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MARCH 9, 1942

that it pushed Chicago newspaper circulation to its highest point since Pearl Harbor. Despite a rigorous search of the theater, the killer escaped in the crowd. But twelve hours later, after the body had been identified as that of Dorothy Broz, pretty 17year-old high-school honor student, police arrested Clarence McDonald, a former classmate. The 17-year-old boy confessed unconcernedly that, because of religious differences and the girl's decision not to marry him for four years, he had determined three days previously to murder her. In the same cold-blooded manner he told the police: "I put my right arm about her. I pulled her close and kissed her, and at the same time took my gun out of my pocket . . . Then as I kissed her again I shot her." On Feb. 27 McDonald heard a grand jury return, a murder indictment. He demurred at his lawyer's announced intention to prove him insane. "I'm not crazy," he said. "I just made a terrible mistake." revoked and blue ones distributed to each congressman, with instruction to give them only to bona fide residents of his district. As a further safeguard, the police were given authority to subject any visitor to a thorough search before admittance.

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27

Japanese Roundup
Sites for Alien Camps Sought; Dies Reveals Invasion Pattern
Baron Gen. Giichi Tanaka, Japanese Premier known as the "Machiavelli of Nippon," called on Emperor Hirohito July 25, 1927, with a 10,000-word document. It was his advice to the new Emperor, who had ascended the throne on Christmas Day, 1926, and it contained a plan for the conquest of Manchuria and the rest of China, India, Asia Minor, Central Asia, and even Europe by the Japanese. But Tanaka pointed out that Japan must first crush the United States before she could carry out the rest of the program. Excerpts from the famous Tanaka Memorial were published by the Chinese five days after Japan invaded Manchuria in September 1931 and by the Russian newspaper Pravda on Nov. 5, 1931. The Chinese claimed to have got it from a Korean clerk who stole a copy and the Russians from a clerk who photostated it. The Japanese began a barrage of official denials, which were widely accepted.* On Feb. 27 Rep. Martin Dies of Texas,
*In the last article he wrote before he was murdered in Mexico, Leon Trotsky, exiled Russian leader, upheld the authenticity of the Tanaka Memorial and told how the Soviet Intelligence Service obtained the document from the Japanese Foreign Office.

Before America entered the war it was a simple matter to obtain a pass to the galleries of Congress and watch the $10,000-a-year legislators earn their salaries. Every congressman had a supply of white pass cards, which he could issue at will. But after Dec. 7, although they could still obtain the cards without much trouble, visitors were given a quick going over by a uniformed police guard before entering the galleries. Coats had to be opened, parcels inspected, and women's handbags probed. Last week the precautions were tightened further. The white pass cards were

chairman of the House committee to investigate un-American activities, which is seeking a continuing appropriation of $100,000, made public a 285-page report on Japanese plans and plots which he said was based on a mass of evidence, including the Tanaka Memorial. He had planned public hearings on them last September but waited at the request of Attorney General Francis Biddle. The Dies report included a secret Japanese "invasion map" of the United States as well as a supplement to the Tanaka Memorial by Lt. Gen. Kiyokatsu Sato urging that Japan capture Hawaii, destroy the Panama Canal from the air, and land troops on the West Coast of the United States to destroy cities and ports. Building a line of defense along the Rocky Mountains, the Japanese, according to Sato, would then take the offensive toward the East Coast. To further plans for conquest of America, the Dies report revealed, the Japanese Government used thousands of Japanese residents of the United States and its possessions to obtain detailed information about the American Fleet, Hawaii, the Panama Canal, and even the Los Angeles water supply. Code devices included necklaces, matches cut at various lengths, dental plates, the notching of postage stamps, and a copy of George Bernard Shaw's "The Devil's Disciple," certain words of which were underlined in invisible ink. The report was made public a day before the deadline for re-registration of all enemy aliens in the United States and as the Army and Department of Justice were preparing to move all Japanese, citizens as well as aliens, out of Pacific Coast "combat zones." Residents of Coast communities were more anxious than ever to get rid of their aliens after rumors that signal lights were seen before the submarine at-

