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Stress, Rhythm, Tone And Intonation

Ching Kang Liu National Taipei University ckliu@mail.ntpu.edu.tw http://web.ntpu.edu.tw/~ckliu/


1

Overview

Rhythm & intonation

1. Rhythm (suprasegmental stress patterns) (time)


a. The relationship between stressed and unstressed syllables b. Patterns of combination of stressed and unstressed syllables c. The liaison or other phonological structures (assimilation, deletion, etc.)

2. Intonation (suprasegmental melody) (time + space)


a. Pitch contours; break indexes (time) b. The intonation units; the pitch accent (time + space)

3. Declination (suprasegmental melody) (time + space)


a. Declination of statements (time + space) b. Down-step slopes (time + space)

Contents

What are different between the two languages?

1. Stress & rhythm


2. Intonation units 3. Pitch accents (The invariable quality of the stressed syllable/sound)

4. The break index


5. Mismatched patterns (The relations between the adjacent syllables)

6. Declination

Contents Stress, rhythm, intonation & other prosodic elements


A. Stress (words and phrases)
a. Primary stresses b. Secondary stresses, etc. c. Other subtle things about stress

B. Rhythm (suprasegmental stress patterns)


a. The relationship between stressed and unstressed syllables b. Patterns of combination of stressed and unstressed syllables c. The liaison or other phonological structures (assimilation, deletion, etc.)

C. Intonation (suprasegmental melody)


a. Patterns of pitch contours b. More scientific ways to understand the intonation of English

D. Intonation units and break index (suprasegmental melody)


Patterns of IU, break index, mismatch patterns and declination

E. Practice the intonation units & contours


4

Intonation

Traditional intonational frameworks

Intonation

Traditional intonational frameworks

1. Pitch contours 2. Generalized patterns 3. Possible sample presentations of different patterns (Sixteen possible varieties in utterances:
http://web.ntpu.edu.tw/~ckliu/pronunciation/intonation2/intonation2.htm)

(Celce Mercia, et. al., 1996. Teaching Pronunciation)


6

Intonation

Traditional intonational frameworks

(Celce Mercia, et. al., 1996. Teaching Pronunciation)


7

Intonation Contrasting the traditional contours & acoustic data


The traditional approach
John's sick. He's taken an aspirin
Have you got a minute?

Can I ask you a question?

Who will help?

What about Jonathan?

Intonation Contrasting the traditional contours & acoustic data


The acoustic approach
5000

0 0.192028 Time (s)

1.3504

John's sick.
9

Intonation Contrasting the traditional contours & acoustic data


The acoustic approach
5000

0 1.7757 Time (s)

3.15162

What about Jonathan?

10

Intonation Contrasting the traditional contours & acoustic data


The acoustic approach
5000

Have you got a minute?

0 0.0502185 Time (s)

1.16553

5000

Can I ask you a question?

0 1.58579 Time (s)

3.04458

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Contrast
5000

Are they different?

Have you got a minute?

0 0.0502185 Time (s)

1.16553

5000 500

Frequency Pitch (Hz) (Hz)


0 0 Time (s) 1.112

12

Stress

Section 1

Stressed sounds vs. Unstressed sounds

13

Stress

Stress & rhythm

1. English speakers focus very much on stressed vowels and usually blur unstressed vowels in their speech. Mandarin speakers focus more on the tone than on the stress.
2. English speakers focus very much on the relationship between the local stress and the global stress in an utterance. Mandarin speakers focus more on each individual word.

