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A biomolecule is an organic molecule which results from biological process occurring within a living organism.

Of all molecules present in a living organism, four categories are used to classify these. Carbohydrates are compounds that contain large quantities of hydroxyl groups. They may be of three types: monosaccharides which are also the monomer units [1] which are the building blocks of the other two types, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides are the simplest of building blocks and is it impossible to further hydrolyze it ( Nogrady and Weaver 2005) .Disaccharides are formed upon the hydrolysis of two monosacarides. Oligsaccarides contain 3-10 monosaccharides and polysaccharides contain in excess of 10 of the monomer units ( Nogrady and Weaver 2005) . Carbohydrates are also classified into two major groups based on the functional groups present( Seager and Slabaugh 2011). If they contain an aldehyde group, CHO the compound is called a aldose or aldo sugar, where as if a ketone group,C=O is present it is called a ketose or ketose sugar( Seager and Slabaugh 2011). Sucrose is a disaccharide, thus it is formed upon the hydrolysis of two monomers, which are: one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose (Kotz, Paul ,Treiche 2009).

The structure of sucrose (Kotz, Paul ,Treiche 2009).:

A glycosidic bond is formed upon hydrolysis between the anomeric carbons( C1 on the glucose molecule and the C2 on the fructose molecule) resulting in the formation of a non-reducing oligosaccharide( Barnes, Nelson, Moore and Collins 2007). All monosaccharides and disaccharides are reducing sugars with the exception of sucrose(Cheeke and Dierenfeld 2010).Reducing sugars possess a free aldehyde group which can donate hydrogen. (Cheeke and Dierenfeld 2010).However, sucrose does not possess a free aldehyde group so it is a non reducing sugar. (Cheeke and Dierenfeld 2010). There are various tests used to determine the presence and other characteristics of carbohydrates. Benedicts test is used for identification of simple (reducing) sugars. The reagent is an alkaline medium containing copper ions which are reduced by the free aldehyde or ketone characteristic of simple sugars, to cuprous oxide, a reddish brown precipitate(Chawla 2003). Seliwanoffs test caters to ketones and allows for its differentiation from aldoses .It is characterized by a cherry red colored compound which results from the reaction of the 5-hydromethyl furfural formed with resorcinol present in the reagent(Chawla 2003). The acid catalyzed hydrolysis by HCl is of the A1 unimolecular reaction which follows the protonation of the glycocidic oxygen followed by the heterolysis of the resulting oxonium ion, to produce a monosaccharide molecule and a carbenium ion (OBrien 1998). The cabenium ion is then stabilized by

substituents that contribute electrons. The ion then further reacts with water to produce a second molecule of monosaccharide (OBrien 1998). The addition of a base NaOH functions to neutralize the solution and the resulting monosaccharides of sucrose hydrolysis are D-glucose and D-fructose ( Rauter and Rauter2010). Elevated temperatures are also required in addition to the acid to enable this breakdown reaction ( Rauter and Rauter2010). The acid catalysed hydrolysis of sucrose ( Rauter and Rauter2010):

Vitamins Methionine SIC (absorbic acid) is one of the most important vitamins required by humans (Combs Jr.2012). It has many important roles in the body, among those is it antioxidant property which enables the protection of cells and prevents as the name implies oxidation (Combs Jr.2012). It is also utilized in the area of food technology to act as a stabilizer for the processing of a range of beverages and wines (Ball 1998). The acid is unstable, of highly reducing and under goes oxidation easily.It is also very soluble in water (Joshi 2010). Structure of L-ascorbic acid, monodehydroascorbate and DHA (Salter, Wiseman, and Tucker 2012):

Absorbic acid with its reducing property reduces dichlorophennol-indophenol solution (DCPIP),a redox dye, to its colorless leuco-dye form and appears pale pink in an acid solution (Mohan 2007). Reaction mechanism for DCPIP( McCormick 1985):