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All Capitol visitors are searched: Bonnie Patton, congressman's daughter, and F. C. Wilkinson, cameraman

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lYLaneUVerS I Once a sport, now a military offensive tactic, the science of motorless flying attracts new interest. Taking a page from German experience, the United States Army notv is training officers at the
tack near Santa Barbara on Feb. 28 and the air-raid alarm over Los Angeles on Feb. 25. The question of where to send aliens and what to do with them when they got there puzzled Federal and state officials. Gov. Ralph L. Carr of Colorado said that, if the War Department thought it necessary, Colorado would provide temporary quarters for enemy aliens as "the only patriotic choice open to the state." But chambers of commerce and other organizations passed resolutions of protest against the importation of Japanese. Gov. Herbert B. Maw of Utah also strongly opposed it for his state, pointing out that there already were 20,000 men on Utah's WPA and relief rolls and that Jap labor would not improve the situation. Utah beet-sugar growers prefer Mexican field labor to Japanese, but some in Idaho

West Coast Air Corps Gliding School in Twenty nine Palms, Calif. Above, three ships are launched by a plane. Lt. Robin Rawl (left) is set to take off, while the field crew (right) keeps the ground clear.

and Montana favor the use of Japanese, provided they are properly guarded. Labor leaders, however, were fearful that Jap labor would depress the prevailing wages. Federal officials were looking over CCC camps in Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, and New Mexico as possible concentration camps for evacuated enemy aliens. The House's Tolan committee investigating national-defense migration telegraphed President Roosevelt asking that an alien property custodian be appointed, and Japanese-American spokesmen wanted to know what to do about mortgages and long-term leases held by Japanese citizens and aliens. Hito Okada of Portland, Ore., national treasurer of the Japanese-American Citizens League, told the Tolan committee that he would not say all JapaneseAmericans are loyal. "You're apt to find a bad apple in any barrel," he said.

Clouds Over Miami


The Army Air Corps needed a site for its new Air Force Officers Training School. South Florida's fabulous Gold Coast needed occupants for the vacant space in hotels and apartment houses resulting from an admittedly bad winter season. The two needs were fitted together Feb. 22 when the new school was opened at Miami Beach, Fla., the 950 soldiers in attendance at the start being quartered in five hotels taken over by the Army. The decision to establish the school in Miami Beach was reached after an invitation had been extended by the city and its hotel association. Top enrollment of around 4,000 is expected in June, and other hotels will be occupied as needed. Only hotels volunteering their facilities will be taken over, the five thus far in-

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which there is virtual industrial conscription and women up to 30 have been taken for essential occupations. Cooperation has been good; the government has reported only 82 cases of refusal to take government orders. Just how allocation would work and who would handle it is up to the President. Plans for man-power mobilization have been on Mr. Roosevelt's desk for weeks, but the matter of direction has been a subject of debate at Cabinet meetings. Most prominently mentioned for control are Paul V. McNutt, Federal Security Administrator; Milo Perkins, director of the Economic Warfare Board, and Sidney Hillman, labor director of the War Production Board.