14

Stress
1. Iambic (Pentameter)

Iambic or trochee

To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield. (Alfred Tennyson, "Ulysses") A horse! A horse! My kingdom for a horse! (William Shakespeare, Richard III)

2. Trochee
Peter, Peter pumpkin-eater Had a wife and couldn't keep her (Children's rhymes) Tyger, Tyger, burning bright In the forests of the night (William Blake)

15

Stress

Stress, rhythm, and time

Read the following expressions (containing different number of syllables) in about the same length of time
1. broad view broad review broader review 4. quick call quick recall quickly recall

2. strong stronger stronger

taste taste distaste

5. new vice new device newest device

3. slow turn slowly turn slowly return

16

Stress

Stress, rhythm, and time

Read the following expressions (containing different number of syllables) in about the same length of time

1.

fire kitchen fire in kitchen fire in the kitchen a fire in the kitchen Its a fire in the kitchen

17

Stress
2

Stress, rhythm, and time


snow expected Friday snow is expected Friday snow is expected on Friday some snow is expected on Friday

Practice: a. I can understand. b. Give me the book. c. He wants to leave. d. I did it as quickly as possible. e. He was sick.
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Stress

More examples in different situations


MAN MAN MAN will MANs gonna LEAVEs LEAVEs LEAVE LEAVE HOME. HOME. HOME. HOME.

The The The

his his his

Old MacDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O. And on his farm he had some cows, E-I-E-I-O. With a moo, moo here and a moo, moo there, Here a moo, there a moo, Everywhere a moo-moo, Old MacDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O.

19

Stress

More examples in different situations


MAN MAN MAN will MANs gonna LEAVEs LEAVEs LEAVE LEAVE HOME. HOME. HOME. HOME.

The The The

his his his

Old MacDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O. And on his farm he had a cow, E-I-E-I-O. With a moo, moo here and a moo, moo there, Here a moo, there a moo, Everywhere a moo-moo, Old MacDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O.

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Stress
5000

Stress, rhythm, and time

0 0

1.29172

The
5000

mans going to leave

Time (s)

his

home.

0 0 Time (s)

1.29686

5000

0 0 Time (s)

1.29326

5000

0 0 Time (s)

1.34813

21

Stress

Stress, rhythm, and time in Mandarin

5000

Frequency (Hz)
0 0 5000 Time (s) 4.984

Frequency (Hz)
0 0 Time (s)
22

8.322

Stress

Tone sandhi and the iambic rhythm

Lexical stress can be easily found in any dictionary right now. But lexical stress can be very complicated if a word is used in different speech contexts. For example,
1. Fourteen people were killed last night. 2. The number of the victims is fourteen. 3. I have sixteen patients waiting for me. 4. The last patient is only sixteen.

Most of the time, the lexical stress serves as different accented stresses in an utterance. For instance,
1. Armani knew the millionaire.
23

Practice

Time and rhythm in a longer expressions

StressStressStress
Three blind mice. Please sit down. Come back soon. John cant go. Dont drive fast.

24

Practice

Time and rhythm in a longer expressions

StressweakweakStressweakweakStress / wSwSwS

Hickory dickory dock. Do it according to plan. Give me a burger with cheese. Who is the man I should see. The mouse ran up the clock. Id like to cash a check. Hed rather take the bus. Ill have her call you back.
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Practice
SwSwSwS

Time and rhythm in a longer expressions

Twinkle, twinkle little star. Let me help you find your keys. Dont forget the bread and milk. Tell me why you dont agree. How I wonder what you are. Find a space and park your car. Thanks a lot for all your help. Dont forget to leave a tip.
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Practice

The general rules of stress in the context

Rule 1: Compound nounsAIRport


deadline classroom establish a deadline a noisy classroom

software
steakhouse

software packages
a Japanese steakhouse

Rule 2: Noun-noun combinationsTOOTH decay


air conditioner repair the air conditioner

shoe polish
convention center

some brown shoe polish


the downtown convention center

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Practice

The general rules of stress in the context


myself themselves thirteen years old sixteen dollars went by myself finished it themselves vs. thirty years old vs. sixty dollars

Rule 3: Reflexive pronounsherSELF

Rule 4: -teen and -tyeighTEEN vs. EIGHty

Rule 5: Verbs consisting of a prefixunderSTAND


outrun overlook withdraw overhear
print out shut down put off

outrun his teammate overlook the error withdrew fifty dollars overheard the argument
print out the document shut down the factory put off the meeting
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Rule 6: two-word verbsgive UP

Practice

The general rules of stress in the context

Rule 7: Compound adverbs indicating location or directionoutSIDE


overseas downtown northeast go overseas drove downtown in the northeast

Rule 8: Two-syllable words used as both nouns and verbsINsult / inSULT


Noun conduct present project rebel Verb conduct present project rebel

Practice:
1. 2. Can you project our profits for the next quarter? You will need a permit to do the construction.
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Liaison

Linking between vowels & consonants

1. -cv- or ccvlook at me pick it up I couldnt figure it out. I wouldnt accept it. He looked at me.

