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Book 3

Module 7A

CATEGORY B1 B2 ENGINEERING PRACTICES

Licence By Post

For best examination results always use latest issue number.

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Copyright

B EASA 66 7A.2 7A.3 7A.6 ISSUE 02 1103

Licence By Post
No part of this study book may be re-produced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system in whole or in part without prior written permission from Licence By Post. Books in the LBP series are regularly up-dated/re-written to keep pace with the changing technology, changing examination requirements and changing legal requirements.

AUTHORITY It is IMPORTANT to note that the information in this book is for study/training purposes only. When carrying out a procedure/work on aircraft/aircraft equipment you MUST always refer to the relevant aircraft maintenance manual or equipment manufacturers handbook. You should also follow the requirements of your national regulatory authority (the CAA in the UK) and laid down company policy as regards local procedures, recording, report writing, documentation etc. For health and safety in the workplace you should follow the regulations/ guidelines as specified by the equipment manufacturer, your company, national safety authorities and national governments.

ADDENDUM Addendum action in response to student feedback after taking the CAA examinations. EASA Part 66 module 7A LBP book 3 Maintenance Practices.

Copper sulphate is used to aid marking out on ferrous metals. It is painted on to the shiny surface of the metal, allowed to dry and a scriber is used to scribe lines into the copper sulphate for marking-out purposes. The lines show up clearly against the reddish/brown of the copper sulphate. Remember, aluminium and its alloys is notch sensitive (notches, nicks or scribed lines, with time, will instigate the propagation of cracks), so a soft pencil is always used for marking out unless its a cut line. *** Oxygen bottles should not be discharged below a certain minimum pressure (CAAIPS state 200 to 300psi but check the AMM). This is to ensure that any moisture in the O2 does not precipitate out to form water. This will contaminate the oxygen and cause it to smell. Also applies to compressed air storage bottles. ****

CONTENTS Page Lubrication methods Care of tools Workshop materials Metals and composites Dimensions and measurement Calibration of tools and equipment Limit systems Checking for wear 1 7 9 14 19 25 28 36

HOW TO TACKLE THIS BOOK This book brings together a collection of items, mostly unrelated to each other, but each too small to warrant a separate book. As a B1 or B2 engineer you should be able to describe lubrication methods and the care of tools in detail. It would be a good idea to have studied the book in this series entitled Tools before studying this book. It is difficult to say how much one should commit to memory regarding workshop materials, but you should have a good idea of the range of materials, fluids, compounds and gasses, and their general uses. The subject of dimensions and measurement brings together the practical aspect of workshop practice, precision instruments and procedures like aircraft rigging. You should understand what equipment requires calibration and, in general terms, how this is done. Limit systems can be a dry subject to study but you should have a general knowledge of how the systems work and how the subject can be applied practically.

LUBRICATION METHODS Lubrication of components and systems is carried out at the times specified in the maintenance schedule and the method as stated in the AMM. The equipment used is usually of local purchase though any special equipment that might be required will be obtained (for a fee) from the aircraft/component manufacture. The oils and greases used will have to meet the specification as stated in the AMM, and these are also obtained through local purchase. The specification of the oils and greases will be given in list format in chapter 20 of the AMM. The list will include: * * * * * Standard greases and oils for general use. Alternative lubricants in case any of the above are not available. Mineral based and synthetic based lubricants. High pressure greases. Special lubricants for such things as threads on oxygen connections. WARNING. An ordinary lubricant in contact with high pressure oxygen will cause an explosion. Anti-seize grease for threads normally a graphited compound. Fuel resistant greases. Lubricants for use with rubber sealing rings, O rings etc.

* * *

In general, a lubricate is designed to reduce the friction between moving parts by interposing a low viscosity medium between them. This helps prevent contact between the moving surfaces and also helps disperse the heat generated. It also helps remove the products of friction (wear particles etc), and in such things as internal combustion engines helps remove debris from the combustion process. Some moving surfaces are not lubricated (check the AMM), others have pressure air supplied to them to keep the surfaces apart (air bearings), but most are lubricated by the use of oil or grease. Parts that are not lubricated are those that do not suffer from a lot of friction, or would suffer from damage due to the lubricant getting dirty through dust etc (fairleads, control cable pressure bulkhead seals etc). Some parts are not lubricated where the materials used in the manufacture of the parts are self lubricating phosphor-bronze bearings, oil impregnated tufnol bearings, teflon bearings etc. It is important to remember that bearings such as teflon will deteriorate rapidly if lubricated so lubricate only those bearings that are specified in the AMM. The decision whether to lubricate a bearing or leave it dry is made by the manufacturer, so always consult the AMM.

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Fig. 1 PART OF CHAPTER 20 COMPOUNDS LIST EXAMPLE A330

Some-times, threads (male and female) are lubricated check the AMM. This helps reduce friction between the threads and effectively increases the actual torque between the parts. It is most important that the AMM is consulted to check whether threads are torqued wet (lubricated) or dry. Serious accidents have happened in the past when bolts have failed after being torque loaded wet when they should have been torque loaded dry. Remember, only the approved oil/grease must be used, and only those bearings/lubrication points are to be lubricated. Do not over lubricate and always clear up any additional oil/grease left after the operation. Some oils and greases are used as preservative compounds to be used as temporary anti-corrosive treatments. Remember oils and greases can be a skin irritant and some may cause dermatitis. So always use a barrier cream and, if necessary, gloves.

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If any lubricants get on the hands wash off with soap and water and re-apply the barrier cream. If eye contamination occurs irrigate with copious amounts of water and seek medical advice. In some manuals lubrication blocks or symbols are used. These will indicate the method of application and the specification of the lubricant to be used.

Fig. 2 LUBRICATION SYMBOLS B767

Lubrication of sealed roller and ball bearings having lubrication provision requires care to prevent too much pressure being pumped in so as to cause the seal to blow-out. To help prevent this happening a flow restrictor can be fitted to the charging gun (several flow restrictors are available commercially) that restrict the pressure to below 2500psi.

Fig. 3 LUBRICATION POINTS EXAMPLE B767 AMM TAILPLANE TRIM

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If pressure lubricating a sealed bearing, take careful note of any seal deformation and/or grease seepage if either happens, stop immediately and allow the pressure to subside. Pressures between 100psi and 200psi should be sufficient to get grease into a sealed bearing, but at any rate should never exceed 2500psi.

