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Modeling and Simulating of SVPWM Control System of Induction Motor in Electric Vehicle

ZHAI Li

School of Mechanical and Vehicular Engineering Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing, 100081, China zhaili26@bit.edu.cn

Abstract - Studies modeling and simulating of SVPWM (space vector pulse width modulation) control system of induction motor in electric vehicle. SVPWM principle and algorithm is analyzed. Modeling and simulating of SVPWM system of induction motor is performed. Induction motor drive SVPWM control system with VSI inverter for electric car HS2000 is made up. Results of experiment and simulation are consistent with theory analyse, and indicate that the model of SVPWM is accurate and practicable. Index Terms - SVPWM, Induction Motor, Electric Vehicle.

LI Hefei

School of Material Science and Engineering Beijing University of aeronautics & astronautics Beijing, 100083, China 6182050@sohu.com

switch period can calculated by two voltages basic vectors corresponding to two adjacent switch mode of IGBT in [3]. U out = TkU sk / T + Tk+1U sk+1 / T + T0U 000 / T + T7U111 / T . (2) Where T is switch period and equal to carrier wave period. Tk , Tk+1 are operating time of U sk , U sk+1 respectively.

I. INTRODUCTION AC induction motors have been widely used in electric vehicle owing to their good performance [1]. However, the control performance of low speed of motor is still influenced by ripple torque because of harmonic wave. Space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) control can improve the quality of the stator currents and reduce the harmonic wave generation that is usual in the traditional current hysteresis comparator. SVPWM principle and algorithm is analyzed. Modeling and simulating of SVPWM system of induction motor is performed. Induction motor drive SVPWM control system with VSI inverter for electric car HS2000 is made up. Results of experiment and simulation are consistent with theory analyse. II. SVPWM PRINCIPLE AND ALGORITHM A. SVPWM Principle The reference stator voltage space vector for induction motor U out can defined as

T0 , T7 are operating time of U 000 , U111 . B. SVPWM Algorithm In Fig.2, T and U out in first section can be expressed as

T = T1 + T3 + T0 / T + T3U 60 / T 1 0 U out = TU (3)

Where T is carrier wave period of PWM, T1 , T3 are operating time of U 0 , U 60 respectively. The voltage vector Valfa and Vbeta of U out in reference frame can be expressed as / T + T3U 60 cos( / 3) / T0 Valfa = TU 1 0 Vbeta = T3U 60 sin( / 3) / T (4)

PWM1 PWM2 PWM3 PWM4 TMS320 PWM5 F2812 PWM6 Vdc + a' CAP or QEP A Q2 B Q4 a Q1 b Q3 c Q5

VAN VBN

Q6

Z Z N Z

VCN

b' c'

IM

j2/3

+ VCN e

j4/3

) / 3.

(1)

Fig.1 Topology structure of three-phase voltage source inverter

U120 (010)

Where VAN ,VBN ,VCN are motor phase voltages. Induction motor used in electric vehicle was supplied by three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) which can not produce ideal sine wave because of flux distortion, which can bring current harmonic distortion and torque ripple in [2].The three-phase voltage source inverter shown in Fig.1 have six of IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) and eight working states, of which topology structure has eight voltage vectors shown in Fig.2. According to voltage vector compound and voltagesecond balance principle, stator voltage vector U out in anyone

U 60 (011)

U out

0000 (000) U 0 (001)

U 240 (100)

U 300 (101)

2026

Tc

(5)

Tb

t

Ta

PWM 1 PWM 3

T1 and T3 (operating time of U 0 and U 60 ) corresponding to operating time of switch mode (100) and (110) can be calculated. If T2 = T3 , operating time Taon , Tbon and Tcon of three IGBTs of upper bridge of inverter can be expressed as

Taon = (T T1 T2 ) / 4 Tbon = Taon + T1 / 2 T = T + T / 2 con bon 2

t t t T0 / 4 T1 / 2 T3 / 2 T0 / 4 T0 / 4 T3 / 2 T1 / 2 T0 / 4

O000 U 0 U 60 O111 O111 U 60 U 0 O000 ( 000) ( 100) ( 110) ( 111)( 111) ( 110) ( 100) ( 000 ) T

PWM5

(6)

The same way, operating time Tk and Tk+1 corresponding to U sk and U sk+1 in other sections voltage vector U out can be calculated in [4].