2. -cca big girl walks slowly Kiss me. Its a great book.

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Liaison

Linking between vowels & consonants

hand it in hand them in now throw them out throw it away call him up

figure it out clean it up pick her up look them up turn them off

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Liaison

Linking between vowels

1. Vowels that follow /i/ Chart 1; Chart 2 reality be active playoff pay off triangle my ankle annoyance the boy and me

2. Vowels that follow /u/ Chart 1; Chart 2 ; Chart 3 fluid do it snowy go out flour how is it newest a few apples
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Liaison
1.

More practice in the linking between vowels


I cant see it three others stay awake pay everything tea and coffee
too often there is no answer Who is it? two apples lets go out so easy 1. Hes studying with the radio on. 2. This section of town was previously an industrial area. 3. His experience in politics makes him a superior negotiator. 4. The pianist quickly realized the piano needed tuning. 5. Hes obviously a creative person.
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2.

3.

Suprasegmental

Assimilation

1. Progressive assimilation look looks love loves like liked love loved 2. Regressive assimilation input have to 3. complete assimilation cupboard 4. Coalescent assimilation this year; would you; set you up

34

Suprasegmental

When s and es are suffixes (sibilants)


two roses /ro-zz/ or /ro-zz/
Joshs brother /d-z/

1.
2.

a rose /z/
Josh //

3.
4.

The judge /d/


they watch TV /t/

the judges decision /d-dz/


he watches TV /w-tz/

5.

the boss /s/

The bosss been here /b-sz/.

Try to read the following expression: Someone elses book

35

Suprasegmental

When s and es are suffixes (non-sibilants)

1. When voiceless consonants are followed by s or es a ship /p/ two ships /ps/ they visit /t/ he visits /ts/ Dick /k/ Dicks house /ks/ clock /k/ The clocks broken /ks/.
2. When voiced consonants are followed by s or es a job /b/ good jobs /bz/ Sam /m/ Sams friend /mz/ Buy the book /bay/. He buys books /bayz/. He /hiy/ Hes here /hiyz/. 3. When /s/ is clustered with other sibilants: one month two months the earth the earths circumference
36

Suprasegmental

When d and ed are suffixes after /d/ or /t/


construct decide graduate install save delay talk laugh process constructed decided graduated installed saved delayed talked laughed processed (after /t/) (after /d/) (after /t/)

1.

2.

3.

4.

Read the following expressions: a. He filled out the application b. I checked in this morning.
37

Suprasegmental
p1
/s/

When fricatives are followed by /j/


p2 p3

Examples this year miss you How is your day? He loves you. next year last year Who set you up? Thats your problem. Did you do that? What would you do? My dads your partner.
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/z/

/t/ or /ts/

/j/

/ /

/d/ or /dz/

/ /

Suprasegmental

More examples in single words

1. In the near future 2. The next century


3. I assure you 4. blood pressure 5. a precise measurement 6. Leisure-time activities

7. individual rights 8. A recent graduate

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Suprasegmental
1.

Deletion
Loss of /h/ sound ask him did he
Loss of // sound tell them something

2.

3. Loss of /t/ or /d/ before // sudden sentences 4. Loss of a syllable family temperature camera potato
40

IU

The basis sound unit in utterances

Intonation Units

41

IU

How to identify intonation units

so we had to know these tendons, and ligaments, and the, all the bones, and, you know, all the way up, from the shoulder down, and then from the hip down. You know, all the way down to the hood, and then, the bone in the hoof, and, then all the wall, and you know, of the hoof, and what everything was called there, and then, he went over on how to trim it, and where youtheres a white line, that you go by, and a horse has this little white line, and you clean it out with the

42

IU

How to identify intonation units

43

IU

The principles to identify IU

An intonation unit (IU) is a thought group or intonation group or tone unit.

