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THOMSON In 1904 the English scientist J.J.

Thomson proposed the socalled plum pudding model which aroused curiosity and consent. Based on the data then available, Thomson imagined that electrons (negative) were scattered in a positive mass like raisins in a cake, this to determine balanced charges.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE In 1904 the English scientist J.J. Thomson proposed the socalled plum pudding model which aroused curiosity and consent. Based on the data then available, Thomson imagined that electrons (negative) were scattered in a positive mass like raisins in a cake, this to determine balanced charges. ELECTRONS Electrons have the smallest electrical charge. This electrical charge equals the charge of a proton, but has the opposite sign. For this reason, electrons are attracted by the protons of atomic nuclei and usually form atoms. One way to think about the location of electrons in an atom is to imagine that they orbit at xed distances from the nucleus. This way, electrons in an atom exist in a number of electron shells surrounding the central nucleus QUARKS

A quark is a tiny particle which makes up protons and neutrons.There are six types of quarks. The types are called avours. The avours are up, down, strange, charm, top, and bottom. Up, charm and top quarks have a charge of +23, while down, strange and bottom quarks have a charge of -13.The idea (or model) for quarks was proposed by physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964. Other scientists began searching for evidence of quarks, and succeeded in 1968. STANDARD MODEL Everything in the universe is found to be made from a few basic building blocks called fundamental particles, governed by four fundamental forces. Our best understanding of how these particles and three of the forces are related to each other is encapsulated in the Standard Model of particle physics. Developed in the early 1970s, it has successfully explained almost all experimental results and precisely predicted a wide variety of phenomena. Over time and through many experiments, the Standard Model has become established as a well-tested physics theory. STRONG AND WEAK FORCES Strong force is a fundamental interaction of nature that acts between subatomic particles of matter. The strong force binds quarks together in clusters to make more-familiar subatomic particles, such as protons and neutrons. It also holds together the atomic nucleus and underlies interactions between all particles containing quarks. Weak force is!a fundamental force of nature that underlies some forms of radioactivity, governs the decay of unstable subatomic particles such as mesons, and initiates the nuclear fusion reaction that fuels the Sun.

The weak interaction occurs between both quarks and leptons, whereas the strong force does not act between leptons. HIGGS Higgs boson or Higgs particle is an elementary particle whose possible discovery was announced on 4 July 2012, and its existence was tentatively conrmed on March 2013. It was predicted by a theory in physics called the Standard Model. It is one of the 17 fundamental particles in the Standard Model. Well talk about ATLAS, the experiment that conrmed its existence, in the next slides.