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Calculation For The Value of Stabilizing Resistor_1000kVA Calculation for the Value of Stabilizing Resistor & Relay Setting Enter the values on cells highlighted in white,Result will be displayed in cells highlighted in Green & general datas in Blue The CT requirements are class X wi th a knee point voltage in excess of twice the setting voltage. Setting: The set ting volatge may be determined by: VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ] VS = Setting Volt age IS = Setting Current IF = Fault level in CT Primary n = CT Ratio Rct = Resis tance of CT at operating temperature RL = Lead resistance at operating temperatu re Ra = Additional resistance due to relay,contact/connection resistance etc at operating temperature The Full CT requirement is therefore : Class X, ratio N,CT resistance Rct and knee point voltage > 2 x Vs Transformer Details TRF Capacity TRF Primary TRF Secondary TRF Impedance CT Primary(n) CT Secondary n CT Seconda ry wiring Length CT Secondary wiring size Resistance of conductor CT resistance( RCT) CT magnitization current(Im) = = = = = = = = = = = = 1000 11000 400 5 2000 1 2000 30 2.5 7.41 8 64 kVA Volts Volts % Amps Amps Meters Sq.mm Ohms / KM Ohms mA Neutral CT traveling distance Refer the chart CT Manufacturer to advice CT Manufacturer to advice Fault level in CT Primary: IF = IF TRF Capacity x 1000 TRF Secondary x 1.732 x I mp = 28868 Amps Example: IF=1600 x 1000 / 415 x 1.732 x 0.06 = 37100 Amps Dated:3/12/2011

1.Calculation For The Value of Stabilizing Resistor_1000kVA Lead resistance: RL = CT Secondary wiring Length x Resistance of conductor per m eter RL = 0.22 Ohms Example: RL=20 x 7.41/1000 = 0.15 Ohms Additional Resistance : Ra is usually ignored,but may have the value 0.01ohms Ra = 0.01 Ohms VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ] VS = 122 Volt CT Knee Point voltage must be in excess of 2 x V S: VKn = 244 Volts Required Loop Resistance Value: RS = VS / IS IS = 40 IS = 0 .4 VS = 122 RS = 305 Example: VS=37000/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) + 0.01] = 123 Volts Example: Vkn=2 x 123 = 246 Volt % Amps Volts Ohms Example: IS=0.2 x 1(CT Secondary Amps) = 0.2A RS=123 / 0.2 = 615 Ohms With the MREF relay the relay burden is less than 0.005VA and may therefore be n eglected Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value Rstab = 305 Note: Under Fault Condition this resistor must pass Value = 14.43 Amps Peak Voltages: Under Fault condition s the peak voltage ignoring saturation of the C.T given by VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] = 4524 Volts VP = 4.524 KV Example: 37000 / (2500/1) = 14.8A Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected Example: VP=37100/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) +0 .0 1 + 615] = 9250 Volt Dated:3/12/2011

1.Calculation For The Value of Stabilizing Resistor_1000kVA Peak Voltage including saturation of the CT given by Vpk Value must be below app roximately 3KV Vpk = 2 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ] = 2890 Volt KV Vpk = 2.89 Example: Vpk=2 2 246 [ 9250 - 246 ] = 4209 Volt

In Case the value exceed 3KV,we must adjust the setting current and re-caulculat e as below: If the VPK value was less than 3KV please fill the same setting curr ent value so as to attain the P.O.C value. RS = VS / IS Example: IS=0.4 x 1 = 0. 4A IS = Setting Current ( May be taken in % ) RS=123 / 0.4 = 307.5 Ohms Enter th e value until VPK falls below 3KV IS = 20 % IS = 0.2 Amps VS = 122 Volts RS = 61 0 Ohms Rstab = 610 Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] = 8927 Volt V lt VP = 8.927 K V Vpk = 2 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ] = 4117 Volt KV Vpk = 4.12 Effective setting [ Primary operating Current ] 20 %Setting Current P.O.C = n [N x Im + Inr + Is] N = The n umber of connected CTs Im = The magnitization current for a single CT at setting Voltage Is = Setting current Inr = Non Linear resistor current at setting Volta ge Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4 Inr = 0 Amps Inr Value is Zero since Non-Linear Resisto r not used. P.O.C = 912 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0 + 0.4] = 1130A mps % of Transformer rating = 45.6 % As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current setting shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding. Dated:3/12/2011

