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Italy i/ t li/ (Italian: Italia [i ta lja]), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: ica italiana),[7][8][9][10] is a unitary parliamentary republic

in Southern Euro pe. To the north, Italy borders France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia, and is approximately delimited by the Alpine watershed, enclosing the Po Valley and the Venetian Plain. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Pen insula and the two biggest Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia. Italian territory also includes the islands of Pantelleria, 60 km (37 mi) east o f the Tunisian coast and 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Sicily, and Lampedusa, at a bout 113 km (70 mi) from Tunisia and at 176 km (109 mi) from Sicily, in addition to many other smaller islands. The sovereign states of San Marino and the Vatic an City are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and has a l argely temperate climate. With 60 million inhabitants, it is the 5th most populo us country in Europe. Italy is also the 4th-largest economy in the European Unio n, 3rd in the Eurozone and 9th in the world (IMF, 2012). Italy's capital and largest city, Rome, has for centuries been the leading polit ical and religious centre of Western civilisation, serving as the capital of bot h the Roman Empire and Christianity. During the Dark Ages, Italy endured cultura l and social decline in the face of repeated invasions by Germanic tribes, with Roman heritage being preserved largely by Christian monks. Beginning around the 11th century, various Italian cities, communes and maritime republics rose to gr eat prosperity through shipping, commerce and banking (indeed, modern capitalism has its roots in Medieval Italy);[11] concurrently, Italian culture flourished, especially during the Renaissance, which produced many notable scholars, artist s, and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavell i. Meanwhile, Italian explorers such as Polo, Columbus, Vespucci, and Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in th e European Age of Discovery. Nevertheless, Italy would remain fragmented into nu merous warring states for the rest of the Middle Ages, subsequently falling prey to larger European powers such as France, Spain, and later Austria. Italy would thus enter a long period of decline that lasted until the beginning of the 18th century. After many unsuccessful attempts, the second and the third wars of Italian indep endence resulted in the unification of most of present-day Italy between 1859 an d 1866.[12] From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, the new Kingdo m of Italy rapidly industrialized and acquired a colonial empire becoming a Grea t Power.[13] However, Southern and rural Italy remained largely excluded from in dustrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite victory in W orld War I as one of the Big Four with permanent membership in the security coun cil of the League of Nations, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and soci al turmoil, which favoured the establishment of a Fascist dictatorship in 1922. The subsequent participation in World War II, at the side of Nazi Germany and Ja pan forming the Axis Alliance, ended in military defeat, economic destruction an d civil war. In the years that followed, Italy abolished the monarchy, reinstate d democracy, and enjoyed a prolonged economic boom, thus becoming one of the mos t developed nations in the world,[5][14][15][16][17] with the fifth largest econ omy by nominal GDP by the early 1990s. Italy was a founding member of the Nato i n 1949 and one of the Inner Six of the European Community in 1957, which became the EU in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area, and has been a member of the Eu rozone since 1999. Italy is considered to be both a major regional power and a leading middle power ,[18][19][20][21][22][23] with membership in prominent institutions such as the UN, the EU, the NATO, the OECD, the WTO, the Uniting for Consensus, the G6, G7, G8, G10, G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe and the Cen tral European Initiative. Italy currently maintains the world's tenth-largest no minal defence budget and is a participant in the NATO nuclear sharing policy.