WASHINGTON

TIDES

Problems of the Japanese Migration


by ERNEST K. LINDLEY ID or the first time since the Indians were put on reservations, a racial group within the United States is being forced to migrate. All persons of Japanese blood are being removed from military zones on the Pacific Coast. They number 112,000 of whom three-fifths were born in the United States and therefore are American citizens. The exodus has been ordered for two reasons: Federal and local officials feel incapable of distinguishing between loyal and disloyal persons of Japanese descent, and, in the event of attack, sabotage, or even further reverses in the Pacific, angry white people might wreak vengeance on the innocent as well as the guilty. Against the decision, many arguments have been presented. The first is that rights of American citizens are being violated. To this the answer given is that citizenship is not a dividing line between loyalty and disloyalty to the United States, especially among a people who have not been assimilated socially. The second is that no similar emigration has been ordered from a much more vulnerable areathe Hawaiian Islands. It is pointed out also that not a single instance of sabotage by persons of Japanese lineage has been established in Hawaii. The answer is twofold. The practical difficulties of such an exodus from Hawaii are almost insoluble; the absence of sabotage both in Hawaii and on the Pacific Coast is the surest sign that Japanese agents will go into action later. Cases are known in which Japanese officers have exiled themselves to other lands for years, posing as humble civilians in preparation for the supreme hour. A third argument bites deep. Loyal Japanese-Americans would be of great value in espionage and propaganda work in the Far East. The Japanese Government is trying to make this a racial war: that is implicit in the slogan: "Asia for the Asiatics." The United Nations cannot stand for white superiority-not with the Chinese, the Filipinos, and the Indians as their allies. Their battle cry must be "democracy," with all that it implies as to equality. As this argument goes, we are impairing the propaganda value of democracy and throwing away the services of loyal Japanese-Americans. German and Italian aliens are also being removed from certain military zonesbut not American citizens of German and Italian descent. The decision has been made, however. Responsible officials agree that it is probably wise. The best that can now be done is to make the migration as easy and fair as possible to the migrants. The President has set up a War Relocation Authority, headed by an able public official, Milton S. Eisenhower. The first question is where to move the Japanese and how to employ them. Excepting some of the Colorado sugar-beet growers, private employers do not appear to want the migrants. And if scattered in private jobs, loyal Japanese-Americans might be exposed to vigilante action. The alternative is to segregate them in self-supporting communities or in camps engaged in public works. Small settlements will have to be createdand the possibility is being explored of having these communities produce war goods of types requiring hand work or only simple tools. The other main problem is to protect the property of the emigrants. Instances have been reported in which they have been frightened into selling their possessions at sacrifice prices. The danger of racketeering is obvious. However, the Treasury has made the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco trustee, and the latter has set up local committees of threerepresenting the Federal Reserve Bank, the Farm Security Administration, and the Federal Security Agency -to help the Japanese, both aliens and citizens, in the sale, lease, or storage of property. This plan is said to be working well, and it may be left undisturbed by the Alien Property Custodian. The transplantation is a severe test for Japanese whose loyalty now lies with us. At best it will leave wounds. These can be mollified if time is permitted for an orderly movement and if the property holdings of the emigrants are scrupulously protected. Unfortunately, the same military considerations which forced the decisions probably will require that it be executed in a hurry. The price is only too likely to be the permanent alienation of a group of citizens who, if intelligently handled, could be of unique aid in our war with the imperial militarists of their fatherland.

"Why Don't They-?'"'


Back-seat driverscirca 168 B. C.were the topic of one of President Roosevelt's favored history lectures last week. To his i March 17 press conference, he quoted the i advice of the Roman consul Lucius Aemilius who was then conducting a successful war against the Macedonians: "Let him not try to act as a sea pilot whilst lie is on land. "The President exclaimed: "i.3 that a classic?" Mr. Roosevelt, wearing a green tweed suit and green-figured tie out of deference to the date, read at length from the Roman historian Livy's account of Lucius' speech, He made enthusiastic interpolations of his own. The President said that the entire oration, emphasizing the evils of careless criticism and calling for action rather than words, sounded as if it had been written to describe Washington, D. C., in 1942. Lucius' self-appointed critics, Mr. Roosevelt implied, were back in modern version. What irritated the President most was the "amazing state of public misinformation." Editorial mistakes in the nation's newspapers, he said, had brought to the White House hundreds of letters and a headache. The President referred specifically to editorial demands for a joint ArmyNavy staffdemands he said were needless in that joint Army-Navy staff meetings had been held several times a week for some time. There was need, he said, for more parades, brass bands, and flag-waving, less misinformation and moroseness. Two days later his principal flag-waver, Archibald MacLeish, director of the Office of Facts and Figures as well as Librarian of Congress, took up where the President left off. He told a dinner inaugurating Freedom House in New York that "earnest and deeply troubled people" had been urging government officials vociferously "to do this or to do that," some of their suggestions being intelligent and some not. "The enemy," he said, "is the American partisan who would win his partisan victories at any cost of suffering or defeat to his own countrythe newspaper pub-