Criteria suggested for the delimitation of an IU are:


(1) pause; (2) final syllable lengthening or slow speech rate at the end of an IU, (3) a following fast speech rate at the beginning of the next IU;

(4) pitch reset.


Hirschberg & Pierrehumbert (1986) Avesani & Vayra 1988 and Ayers (1992)

44

IU

Try to identify the following sample 1

0.5715

-0.5864 0.7344 so 5000 400

had to

know these

ten- dons
Time (s)

and li-

ga- ments

2.7

we

Frequency Pitch (Hz) (Hz)

0 0.7344 Time (s)

2.7

45

IU

Try to identify the following sample 2

0.638

-0.6532 2.893 5000 400

And then

all

the

Time (s)

bones

4.581

Frequency Pitch (Hz) (Hz)

0 2.893 Time (s)

4.581

46

IU

Try to identify the following sample 3

0.6606

-0.6852 and 5.094 5000

you all the up the shoulder down then the down know way from Time (s) and from hip

9.069

Frequency (Hz)

0 5.094 Time (s)

9.069

47

IU

Try to identify the following sample 4

0.5021

-0.4716 9.154 5000

you know all

the way

down
Time (s)

to the

hoof

10.86

Frequency (Hz)
0 9.154 Time (s)

10.86

48

IU

Try to identify the following sample 5

0.567

-0.5122 10.74 5000

and then

the

bone

Time (s)

in the hoof

and

13.17

Frequency (Hz)

0 10.74 Time (s)

13.17

49

IU

How to identify intonation units in Mandarin

982 98 Zoe

50

IU
0.225 0.586 1.245 2.660 3.872 4.471 6.223 6.698 8.134 9.848 10.935 11.718 13.036 14.690 16.260 16.696 18.502 19.153 20.671

How to identify intonation units in Mandarin


0.586 1.245 2.331 3.872 4.471 5.873 6.698 8.134 9.250 10.935 11.718 13.036 14.286 16.260 16.696 17.331 19.153 20.671 23.420 -- = = 98 2 9=8
51

IU

Try to identify the following sample 1

0.2048 0 -0.246 0.1543 5000

--
Time (s)

3.935

Frequency (Hz)
0 0.1543 Time (s)

3.935

52

IU

Try to identify the following sample 2

0.2777 0 -0.3195 3.985 5000

Time (s)

9.396

Frequency (Hz)
0 3.985 Time (s)

9.396

53

IU

Try to identify the following sample 3

0.4544 0 -0.3907 9.81 5000 9 14.32

Time (s)

Frequency (Hz)
0 9.81 Time (s)

14.32

54

IU

Try to identify the following sample 4

0.1782 0 -0.2348 14.57 5000

Time (s)

17.52

Frequency (Hz)
0 14.57 Time (s)

17.52

55

IU

Try to identify the following sample 5

0.2869 0 -0.3397 18.43 5000

23.43

Time9(s)

Frequency (Hz)
0 18.43 Time (s)

23.43

56

Break index

Section 3

The break Index


0 = no breaks; 1 = normal / tight breaks; 2 = unacceptable breaks; 3 = error; 4 = end of the IU (%)

57

Break index
5000

Contrasting the break indexes

0 0

5000

1.43673 Time (s)

L+H* This 0 is 0 a 1

!H* fatal
0 0

!H* mistake

L-L
2.62971 Time (s)

0 Time (s)
this H* 2 2 2 is a fatal L*+H 2

1.43673
mistake r 1p mistake L+!H* L-L 4

what to do with the number "2"? Subjects make more of a in break regards between to the rwords notation than above; in English not sure and if so restart I am using is appropriate the 2 notation. here. Subject restarts at same plac 0 Time (s) 2.62971