Fig. 4 LUBRICATION NIPPLES

If a seal does blow, or the fitting/bearing becomes loose make sure the lubrication path is clear and change the bearing. Non-sealed bearings are lubricated as required. Sealed bearings may be lubricated by the manufacturer and sealed for life and are never lubricated again they are changed only. Other sealed bearings are lubricated regularly (see above) as stated in the AMM and maintenance schedule.

Nipples/Application Points These may be of the push-on type or pressure clip-on or slide-on type. They are screwed into position and each one contains a small ball type non-return valve, which is pushed open when lubricant pressure is applied. The lubricant then passes through a central drilling to the point of lubrication. The nipple may be fitted with a dust cap, but at any rate it must be thoroughly cleaned before fitting the grease gun. The grease gun adapter end must also be cleaned prior to use. After the part has been lubricated excess lubricant is removed with a soft cloth and any dust caps fitted. Fitting the push-on type gun to the nipple is simply a matter of putting the adapter end on to the nipple, pressing firmly and pumping the grease gun handle. For the pressure slide-on type the adapter is slid onto the nipple so that the nipple flange engages with the engagement slots of the adapter it is then slid fully forward so that the lubrication hole on the adapter aligns with the nipple non-return valve.

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Application Methods Equipment listed below must be kept clean and end caps fitted when not in use. Each oilcan/grease gun must be marked with the type of oil/grease inside and it must not be used for any other specification lubricant. In other words the existing lubricant must not be removed and a different lubricant substituted. When purchasing equipment locally ensure (from the equipment manufacturer) that the equipment (seals etc) is compatible with the type of lubricant that is to go inside. Hand. Smeared on by hand over the area to be covered. Oils and greases. Brush. A brush or plastic spreader is used to apply the oil over the area. May be used with some of the thinner (those with a low viscosity) greases.

Fig. 5 PUMP ACTION GREASE GUN

Oilcan. A pump action (thumb or finger operated) oilcan to apply drops of oil into an oil cup or nipple attached to the equipment or to apply a few drops to spindles, shafts, chains etc. Pump Action Grease Gun. Used for pumping grease into an end nipple. The end is placed over the nipple and the handle is pushed forward. This pushes the piston inside the cylinder and pumps grease through the ball non-return valve of the push-on type nipple. To refill with grease unscrew the end cap, remove the piston and handle complete, fill the cylinder with the correct specification grease, replace the piston and end cap, tighten the end cap. Hand Operated Grease Gun. Consists of a cylinder with a piston operated with a handle. Will apply grease, and oil, under pressure to the lubrication point. The lubrication point normally being a slide-on nipple (for high pressure).

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The unit may come complete with a pressure gauge. The end connector is slid over the pressure type nipple so that it engages with the nipple flange. The action of sliding the adapter over the nipple will help unseat the ball spring non-return valve in the nipple.

Fig. 6 HAND OPERATED GREASE GUN

When the handle is pumped lubricant is forced under pressure through the non-return valve, then through drillings to the bearing. To refill, unscrew the base cap, pull out the internal floating piston and fill the cylinder with the correct specification lubricant. Replace the floating piston and re-connect the base cap. Pressure Operated Lubrication Equipment. Specialised equipment, air pressurised to supply oil through a trigger operated adapter.

Oil Usually supplied in drums with the specification, manufacturers name etc printed on the front. For application purposes, oilcans, hand operated pumps etc are used. Always use oil as specified in the AMM and specified on the can. If in doubt use only oil from a sealed drum.

Grease Supplied in tubes (similar to, but larger than, toothpaste tubes), and tins. Again, these must all have the manufacturers name and material specification printed clearly on the outside. -6-

CARE OF TOOLS Tools can be divided into: * Personal tools. Those tools that are purchased by the tradesman/woman and kept in his/her tool box. They will include such item as, screwdrivers, spanners, socket sets etc. They may also include test instruments such as multi-meters. Special tools that are kept by the company in the stores and these may be dedicated to an aircraft type. May include specialist equipment too large to keep in tool boxes and expensive equipment and test sets. Will usually include special to type adapters, tools, test sets etc.

Routine Care of Tools Each tool (spanner, socket, extension, test set, etc) should be marked with a code that identifies it and its normal location. Each trades-person should have his/her own code etched into each item and that code recorded with the firm that that person is working for. Cleaning. All tools benefit from being kept clean. It also means less chance of contamination of the equipment being worked on (contamination of fluid systems, air conditioning systems etc). Most metal tools are kept in good condition by the application of a thin oil or an oil based solution such as WD40, which is then wiped clean using a clean lint free cloth. Files are cleaned using a scratch card. Test-sets are kept clean and free from liquids. Should they become contaminated then they are to be returned to the manufacturer for dismantling, cleaning, assembly and testing. Storage. Most tools are simply stored in a secure box. Socket sets, spanner sets etc are usually stored in the special box they are supplied in. This not only keeps them all in one location (and easy to find), but also aids the process of checking all tools are present at cessation of work. Delicate tools and instruments will be supplied and kept in boxes (micrometers, verniers, watchmakers screwdrivers, slip gauges etc). Some large/special tools will be stored in a secure room. These may be placed on shelving or hung on shadow boards. These boards have clips or other supports screwed to them onto which the tool is hung. Painted on the board where the tool hangs is the silhouette of the tool. When the correct tool is clipped into the correct place on the board then its shadow cannot be seen.

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It is useful when doing a tool check as one look at the board (which may contain many dozens of tools) tells the observer immediately if any tool is missing. Files should be kept in their sleeves to protect the teeth, or in some sort of hold-all. Sharp objects such as dividers, scribers etc should have their sharp ends pushed into a piece of cork (a wine bottle cork) to protect them. Maintenance. Some tools will need attention with a file from time to time to trim them to shape these include pin punches, taper punches, drifts, flat screwdrivers etc. Hammer heads will need checking for security to the shaft. If not secure tap the head down with another hammer and drive the wedge/steg further home. Chisels will need re-honing and drills will need re-sharpening (use a special jig) though small drills are best replaced when they loose their edge. Apart from the above most tools need no further attention, however, those tools that are used for measurement will need checking/calibration. For the checking of standard precision instruments see the book in this series entitled Tools. For calibration of test sets etc see the chapter in this series entitled Calibration.

