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EMB 5443

FACILITIES ENG. TRANSPORTATION

LABORATORY MANUAL SHEET

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

_1,

TJ

1.0.

OBJECTIVE

i.

To investigate the relationship between Pressure Head, Flow Rate, Power


consume and Efficiency for centrifugal pump.

2.0. INTRODUCTION
The use of the design of hydraulic machinery is important to many engineering tasks. Hydraulic machinery can be broadly divided in two classes: pumps and turbines. A pump
converts mechanical or electrical energy from an out side source in to hydraulic energy,

often in the form of a pressure rise. Many of the hydraulic machines use in engineering applications are centrifugal pumps, where an essential part of the machine is a rotating
member. This member is called an impeller. Centrifugal pumps are frequently used in a

location where they are place above the level of the supply fluid.

2.I.

BASIC PRINCIPLE

Centrifugal pump has a shrouded running on an extension of the main spindle, supported
on double ball bearings. This type of pump is not self-priming but operates with a flooded

suction. Its single impeller rotates in the snail-shaped voluted casing. Water enters the impeller circumference in to the casing (seeFigure 1).

Xlgura

l. Ccntitugel Prmp

As the fluid passes though the impeller, energy is imparted to it by the curved blade of the impeller resulting
velocity.

in fluid leaving the impeller with an increase of pressure

and

The pump has a suction connected to the sump tank via a suction regulator valve. Its delivery is connectEd to the selection manifold and measuring system via a globe v.alve.

v@

ffi,6(1.1)

,..............(1.2)

Where:

q : Pump hydraulic fficiency SP : shaft power / input power, watts W : water power / hydraulic power, watts p : Density of water, kg / m3 g: gravity, m /s2 Q: rte offlow, *3 / s H: pump head, m. Hzo N: motor speed, rev / min T: torque, N.m
Peak pump efficiencies typically range from 0.5-0.9 for centrifugal pumps. These pumps
are used when

relatively large heads and low flow rates are desired.

The

When a pump is put


under test the usual objective is the determination
curvos

of its characteristic curves.

These

Figure 2).

Dtdtergr0ow

Ffgsrc ?- Typicat Chsrdaistic Clnves

fu

Ceutrifirgal Purq

2.2. THEORY
Centrifugal pumps are capable of transferring large volumes without any dependence on
valves or fine clearance and can be run against a closed valve with out develop in a very

high pressure. They can handle a wide range of slurries, or solids in suspension, in
addition to liquids with high viscosities.

A centrifugal pump must generally first be primed. That is, the pump casing and supply
line are first filled with the fluid to be used, to remove all air. The check valve insures
that this fluid stays in the pump. In some installations a given pump can be self-priming.

An expression for the theoretical torque ended to drive a centrifugal pump can be found

by considering the velocity diagrams and control volume (see figure 3). Let
the two radii, The various velocity components are as given in TABLE 1.

and 2

denote inlet and out let conditions, respectively, where the fluid enters at the smaller
11.

of

Table 1. Centrifugal pump velocity components

lnlet velocity components

Outlet velocity components

Tangential
Absolute Relative
V1
COSO(1

Normal
V1 sincr,

Tangential
V2
V2

Normal
V2 sinCf , V2 sinU,

coSO(,

V1 cosO(,

-r1C)

V1 sincr,

cosO(r-r2C)

With an impeller having

a passage

of uniform height w, the normal velocity components

are related to discharge according to

Q=2nrrVrsinot,, = 2nrrVrsincxr........

...........(1.4)

Figure 3. Centrifugal Pump Impeller Velocities

We will consider only the case where the flow enters and exits tangent to each vane the impeller. For this case the vane slope is the same as the slope of the velocity component. Thus the ideal entering and exiting vane angles p, and B, are given by

of

tanB,
and

, -vrcosur/ / (rr{2- Z, coscr, )

.0.5)

. n ran9z

/ ' COSA" =V" furt)_Vrcosar)

Having the flow enter tangentially to the vane ensures that there is no momentum loss normal to the impeller. Other angles will result in inlet losses.
The head delivered to the fluid in passing through the pump is, by the energy equation,

Normally the greater portion of head delivered is due to the pressure rise, since the entry
and outlet areas are nearly equal.

The ideal torque applied to the pump (the torque needed


mass rate

if there were no losses) is the

of flow times the moment of

momentum changes. This involves only the

tangential components of the entering and exiting velocities. Thus

Tid"ot=pQ?rZrcosc[2-rrVrcosa,,)

.............

..................0.7)

Notice that the ideal torque can be maximized by having the fluid enters the impeller
normally (cr,:90).

3.0. EXPERIMENTALPROCEDURE
3.1. BASIC PRINCIPLE
The schematic diagram of the experiment set-up of multi-pump test rig for centrifugal pump is shown in Figure 4. The centrifugal pump comprises of the

followine

components:

fis
lts
+,

C4'ikEr
Gwgnrgp

,
t
,6

Cotjrug.lpup

A&lrlnpsrt

5A.