58

Break index

Contrasting the break indexes

0.25186 0 -0.24817 0 5000


2 2 4


2 2
Time (s)


2 2

3.6223

Frequency (Hz)

0 0 Time (s) 3.6223

59

Break index

Contrasting the break indexes

0.3306 0 -0.4124 0 5000 300

Time (s)

0.8812

Frequency Pitch (Hz) (Hz)


0 0 Time (s) 0.8812

60

Break index

Contrasting the break indexes

0.2777 0 -0.3195 3.985 5000 0 4 1 1 01 1 1 4

Time (s) 1 4 1 2 01 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 4

9.396

Frequency (Hz)
0 3.985 Time (s)

9.396

61

Break index

Contrasting the break indexes

0.6606

-0.6852 and 5.094 5000

4
Frequency (Hz)

you all the up the shoulder down then the down know way from Time (s) and from hip 1 4 1 0 0 1 01 1 4 1 1 01 1 4

9.069

0 5.094 Time (s)

9.069

62

Liaison

Linking between vowels

1. Vowels that follow /i/ Chart 1; Chart 2 reality be active playoff pay off triangle my ankle annoyance the boy and me

2. Vowels that follow /u/ Chart 1; Chart 2 ; Chart 3 fluid do it snowy go out flour how is it newest a few apples
63

Liaison
1.

More practice in the linking between vowels


I cant see it three others stay awake pay everything tea and coffee
too often there is no answer Who is it? two apples lets go out so easy 1. Hes studying with the radio on. 2. This section of town was previously an industrial area. 3. His experience in politics makes him a superior negotiator. 4. The pianist quickly realized the piano needed tuning. 5. Hes obviously a creative person.
64

2.

3.

Pitch

Section 4

The pitch accent

65

Pitch

Different viewpoints on pitch accents

(1) Native speakers of English may have very different concepts or habits of where to put their pitch accents when they speak English.

(2) Results of the study: AESs and MSs differ significantly in putting their pitch accents on different parts of the words (t = -5.37, p < 0.01).
AESs
article 0 infinitive

MSs
0.12

infinitive
conj

0
0.03

article
conj

0.20
0.43

prep
auxiliary

0.32
0.33

prep
v

0.66
0.82

v
n

0.63
0.64

auxiliary
n

0.83
0.91

adv
adj

0.78
0.90

adv
adj

0.92
1
66

Pitch

Different viewpoints on pitch accents

This figure shows a clear discrepancy between American English speakers and Mandarin speakers in where to put pitch accents.
120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20%

AESs MSs

infinitive

auxiliary

0%

article

conj

prep

adv

adj

67

Pitch

How to locate the pitch accent (English)

5000

0 0 Time (s)

2.35683

L+H* The 0 manager 1 was 1

!H* ill

L-H so 4 1 I 1

L* took 1 her 1

H* place

L-L

alot of creak, hard to label 0 Time (s) 2.35683

68

Pitch

How to locate the pitch accent (Mandarin)

0.25186 0 -0.24817 0 5000


HL*

LH*


L- HL*

3.6223

Time (s) !H* H-H% H* !H*

L-L%

Frequency (Hz)

0 0 Time (s) 3.6223

69

Pitch

An English speakers pitch accent

L+H* The 1 temperature 1 is 1

!H* very 1

!H* low 1 today

L-L

0 Time (s)

2.754

70

Pitch

An English learners pitch accent

L+H* The 1 temperature

!His 3 1

H* very 1

L+H* low 1 today

L-L

0 Time (s)

3.158

71

Pitch

An Mandarin learners pitch accent

0.2083 0

-0.4358 0 5000

H*

!H*

!H*

L-

H*

3.383 L-L%

Time (s)

Frequency (Hz)
0 0 Time (s) 3.383

72

Pitch

The invariable quality of the pitch accent

Speakers of English produce certain words in an utterance with special intonational prominence. These pitch-accented words typically are realized with increased duration, intensity, and/or fundamental frequency (F0). Duration > intensity / fundamental frequency