Tool Checks It is most important that tools (and anything else for that matter) are not left on aircraft after completion of work. They are a serious hazard as they can jam controls, block system pipes etc. The term loose articles applies to anything left on an aircraft after maintenance this includes rags, split pins, locking wire, and tools. It is most important that a loose article check is carried out after every task on the aircraft, engine, component, and as a double check a tool-check is also carried out. Each person working on the aircraft should check his/her tool kit after each task and at the end of the working day, or before the next flight to ensure that all tools are accounted for. Any special tools used from the tool-store should be returned and the person in-charge of the store should do a tool check to see that there are no tools missing. If, during these checks, a tool is found missing then the aircraft should not be allowed to fly until it has been found. The search will include the work areas of the aircraft, all tools boxes, the tool store, hangar/workshop area, rubbish bins, scrap bins etc. A check will also be made of the signing in and out book of the tool store to see if this record shows who has had what tool, and when.

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It is always a good idea to carry out a loose article check of the work area on the aircraft after completion of the task in some organisations it is a requirement which must be signed for.

WORKSHOP MATERIALS These can include: * Barrier cream to be rubbed into the hands and any other parts of the body (arms etc) that might come into contact with any lubricants, fuels, compounds etc. Helps prevent skin contamination with these substances and possible dermatitis. Supplied in containers and wall mounted dispensers. Soaps and soap/cleansing solutions. Eye cleansing water. Sterilised water supplied in a dispenser for the irrigation of the eye should a foreign body (piece of swarf, dust etc) get into the eye or if the eye is splashed with a harmful liquid. Oils. Supplied in sealed tins to an approved specification. Avoid contact with oils. Use as specified in AMM chapter 20 or the appropriate component manual. Usually supplied locally to meet specifications stated in the AMM/manual. These specifications include: MIL specifications (American); AIR specifications (French); DAN (German); DTD (British) etc. May include any of the following: Hydraulic Oils. DTD 585 or similar for some aircraft hydraulic systems and shock absorbers. Lockheed 22 or similar on some older aircraft hydraulic systems. Phosphate ester based fluids such as Skydrol on many large aircraft hydraulic systems. Engine oil. For use on jet engines and APUs (Auxiliary Power Units). Different specifications available including low temperature oils, high temperature oils, synthetic based, mineral based etc. For use when trying to undo very tight/seized threaded items.

* *

Lubricating oils.

Penetrating oil.

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* *

Special lubricants. Includes thread lubrication for oxygen systems. Greases. Supplied in cans or tubes. The same applies as to oils, for safety, use, and specifications. May include: General greases. Different specifications available for different applications such as fuel and oil resistant grease, O ring lubricant, general lubricant etc. Several uses including anti-seize grease for screw-threads. Silicon based, used for metal to metal sealing.

Graphite grease.

Sealing grease. *

Fuels. Normally supplied in bulk tankers or supplied via underground pipes to pumping vehicles on large airfields. If kept in small containers, should be clearly marked with a danger sign indicating its contents and that it is a flammable fluid. Cans should be sealed and stored in a non-combustible building away from aircraft and hangars. As with oils and greases avoid contact on the skin and eyes. Fuel additives such as biocide additive. Refrigerants for refrigeration equipment on aircraft. Leak detectors. Specially formulated for the detection of leaks. Some are specific for use with oxygen systems, others for air systems and some are coloured or fluorescent for use with vacuum testing. Other Compounds such as: Thread locking compounds including permanent locking compounds (Loctite 270). Zinc powder. When mixed with compounds such as Mastinox is used to ensure electrical continuity between PCU components.

* * *

Sealants. eg DTD 900, MIL-S-8802 for pressure cabin sealing and integral fuel tank sealing. Cleaners such as Teepol 610, Turco Air Tec and Ardrox general purpose detergents and cleaners, and specialised cleaners. Rain repellent cleaner for removal of rain repellent from windscreens (Coke should not be used).

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Plastic cleaners. May include plastic polishing compounds for use on transparent panels (passenger windows) and CRT screen/flat screen cleaning materials. * Metal polish. For polishing out small scratches in aluminium alloys. Rust inhibitor. Such as Rocket WD40. Used to prevent corrosion, disperse moisture and lubricate. Adhesives. These include the following: Structural and high temperature adhesives for metal to metal and metal to honeycomb bonding. eg DOD-A-82720 (American) for metal to metal bonding. Adhesive film for structural bonding. Synthetic adhesives for general adhesive use. Loctite 932 adhesive used for locking the backshells of electrical connectors. * Degreasants such as: Dry cleaning solvent (Varsol/white spirit). Used for cleaning metal parts. Methyl-ethyl-ketone. Trichlorethane. Methyl Alcohol. Safety solvent. Safer than those listed above. For general use and for cleaning oxygen pipelines. Paraffin/petrol. Metal parts should be thoroughly cleaned and dried after using paraffin to prevent any possibility of corrosion. * Rust removers. Acid based removers formulated for specific tasks such as, for use on Fe metals only, for use on Al alloys only etc. Lacquers. May be used as corrosion preventatives on metals. Special (epoxy) lacquers used as an electrical bonding lacquer. Anti corrosive solutions such as Alodine 1200 for the surface conversion of aluminium alloys prior to painting.

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Paints including: primer and top coat paints; polyurethane; synthetic, cellulose etc. Paint removers/strippers such as MIL-R-25134, Turco 800 etc Engineers Blue (marking ink). Used to indicate low and high spots on precision work using a surface table as an example. Jointing compounds such as polysulphide polymer and pigmented jointing compound for use between metal contact surfaces. De-icing fluid. Type 1 used on aircraft when temperatures do not go below minus 10C and holdover times are short otherwise use type 2. Acids and alkalis. Used for battery electrolytes. Corrosive to skin and metal. Tapes. Self adhesive and have special applications, eg for external aerodynamic sealing (speed tape) of the airframe, internal dcor repairs (decorfoil), erosion protective tapes, cargo liner repair tapes etc. Deodorants for toilets, disinfectants for drinking water systems and sprays for passenger areas, antiseptic sprays for oxygen masks, insecticides for passenger and cargo compartments. Desiccant. (Silica Gel crystals) Used to dehumidify the atmosphere in a sealed container. Used for storage purposes and in components where a dry atmosphere is imperative. Turns pink when life expired. Rejuvenated by being heating in an oven, when it will regain its deep blue colour. Penetrants and removers. Special dyes, dye removers and developers, often supplied in kit form, to be used when checking for surface cracks and flaws. Fabric. Rags for general cleaning remember not to store wet rags in a container as they may spontaneously combust. Specialist cleaning clothes. Upholstery fabric meeting current fire and smoke regulations. Thermoweldable waterproof fabric for use when protecting components in storage. Used in aircraft construction for the covering of some light aircraft. Supplied in large rolls called bolts and may be: Unbleached Irish linen Madapollam Polyester - 12 -

