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# Part A

Surname Name

## American Academy Larnaca Year 4 Double Science

Semester 2 Test 1

Unit P1

Universal Physics

Topic 3

## Waves and the Universe

Part A
The total marks for this part is 20. The total marks for the paper is 40. The marks for each question are shown in square brackets.

Time: 20 minutes

Use this as a guide as to how much time to spend on each question. Questions labelled with an asterisk (*) are ones where the quality of your written communication will be assessed. You should take particular care with your spelling and grammar, as well as the clarity of expression, on these questions. Answer the questions in the spaces provided. There may be more space than you need.

1. Which row of the table shows these objects in the correct order of size? Put a cross ( ) in the box next to your answer. smallest Milky Way Milky Way Solar System Solar System biggest Solar System Universe Universe Universe Milky Way Solar System Milky Way Universe

(1)

A B C D

[Total marks Q1 = 1] 2. This simplified diagram compares spectra of light from the Sun and two galaxies.

The light from galaxy 1 and galaxy 2 both show redshift. Explain what these redshifts predict about the position and movement of the two galaxies. (3) __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ [Total marks Q2 = 3]

3. The Earths atmosphere absorbs electromagnetic radiation. The diagram shows how the amount absorbed changes with wavelength.

(i) How much of the visible light from space is absorbed as it passes through our atmosphere? Put a cross ( ) in a box to show your answer. A B C D 0% 10% 90% 100%

(1)

(ii) Large telescopes which collect visible light to explore the Universe are usually placed near the tops of mountains. Suggest why radio telescopes do not have to be placed high up a mountain. (1) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (iii) One theory of the origin of the Universe predicted that there should be cosmic background radiation with a wavelength of about 1 mm. Explain why scientists had to wait until the development of space flight before they could study this radiation in detail. (2) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (iv) The electromagnetic radiation from most galaxies has a red-shift. Suggest why, when a galaxy has a very large red-shift, some of its visible light is not detected through the Earths atmosphere. (2) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

[Total marks Q3 = 6]

4. Bode, a scientist, found a rule predicting the distance of objects from the Sun. The chart shows the mean distances from the Sun predicted by Bode's rule.

[Me Mercury; V Venus; E Earth; Ma Mars; A Asteroid Belt; J Jupiter; S Saturn; U Uranus; N Neptune; P Pluto] (i) Read, from the chart, the predicted values for the distance from the Sun to Neptune and from the Sun to Pluto. (2) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (ii) Bode's rule works well for all objects between Mercury and Uranus. From scientific measurements, however, the actual mean distance from the Sun to Neptune is 30 A.U. Some scientists think that Neptune was not part of the original Solar System. Explain how the predicted value for Neptune supports the view of these scientists.

(2)

## _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ [Total marks Q4 = 4]

*5. While the origin of stars is well understood, there is still much debate about the origin of the Universe. Two major theories about the origin of the Universe are the Big Bang and the Steady State theories. Some evidence supports both theories. Other evidence supports only one theory. By considering the evidence, discuss why one of these theories is preferred by most scientists. (6) __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ [Total marks Q5 = 6]

Part B
Surname Name

## American Academy Larnaca Year 4 Double Science

Semester 2 Test 1

Unit P1

Universal Physics

Topic 3

## Waves and the Universe

Part B
The total marks for this part is 20. The total marks for the paper is 40. The marks for each question are shown in square brackets.

Time: 20 minutes

Use this as a guide as to how much time to spend on each question. Questions labelled with an asterisk (*) are ones where the quality of your written communication will be assessed. You should take particular care with your spelling and grammar, as well as the clarity of expression, on these questions. Answer the questions in the spaces provided. There may be more space than you need.

## 1. The photograph shows a nebula and many stars.

(i) Describe the energy changes involved when a main sequence star forms from gas and dust. (3) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

## (ii) What is required to cause nuclear fusion?

(2)

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (ii) Describe how the mass of a main sequence star will affect what the star finally becomes. (3) _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ [Total marks Q1 = 8]

2. Scientists are using a variety of methods to search for life beyond Earth.

(1)

## _______________________________________________________________________ (ii) How is SETI searching for intelligent life? (2)

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (iii) Which method has been most successful? (1)

## _______________________________________________________________________ [Total marks Q2 = 4]

3. The table below gives data on six planets in the Solar System.

The graph shows how the orbital speed of the planets varies with their distance from the Sun.

## (a) What is the orbital speed of Saturn?

[1]

_______________________________________________________________________

(b) An asteroid Ceres is 700 km in diameter and has an orbital speed of 5.8 10 8 km/year. It travels 2.67 109 km in making one orbit of the Sun. (i) Use the graph to find the distance of Ceres from the Sun. [1]

_____________________________________________________________________ (ii) Use the equation time = distance speed to find the orbital time of Ceres. [2]

_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ (c) Estimate the mean temperature on Ceres, showing your working or explaining how you arrived at your answer. [2] _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ (d) Ceres is further from the Sun than Earth. State two other reasons why it takes Ceres longer than Earth to complete one orbit of the Sun. [2] _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ [Total marks Q3 = 8]

Mark scheme Part A Answer 1. 2. D An explanation linking any three of galaxies moving (1) away from Earth / Sun (1) galaxy 2 (moving away) faster (than galaxy 1) (1) galaxy 2 is (likely to be) most distant galaxy (1) B radio waves are not absorbed by the atmosphere an explanation including two of the following 1 mm waves are in the microwave region (1) which is (completely) absorbed by atmosphere (1) space flight enabled telescopes to be put above atmosphere /in space (1) an explanation linking the following light might be shifted into infrared region (1) (some) infrared is (strongly) absorbed by atmosphere (1) Acceptable answers Mark (1)

galaxies are (moving) at different speeds / away from each other / universe is expanding (3) (1) not affected by light pollution / clouds (1) they are microwaves cannot be (easily) detected on Earth we needed to go above atmosphere / into space

