi&!,( Cha&ter IIAAB Po*ell( S. C.( +E!timation o" 2a#hiner% 6ei$ht!,( S.N.A.2.E.( 8>:=. Tel"er( E. V.( +The Stru#tural 6ei$ht Similarit% o" Shi&!,( N.E.C.I.E.S( 8>::5:D( &. 8@;. Ro)in!on( H. 4.( Roe!'e( J. 4. and Thaeler( A. S.( +2odern Tan'er!,( S.N.A.2.E.( 8>9=( &. 9@@. Henr%( J. J.( +2odern Ore Carrier!,( S.N.A.2.E.( 8>::( &. :E. an 0ammeren( 6. P.( and Troo!t( 0.( +Re!i!tan#e( Pro&ul!ion and Steerin$ o" Shi&!,. Ta%lor( D. 6.( +S&eed and Po*er o" Shi&!,. Todd( 4. H.( Stunt.( G. R.( and Pien( P. C.( +Serie! D? G The E""e#t u&on Re!i!tan#e and Po*er o" Variation in Shi& Pro&ortion!,( S.N.A.2.E.( 8>:E( &. 99:. 6e)!ter( G.( +Su)di i!ion o" Pa!!en$er Ve!!el!,( I.N.A.( 8>@?( &. @;9. F. S. Coa!t Guard +0oad 0ine Re$ulation!,. F. S. Trea!ur% De&t.( Bureau o" Cu!tom!( +2ea!urement o" Ve!!el!,. ;;. ;9. ;?. ;8. ;@.

EVANS
Com!to#'( J. P.( +Chart! "or 0i$ht5Dra"t 4orm Chara#teri!ti#!,( 2arine En$ineerin$ and Shi&&in$ A$e( No em)er( 8>@D( &. D;>. Ba'er( 0( +Some 4a#tor! in the Sele#tion o" 2a#hiner% "or Car$o 0iner!,( I. 2e#h. E.( 8>::( &. 8E. Ste*art( 6. A.( di!#u!!ion o" !%m&o!ium +Ad an#ed 2a#hiner% In!tallation! De!i$ned "or the 2a1imum Sa in$ in 6ei$ht and S&a#e,( I. 2ar. E.( 8>::( &. ;;:. ST. Deni!( 2.( +On the Stru#tural De!i$n o" the 2id!hi& Se#tion,( Da id Ta%lor 2odel Ba!in Re&ort C5:::. E an!( J. H.( +A Stru#tural Anal%!i! and De!i$n Inte$ration *ith A&&li#ation to the 2id!hi& Se#tion Chara#teri!ti#! o" Tran! er!el% 4ramed Shi&!,( S.N.A.2.E.( 8>:=. Todd( 4. H.( +Some 4urther E1&eriment! on Sin$le S#re* 2er#hant Shi& 4orm! G Serie! D?,( S.N.A.2.E.( 8>:;( &. :8D.

8>. @?. @8. @@. @;. @9. @:. @D.

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ABBREVIATIONS A.S.N.E I.E.S.S. I. 2ar. E. I.N.A. Journal o" the Ameri#an So#iet% o" Na al En$ineer! In!titution o" En$ineer! and Shi&)uilder! in S#otland In!titute o" 2arine En$ineer! In!titution o" Na al Ar#hite#t!

@E. @=. @>.

I. 2e#h. E. In!titution o" 2e#hani#al En$ineer! N.E.C.I.E.S. North5Ea!t Coa!t In!titution o" En$ineer! and Shi&)uilder! S.N.A.2.E. So#iet% o" Na al Ar#hite#t! and 2arine En$ineer!

A. S. N. E. Journal, November 1959, pp. 671-678

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