* *

Unbleached Irish linen and Madapollam are tautened by doping whilst polyester is tautened by the application of heat. * Paper. In rolls or sheets for general use or as protection using grease proof paper or laminated paper. Cord/string/rope. May be used for general purposes, but specialised cord/string/rope is supplied for such purposes as stringing up bag type fuel tanks, cleating/tying-up wire and cable looms, stitching fabric to structure etc. May need to be waxed before use. Wood. Straight grained spruce used as structural members on some very old aircraft along with high grade plywood, balsa wood etc. Lignum Vitae and similar very hard woods used in the construction of the earlier propellers. In the workshop/hangar wood is likely to be used for such things as drilling support material; crating large components, and used as a block with a hammer when bending sheet metal. Wire. Locking wire soft iron steel stainless steel - copper brass depending on application. Gases nitrogen air oxygen. Stored pressurised up to 4500psi (31MPa) in colour (and words) identified gas cylinders. Small parts. Nuts, bolts, washers, rivets etc. Kept in their original packages to facilitate identification or kept in stores in a labelled bin system.

WARNING Some of the liquids listed above are toxic and/or highly inflammable and/or corrosive and/or harmful if in contact with the skin, or if their fumes are inhaled. Read the warning/safety notice on the container and the warnings given in the AMM/manual. In general always use barrier creams and avoid unnecessary contact with any liquids, gasses, compounds etc.

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METALS & COMPOSITES TABLE 1 - FERROUS METALS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL USES -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cast Iron Machine beds, frames, castings, journal bearings, pistons, piston rings. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wrought Iron Cores of dynamos, lifting chains, crane hooks. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mild Steel Bolts and nuts. General workshop machined components. Girders, forgings. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Medium Carbon Leaf springs, wire ropes, general tools, axles, Steel crankshafts, hinge pins etc. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------High Carbon Cutting tools. Coil springs. High strength attachment. Steel. Nuts and bolts. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE 2 - ALLOY STEELS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL USES -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nickel (Ni) Steel Case hardened parts. Stainless steels. Certain % produces a non-magnetic steel. 36% Ni gives Invar Steel used for precision instruments. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Chromium (Cr) Steel Ball and roller bearings. Nearly non-corrodible. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Manganese (Mn) Steel Small percentage added to steels used for welding. Higher percentage used in steel exposed to friction. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Tungsten (W) Steel 14% tungsten used in high-speed steel drills, hacksaw blades etc. Works at higher speeds and temperatures. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cobalt (Co) Steel Used with tungsten for drills and other cutting tools to improve cutting performance at temperatures higher than 600C. Used by it self in permanent magnets. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Vanadium (V) Steel Chrome-vanadium steels used for piston engine valves and springs. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Molybdenum (Mo) Similar effect to tungsten. Steel -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------continued - 14 -

TABLE 2 - CONTINUED -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nickel Chromium Stainless Steel. Certain percentages produce a nonSteel magnetic steel, other percentages produce parts with good strength and toughness. Used for gears, crankshafts and engine and airframe parts. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Invar Steel Precision Instruments and gauging systems. Has a low co-efficient of linear expansion (0.9). (Mild steel has a co-efficient of 15.0). -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Stainless Steel Almost zero rate of corrosion. Structures - where heat and corrosion resistance is required. Also small parts, pipe-lines, engine parts etc. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Austenitic Steels & There are several austenitic steels but most are based Irons on 18:8 stainless steel. Besides the qualities of stainless steel they are non magnetic. Same uses as above. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Valve Steels For aero engine valves, usually contain 13%Ni, 13% chromium and 3% tungsten. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------High Speed Steels Typically contain 18% tungsten, 4% chromium, 1% vanadium. Drills and other cutting tools. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Permanent Magnet May contain up to 35% Cobalt. Various trade names Steels are available eg, Columax which contains 8% Al, 14% Ni, 23% Co and 3% Cu. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------High Permeability Soft iron was used but metals such as Permalloy (78% Steels Ni) and Mumetal (75% Ni) are now more common. (These can be magnetised and de-magnetised easily) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE 3 - NON Fe METALS (For Al Alloys see Table 4) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL USES -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Titanium Alloys Used to replace steel with a saving in weight. Good corrosion resistance. Used for jet engine compressor and fan blades. Fire proof bulkheads. Heat shields. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nickel Anti corrosion treatments and withstands high temperatures. Used in alloying. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------continued - 15 -

TABLE 3 CONTINUED -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nickel Alloys Gas turbine blades and hot end fittings. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Magnesium Soft and poor corrosion resistance. Flares. Light alloys. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Magnesium Alloys Aircraft wheels, though most are made of aluminium alloy these days. Airframe structures, engine compressor casings. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Copper Tubing. Pipework. Electrical conductors. Used as a base for brass and bronze. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Brass Lightly stressed castings, pipe fittings, tubing, filter elements, bushes, electrical contacts. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Bronze Bearing bushes. Small castings. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Phosphor Bronze Bearing bushes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Tungum Pipe lines. Radiator matrix. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lead Counter balance and mass balance weights. Alloyed to make solder. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Tin Used for tin plating. Alloyed to lead to make solder. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Solder Alloy of tin and lead. Low melting point. Soft. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Zinc Corrosion protection of steel parts. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Depleted Mass balance weights. Though being phased out due Uranium to health hazard. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Gold Used for plating of some electrical contactors. Reduces contact resistance. Good corrosion resistance -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Monel Metal 70% Ni, and 30% Cu. Resistant to corrosion. Some structural uses and tucker pop rivets. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Cadmium Corrosion resistant. Anti corrosive plating. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Aluminium Alloys These are supplied in the wrought or cast forms and may be heat treatable or non heat treatable. The British Standards cover: BS 1470 to 75 - Wrought. BS 1490 - Cast BSL Series - Aircraft Al Alloys DTD Specs. - Aircraft Al Alloys (DTD = Directorate of Technical Development - UK).

