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- unicellular; double cell membrane that protect them from harm

- no nucleus
- Need of oxygen (aerobic, anaerobic), need energy from the
environment to exist, grow, and reproduce
- cell are prokaryotic (organisms characterized by a lack of a nucleus or
any other membrane-bound organelles.)
- 3 major shape
1. bacillus
2. coccus
3. spiral
- contain capsules or slime layers that facilitate bacterial attachment
to surfaces and biofilm formation
- move around using flagella, fimbriae, and pili
- within the Kingdom Monera
- reproduce through asexual reproduction (binary fission), also
capable of sexual reproduction through bacterial conjugation
- capable of forming endospores that allow them to survive extreme
environmental and chemical stresses. This property is restricted to
specific gram-positive organisms, such as Bacillus and Clostridium.
- either Gram - / +
 Gram-negative
- bacteria have an outer, lipopolysaccharide-containing
- stain pink.
- have a thin peptidoglycan layer located in the periplasm
(the region between the outer and cytoplasmic membranes).
- difficult to treat with antibiotics.
 Gram-positive
- bacteria lack this covering, but possess a cell wall
containing a thick peptidoglycan (called Murein in older
sources) layer and teichoic acids;
- they stain purple
- more susceptible to antibiotics

- conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to forms that plants can use,
exhibiting mutualism (a type of symbiosis in which both organisms
in two interacting species receive benefit)
- recycling nutrients through bacterial decomposition of dead plants
and animals
- provide an aid in digestion for many organisms, and are helpful in
yogurt production, sewage treatment, and as sources of medicinal
Bacterial Infections
• botulism
• campylobacteriosis
• cholera
• e. coli infection
• m. marinum infection
• dysentery
• legionellosis
• leptospirosis
• otitis externa
• salmonellosis
• typhoid fever
• vibriao Illness

( If bacteria form a parasitic association with other organisms, they are classed as
pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human death and disease and
cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, cholera, foodborne
illness, leprosy and tuberculosis. A pathogenic cause for a known medical disease may
only be discovered many years after, as was the case with Helicobacter pylori and peptic
ulcer disease. Bacterial diseases are also important in agriculture, with bacteria causing
leaf spot, fire blight and wilts in plants, as well as Johne's disease, mastitis, salmonella
and anthrax in farm animals.
Each species of pathogen has a characteristic spectrum of interactions with its human
hosts. Some organisms, such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus, can cause skin
infections, pneumonia, meningitis and even overwhelming sepsis, a systemic
inflammatory response producing shock, massive vasodilation and death.
Yet these organisms are also part of the normal human flora and usually exist on the
skin or in the nose without causing any disease at all. Other organisms invariably cause
disease in humans, such as the Rickettsia, which are obligate intracellular parasites able
to grow and reproduce only within the cells of other organisms. One species of Rickettsia
causes typhus, while another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Chlamydia, another
phylum of obligate intracellular parasites, contains species that can cause pneumonia, or
urinary tract infection and may be involved in coronary heart disease. Finally, some
species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and
Mycobacterium avium are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people
suffering from immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. )

- gram (-) bacteria like that induce life threatening infections
- require host cell for replication
- transmitted through bite of anthropod carriers like lice, fleas, ticks
- diseases: rocky mountain spotted fever, typhoid fever and Q fever

- bacterium w/ flexible, slender, undulating spiral rods that possess cell
- 3 forms
1. treponema
2. leptospira
3. Borilia

- Prokaryotic cell
- they lack peptidoglycan in their cell wall
- include methanogen, extreme halophiles, and extreme thermophiles

