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Explain the process of suburbanisation and describe its effects [8] Suburbanisation is the decentralisation of people, employment and

services from the inner part of the city towards the margins of the built up area, and invading rural areas The reason suburbanisation has occurred because transport infrastructure improved, both private (cars) and public (busses, trains, etc) this has meant that people can commute from further distances into the inner city. Increasingly, more and more of industry is being decentralised and moved away from inner city centres, which means that people do not need to commute to inner cities. Peoples perceptions of suburban areas have also influenced their decision to move out of the better lifestyle: Cleaner & greener than the city, less congestion, sense of community with local services such as, Village Hall, Church, Pub, School, Shop, Sports Club etc. Availability of low-cost land further out of inner cities has allowed cheaper, but larger houses to be built. The lack of housing space in the city combined with the high cost of houses means that people are more inclined to move out. In the suburbs, you are able to get a bigger house for the same amount of money that a small house in the city would buy you. Generally, people move to the suburbs when bringing up children, because they want a garden, and the quality of life, and air is better. Suburbanisation is a reflection of a variety of decision making exercises by different groups e.g. families, companies, developers and governments. There are factors which pull people and businesses to the suburbs and others which push them out of the cities. Offices and industries as these decided to move out of the centre of towns and cities people followed them in search of work - where people are located shops, restaurants and leisure facilities follow. Government policy has lead to increase in suburbanisation as they decide the tax system which makes it more attractive for developers to start on new land in the suburbs rather than reuse old land in the city centres. VAT is also charged on house repairs but not on new development. They were also responsible for the transport networks which made it possible for people to move to the suburbs. E.g. Londons M25 However, as a re Decentralisation of towns and cities however it has also causes edge cities which see clusters of office buildings built around suburban districts and shopping malls. This leads to a change in core traffic patterns - they have become more complex with the volume of inter-suburban traffic increasing tremendously. Urban sprawl can also lead to inner-urban decay and a concentration of lower-income residents in the inner city.