TABLE 4 - ALUMINIUM & ITS ALLOYS -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------MATERIAL USES -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Aluminium Used in light alloys as a base material, and used for anticorrosive cladding on aluminium alloys. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Duralumin Al alloy used for airframe structural parts. Sheets, rivets, tubes. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Alclad Duralumin Sheet with coating of aluminium. Same uses as (wrought) above. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Alpax Al alloy. Intricate castings. Airframe and engine parts. -------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------Y Alloy Al alloy. Aero engine pistons and cylinder heads. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Hiduminium Airframe structural parts. Rivets, pistons and cylinder heads. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2000 Series Used in critical airframe structural areas. Al Alloys -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7000 Series Similar to above. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lithium Being developed for newer aircraft to replace both the 2000 Based Al alloys and 7000 series alloys. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Plastics Man made plastics (polymers) can be divided into two main groups Thermoplastics and Thermosetting Plastics.

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Thermoplastics includes such material as Perspex (polymethyl methacrylate) (transparent panels) and Nylon (ropes etc). Thermosetting Plastics such as Bakelite (phenol formaldehyde) (electrical insulators), Formica, Ebonite and Epoxy resins (adhesives).

Rubber A naturally occurring thermosetting plastic. Natural rubber comes from trees and is normally vulcanised with sulphur to produce a tough elastic material. Used in anti vibration mountings; drive belts; shock absorbers (simple bungee cord types) and of-course, tyres. It can be made electrically conductive by adding carbon.

FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES Panels and parts made up of fibre, adhesives/resins and cores to produce a light weight high strength material/structure. * Glass Fibre. Made of fine glass fibres lubricated to improve handling and may have other coatings to improve bonding etc. Supplied in different forms: A glass; C glass etc. E glass is currently the most popular. Used for the construction of radomes and dielectric panels Aramid Fibre. Supplied as Kevlar (Du Pont). Kevlar 29 used for cordage and ropes. Kevlar 49 supplied for plastics reinforcement. Carbon Fibre. Carbon fibres are strong in tension and are often coated to improve handling and bond strength. Used for structural parts of the airframe. Some structures are almost all carbon fibre, eg the Boeing 787 Dreamliner fuselage. Hybrid Fibres - made up in different forms and can include a mix of carbon and glass fibres. Resins. Many types are available to include the following: Unsaturated Polyester Resin for use with glass fibre to produce glass reinforced plastics (GRP). Used in conditions where temperatures no not exceed 150C. - 18 -

Vinyl Ester Resins. Similar to above. Phenolic Resins. Used on composites used for cabin interiors because of its low smoke emission properties. Epoxy Resins. Thermosetting, versatile, and used widely in engineering. Usually supplied as a two part mix. Polyamide Resins. Supplied powders, films, varnishes and laminates. Used where higher temperatures are to be encountered (up to 300C). * Cores. Used as low density (low weight) material between two outer layers that take most of the stress (compressive and tensile). May be made of honeycomb, foam, or some other low density material while the outer fibres are made of metal, fibre composites etc. Core material may be: Balsa Wood. Not used much these days but is used on some plywood structures. Honeycomb. Used extensively as core material in aircraft floors, structures, control surfaces, helicopter blades, etc. Can be made of aluminium or composite material. Foam (Polyvinyl chloride). PVC is used as the core of some composite structures. Microballoons. Used as a low density infill medium when repairing honeycomb and similar structures. Some special fillers also available such as Araldite AW106.

DIMENSIONS & MEASUREMENT Dimensions May be linear or angular and will be specified in words or symbols in documents such as the AMM, SRM, drawings, manuals, etc.

LINEAR MEASUREMENTS The imperial unit of length is the yard (defined in 1878 and kept in a laboratory in the UK as the standard yard) divided into feet (3) and inches (36).

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The SI unit of length is the metre and the standard metre is a platinum bar kept in a laboratory at Serves near Paris. It can also be defined by a certain number of wavelengths in a vacuum of radiation from a specified source. This means it can be re-produced in any laboratory around the world. Linear dimensions can be written as: * * Kilometres (km), metres (m), centimetres (cm), millimetres (mm) Miles (mi), yards (yd), feet (ft), inches (in) and fractions of an inch. Typical symbol (). Example 2 25.4mm = 1in. 1yd = 0.9144mm 1mi = 1760yd = 1609m = 1.6km

Some conversions:

The Engineers Rule For measuring sizes down to about 1/64th in (0.016) (0.39mm) an engineers steel rule (sometimes called a ruler) can be used. When measuring metric sizes the smallest division usually found is half a millimetre (0.5mm). Using a rule down to these sizes will need a good light with good vision, the avoidance of parallax error and a very sharp pencil or scriber. Even so, tolerances of up to half of the graduation may have to be allowed for. Standard lines on technical drawings, for example, are specified at 0.5mm and 0.7mm so actually marking using a pencil to this level of accuracy is very difficult. So measuring to an accuracy of 0.5mm with a rule may produce an error either side of this up to 0.025mm.

Precision Instruments For more accurate measuring methods precision measuring tools must be used such as: * The micrometer. The English (imperial) micrometer has an accuracy of 0.001, and the vernier English micrometer has an accuracy of 0.0001. The metric micrometer has an accuracy of 0.01mm and the vernier metric micrometer has an accuracy of 0.002mm. Micrometers can be used to measure internal and external dimensions to faces and can be used as depth gauges and cylinder bore gauges.

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Fig. 7 SURFACE TO SURFACE LINEAR MEASUREMENTS

Vernier Callipers. These are not so easy to read as the micrometer. The English vernier calliper has an accuracy of 0.001 and the metric vernier calliper has an accuracy of 0.02mm. Again, they can be made so that internal and external face to face measurements can be taken as well as depth gauging etc.

For more information on micrometers and verniers see the book in this series entitled Tools.

ANGULAR MEASUREMENT The universal unit for measuring angles is the degree (). There are 360 degrees in a circle. The degree is split into 60 equal divisions called minutes () and each minute is further divided into 60 equal divisions called seconds (). For scientific work the radian is used of which there are 2 radians in a circle ( 2 x 3.142 = 6.28 radians). This means that there are 360 6.28 degrees in a radian (about 57.29 degrees).