'?tr

$lrraaiurirmtx .qilrE$rtEcbryl6.a
Wdc "sqlrbhe l{o**pturlrgr lrdrd.ild 'ld.liU *id.ct6fdrr Ffry setrol riln A$rt !o/.pn! urfdrlm $sif,rrtuhd|'rdr| .lilnlc'Fc4cFtil& tdg*r'frc*igBt6 Yru,trnr3t h.Flr.rffii!u$. '*lrnls $r|P'lul
.

tu6iorpuag

to

l{ ll 'tf
t7

It li'

.tl
E
'1{

lo

Itr

Dffip$fF toolbc4blt nqffitbUmg *mpJttorlmpmtf tc-a6rt&;t

:t

,{ddthttADnln

3E

Figurr 4. Multi-fury Test Rig Oplratine Instucrier Diagram

3.2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE


Learning outcomes:
You will be able to determine the centrifugal pump characteristic curves. Procedures:

a) Fill the sump tank with clean water to 50 mm from the top b) Close flow control valve c) Open suction regulating valve d) Set motor speed control to zero e) Ensure that the dynamometer motor torque arm has been correctly set to zero

0
g) h)

Switch on motor and rotate the motor speed controller clockwise to give
required rev/min. Allow he motor to run for 5 (five) minutes to warm up Open flow control valve and set it, and the suction regulating valve to give the required rate of flow (select six different rate of flow) Measure the rate of flow using the graduated sight glass on the volumekic tank
and the stopwatch, do

it 3 (three) times to get

to,",os.

D j)

Pressure readings for the centrifugal pump are taken from pressure gauges

Vacuum readings are taken from vacuum gauge

k) Record the torque reading at each flow rate 1) Tabulate this data in the results table
m) Repeat operations (c) to (k) for two other motor
speeds

4.0.
4.I.

RESULT A]\D DISCUSSION

RESULT

Table-l: Data Motor speed: ..l.:4.?.


Pressure

........rev /min
Volume Time
(sec)

Vacuum
(m.Hzo)

Pump Head (m.H2o)

Flow

Torque
Or.m)

Input
Power

Hydraulic
Power

Effrciency

Reading (m.H2o)

(ltr)

(*ttt)
U

0Yattl

Qrat9

(q)

I
2
J

,.4661

3 qtgq
o
O

r0

2t

qJo

i-?33:

2.'t33)

t0
10

2 qm'l

t{qo*

{Y lr r)'*N 4',)'1N

4 15? u-\rou ?t tlJ

0t
o -5"

1f 'f' lb.t4J

AtN

o'\f;

4
5 6

8 9 10
11

Table-2:

Data

prn

Motor speed:
Pressure

Vacuum
(m.H2o)

Pump Head

Volume

Time
(sec)

Flow

Torque
(I,l.m)

Input
Power

Hydraulic
Power

Efficiency

Reading (m.Hzo)

(m.H2o)

aft)

(*ttt)

(lYatt0

lVattl

(q)

4 cso

25
z1

o'82
l

t1,
t6
rq IJ

en.A9]
+.&f.

o.Q

aQa
76b

2
a J

,{

o
o

4
"i
t'\

l.orh

gt.9

r-t
I

l,o2T

\oli0

4
5

33 1
31

t./

t\zo
\'fi@

o
o

tt(
l-6

v 7
7

t3
l.\

i,t3

t.gq

31 "3

to

t 33

9
10
11

4.2. DISCUSSION
a)

Using the data obtained, determine the most efficient operating point for the
pump at a given pump speed

b) Under what particular set of conditions was the pump under test operating at its

highest efficiency? Explain why


c) From the data from the result table, plot graph

flow rate, Q vs. pressure head, H,


.

flow rate, Q vs. input power, SP, and flow rate, Q vs. efficiency, q

\
tJ

d) Referring to the power/low graph, should the pump under test be started with its

1r tr

/\, I

flow valve open or closed? Explain why

e)

Which is better NPSHu.6u1 > NPsH..quireo or why

NPSHactual

NPSHr"q,r;."a? Explain

State three suitable industrial applications

for the type of pump under

tes.

Correlate the industrial application with the test data obtained.

Format of the report:

1.

Write, in the front cover page

Title of the Experiment, Course number and course title, Name of instructor,
Group Number, Name of Student, Test date, Submission Date,

2. 3.

Objective of the exercise

4.

Specifli, in short, the aim of the experiment.

Instrumentation

List the instruments used during the experiment including the accuracy
and make of the instruments.

Procedure for the experiment

5.
Data

Discuss how the set up is arranged and the procedures followed during the experiment.

a. b. 6. 7.

Given data
Data collected during the experiment and calculated values.

Discussion

Discuss and tabulate the required values in section 4.2.

Conclusion

Note: The lab. Report should be submitted within one week after the experiment.

5.0.

REFERENCES

1. Graebel, W.P., Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Taylor & Francis Publishers, 2001 2. Multi-Pump Test Rig Instruction Manual, Armfield Limited, 1999.