U60( 011)

Tk = ( 3T / Vdc ) Valfa sin k / 3 Vbeta cos k / 3 (7) Tk+1 = ( 3T / Vdc ) Vbeta cos (k 1) / 3 Valfa sin (k 1) / 3 The operating time Taon , Tbon and Tcon of three IGBTs of upper bridge of inverter can be calculated by (6) and (7), which can produce SVPWM signal shown in Fig.3 to drive corresponding IGBTs. From Fig.4, although there are many time switches of switches mode, one IGBT operates in each switch, and then IGBTs have less loss. III. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF SVPWM SYSTEM OF INDUCTION MOTOR Induction motor used in electric vehicle is supplied by three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) which produces square wave, not ideal sine wave. Frequency and width of square wave are variational in real time, and discrete. So inverter-induction motor is a complex system. It is hard to calculate analytical answer. It is important for inverterinduction motor system to model and simulate in MATLAB/SIMULINK by computer. A. Modeling of SVPWM The SVPWM modeling method in MATLAB/SIMULINK as follow 1) Calculating Section of U out : Vref1 = Vbeta Vref2 = (Vbeta + 3Valfa ) / 2 Vref3 = (Vbeta 3Valfa ) / 2 If Vref1 > 0 then a = 1 or else a = 0 , Vref2 > 0 then b = 1 or else b = 0 , Vref3 > 0 then c = 1 ,or else c = 0 .

U0( 001)

U300( 101)

So section number of U out can be calculated as N = 4 c + 2 b + a the model of calculating section is shown in Fig.5. 2) Calculating X , Y and Z : X , Y and Z can be calculated as follow

X = 3TVbeta / Vdc Y = 3T U alfa / 2Vdc + 3T U beta / 2Vdc Z = 3T U alfa / 2Vdc + 3T U beta / 2Vdc

(9)

The model of calculating X , Y and Z is shown in Fig.6. Form (7) and (9), in different section operating time T1 ,

(8)

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T2 of two adjacent voltages vector can be calculated by X , Y and Z , shown in table1. Calculating T1 and T2 can be implemented using multi-switches, shown in Fig.7. When electric vehicle suddenly accelerates or decelerates, voltage vector of induction motor control system would easily ref , then line overstep the maximum reference voltage vector Vmax voltage of induction motor is not sine wave and would produce surge voltage in inverter-induction motor control

2 2 ref + Vbeta > Vmax , then system. So when Valfa

ref Vmax ref Valfa Valfa = 2 2 Valfa + Vbeta ref Vmax ref V = Vbeta beta 2 2 + V V alfa beta

changed to determine switch sequence. Amplitude of the triangle wave represents modulated period T . Frequency of the triangle wave can be defined by frequency of IGBT. Because frequency of triangle wave determines period of the triangle wave, and operating speed of computer is taken into account, so frequency of triangle wave is defined as T = 0.0004s . 4) Modelling and Simulating of Inverter: Although there are many power switch models such as IGBT, MOSFET in toolbox of MATLAB, simulating speed of inverter model consisting of six switches is very slow. In order to improve simulating speed, according work principle of power switch, the upper switches and under switches in the same bridge arm can be equivalent into one ideal switch. Six of IGBTs of inverter can be simulated by three of ideal switches, shown in Fig.8 (a). Pulse signal produced by SVPWM is imported to inverter, and three phase pulse width modulate voltage exports from inverter, shown in Fig.8 (b). B. Simulating of SVPWM According to modeling of component of SVPWM, simulating model of SVPWM system of induction motor is constructed in Fig.9. Effectiveness of model of SVPWM is shown by simulating results of 30kW induction motor of electric vehicle HS2000. In order to analyze PWM output of voltage vector in deferent sections, reference voltage vector Valfa and Vbeta shown in first diagram of Fig.10 (a) is imported to the model of SVPWM system in Fig.9. The simulating result of corresponding section number of voltage vector is shown in

T1 = T1 T /(T1 + T2 ) , T2 = T2 T /(T1 + T2 ) . 3) Switch Sequence: Triangle wave with different frequency is used to compare with Taon , Tbon and Tcon , until value of the two variable are equal, the state ON or OFF of IGBT would be

TABLE I DEFINING T1 AND T2 BY X , Y AND Z section

T1

1

Z

Y

2

Y

3

Z X

4

X Z

5

X

6

Y Z

T2

(a)