APRIL 6, 1942 power to make decisions on commerce and trade, which heretofore has been in the hands of a few, will be spread out." There have been, of course, real cases of home-grown sabotage, most of them trifling in origin but destructive in results. In an Eastern aircraft plant a workman wound a child's rubber ball with black friction tape until it became as large as a cantaloupe, attached a 6-inch clothes line to it, and rolled his "bomb" down the aisle. A panic occurred, and some 500 manhours of work were lost. The prankster was disciplined by his employer. Again, a machinist in a naval torpedo station, disgruntled at the transfer of a fellow employe, dropped emery dust in the housing of gyroscope steering mechanisms. If undetected, this would cause torpedoes to miss their mark and possibly circle and strike the submarine which fired them.

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Sabotage Wave?
No Such Thing, Says the FBI; Most Blasts Due to Accidents
The average American is convinced that enemy agents are applying the torch and pushing explosive plungers all over the country. He is certain that, among other things, saboteurs destroyed the Normandie, that Jap fifth columnists planted arrows of sugar cane pointing out military objectives to the Pearl Harbor bombers, and that fire extinguishers in a defense plant which was recently damaged by destructive fire were filled with gasoline. But it isn't so, take the word of J. Edgar Hoover. "There has been no case of successful foreign-directed sabotage in the United States since the last war," the FBI chief told a NEWSWEEK reporter last week. "As of today, we think we have the sabotage situation in hand." In most instances of apparent foreign sabotage, the truth turns out to be rather simple. In the case of the Normandie, the main damage was caused not by the fire set off by sparksbut by the tons of water that caused it to capsize. On Oahu Dec. 7, long strips of sugar cane were indeed found uncut. But these were the usual stalks left standing each year to mature for seed, and they indicated no military objectives. As for the defenseplant fire mentioned, all the extinguishers were properly filled with a powdered chemical and water.

Blasts
But despite the FBI's assurances on enemy plotting, there were three new blasts last week which aroused public suspicion. In the Sandt's Eddy limestone quarry of the Lehigh Portland Cement Co. near Easton, Pa., 31 men preparing to set off dynamite were blown to bits soon after 9 a.m. March 26 when 21 tons exploded prematurely. Federal agents found evidence that while the men were tamping a small charge, it went off, detonating a wagonload of dynamite which stood nearby in violation of regulations. But local powder men insisted in a bar that night: "Some of a saboteur put a cap in one of those boxes before it was sent here." Five men were killed and two others severely burned when an explosion occurred in the mixing building of the Unexcelled Manufacturing Co. on Staten Island, N. Y., a little before 10 a.m. March 28. Formerly a fireworks factory, the plant was making explosives for the government. FBI men and representatives of the Army, Navy, and local police and fire departments found no signs of sabotage. That same afternoon three men and four women -were killed and 48 injured by an explosion in the small rim-fire ammunition-packing building of the Remington Arms Co.'s plant at Bridgeport, Conn. The company said the explosion was caused by a nail which deflected while being driven into a box of primers.

N. Y. Daily News

The cops waxed angry at wax nudes


cializing in display fixtures. The concern had had a number of nudes lolling about its show windows for some time. A plainclothes man finally issued a summons, charging violation of a city ordinance prohibiting "lewd, indecent, or immoral" displays. Goldsmith demurred, explaining the nudes were merely wax models. Magistrate Koenig pondered. Finally the summons was withdrawn when Goldsmith agreed to drape the models. He sadly observed: "They never hurt a soul."

