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I. Stussi*, F. Henry*, Ph. Moser*, L. Danoux*, Chr. Jeanmaire*, Véronique Gillon*, Isabelle Benoit*, Z. Charrouf**, G. Pauly*

Argania spinosa –
How Ecological Farming, Fair Trade and Sustainability
Can Drive the Reasearch for New Cosmetic Active Ingredients

Keywords: argan, sustainability, active ingredient

 The Argan:
Introduction Description – Distribution

The Argan (Argania spinosa) is an indige-

ot only should foreign cultures teach us traditional cosmetic uses; nous tree of South Morocco, growing in
they should also reap the benefit of any economical development, a region that runs from Safi in the North
directly for their own standard of living as well as via the mainte- to the edge of the Sahara in the South.
nance of the local biotope. The main zone extends South East from
Argania spinosa is an endemic tree of Essaouira to the Souss plain. The forest
of Argans covers about 800,000 ha and
Morocco. It is the only region in the
contains more than 2 million trees. It is
world where this tree is growing. perfectly at home in this magnificent dry
For centuries, it has been a source and poor landscape and is often found
of income for the local popula- on mountains. The Argan is the second
tions. Today, the rationalization most common species in Morocco, be-
of the exploitation is vital for the hind the evergreen oak (Quercus ilex)
Argan fruits and ahead of the thuya (Tetraclinis ar-
survival of the Argania grove.
A local economic interest group for The tree is a member of the Sapotaceae
the development, preservation and val- family, which also includes the shea tree
orisation of the forest has been created by (Butyrospermum parkii), and it is particu-
Professor Charrouf, to implement a full pro- larly resistant to the dry and arid condi-
gram including the optimisation of the tions of this region. It can tolerate tem-
peratures that range from 3 to 50°C and
women work, the protection and
grows at altitudes of up to 1,500 metres
maintenance of existing Arga- when facing South.
nia trees, and also the plan- Its roots, which extend over a large area
tation of young trees. and are very deep, can search out water
Argan tree
The »LS Argan Program« South Morocco
at more than 30 metres under the ground,
proposes original solu- which helps it survive the dry periods
that can last for several months each
tions to support the strate-
gy: a range of cosmetic The tree reaches heights of 8 – 10 me-
active ingredients, derived tres and its shape is similar to an olive
Argan trunk referred
from the valorisation of Ar- tree. Its life is quite long and it is not un-
to as ‘snakeskin’
gania culture by-products. common for it to reach ages of 150 –
200 years. Some 250-year-old trees have
been recorded.