1.Calculation For The Value of Stabilizing Resistor_1000kVA Limiting Peak Voltage If it is not possible to limit the peak voltage,by careful selection of setting current,a voltage dependent Non-Linear resistor should be used. A Non-Linear Resistor Must be used with 40 % setting Vp MV MV IF n Vp = = = = = = MV [ IF / n ]0.25 Coefficient Value 900 28868 Amps 2000 Amps 1754 Volt Refer the chart 0.25 = 883Volt Example: Vp=450[3700/2500] Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4 Vs = 122 Volt MI = Coefficient Value = 900 Amps Inr = 0.00 03 Example: Inr =[123/450]4 =0.0056Amps P.O.C = 1312.6 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0.0056 + 0.2] = 644Amps % of Transformer rating = 65.63 % As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current sett ing shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding. Dated:3/12/2011

Calculation for the Value of Stabilizing Resistor & Relay Setting Enter the values on cells highlighted in white,Result will be displayed in cells highlighted in Green & general datas in Blue The CT requirements are class X wi th a knee point voltage in excess of twice the setting voltage. Setting: The set ting volatge may be determined by: VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ] VS = Setting Volt age IS = Setting Current IF = Fault level in CT Primary n = CT Ratio Rct = Resis tance of CT at operating temperature RL = Lead resistance at operating temperatu re Ra = Additional resistance due to relay,contact/connection resistance etc at operating temperature The Full CT requirement is therefore : Class X, ratio N,CT resistance Rct and knee point voltage > 2 x Vs Transformer Details TRF Capacity TRF Primary TRF Secondary TRF Impedance CT Primary(n) CT Secondary n CT Seconda ry wiring Length CT Secondary wiring size Resistance of conductor CT resistance( RCT) CT magnitization current(Im) = = = = = = = = = = = = 2000 11000 400 6.3 4000 1 4000 30 2.5 7.41 17 64 kVA Volts Volts % Amps Amps Meters Sq.mm Ohms / KM Ohms mA Neutral CT traveling distance Refer the chart CT Manufacturer to advice CT Manufacturer to advice Fault level in CT Primary: IF = IF TRF Capacity x 1000 TRF Secondary x 1.732 x I mp = 45823 Amps Example: IF=1600 x 1000 / 415 x 1.732 x 0.06 = 37100 Amps

Lead resistance: RL = CT Secondary wiring Length x Resistance of conductor per m eter RL = 0.22 Ohms Example: RL=20 x 7.41/1000 = 0.15 Ohms Additional Resistance : Ra is usually ignored,but may have the value 0.01ohms Ra = 0.01 Ohms VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ] VS = 200 Volt CT Knee Point voltage must be in excess of 2 x V S: VKn = 400 Volts Required Loop Resistance Value: RS = VS / IS IS = 20 IS = 0 .2 VS = 200 RS = 1000 Example: VS=37000/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) + 0.01] = 123 Volts Example: Vkn=2 x 123 = 246 Volt % Amps Volts Ohms Example: IS=0.2 x 1(CT Secondary Amps) = 0.2A RS=123 / 0.2 = 615 Ohms With the MREF relay the relay burden is less than 0.005VA and may therefore be n eglected Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value Rstab = 1000 Note: Under Fault Conditio n this resistor must pass Value = 11.46 Amps Peak Voltages: Under Fault conditio ns the peak voltage ignoring saturation of the C.T given by VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] = 11656 Volts VP = 11.656 KV Example: 37000 / (2500/1) = 14.8A Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected Example: VP=37100/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) +0 .0 1 + 615] = 9250 Volt

Peak Voltage including saturation of the CT given by Vpk Value must be below app roximately 3KV Vpk = 2 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ] = 6002 Volt KV Vpk = 6 Example: Vpk=2 2 246 [ 9250 - 246 ] = 4209 Volt