73

Pitch

Various types of pitch accents

74

Pitch

Various types of pitch accents

75

Pitch

Various types of pitch accents

76

Pitch

Various types of pitch accents

L* <SIL> if he 1 1 breath< 0 breath> can

Hthen theres no 3 1 1 1

H* argument 1 about 1

L-L it 4 <SIL>

breath< breath

Time (s)

77

Pitch

Various types of pitch accents

L-L it 1 4 breath< breath> <SIL> if he 1 1

L* can

Hthen theres no 3 1 1

H+!H* argument 1 1 about 1

L-L it 4

5 Time (s)

78

Pitch

Section 5

Mismatched patterns
Between English speakers and Mandarin speakers

79

Numbers
450

Contrasts in adjacent syllables

360

270

Pitch (Hz)

7
180

O Key

7 1

90

450
0 0 5.011 Time (s)

360

4 1 4 4 4 1 6

270

180

And my num ber is

Pitch (Hz)

90

0 0 Time (s) 5.252

80

Numbers

Mandarin patterns in adjacent syllables


500

400

300

Pitch (Hz)

200
100

4 3 9 2 5 4 2

500

0
400

0 Time (s)

3.649

300

Pitch (Hz)

200

4 3 9 2 5

4 2

100

0 0 Time (s) 3.922

81

Numbers
500

Contrasts in adjacent syllables

400

300

Pitch (Hz)

200
100

4 3 9 2 5 4 2

400

320

0 Time (s)

3.649

240

Pitch (Hz)

ber numMy is

4 9

2 5 4 2

160

80

0 4.755 Time (s)

10.3

82

Numbers
500

Contrasts in adjacent syllables

400

300

Pitch (Hz)

200
100

4 3 9
450

4 2

0 0 3.649

360

Time (s)

4 1 4 4 4 1 6

270

180

And my num ber is

Pitch (Hz)

90

0 0 Time (s) 5.252

83

Numbers
400 320

Contrasts in adjacent syllables


450

80Hz
ber numMy is 4 9 3 2 5
Pitch (Hz)
360

180 Hz
7

240

Pitch (Hz)

270

160

180

O Key

7 1

90

80
0 0 Time (s) 5.011

0 4.755

180 Hz
Time (s)
360

450

10.3

4 1 4 4 4 1 6

270

180

And my num ber is

Pitch (Hz)

90

0 0 Time (s) 5.252

84

Utterances
400

Contrasts in adjacent syllables


400

300

Lit tle

by

lit

tle <SIL>

he learns what kind

of

200

100

0 0 Time (s)

0 2.89637

400

400

by Lit tle lit tle he learns

what kind

300

of
200

100

0 0 Time (s)

0 1.79383

85

Utterances
400

Contrasts in adjacent syllables


400

tle Lit by lit he tle

learns

300

200

100

0 0 Time (s)

0 1.57302

400

400

300

Lit

tle

by

lit

tle

he

learns

200

100

0 0 Time (s)

0 1.4327

86

Declination

Section 6

Declination

87

Intonation
A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Practice based on what we have covered


Have you seen my camera? What camera? Its a digital camera. Is it the one you put on the bookshelf? No. Thats not digital; its just regular. Well, what color is it? Its black, with a gold chain on it. Hunnn! I think I saw that somewhere. Where did you see it? It was on the dining room table.

88

Intonation
A: B:

Practice based on what we have covered


Did you like that movie? Yeah, I thought it was really good. What about you? Yeah, it was good. But it was a bit too long.

A:

89

Intonation

Practice based on what we have covered

A: Excuse me. How much is this? B: Its sixteen dollars. A: Sixteen? I thought its ten. Isnt it 40 percent off today? B: The big sale starts on Tuesday. Thats tomorrow. A: What? Today is Monday, not Tuesday? B: Yeah. Sorry about that. Do you want me to keep this for you?

90

Intonation
A: B: A: B: A:

Practice based on what we have covered

Whos gonna help us today? Well, Mary said shed help, but Good. Where is she? She is in her room, If shes in her room, ask her to get ready. Were leaving in two minutes. B: Ok. But you know, she has to leave early, though. A: No. She cant. She has to be with us until the work is done.