- eukaryotic organism that digests its food externally and absorbs the
nutrient molecules into its cells
- mushrooms molds and yeast
- uni/multi cellular
- has nucleus
- division / categories based on sexual reproduction structure:
a. Chytridiomycota
- commonly known as chytrid
- produce zoospores that are capable of moving on their own
by simple flagella.
b. Zygomycota
- are known as zygomycetes and reproduce
- Black bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer) is a
common species that belongs to this group.
- Another is Pilobolus, which shoots specialized
structures through the air for several meters.
c. Glomeromycota
- are also known as the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Only one
species has been observed forming zygospores; all other species
only reproduce asexually.
d. Ascomycota,
- commonly known as sac fungi or ascomycetes,
- form meiotic spores called ascospores, which are enclosed in a
special sac-like structure called an ascus.
- This division includes morels, some mushrooms and truffles, as
well as single-celled yeasts and many species that have only
been observed undergoing asexual reproduction.
e. Basidiomycota
- commonly known as the club fungi or basidiomycetes,
- produce meiospores called basidiospores on club-like stalks
called basidia.
- Most common mushrooms belong to this group, as well as rust
and smut fungi, which are major pathogens of grains.
- function
a. rimary decomposers of dead plant and animal
b. responsible for fermentation of beer and bread, and mushroom
- Disease:
a. human: Ringworm (spread by skin-to-skin contact, as
well as via contact with contaminated items such as
hairbrushes )
b. plants: smuts, rusts, and mildews. Dutch elm disease
w/c is native to Asia

- unicellular eukaryotes
- move by pseudopodia, false feet or temporary projections of the cell
- absorption of nutrients through specialized structure called vacuoles a
stomach like compartment
- ubiquitous or found throughout aqueous environments and the soil
- play a role both as herbivores and as consumers in the decomposer
link of the food chain
- important food source for microinvertebrates
- whether free-living or parasitic, lack a protective outer covering
- a semipermeable cell membrane serves as the boundary between the
environment and the cytoplasm, and minerals (calcium, potassium)
and gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) exchange across this membrane
- produce a protective capsule called a cyst, which permits the organism
to survive when food, moisture, or oxygen is lacking, when
temperatures are not suitable, or when toxic chemicals are present. A
cyst also enables a parasitic species to survive outside its host in order
to get a new host. This is important because parasitic protozoa
sometimes have to go through the excretory system of one host in
order to find a new host. Members of the phylum Apicomplexa form a
cyst called an oocyst, a reproductive structure in which new cells are
produced sexually.

Protozoal Infections
• amoebiasis
• cryptosporidiosis
• cyclosporiasis
• giardiasis
• microsporidiosis

- uni/multicellular eukaryotes
- nourishment: photosynthesis
- produce oxygen and carbohydrates
- non cellular entities that are parasites of cells of both eukaryotes and
- consist of a nucleic acid core (DNA or RDA) around by a protein coat
- smallest microbes
- cannot replicate independently, they invade host cell to form additional
viruses. a composition that distinguishes viruses from prions (only
protein) and viroids (nucleotides of RNA without protein coat).
- Genes of viral origin, such as the mammalian syncytin gene, which
plays a pivotal role in formation of the placenta, are embedded in the
genomes of many organisms. This suggests that viruses may have
been one of the sources of heritable variability in the course of
- no cell membrane
- virion - is little more than a gene transporter, consisting at the most
basic level of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein
called a capsid
- capsid is composed of proteins encoded by the viral genome and may
be either spherical or helical. These proteins are associated with the
nucleic acid and are hence better known as nucleoproteins. The
combined partnership of nucleoproteins and nucleic acid produce what
is known as a nucleocapsid.
- Purification of viral particles can be achieved using:
1. differential centrifugation
2. gradient centrifugation
3. precipitation with ammonium sulphate or ethylene glycol
4. removal of cell components from a homogenized cell mixture using
organic solvents or enzymes to leave the virus particles in solution.

Viral Infections
• adenovirus infection
• gastroenteritis
• Hep. A
• poliomyelitis
• polyomavirus infection

Parasitic Infections (Kingdom Animalia)

• Schistosomiasis
• dracunculiasis
• taeniasis
• fasciolopsiasis
• hymenolepiasis
• echinococcosis
• coenurosis
• ascariasis
• enterobiasis