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Its leaves are small, dark green and grow  The Argania forest: of life and climate. Over-cultivation, soil
on branches that can be spiky at their socio-economic role erosion and advancing desertification
ends. It is usually an evergreen but may are amongst the threats to this unique
loose its leaves in a persistent dry period. The Argania forest has a very important heritage. The natural increase in the popu-
The tree has small oval greenish yellow socio-economic role in these regions. lation leads to an increase in wood col-
fruits that become brown when they Its special legal status (Dahir of March 4th lection, which is used for both construc-
ripen and contain a very hard shell that 1925 and the specifications for agricul- tion and as firewood.
encloses one to three almond-like ker- tural practices under Argan trees of July On the plains, the amount of land used
nels. The ripening period is quite long 20th 1983) has made it a state owned for agricultural purposes is growing and
and takes 2 years. forest with extensive rights of use re- this is accompanied by scrub clearance
The trunk has an especially spectacular served for the local populations: right to and installation of irrigation systems,
bark, referred to as snakeskin because of harvest fruits and collect wood for per- which result in underground water re-
its very rough surface. sonal use, right to free passage. At the serves running dry and increasingly salty
same time, the right to cultivate is sub- soil. The groundwork, which often goes
ject to authorisation by the local Eaux et deep, damages the Argan tree root sys-
 Traditional uses Forêts administration (Water and Forest tems and leaves them weakened. Exces-
Government Agency) and a fee has to be sive grazing makes it more difficult for
The Argan is mainly known for its oil, paid. Furthermore, each village is oblig- the Argans to recover. The climate, which
which is used by Berber women for skin, ed to keep its trees in good condition. is always hard in these regions, is ac-
hair and nail care and is found in hun- It should not be forgotten that the Mo- companied by erosion that makes the
dreds of different beauty recipes. It is roccan Argan provides subsistence for soil even more arid.
normally obtained manually from the over 3 million people in a country with a Implementing actions to preserve and
fruits using tradi- population in excess of 30 million. It is regenerate the Argania forest is there-
tional methods. the focus for many rural activities. fore a priority, as much from an ecologi-
After sepa- The inhabitants of the Argania forest cal point of view to preserve this last bar-
rating the benefit both from being able to use the rier against the advancing desert as from
nut from different parts of the tree (fruits, leaves, an economic perspective to maintain a
the pulp, wood) for their own needs and also from source of revenue for the local popula-
it is the work and associated revenue that its tion.
cracked exploitation provides. UNESCO recognised this issue and classed
open by The fruits, which are mainly used for pro- the Moroccan Argania forest as a Bio-
hand to ducing the oil, also provide part of their sphere Reserve (MAB) in 1998. The Bio-
obtain the livestock’s alimentation via the produc- sphere Reserves are delimited regions in
kernel. This tion by-products: the oil cake is given to land-based ecosystems where one tries
is then cold- the goats and the husks are used as fuel to reconcile economic development with
pressed to pro- for fires. The oil is sold locally and has conserving the biodiversity. Biosphere
duce the oil. seen its use and commercialisation be- Reserves serve in some ways as 'living
The women do the work involved in come widely developed at an interna- laboratories' for testing out and demon-
preparing the oil and are also responsi- tional level. strating integrated management of land,
ble for harvesting the fruits. The development of agriculture under water and biodiversity, which is the prin-
In order to prepare an oil of food quali- the trees has led to Argan exploitation cipal of the ecosystem approach that has
ty, the kernel are roasted before being becoming more profitable, sometimes to resulted from the biological diversity
pressed. This additional stage in the its cost. It does however mean that local convention (UNESCO 1996).
process gives the oil a characteristic light populations are better nourished and The Biosphere Reserves have to fulfil
hazelnut smell. have improved incomes. three main tasks that are complementary
Generally, the local rural population uses It is suggested that exploiting the Arga- and synergistic:
every part of the Argan for their own nia forest provides 20 million days of work
needs: per year, allowing rural populations to • conservation role: contribute to the
stay in the countryside and limiting the conservation of the whole range of
• the fruits, for extracting the oil, rural exodus. biodiversity elements especially the
• the fruit husks, as fuel for fires, landscapes, the ecosystems, the species
and the genetic variation,
• the oil cake, a by-product of oil
 A fragile ecosystem
production, as an animal feed,
• development role: to foster econom-
• the leaves, eaten on the tree by goats, Unfortunately the Argania forest is frag- ic and human development, which is
• the wood, for construction and as ile, partly as a victim of its riches but al- socio-culturally and ecologically sus-
firewood. so because of changes in the rural way tainable,