91

Intonation

Practice based on what we have covered

OK, today well continue our discussion of pollution.

Yesterday we defined pollution.Today well talk about the impact of pollutionits far-reaching effects. Many
people think pollution is just a problem for scientists but its not just a problem for scientists. Its a problem

that affects everyonesince it affects human lives, its a health problemsince it affects property, its an
economic problemand since it affects our appreciation of nature, its an aesthetic problem.
92

Intonation Clifford A Prators diagnostic passage


When a student from another country comes to study in the United States, he has to find out for himself the answers to many questions, and he has many problems to think about. Where should

he live? Would it be better if he looked for a private room off campus,


or if he stayed in a dormitory? Should he spend all of his time just

studying? Shouldnt he try to take advantage of the many social and


cultural activities which are offered? At first it is not easy for him to be

casual in dress, informal in manner, and confident in speech. Little by


little he learns what kind of clothing is usually worn here to be casually dressed for classes. He also learns to choose the language and customs that are appropriate for informal situations. Finally he begins to feel sure of himself. But let me tell you, my friend, this long-awaited

feeling doesnt develop suddenly, does it? All of this takes will power.
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Intonation

The Frog

There once was a slimy, green frog with a very big mouth. That frog drove everybody crazy. He was always going up to others and shouting. Who are you? Im the big, wide -mouth frog! One morning, he decided to find out what everybody else ate for breakfast. He hopped out of his frog pond, went straight to the zoo, and began to bother the animals. First, he met the giraffe. Who are you? And what do you eat for breakfast? The giraffe looked down. Im a giraffe, of course. I eat leaves for breakfast. The big, wide-mouth frog bellowed, Well, Im the big, wide-mouth frog! I eat flies for breakfast! Next he visited the elephant. Who are you? And what do you eat for breakfast? Im an elephant, of course. I eat plants for breakfast. Well, Im the big, wide-mouth frog! I eat flies for breakfast! Next he went to visit the crocodile and shouted in his usual, obnoxious way, Who are you? And what do you eat for breakfast? With a sly, hungry look in her eyes, the crocodile answered, Im a crocodile, of course. And I just love to eat big, wide-mouth frogs for breakfast. Have you seen any big, wide-mouth frogs about? When the big, wide-mouth frog heard that, suddenly his wide mouth closed up and got very, very small. Then he said with a squeak, Nope, Ive never heard of a creature called a big, wide mouth frog. Hope you find one. Sorry, Ive got to go now. The big, wide-mouth frog hopped all the way back to his pond as fast as he could. And after that, he always remembered that sometimes its better to keep your big, wide mouth shut.
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Intonation

Three mice

In a small town by a lake, there lived three little mice. They were the happiest mice in the world. They learned to fish in the river, play with natural toys, and had fun every day. They painted their house red like the sun, and thanked the Lord for giving them food. One day, a big cat with long fangs and sharp claws came into the woods to look for three little mice, who were sleeping by the lake. They snored so loudly that the cat just followed the sound and soon found them. When the cat was about to catch the mice, an owl called out. Wake up! Run for your lives! The mice woke up and ran. Luckily, they got away. Its my fault! cried Mother Mouse, we shouldnt have fallen asleep. Father Mouse thanked the owl, who just said, my pleasure.
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Conclusion

Contrastive qualities of time and space

a. Stress & rhythm

b. Intonation units c. Pitch accents (The invariable quality of the stressed syllable/sound)
d. The break index

e. Mismatched patterns (The relation between the adjacent syllables)


f. Declination

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Intonation
5000 600

Learned or innate?

Frequency Pitch (Hz) (Hz)

0 0 Time (s)
5000 600

4.921

Frequency Pitch (Hz) (Hz)

Mampe et. al. (2009). Current Biology ,19: 2.


0 0 Time (s) 4.788

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The End

Comments and suggestions, please!

Thank you!
Thank you!

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