Fig. 8 THE RADIAN

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The accuracy of measuring angles depends on the distance from the fulcrum where the measurement is taken. Most drawing protractors have graduations of half a degree. For measuring angles between surfaces a bevel protractor can be used. This has an accuracy of 5 minutes of arc (5). For more details on the bevel protractor see the book in this series entitled Tools. For measuring angles from the horizontal an inclinometer can be used. Figure 9 shows the Hilgar & Watts clinometer which measures degrees on the degree scale and minutes on the minute scale and has an accuracy of 1 of arc to the horizontal. The instrument is first checked on a wooden or metal straight-edge held in a vice (protected by a cloth). Both the degree scale and minute scale are zeroed by turning the minute knob and the unit placed on the straight edge. The straight edge is moved until the spirit level reads zero. The clinometer is then turned around and placed back on the straight edge at the same position. If the clinometer is serviceable then the bubble will still read zero. For checking for specific angles the instrument will have to be sent to a standards room.

Fig. 9 CHECKING THE CLINOMETER FOR ZERO READING

The instrument is then placed on the surface to be measure with the arrow pointing up the slope. For quick adjustment the minute scale can be disconnected from the degree scale by pushing the quick release minute knob down, this allows the degree wheel housing the spirit level to rotate freely. Releasing the pressure on the minute knob allows it to re-engage with the degree scale gear and final adjustments can be made on the minute knob to bring the bubble in the spirit level into the middle position.

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The degrees can be read from the degree scale in the window and the minutes from the minute scale. It has a range of 90 but others may have a range of only 10. An electronic clinometer is available. It is placed on the surface to be measured and the start button pressed. It will automatically give a digital readout of the angle and the direction of the slope.

STANDARDS OF ACCURACY To allow for variations in manufacture which will not jeopardise the performance of the part being manufactured allowances are given on any size quoted. This allows parts to be manufactured economically but meet their performance specifications. For example, when manufacturing an aircraft toilet seat it would be possible to specify its size to say 18in diameter plus or minus 0.0001in. It would be very expensive to manufacturer to this specification and it would work well. It could be made considerable cheaper, however, if its size was 18in plus or minus 0.1in diameter and it would work just as well. On the other hand if a close tolerance bolt was manufactured to say 1in diameter plus or minus 0.1in then it would be cheap but would not do its job, so its tolerance would be something like plus or minus 0.0001in.

Allowance When a dimension is quoted (say 30mm) then an allowance is also quoted, for example plus or minus () 0.01mm. This means that the part could be 30.01mm (for a male part like a bolt sometimes called Maximum Metal Condition) or 29.99mm (Minimum Metal Condition) and still be acceptable. 29.99 is called the lower limit and 30.01 is called the upper limit.

Tolerance This is the difference between the upper limit and the lower limit. In the example above this would be 30.01 29.99 = 0.2mm. Where the tolerance is allowed on both sides of the nominal dimension (30mm in this case) it is said to be a Bi-lateral tolerance. Where the tolerance is all to one side of the nominal dimension it is said to be a Unilateral tolerance eg: Bi-lateral tolerance Uni-lateral tolerance 30mm 0.01 30mm + nil 0.2

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The tolerance for both is the same (0.2mm). For the first example it is evenly split either side of the nominal size, for the second example it is all on the lower side of the nominal size. It could equally be 30mm + 0.2 nil and still be a uni-lateral tolerance. Size specifications will be stated on drawings, modification documents, aircraft manuals etc, together with allowances and tolerances. For example, many repair drawings state cutting sizes for sheet metal repairs and give allowances of 1/64th in (0.4mm). It is most important that, when manufacturing items (metal repairs, crimped cable joints, wire locking, pipelines etc) that the dimensions and any tolerances are carefully followed. This also applies when assembling/inspecting/checking components. Checking for play, clearances, end float, wear, dimensions etc.

Drawings Drawings, modification leaflets, manuals etc will specify the nominal size of a part and state the allowance. This may be repeated at each item in the drawing, eg: 34.0mm 0.2 Some drawings may not specify the nominal size but just give the upper and lower limits of size, eg: 34.2mm 33.8mm If the allowances are the same for all the components on the drawing then there might be a box on the drawing stating the tolerances for all the dimensions given (this might include the size nomenclature mm, inches etc). For example:
ALL DIMENSIONS IN mm AND ALL TOLERANCES ARE 0.01mm

This would mean that dimensions would be then given as (for example): 33.10 104.0 etc without nomenclature stated or tolerances given.

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CALIBRATION OF TOOLS/EQUIPMENT All instruments and tools that are used for measuring must be calibrated at periods stated by the manufacturer. These items include: * Electrical test instruments/test sets such as multi meters, bonding testers, meggers, Flukes etc. Torque wrenches and torque wrench testers such as the Acratork test rig. Pressure gauges used for systems charging such as the Turner Adapter and gauges attached to charging equipment (pressure guns for charging shock absorbers, O2 and air charging equipment etc). Charging equipment for batteries. Pitot static test sets. Theodolites (used when airframe rigging on some aircraft) spirit levels, clinometers etc. Dial Test Indicators (DTIs) or Clock Gauges. Micrometers, verniers, bevel protractors etc

* * *

* *

All of the above will have pre-use checks carried out on them prior to use and, at the specified dates they will have to be sent away for calibration or at any time their accuracy is suspect. Calibration facilities may be available at the user unit or the equipment may have to be sent to a manufacturer or specialist establishment. Each item of equipment once re-calibrated should be labelled and returned (in suitable packing to prevent transit damage) together with supporting documentation to the user unit. The label should state: The calibration companys name. The companies approval number. Calibration date. Next calibration due date. The item should be returned from the calibration room with documentation recording: * Firms name and approval number. - 25 -

* * * *

Equipment name, part number and serial number. Inspectors stamp and signature. Tolerances on readings if applicable. Calibration printout if available.

The calibration room should keep records of all equipments tested dates nomenclature part numbers serial numbers the procedure used and what company the item came from.

STANDARDS OR CALIBRATION ROOMS These have the specialist equipment and manuals to carry out the tests specified by the manufacturer. For some rooms the environment is not of great importance testing torque wrench equipment, testing multimeters for example. But for some other items the environment is critical. Many standards rooms have a controlled environment in that the temperature is kept strictly at 21C and airborne particles (dust etc) are kept to a minimum. These conditions are needed when dealing with instruments that are temperature sensitive. These include micrometers and verniers. Instruments that are temperature sensitive should be brought into the standards room 24 hours before the test to allow them to temperature stabilise. Most instruments that are temperature sensitive will have the calibration temperature marked on them.