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• logistic role: to provide support for • organising and monitoring of literacy  A partnership based on
research, monitoring, education and programmes. fundamental values
information exchange related to lo-
cal, national and global issues of con- In 2005, no less than 6 extracting and
For many years Laboratoires Sérobio-
servation and development. commercialising cooperatives and 30
logiques have applied ethno-botanic and
milling cooperatives made up an eco-
sustainable development methods. After
The global network of Biosphere Reserves nomic organization, which has a busi-
their experiences in French Guyana (Flux-
resulted from UNESCO’s Man and Bios- ness that was initially centred on Argan
hydran® programme), they have become
phere (MAB) programme, which intends oil production but has now grown to in-
involved in initiatives for the preserva-
to provide the means required to ensure clude creating value for other by-prod-
tion of the Moroccan Argania forest.
the conservation and sustainable use of ucts from the Argania forest and its pro-
For nearly 4 years, Laboratoires Sérobio-
the biological diversity and to improve tection.
logiques and the Targanine network of
the relationship between individuals and Fair trade and sustainable development
cooperatives, under the initiative and
their environment at a global level. are the central pillars of this initiative.
with the close collaboration of Professor
They are internationally recognized, nomi-
Zoubida Charrouf, have been developing
nated by national governments and re-
For fair trade a partnership aimed at identifying new
main under sovereign jurisdiction of the
The cooperatives agree to sell the fruit of sources of cosmetic active ingredients
states where they are located.
their enterprises at market prices that but with one over-riding condition: the
In 2004, the global network of Biosphere
ensure an adequate return to sustain new developments must support and en-
Reserves consisted of 459 Reserves in al-
their activity. Furthermore, from an eco- courage the protection and add value to
most 100 countries.
nomic point of view, they ensure that the Moroccan Argania forest.
women receive a salary equivalent to the This North – South partnership is centred
 Actions to promote the local minimum wage, which is a big step on three main elements:
protection of the Argania forest forward compared to the normal situa-
tion where traditional production usual- • Identification of specific fractions
The need to protect the Argania forest ly uses underpaid labour. Being assured (leaves and oil cake) of the Argan that
has not gone un-noticed either by the lo- of a decent salary is a measure of social could be of value to the cosmetic in-
cal authorities or at an international lev- recognition for these women and the co- dustry and which will provide addi-
el. Many initiatives have been launched operatives are also a way of escaping tional incomes for Moroccan women.
to help preserve and develop the Arga- from the isolation that is their usual fare.
nia forest and to reverse its regression. • Perform a study to evaluate the ef-
With this aim in mind, Professor Zoubida fects of harvesting leaves on Argan
Charrouf from Rabat University, who has For sustainable development growth and to define the most ap-
campaigned for many years to improve The major objective of these coopera- propriate specifications.
the status of Moroccan rural women, tives is to increase awareness amongst
created Targanine in 1996. Targanine is a local populations of the problems relat- The environmental effect of adding val-
network of cooperatives whose objective ed to the fragility of the Argania forest, ue to the leaves depends on the tree’s
is to save the Argania forest: firstly, by which is often their only source of in- ecology, the dynamics of the ecosystems
educating the local populations in the come. In order to develop their business, and the socio-economic circumstances.
protection of their heritage and, second- it is essential that means are found to The study looked at these different fac-
ly, by providing the means for them to preserve and regenerate this valuable tors during a three-month mission to
organise the traditional production of source. Morocco in 2004, which Laboratoires
Argan oil and to develop its commerciali- It is important to support these actions Sérobiologiques financed.
sation. The cooperatives, which consist today to ensure the long-term protec- The response of the Argan to its leaves
and are managed solely by women, pro- tion of the Argania forest. being harvested for their potential cos-
vide them with a supplementary source Using known or new fractions of the Ar- metic value was studied by installing
of income and thereby increases their gan for cosmetic purposes directly linked an experimental unit in the village of
social status. to well being can not be considered un- Amelne, Tiznit province, in the South of
In addition to producing oil, these coop- less the complete respect of this weak- Agadir. This work was done after having
eratives have the following objectives: ened ecosystem can be guaranteed. received approval from the provincial
For the sustainable development of this governor and the local authorities. The
• making women aware of how to har-
business, the collection conditions must experimental unit, established on a plot
vest the fruit whilst respecting the Ar-
be rational and strictly monitored. of the Argania forest, involved monitor-
gania forest,
For this reason, Laboratoires Sérobio- ing growth, flowering and fruit produc-
• participating in the replanting of the logiques have launched a number of ini- tion of trees, which were subject to a
Argania forest, each women agrees to tiatives in this respect in collaboration range of sampling protocols. As the re-
plant 10 Argans per year with recognised local actors. sults were not expected until after sev-