2028

efficiency. voltage combination produced by inverter can produce circular voltage vector and flux vector to satisfy demand of induction motor. Software of DSP can perform the process of producing SVPWM signals, shown in Fig.12. B. Results of Experiment and Simulation 1) PWM Signal in Different Section:

batteries VSI inverter current signal

Voltage /V

M

speed position driver command status signal executive machine

DSP TMS32 SVPWM 0F2812 si gnal CPU2

dual RAM

Time /S

display unit

communication unit

Time/S (b) Triangle wave and Taon , Tbon Tcon Fig.10 Simulating result of SVPWM

SVPWM interrupt service routine Calculating reference voltage vector Valfa and Vbeta Calculating angle position and section of SVPWM Calculating T1,T2,T0 Calculating t1, t2 Calculating taon, tbon, tcon Send date to EV register of DSP taon-COMPR1 tbon-COMPR2 tcon-COMPR3 T-T1PER Producing PWM return

Fig. 12 Software flow chart of DSP

second diagram of Fig.10 (a), from which there are six of deferent sections in one period. The simulating result of operating time Taon , Tbon and Tcon is shown in Fig.10 (b). IV. SVPWM CONTROL SYSTEM

A. Induction Motor SVPWM Control System with VSI Inverter Induction motor drive SVPWM control system with VSI inverter for electric car HS2000 is shown in Fig.11. motor controller uses dual-CPU, the main CPU 80C196KC is used to gather and deal with date, and control executive machine in outside system. Digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320F2812 is used to perform induction motor vector control algorithm and SVPWM control algorithm. According to Taon , Tbon and Tcon , DSP TMS320F2812 can produce SVPWM signals to drive IGBTs with most

2029

Fig.13 can be shown that stator voltage vector can produce three PWM signals in one modulate period and six sections to drive three IGBTs of upper bridge arm. The results of PWM signals in Fig.13 are consistent with theory analyse result in Fig.4, which shows that the PWM signals produced by SVPWM control system based on DSP TMS320F2812 is exact, stable and reliable. 2) Filtered PWM Signals and Frequency Chart: Filtered PWM signals in Fig.14 (a) and (b) are consistent with simulating result in Fig.14 (c). Although the filtered PWM signals has harmonic wave, of which amplitude is less comparing with basic wave. Although amplitude of 3 times frequency harmonic wave is comparatively bigger, which can disappear after passing through three phase induction motor [5]. Amplitude of harmonic wave of 50HZ voltage frequency is minimum, whereas amplitude of harmonic wave of 5HZ voltage frequency is maximum. It is can be seen that the current of harmonic wave can easily produced at low speed of induction motor to bring ripple torque, more power loss and lower efficiency. V.CONCLUSION SVPWM system model of induction motor is established in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results of experiment indicate that the model is accurate and practicable, therefore the model is a effect tool for studying the AC induction motor drive control system for electric vehicle. Induction motor drive SVPWM control system with VSI inverter based on DSP TMS320F2812 for electric car HS2000

(a) Frequency of stator voltage is 50HZ, modulating coefficient = 1

(b) Frequency of stator voltage is 5HZ, modulating coefficient = 0.5 Voltage /V

Time/S (c) Simulating result of Filtered PWM signals Fig.14 Filtered PWM signals and frequency chart

is established. Software of DSP can perform the process of producing SVPWM signals to drive six IGBTs. The results of PWM signals in different section is consistent with theory analyse. From filtered PWM signals and frequency chart, current of harmonic wave can easily produced at low speed of induction motor to bring ripple torque, more power loss and lower efficiency. ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors gratefully thank the financial support of the National 863 Program of China, 2007AA11A105.

REFERENCES

[1] V.N. Walivadekar, H. Manjunath, V.S. Babu and Sadda K, Development of transistorised PWM inverter fed induction motor drive for electric vehicle-a case study, Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Power Electronics, pp.741 -747, February 1996. [2] M. Naidu, and J. Walters, A 4-kW 42-V induction-machine-based automotive power generation system with a diode bridge rectifier and a PWM inverter, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.39, no.5, pp.1287-1293, 2003. [3] C. Pascual, et al, High-fidelity PWM inverter for digital audio amplification: spectral analysis, real-time DSP implementation, and results, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol.18, no.1, pp. 473 485, 2003. [4] C. Rech, H. Pinheiro, H.A. Grundling, H.L. Hey, and J.R. Pinheiro, Comparison of digital control techniques with repetitive integral action for low cost PWM inverters, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol.18, no.1, pp. 401 - 410, 2003. [5] T.A. Sakharuk, A.M.Stankovic, G. Tadmor, and G. Eirea, Modeling of PWM inverter-supplied AC drives at low switching frequencies, IEEE Transactions on Fundamental Theory and Applications, vol.49, no.5, pp. 621-631, 2002.

Fig.13 PWM signals in different section

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