Testing The item is inspected for damage, contamination etc and any parts found unserviceable are changed. The tests carried out, briefly, are as follows: Electrical Test Sets. Multimeters, bonding testers etc. Tested against standard known resisters, standard known voltages etc and against master instruments. Torque Wrenches. These are tested on a standard test rig such as the Acratork test rig. (The test rigs are tested using a moment arm fitted horizontally to the square boss and accurate masses attached to the free end of the arm. The moment and hence the torque is calculated as mass times the distance from the mass attachment and the centre line of the boss (m x d = torque). Pressure Gauges. Tested on rigs such as the Dead Weight Tester using known masses on a piston producing calculated pressures (pressure = force per unit area = F/A). - 26 -

Electric Charging Equipment. Used for charging batteries. Checking voltage, current and frequency against master instruments. Pitot Static Test Sets. For Bourdon tube type and other pressure operated capsules, equipment such as the Dead Weight Tester are used. Calibration rooms may also make use of vacuum chambers. (Heavy steel construction with a toughened glass front about the size of a microwave oven. It is sealed shut after the instrument to be tested is placed inside. Various connections pressure, vacuum, electrical are connected to the instrument prior to placement and pass-out side via leak proof connections in the wall of the chamber. Pressure or vacuum is then applied to the chamber as per the manufacturers instructions and the performance of the instrument noted and recorded). Angle Measuring Instruments. Accurate angles may be calculated using Johannson Blocks or Slip Gauges and a sine bar. The slip gauges are wrung together to create a specific height to a considerable degree of accuracy and using rollers and a sine bar the angle can be calculated accurately.

Fig. 10 TESTING A CLINOMETER

Sine bar, rollers and slip gauges are machined and polished to a high degree of dimensional accuracy and should be kept in their boxes in a standards room at the specified temperature (usually 21C). They must always be dismantled immediately after use as they will bond to each other if left together for too long. Assemble immediately prior to use so as to keep their assembled time short. Angle measuring instruments are available that are electronic. These have to be checked in a similar way to the non-electronic variety. If they rely on a horizontal then a perfectly horizontal surface table is also required.

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Dial Test Indicators. These can be checked using slip gauges and feeler gauges. The DTI is fixed to a rigid fixture on a surface table and slip gauges/feeler gauges are used to check the amount of pointer movement. Precision Measuring Instruments. These may be electronic or non electronic They are checked against standard test pieces supplied by the instrument manufacturer or against slip gauges all in a temperature controlled standards room of course.

LIMIT SYSTEMS The correct functioning of component parts of a machine depends on the difference in size and finish of the surfaces in contact. Clearance must exist between the parts to permit lubrication, but if the shaft is either too large or too small the efficiency of the machine is impaired. It is impossible to make a part to an exact dimension due to unavoidable imperfections in manufacture, workmanship and accuracy of measurement. In practice the interchangeability of mass produced parts can be achieved if their dimensions are within certain limits. To allow parts to be machined within certain limits (between the high and low limit) Limit Systems were devised. These systems formulate the sizes of holes and shafts and the various limits that may be applied. This means that instead of actually specifying the upper and lower limits (tolerance) for a shaft or hole a code can be found in a table that corresponds to the values required. This code can be used in drawings, manuals and related documents and would be understood by all those working to this particular standard.

History Years ago each manufacturer would have its own standard of Limits and Fits, but using another firms products such as nuts or bolts could be difficult, if not impossible. To overcome this problem national systems were developed. In the UK two parallel systems were developed; the Newall System and the British Standard System. These were both national systems. Since then things have moved on a little. Standards have become more international particularly within Europe, though there are still many different standards world-wide.

British Standard 4500 British Standard 4500 ISO is more international than the previous limit systems. It contains data and information on the fit of shafts and holes.

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This information can equally be applied to dimensioning in general and does not have to be applied to shafts/holes exclusively. The standard contains a list of the terms used and their definitions. It also contains, in tabulated form, the upper and lower deviations for a vast number of sizes of shafts and holes. The standard allows for a hole and shaft based system. (See Terms Used below).

Fig. 11 TERMS USED IN BS 4500

Definitions (Figure 11) Clearance Fit. The shaft is smaller than the hole irrespective of the dimensional tolerances. Used where ease of fit and/or movement is required eg, rivet hole and rivet, moving piston in a cylinder, etc. Usually a clearance fit may be assembled by hand with no undo force. Transition Fit. Nominally the shaft and hole are the same size. It is not possible to machine a hole and shaft to the same size so in reality the shaft may be very slightly larger or very slightly smaller than the hole depending on variations due to tolerancing.

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A small force such as a press may be required to assemble the parts. It is used for parts which need to be a close fit and are not often dismantled and there is no movement between the male and female parts. Technically a Transition Fit will be either a (small) clearance fit or a (small) interference fit. The following drawing shows a transition fit. It can be seen from the drawing that if the shaft size is machined to its maximum metal condition (upper deviation limit) and the hole is machined to its maximum metal condition (lower deviation limit) then the fit will be an interference fit.

Fig. 12 TRANSITION FIT

If the shaft is machined to its lower deviation limit then there will be a clearance fit. If the hole is also machined to its upper deviation limit then the clearance will be even greater. Remember that if this is the specification then the two parts will be machined to within the given tolerances so that any male/female fit nominally classed as a Transition Fit could be either a clearance fit or an interference fit. Interference Fit. Under normal conditions the shaft is larger than the hole. It will require force such as a hydraulic press to assemble or may be assembled using temperature (eg, keeping the shaft in a refrigerator before assembly which will cause it to shrink in size). Used for parts which are not normally secured together in any other way (valve guides in piston engines for example) and will not normally be dismantled. The interference fit will be interference irrespective of the tolerances given.

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Fig. 13 INTERFERENCE FIT

Tolerance. This is the difference between the maximum and minimum size of a part ie, the difference between the upper and lower deviation. Basic Size. This is the size of the part about which the upper and lower deviation is quoted. The upper and lower deviation may be quoted either side of the Basic Size or both on the same side. Hole Basis. Fits may be obtained by producing the hole to a nominal size and changing the size of the shafts. Shaft Basis. Opposite to the Hole Basis in that the shaft is produced to a nominal size and different fits obtained by varying the size of the holes. BS4500 allows for either system to be used.