Japs Transplanted
Nazis and Fascists Also Caught in Raids in the New York Area
In California's Pasadena Rose Bowl, bereft of its usual noisy New Year's Day football crowd of 90,000 this year for fear of Japanese air raids, some 500 somber Japanese assembled March 23. Then they set out as half the vanguard of the greatest forced migration in American history. Escorted by highway patrolmen and soldiers in. Army jeeps, the Japs trekked 235 miles in their own cars and trucks to Manzanar, in windy Owens Valley. Another 500 entrained from Los Angeles for Lone Pine, where busses and trucks took them the last 10 miles to the same detention camp in the shadow of the Sierra Nevadas. On the 6,000-acre tract in Inyo County the Army had erected prefabricated wooden dormitories, a headquarters, mess hall, and 150-bed hospital. Eventually it will mushroom with 912 buildings covering 48 city blocks with a population capacity of 20,000about 10,000 of them expected

Life in the Raw


Nudeseven of the fleshy and pinkishtinted types portrayed so frequently by Rubensare one thing in the stately halls of the Metropolitan Museum of Art on New York's upper Fifth Avenue. Down on Broome Street, along the lower East Side, nudes of almost any size, shape, description, or previous condition of servitude are an entirely different matter. Magistrate Raphael P. Koenig made this clear last week to Irving Goldsmith, secretary of a Broome Street concern spe-

Wide World

Remington unit after the blast

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within three weeks. On the arable but dry land in Owens Valley, source of Los Angeles' water supply, Japanese will be put to work digging irrigation ditches and growing crops for their own subsistence. Reports last week that the Japs would get up to $94 a month aroused citizens in Los Angeles, many of whom asked their congressmen why aliens were to be paid more than four times the wage of American soldiers. Washington denied that any wage scale had been determined. Meanwhile, the Army planned to move another 20,000 Japanese to the Colorado River Indian Reservation at Parker, Ariz., on 90,000 acres of land fit for irrigation farming. Lt. Gen. John L. De Witt, head of the Western Defense Command, ordered all other Japanese living in Military Area No. 1 (the western half of Washington, Oregon, California, and Arizona) to stay put until the Army moves them out. And on March 27 a curfew went into effect for enemy aliens, confining them to their homes between 8 p.m. and 6 a.m. and banning travel more than 5 miles from home at any hour. ^[ In renewed raids in thirteen counties of Northern California, the FBI arrested more than a dozen members of the Japanese Military Virtue Society, four Shinto priests and a reserve officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy. T[ The night of March 27, New York FBI agents raided areas near Croton Reservoir, water supply for more than 7,000,000 New Yorkers. They seized eight Italians, one German, twelve shotguns, seven rifles, a pistol, 275 rounds of ammunition, the coat of a German Army uniform, twelve cameras, six radios, and much Nazi and Fascist propaganda. T[At 5:30 a.m. March 28, 65 FBI agents

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and a detail of local police raided the German Seamen's Home in Hoboken, N. J. the same institution where 200 German aliens were nabbed in 1917. The raiders, accompanied by Army and Navy intelligence officers, surrounded the 35-year-old building, quickly corralled 67 sleeping Germans27 of them alienand converted the lobby into a fingerprinting and photographic laboratory. One striking item of evidence was a diathermy set, used medically to heat skin surfaces by high-frequency electrical oscillations. Like similar machines found in raids on Japanese spy nests, it had a "booster" device enabling it to transmit radio messages about 50 miles. Found near it was a code book. "We believe that subsequent investigation will disclose the answer to many of our ship sinkings off the Atlantic Coast," said an FBI agent. He called the Hoboken raid "one of the most important yet made in this country."

A thousand Japs left the California Coast by truck, bus, train, and car

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to register in Manzanar detention camp, which soon will house 10,000