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eral years of study, other ways of ob- Laboratoires Sérobiologiques have fi- A series of tests has demonstrated their
taining Argan leaves were also looked at, nanced this project which aims to extend anti-collagenase, anti-MMP-1 and anti-
including short-term measures for Arga- and increase reforestation of the Arga- free radical properties. A consumer test
nia forest preservation that could be nia forest, and it has developed a proto- has shown its potential for protecting
used by the Targanine cooperatives. col for germinating Argan seeds and the skin against premature ageing.
There are several options for collecting planting new trees. A forestry engineer
leaves: has trained the staff who manage and
 MMP and skin ageing
monitor the nursery.
• Collection of yellowing leaves on the A 10-year protocol has been established The skin’s structure, especially its firm-
ground or on the trees, which will not only result in environmen- ness and elasticity, is directly related to
tal education and increased awareness of the composition and structure of the
• Picking green leaves on the trees, the frailty of this ecosystem amongst the ECM (extra-cellular matrix). This extra-
local population but will also ensure the cellular compartment consists mainly of
• Recovering leaves from maintenance
long-term sustainability of the existing fibrous macromolecules: collagen and
operations on the Argania forest:
Argania forest. Other types of plant (or- elastin that are synthesised by fibrob-
namental, and fodder herbs) are also part lasts. It is a place of intense biological ac-
of the program and will provide the lo- tivity and exchange. Many enzymes are
After evaluating several possibilities, the
cal populations with complementary in- active in this compartment in a some-
practice of coppicing was selected.
comes. times-fragile equilibrium that is optimal
This maintenance operation has to be
The result of a North–South collabora- in the young skin. We are talking about
done systematically and regularly and
tion: the »LS Argan Program«, a range of homeostasis.
involves selecting the best stems on each
cosmetic active substances from the Ar- The MMP (Matrix Metallo-Proteinases)
tree and then removing the others. This
gan tree for skin care. are enzymes synthesised by fibroblasts.
leads to a spontaneous regeneration of
Whilst the Argan is mainly known for its Their role is to cause the slow degrada-
the Argan and the branches that are kept
oil, Laboratoires Sérobiologiques have tion of collagen fibres so as they can be
develop with greater vigour and are
extended their field of work to look at renewed. Tissue inhibitors called TIMP
highly productive.
other fractions. counterbalance their action. They work
This provides a source of leaves that can
By combining local traditional knowledge in a combined and balanced fashion.
be collected and dried. The local popula-
with their scientific expertise, they have During skin ageing, there is an imbalance
tion uses the wood that is produced.
developed a complete range of several between MMP and TIMP with an increase
This procedure, which has been approved
active ingredients for cosmetics for skin in production and activation of MMP and
by the local authorities, has a positive ef-
care that have been created whilst re- a reduction in TIMP, which is a breakdown
fect on the environment because it pro-
specting the fundamental values in- in the homeostasis system. This leads to
vides a perpetual improvement to the
volved in sustainable development and an increased rate of degradation of col-
Argans in the forest. By purchasing these
fair trade. lagen fibres, and a loss of density in the
leaves to add value later, an incentive for
ECM. At the same time, fibroblast colla-
the local population to perform this of-
gen synthesis slows down.
ten neglected but important mainte-
 Argan leaf extracts: The direct result is a loss of skin elastici-
nance task was created.
the polyphenols ty and firmness.
• Involvement of local populations in the This phenomenon is aggravated by ex-
protection and added value process of So as to encourage the local population posure to the sun: many bibliographic
the Argania forest, specifically by ini- to mark out the Argania forest as re- studies have shown that MMP are over
tiating a tree nursery. quired by the impact study, the potential expressed in sun-exposed skin which ag-
value of the leaves using phyto-chemi- gravates actinic ageing (Fig. 1).
In 2004, the objective of ensuring sus- cal analysis was evaluated. The Argan Arganyl™ is able to work against the
tainable development was also translat- leaves have a high concentration of poly- damaging effect of MMP on the colla-
ed into the implementation of a tech- phenols, known for their anti-free radi- gen fibre network and thereby preserve
nology transfer programme based on an cal properties and for the prevention of the quality of the tissues supporting the
existing nursery with the aim of creating skin ageing. skin. This action is complemented by an
a new tree nursery in one of the Targa- HPLC PDA identification of the follow- upstream effect due to its anti-free radi-
nine network cooperatives, the Taïtma- ing components: cal properties. These free radicals, whose
tine cooperative in Tiout. The project has production is boosted by environmen-
been submitted to the provincial gover- • Myricitrin (main component) tal stress such as UV exposure, also con-
nor, the Water and Forest Government • Rutin tribute to the skin ageing process (Fig. 1).
Agency and local authorities who have It is a new and natural solution for pro-
given their approval and offered their • Quercitin tecting skin against premature ageing
support. • Quercetine-3-O-galactoside and especially UV induced ageing.