Tolerance Grades BS 4500 has 18 grades of tolerance, 01, 0, 1, 2 ....................16 The larger the number the greater the tolerance. Figure 14 shows some of the tolerance grades for sizes 3 to 6mm diameter. BS4500 contains tables for a range of sizes.

blank

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Fig. 14 SOME SELECTED TOLERANCE GRADES (3 to 6mm)

Fundamental Deviation The position of the tolerance zone will decide on the type of fit obtained thus BS4500 gives 27 fundamental deviations for holes and 27 for shafts. Holes are lettered A to ZC with H used on the hole based system. Shafts are lettered a to zc with h used on the shaft based system. The following figures illustrate the tolerance zones for some typical fits for: 1. 2. A hole based system. A shaft based system.

blank

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Fig. 15 SOME SELECTED HOLE BASED FITS (3 to 6 mm)

Fig. 16 SOME SELECTED SHAFT BASED FITS (3 to 6 mm)

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EXAMPLES Hole Based System Interference Fit Transition Fit Clearance Fit Shaft Based System Interference Fit Transition Fit Clearance Fit h6 - P6 h6 - K6 h6 - F7 H7 - s6 H7 - n6 H7 - h6

The letter and number designations are those used on drawings and related documents. If a close tolerance hole is to be manufactured at user unit level then this is done by hand using a reamer. A drill is selected 0.005 (0.13mm) smaller than the reamer and the reamer size is that of the finished hole. See the book in this series entitled Tools.

Clearance and Wear When a shaft has to rotate or slide within a hole the fit has to be a clearance fit. This clearance allows a gap (however small) which prevents too much contact between the parts and allows a lubricant layer. However, wear will occur. If the two materials are the same then the wear is likely to be the same on both the male and female. If one part is made of a softer material (less resistant to wear and abrasion) then its wear rate will be higher. In many applications one part is deliberately made of a softer metal this part being easier or cheaper to replace than the other. In relation to a shaft and a hole, in general wear will reduce the size of the shaft and increase the size of the hole, which may make both items unserviceable if each is worn beyond the permissible limit (sometimes called maximum worn dimension). On the other hand, when the parts wear they could increase the clearance so that it exceeds the maximum permissible clearance but individually each part could still be within its size limitations. This means that each part separately is serviceable but put together make up an unserviceable item or component. In component maintenance bays this problem may be overcome by Selective Assembly.

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Selective Assembly By selecting a shaft on its high limit of size and mating it with a worn hole the maximum permissible clearance may not be exceeded. The same could apply by selecting a hole on its low limit of size and mating it with a worn shaft. If this procedure is allowed it will be stated in the Schedule of Fits and Clearances for the component concerned.

DRG REF NO

Parts and description

Dimension new

Permissible worn dimension

Clearance new

Permissible worn clearance

Remarks

Shaft collar in transfer plate

Transfer plate bore Shaft collar outside dia

0.750 0.752 0.746 0.748

0.756 0.002 0.006 0.008

0.742

Shaft collar and end bush are selected for width iaw Repair Schedule

10

End bush in rear cover

Rear cover bore End bush outside dia

0.750 0.752 0.746 0.748

0.754 0.002 0.006 0.006

0.744

11

Fig. 17 PART OF A SCHEDULE OF FITS & CLEARANCES

Schedule of Fits and Clearances Issued by the manufacturer for each component on the aircraft whose performance is dimensionally dependant (example page is shown figure 18). DRG REF NO refers to the item number in a drawing often an exploded view. Parts and Description gives a brief description and title of the male and female mating parts. Dimension New gives the upper and lower limit of size as delivered from the manufacturer. Outside these the part must be rejected. Permissible Worn Dimension gives the size of the part that it is allowed to wear to. Beyond this limit the part is unserviceable and must not be used. Clearance New gives the upper and lower limit for the new assembled parts. Outside these limits the assembly must be rejected though selective assembly may meet the clearance requirements.

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Permissible Worn Clearance states the maximum permissible clearance allowed. If permissible wear sizes are exceeded the part must not be used and the manufacturers manuals/literature must be consulted. It may be possible to re-condition the item or it may have to be scrapped. When taper or ovality is found in a shaft the minimum size anywhere along the length is taken and used in calculations unless the schedule states otherwise. Ovality and taper limits may be specified in the schedule. For shafts limits of bow and twist will also be stated.

CHECKING FOR WEAR The following paragraphs deal with procedures that require the use of precision instruments. Details of these will be found in the book entitled Tools. On shafts wear may be uniform reducing the diameter equally around the circumference and along the length. This may be checked using a micrometer or vernier and taking many readings around the circumference and along the length. If all the readings are the same then the wear has been uniform. If the readings get smaller (or larger) as they are taken along the length then the shaft has worn more at one end than the other and it has become tapered. If the readings are different taken at one place along the length but rotated around the circumference then ovality has occurred. Ovality (similar to the UK 50p coin) may be checked by placing the shaft on a set of V blocks and using a DTI. Rotate the shaft slowly and note any fluctuations of the DTI pointer. Bow may be checked by using a three point trammel and feeler gauges. It may also be checked by rotating the shaft in a set of V blocks and using a DTI. With the DTI positioned in the middle of the shaft and the shaft supported in the V blocks at its ends the shaft is rotated. Any bow will result in a rise and fall of the pointer once per revolution of the shaft. Be careful of this interpretation as it could also indicate an usual wear pattern so check with the three point trammel. Holes and bores may also be checked for taper, wear and ovality. Internal vernier callipers, internal micrometers and bore gauges may be used, but unless the hole can be removed, ie a single journal bearing, rotation and checking with a DTI is not possible. Bearings may be checked for play by clamping one race (say the outer race), suitably protected and moving the inner race as far as possible by hand and measuring the distance moved. A DTI can be used for this and two movements should be checked radial and axial several times with the inner race at different positions each time.

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Angular movement might also be checked by twisting the inner race as far as it will go and using a linear measurement (DTI) or an angular measurement (bevel protractor, clinometer etc). Note some races will rotate completely out of their outer shell so this test does not apply to those. Wear will be indicated if the axial and radial movements are high and damage and brinnelling to the balls/rollers/races will show up a rough running when the bearing is spun by hand. The fingers of one hand are placed inside the inner race to make a tight fit. The outer race is spun using the other hand and any rough running is felt through the fingers. Inner and outer diameters may be checked as for shafts.

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