3.(i) 3.(ii)

3.(iii)

(2)

(iv)

(2)

4.(ii)

Acceptable Mark answers N = 39 (A.U.) (1) range 38 39 P = 77 (A.U.) (1) inclusive (2) range 76-78 inclusive An explanation actual value for linking Neptune put on to actual value for chart by cross or Neptune is different dot etc. (no need for label) from / lower than (Neptune) is predicted value (1) (1) an with one of these anomaly ignor (so) the rule e references to age does not work (for of Neptune Neptune) (1) the rule gives too high a value (1) (so) Neptune might have been captured / entered from outside the original Solar System (1) (2)

## Question Number *5.

Indicative Content

Mark

Level 1

0 1-2

3-4

5-6

A discussion linking some of the following points red shift linked to movement both theories have expanding Universe redshift support both CMB linked to ageing Universe Big Bang ageing , SS not CMB supports Big Bang only because only Big Bang has single origin (6) No rewardable material a limited discussion stating both pieces of evidence or limited detail about either red shift or CMB e.g. change in wavelength /red shift shows galaxies / stars moving away the answer communicates ideas using simple language and uses limited scientific terminology spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with limited accuracy a simple discussion including both pieces of evidence and simple detail about either red shift or CMB e.g. a change in wavelength shows galaxies / stars moving away the answer communicates ideas showing some evidence of clarity and organisation and uses scientific terminology appropriately spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with some accuracy a detailed discussion describing both pieces of evidence and drawing a conclusion e.g. a change in wavelength shows galaxies / stars moving away and CMB shows Universe has been changing with time and redshift supports both theories, CMB supports only Big Bang because Steady State has constant Universe the answer communicates ideas clearly and coherently uses a range of scientific terminology accurately spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with few errors

Part B Question Number 1.(i) Answer A description including three of the following points gravitational (potential) energy / GPE of gas and dust (1) (GPE) changes to kinetic energy (1) (ke) changes to thermal/heat/light (1) (hot enough to release) nuclear energy (1) Very high pressure (1) and very high temperature (1) A description including the following points reference to stars of different sizes (1) Sun/small/mediu m becoming white / black dwarf (1) more massive becoming a neutron star / black hole (1) Water essential for life to exist [as we understand it] (1) Analyses radio waves from space (1) looking for artificial patterns (1) Neither Acceptable Mark answers Accept description of the process gas and dust / it / nebula pulled together by gravity (particles) move faster (hot enough for) nuclear fusion/reaction accept description shown as chain gpe ke thermal nuclear (3)

1.(ii)

(2) Sun and more massive/bigger star red giant / planetary nebula (red) supergiant / supernova

1.(iii)

(3)

2.(i)

(1)

2.(ii)

2.(iii)

(2) (1)

## Question Number 3.(a) 3.(b)(i) 3.(b)(ii)

Answer 3 x 108 km/year 4.5 x 108km 4.5 x 108 5.8 x 108 (1) =0.78 year (1) 2r = 2.67 x 109 km R = 4.23 x 108 km (1) -23-[((4.23-2.25)/(7 .80-2.25)) x (180-23)] = -68OC longer orbit (1) lower speed (1)

## Mark (1) (1)

3.(c)

0.78 (2) Any attempt to calculate how temp changes with distance (1) Answers close to -70 OC (1)

(2)

(2) (2)

3.(d)

Q8. Indicative Content Mark * A discussion including some of the following points Methods space probes soil experiments by landers SETI telescopes robotic machines Problems expense / international collaboration needed large distances involved if problem difficult to correct time to react to problem is long time to respond to any communication would be long complex technology for human visit for robot investigation fuel recognition of alternative life-forms pattern recognition for SETI communication if intelligent life-form possibility of cross-contaminatio n (6) No rewardable content a limited discussion including EITHER

Level 1

0 1-2

two named problems, OR two named methods, OR a named problem + a named method e.g. It would be expensive and the distances are large OR Space probes and SETI can be used OR can listen for communications, life beyond Earth may not be water based. the answer communicates ideas using simple language and uses limited scientific terminology. spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with limited accuracy. 2 3-4 a simple discussion including EITHER a problem with its associated method + some other named problem OR a detailed problem + one other named problem e.g. It is expensive to send a space probe to Mars; the distance to Mars very large OR It is difficult to search through the data from space because there is a huge amount of it. Also, any message would be hard to decode. the answer communicates ideas showing some evidence of clarity and organisation and uses scientific terminology appropriately. spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with some accuracy. 3 5-6 a detailed discussion including EITHER two problems with their associated method(s) + some other named problem OR two detailed problems + one other named problem OR a problem with its associated method + a detailed problem + one other named problem e.g. We can analyse radiowaves from space, but they take so long to arrive that the aliens that sent them could have already died out. It is very expensive to develop the technology needed to go to other planets. Also, we might not recognise alien life-forms there. OR It is difficult to search through the data from space because there is a huge amount of it. Radiowaves in space take a long time to arrive because the distances are so vast. It all costs a lot of money. OR It is very expensive to develop the technology needed to go to other planets. It is difficult to search through the data from space because there is a huge amount of it.

Also, we might not recognise alien life-forms there. the answer communicates ideas clearly and coherently uses a range of scientific terminology accurately. spelling, punctuation and grammar are used with few errors.