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Demonstration of anti-MMP-1
MMP-1 (Matrix-Metallo-Proteinase type
1) is a collagenase secreted by dermal fi-
broblasts. Its concentration is increased
in aged skin. It is also greatly increased
by UV exposure or during inflammation.
It initiates a degradation of fibrous col-
lagen (types I and III) in fragments which
are further cleaved into small peptides
by MMP-2 and MMP-9. Moreover, MMP-
1 expression is induced by ROS (Reac-
Fig. 1 Role of MMP in the skin ageing process
tive Oxygen Species), UVA and B, there-
fore MMP-1 play a major function in cu-
taneous ageing and photo-ageing.
The aim of this trial is to evaluate the po-
tential inhibiting effect of Arganyl™ on
this class of MMP.

Reactive mixture at pH 7.6:
Human MMP-1 + Arganyl™
60 minutes of incubation at 20°C

Addition of synthetic MMP-1 substrate:

Fig. 2 Quantification of the inhibitory effect of ARGANYL™ on MMP-1: MMP in-
Fluorescence measurement at 393 nm hibition 39% at 0.1% - Positive control (TIMP): inhibition 46% at 50 nM

Estimation of enzyme activity When Arganyl™ is added at a dose of The anti-free radical ability has been
inhibition. 0.5%, the dermis retains its initial ap- evaluated using a variety of laboratory
A positive control is used to validate pearance with a dense and uniform col- and in-vitro tests. The tests looked at
the test (TIMP-1) lagen network. Furthermore, this protec- both the natural initial forms and the in-
tive effect against collagenase is dose duced reactive forms of oxygen.
dependent. Arganyl™ has demonstrated a significant
Results (Fig. 2) anti-free radical activity especially against
Arganyl™ has demonstrated a direct dose the oxygen reactive forms such as hy-
dependant anti-MMP-1 effect that con- Demonstration of anti-free radical droxyl radicals (HO°) and superoxide an-
firms its ageing prevention properties. properties ions (O2•) (Fig. 4).
In order to complete our understanding
of the anti-ageing effects, its ability to
Consumer tests
Demonstration of anti-collagenase protect the skin against oxidative ageing
The laboratory and in vitro tests de-
properties in-vitro of its anti-free radical properties have
scribed above were completed by con-
The aim of this trial is to confirm the been demonstrated.
sumer tests.
anti-collagenase properties observed in Free radicals play a predominant role in
Fifteen 45 – 65 year's old women were
laboratory tests (IC 50 = 0.55%). In this skin ageing, as much at the cellular lev-
involved in this study. Each applied the
trial, human skin biopsies are incubated el as in the ECM. They are particularly im-
two creams described below to their
with collagenase: the collagen network, portant in the oxidation of the macro-
faces twice a day, morning and evening,
made visible by fluorescent antibodies, molecules that make up the EMC, lead-
for 8 weeks:
shows a massive loss of collagen fibers. ing to a degradation of the skin’s physical
The ability of Arganyl™ to prevent this properties. Additionally, the free radicals, • placebo cream on one side,
destruction was compared to phenan- especially the ROS generated by UV ex-
throline, a positive anti-collagen control posure, can stimulate MMP expression • 3% of Arganyl™ cream on the
(Fig. 3). by dermal fibroblasts. other side.

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Incubation with Incubation with Incubation with

Control Incubation with collagenase + collagenase + collagenase +
collagenase 2.5% phenanthroline 0.5% Arganyl™ 1.0% Arganyl™

Fig. 3 Immuno-fluorescence of collagen fibres – demonstration of the inhibitory effect of Arganyl™ on collagenase.
E: epidermis D: dermis ✩: collagen lysis

At the end of 8 weeks, they were asked Only women are involved in preparing satisfies the criteria of ‘extra-virgin’.
to evaluate the benefits of the treatment this oil. On average, 33 kg of dry fruit, Thanks to the special efforts of the Tar-
comparing before and after treatment harvested from 6 to 7 trees, are needed ganine network, this oil has been certi-
and treatment against placebo. to make 1 litre of oil. fied ECOCERT and received the Slowfood
88% of the women thought their skin Lipofructyl Argan™ is prepared by me- 1st prize in 2001.
had more elasticity chanical extraction (cold pressing) and In terms of its composition, Argan oil is ex-
71% of the women thought the grain
was finer and the pores less obvious.
100% of the women thought their skin
was softer to touch.
These different factors were quantified
on an arbitrary scale from 0 to 3 in com-
parison with the placebo. The results are
summarized in Fig. 5.