In Case the value exceed 3KV,we must adjust the setting current and re-caulculat e as below: If the VPK value was less than 3KV please fill the same setting curr ent value so as to attain the P.O.C value. RS = VS / IS Example: IS=0.4 x 1 = 0. 4A IS = Setting Current ( May be taken in % ) RS=123 / 0.4 = 307.5 Ohms Enter th e value until VPK falls below 3KV IS = 20 % IS = 0.2 Amps VS = 200 Volts RS = 10 00 Ohms Rstab = 1000 Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value Rr = Relay resistance can b e neglected VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] = 11656 Volt V lt VP = 11.6 56 KV Vpk = 2 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ] = 6002 Volt KV Vpk = 6 Effective setting [ Primar y operating Current ] 20 %Setting Current P.O.C = n [N x Im + Inr + Is] N = The number of connected CTs Im = The magnitization current for a single CT at settin g Voltage Is = Setting current Inr = Non Linear resistor current at setting Volt age Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4 Inr = 0 Amps Inr Value is Zero since Non-Linear Resist or not used. P.O.C = 1824 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0 + 0.4] = 113 0Amps % of Transformer rating = 45.6 % As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault curren t setting shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding.

Limiting Peak Voltage If it is not possible to limit the peak voltage,by careful selection of setting current,a voltage dependent Non-Linear resistor should be used. A Non-Linear Resistor Must be used with 20 % setting Vp MV MV IF n Vp = = = = = = MV [ IF / n ]0.25 Coefficient Value 900 45823 Amps 4000 Amps 1656 Volt Refer the chart 0.25 = 883Volt Example: Vp=450[3700/2500] Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4 Vs = 200 Volt MI = Coefficient Value = 900 Amps Inr = 0.00 24 Example: Inr =[123/450]4 =0.0056Amps P.O.C = 1833.6 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0.0056 + 0.2] = 644Amps % of Transformer rating = 45.84 % As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current sett ing shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding.

Calculation for the Value of Stabilizing Resistor & Relay Setting Enter the values on cells highlighted in white,Result will be displayed in cells highlighted in Green & general datas in Blue The CT requirements are class X wi th a knee point voltage in excess of twice the setting voltage. Setting: The set ting volatge may be determined by: VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ] VS = Setting Volt age IS = Setting Current IF = Fault level in CT Primary n = CT Ratio Rct = Resis tance of CT at operating temperature RL = Lead resistance at operating temperatu re Ra = Additional resistance due to relay,contact/connection resistance etc at operating temperature The Full CT requirement is therefore : Class X, ratio N,CT resistance Rct and knee point voltage > 2 x Vs Transformer Details TRF Capacity TRF Primary TRF Secondary TRF Impedance CT Primary(n) CT Secondary n CT Seconda ry wiring Length CT Secondary wiring size Resistance of conductor CT resistance( RCT) CT magnitization current(Im) = = = = = = = = = = = = 1600 11000 400 6.3 3000 1 3000 30 2.5 7.41 12 64 kVA Volts Volts % Amps Amps Meters Sq.mm Ohms / KM Ohms mA Neutral CT traveling distance Refer the chart CT Manufacturer to advice CT Manufacturer to advice Fault level in CT Primary: IF = IF TRF Capacity x 1000 TRF Secondary x 1.732 x I mp = 36658 Amps Example: IF=1600 x 1000 / 415 x 1.732 x 0.06 = 37100 Amps

Lead resistance: RL = CT Secondary wiring Length x Resistance of conductor per m eter RL = 0.22 Ohms Example: RL=20 x 7.41/1000 = 0.15 Ohms Additional Resistance : Ra is usually ignored,but may have the value 0.01ohms Ra = 0.01 Ohms VS = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra ] VS = 152 Volt CT Knee Point voltage must be in excess of 2 x V S: VKn = 304 Volts Required Loop Resistance Value: RS = VS / IS IS = 50 IS = 0 .5 VS = 152 RS = 304 Example: VS=37000/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) + 0.01] = 123 Volts Example: Vkn=2 x 123 = 246 Volt % Amps Volts Ohms Example: IS=0.2 x 1(CT Secondary Amps) = 0.2A RS=123 / 0.2 = 615 Ohms With the MREF relay the relay burden is less than 0.005VA and may therefore be n eglected Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value Rstab = 304 Note: Under Fault Condition this resistor must pass Value = 12.22 Amps Peak Voltages: Under Fault condition s the peak voltage ignoring saturation of the C.T given by VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] = 3867 Volts VP = 3.867 KV Example: 37000 / (2500/1) = 14.8A Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected Example: VP=37100/2500 [8 + 2(0.15) +0 .0 1 + 615] = 9250 Volt