Arganyl™ extracted from Argan leaves is
rich in polyphenols and has proven its
protective effect on the ECM via an iden-
tified biological mechanism acting on
collagenase such as on MMP-1 to pro-
vide overall collagen protection. Fig. 4 Results of chemical and biochemical tests
This biological effect results in the pre-
vention of skin slackening that can be
detected by consumers.
It is an active ingredient that is especial-
ly suitable for anti-ageing care of the
face but can also be used to return firm-
ness to the body. It also has an undeni-
able potential in anti-age sun care prod-

 Fruit extracts:
‘Almond’ Kernel – The oil

Argan fruits have a very hard shell that

encloses one to three almond like kernels Fig. 5 Consumer test evaluation of the results compared to the placebo.
from which the precious oil is extracted.

SÖFW-Journal | 131 | 10-2005 43

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Palmitic acid (C16:0): 12 - 13%

Stearic acid (C18:0): 5 - 7%

Oleic acid (C18:1): 43 - 49.1%

Linoleic acid (C18:2): 23.9 - 36.0%

Linolenic acid (C18:3): <_ 0.1%

Arachidic acid (C20:0): 0.3 - 0.5%

Gadoleic acid (C20:1): 0.4 - 0.5%

Fig. 6 Fatty acid composition of argan oil

ceptionally rich in poly-unsaturated fatty sent at a concentration that is three Skin care
acids (including linoleic acid, omega-6) times greater than in olive oil. As an es- When applied to the skin, Argan oil
and natural tocopherols. sential fatty acid, it has an important rapidly penetrates without leaving a
role in preserving cellular integrity. The greasy or shiny trace. In fact, its effect is
concentration of natural tocopherols is completely the opposite as it leaves the
Average composition: skin soft with an extraordinary sensory
especially high and gives the oil excel-
• Fatty acids: 99%, of which over
lent anti-radical and anti-stress proper- feeling. As a body care product, the oil is
80% is unsaturated fatty acids ideal for massages.
ties in addition to natural self-protection
• Insaponifiables: 1% against oxidants (Fig. 6). It provides:
Argan oil is widely used by Moroccan an excellent anti-free radical effect
• Tocopherols: 60 - 90 mg/100 g •
women, both in their cooking for its taste that provides preventive anti-ageing
• Sterols: 130 - 230 mg/100 g and for many traditional beauty rituals, care,
for skin, hair and nail care, and has been
Fatty acid composition for centuries. Many traditional beauty • a nutritional effect on dry skin with a
Thanks to its exceptional concentration secrets are based on Argan oil; e.g. Berber tendency to eczema by helping to re-
of unsaturated fatty acids, Argan oil women cover themselves in a mixture of store the cutaneous barrier,
helps restore the skin’s hydro-lipid film. equal parts of Argan oil and almond oil • a sebum regulating action for greasy
Linoleic acid, one of the omega-6 fatty before going to the hammam (steam skins,
acids, is a vitamin F precursor. It is pre- bathes).
• a regenerating ability for the care of
stretch marks and enhancing healing.

44 SÖFW-Journal | 131 | 10-2005

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Hair care Before treatment 15 minutes after treatment

Argan oil is traditionally used as a mask
or hair conditioner as it:
• strengthens hair, provides shine, soft-
ness and a silky effect,
• nourishes and revitalises the scalp.

Nail care
Argan oil is commonly used in a mixture
with equal parts of lemon juice as an
evening application for nails before go-
ing to bed. Regular use of the mixture
strengthens brittle nails.
Argan oil, considered as ‘Berber’s gold’, is Fig. 7 Before and after application of a serum containing 5% Argatensyl™
a precious oil with multiple and varied
cosmetic uses.