Peak Voltage including saturation of the CT given by Vpk Value must be below app roximately 3KV Vpk = 2 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ] = 2944 Volt KV Vpk = 2.94 Example: Vpk=2 2 246 [ 9250 - 246 ] = 4209 Volt

In Case the value exceed 3KV,we must adjust the setting current and re-caulculat e as below: If the VPK value was less than 3KV please fill the same setting curr ent value so as to attain the P.O.C value. RS = VS / IS Example: IS=0.4 x 1 = 0. 4A IS = Setting Current ( May be taken in % ) RS=123 / 0.4 = 307.5 Ohms Enter th e value until VPK falls below 3KV IS = 20 % IS = 0.2 Amps VS = 152 Volts RS = 76 0 Ohms Rstab = 760 Ohms Stabilizing Resistor Value Rr = Relay resistance can be neglected VP = IF/n [Rct + 2RL + Ra + Rstab + Rr ] = 9439 Volt V lt VP = 9.439 K V Vpk = 2 2 Vkn [ Vp - Vkn ] = 4713 Volt KV Vpk = 4.71 Effective setting [ Primary operating Current ] 20 %Setting Current P.O.C = n [N x Im + Inr + Is] N = The n umber of connected CTs Im = The magnitization current for a single CT at setting Voltage Is = Setting current Inr = Non Linear resistor current at setting Volta ge Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4 Inr = 0 Amps Inr Value is Zero since Non-Linear Resisto r not used. P.O.C = 1368 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0 + 0.4] = 1130 Amps % of Transformer rating = 45.6 % As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current setting shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding.

Limiting Peak Voltage If it is not possible to limit the peak voltage,by careful selection of setting current,a voltage dependent Non-Linear resistor should be used. A Non-Linear Resistor Must be used with 50 % setting Vp MV MV IF n Vp = = = = = = MV [ IF / n ]0.25 Coefficient Value 900 36658 Amps 3000 Amps 1683 Volt Refer the chart 0.25 = 883Volt Example: Vp=450[3700/2500] Inr = [(Vs) / (MI)] 4 Vs = 152 Volt MI = Coefficient Value = 900 Amps Inr = 0.00 08 Example: Inr =[123/450]4 =0.0056Amps P.O.C = 2270.4 Amps Example: POC = 2500 [(4 x 0.013) + 0.0056 + 0.2] = 644Amps % of Transformer rating = 75.68 % As per ESI 48-3 standard,the fault current sett ing shall be between 10% to 60% of the rated current of the winding.

P+B MREF Restricted Earth Fault Relay Relay Setting - Front Panel - DIP Switch Position 2000kVA Is = 20% 5 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7.5 5 10 20 40 5 0 0 0 0 1000kVA Is = 40% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7.5 5 10 20 40 5 0 0 0 0 1600kVA Is = 50% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7.5 5 10 20 4 0

Summary Sheet For Stabilizing Resistor 6594_Resistor Vaue Transfomer Details Transfomer Capacity 1000kVA 1600kVA 2000kVA Transfomer Primary 11000 V 11000 V 1 1000 V Transfomer Secondary 400 V 400 V 400 V Transfomer % Impedance 5% 6.3% 6.3 % SwitchBoard Details Busbar Rating Fault Level Incomer 2000A 3200A 4000A 65kA for 1Sec 65kA for 1Sec 65kA for 1Sec 2000AT/2000AF 3200AT/3200AF 4000AT/4000AF

Current Transformer Details Restricted Earth Fault Relay CT's 2000/1A CL.X 3000/1A CL.X 4000/1A CL.X Distanc e Between Cable Size From Star CT Knee Point Star Point(Neutral) Point(Neutral) of Voltage [Vkn] of ''CT'' To Relay ''CT'' To Relay 30 meters 30 meters 30 meter s 2.5 Sq.mm 2.5 Sq.mm 2.5 Sq.mm 350 V 500 V 700 V CT Resistance [RCT] 8 12 17 CT m izing current [Im] Calculated Fault Current in "CT" Primary [IF] Calculated "CT" Knee point Voltage [Vkn] Relay Setting [% Is] Stabilizing Resistor [Rstab] Non-Linear Resistor (Metrosil) Primary Operating Current % of Transformer Rating 1 of 1 Dated : 3/12/2011

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