 The proteins

So as to increase the profitability of the

cooperatives producing Argan oil, the
cosmetic use of the by-products of this
business was evaluated.
A fraction rich in high molecular weight
proteins (> 200 000 Daltons) has been
identified and isolated from the oil cake.
Its composition gives it very interesting
surface properties. When it is applied to
the skin, the molecules form a network
with a high affinity for the cutaneous
surface and develop an instant and per- Fig. 8 Semi-quantitative evaluation of the benefits of Argantensyl™ treatment
ceptible tightening effect. compared to a placebo
Argatensyl™ is a cosmetic active ingredi-
ent constituted exclusively from this spe-
cific active fraction, which is present in a
water-soluble form that makes easier its Before treatment Neck
incorporation into finished products.
Its instant skin tightening properties and
its ability to correct wrinkles, have been
demonstrated by the clinical trials de-
scribed below.

Consumer tests
Immediate tightening effect –
Crow’s feet area After 28 days Reduction
of treatment of the
Application of an oil-free serum, con- wrinkle
taining 5% or 10% Argatensyl™, on the
crow’s feet in a group of fifteen 35 – 45
year's old women.
Macrophotographs taken at T = 0, T + 15
Placebo Serum Serum with 5% Argatensyl™
minutes and T + 1 hour. The trialists used
a semi-quantitative scale to make a vi-
Fig. 9 Before and after application of a serum containing 5% Argatensyl™,
sual evaluation of the tightening effect.
on neck wrinkle
The results are shown in Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.

SÖFW-Journal | 131 | 10-2005 45

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Before treatment After 28 days of treatment (2) Henry F., Danoux L., Moser P., Charrouf Z., Pauly
G. New potential cosmetic active ingredient
containing polyphenols from Argania spinosa
(L.) Skeels leaves. In: XXI International Confer-
ence on Polyphenols, Marrakech, 2002

(3) Charrouf Z., Guillaume D., Driouich A. L'arganier:

un atout pour le Maroc. Biofutur, 54-57, 2002

Author’s addresses:
* Isabelle Stussi, Florence Henry,
Philippe Moser, Louis Danoux,
Christine Jeanmaire,
Véronique Gillon, Isabelle Benoit,
Fig. 10 Improvement of skin surface, and decrease of neck wrinkle after 28 days Gilles Pauly
of treatment Laboratoires Sérobiologiques
Division de Cognis France
3, rue de Seichamps
Long term anti-wrinkle properties –  Conclusion 54425 Pulnoy
neck wrinkles France
Application of an oil-free serum, con- The Argan, the tree that symbolises Mo-
taining 5% Argatensyl™ to the neck, in rocco, is an incontestable source of rich-
the morning and the evening for 4 weeks ness however we must understand how ** Prof. Zoubida Charrouf
by a group of forteen 35 – 45 year's old to preserve it so as to ensure its long term Laboratoire de Recherche
women. existence and preserve the ecological and Départment de Chimie
Macrophotographs and prints before economical future of this part of Mo- Faculté des Sciences
treatment and after 28 days of treat- rocco. Université Mohamed V
ment were taken to evaluate depth of The »LS Argan program« combines iden- avenue Ibn Batouta B.P.
wrinkles. tifying sources of new and attractive 1014 Rabat
The results are shown in Fig. 9 and Fig. 10. active ingredients for the well being of Morocco
Conclusion everyone whilst respecting man and
Argatensyl™ has a good anti-wrinkle ef- his environment, using concrete actions
fect when applied for a long term treat- that favour sustainable development 
ment of 28 days. Wrinkles are signifi- and, above all, the conservation of the
cantly reduced. Argania grove.
The Argan proteins have a special inter-
est for products with instant tightening
properties for a ‘flash’ effect especially References
on crow’s feet wrinkles as well as for an-
ti-ageing and anti-wrinkle facial care (1) Pumareda L., Henry F., Charrouf Z., Pauly G., Fal-
products. They can also be used in prod- connet G. Valorisation des feuilles d’Arganier:
impact environnemental. In press: Bois & Forêts
ucts for the neck, the décolleté and for des Tropiques
the body.

46 SÖFW-Journal | 131 | 10-2005

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