You are on page 1of 8

Fortes (2009), reviewed the literatures relating with the green supply chain management of last twenty years.

The purpose was to identify the reasons for the organizations for adopting green supply chain management. To carry out the research the author used case study approach from late 1980s and onwards. In this study the author concluded that GSCM has played a vital role in reducing ecological impacts of industrial processes. The main concepts which we get from this study are green design, green operations, reverse logistics, waste management and green manufacturing. In the end the author recommends that there is a missing area in GSCM that is the literature for the stake holders view. As the stake holders may have different and conflicting view about the implementing of GSCM. In addition to this the author further recommends that the researchers should go for qualitative way of research by conducting interviews with stake holders and understand their views about greening the supply chain management and implicates management decisions. Salam (2008), investigated green procurement adopted by THAI electronic manufacturing industry. The author examined the effect of adopting green procurement on product performance, purchase price, the organizational environmental concerns, trading partners, and health & safety issues. This research is based on primary as well as secondary data. The primary data was collected from ISO 14001 certified companies. Whereas the secondary was collected through various research papers. Data was analyzed by using statistical package for the social sciences that includes Multiple Regression Model, Multiple Regression ANOVA, Multiple Regression Coefficients and Measurement of Central Tendency to examine the hypothetical construction of the study. The result suggests that the Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM) and Original Design and Manufacturing (ODM) companies in Thailand have adopted green procurement practices in result of global pressure on environmental concerns. Gold et al (2009), explored the impact of green supply chain management as a activator of developing valued inter-organizational resources and it can be a competitive edge for the firm. This study is based on content analysis, and the key terms they described are Environmental pro-activity (EP), Strategic purchasing and Supply (SPS), Supply management capabilities (SMC), Product-based green supply (PGS), Greening

the Supply Process (GSP). Their findings clearly showed there is a positive association between green supply chain management and firms competitive advantage. In the end the authors recommend that this paper only covers the theoretical verifications but in order to implicating decisions, survey and interviews research has to be done. In addition they also directed the new researchers to work in other concepts of resourceoriented strategic management SCM and GSCM. Cullen et al (2007), investigated the implementation of the concept of Green Supply Chain Management on macro and micro level situations in south-east Europe. This paper was constructed by referring literature surveying of scholarly research papers of GSCM and also by cross-sectional data to compare the GDPs of different countries. The countries they considered were Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Macedonia, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria and Slovenia. They also looked the developments, obstacles and further needs for the implementation of innovative GSCM methods in the European Union region. The main terminologies they discussed in the paper are: sustainable development, Eco-innovation and Green Supply Chain Management. The result of this paper shows that implementation of GSCM practices was a gift to the environment especially in waste contamination. Many countries were lacking in the waste management systems like sorting, processing, and recycling of industrial and municipal waste. In the end the authors suggested that the research to examine the relationship between business and environment on various layers and also the obstacles in implementing GSCM, moreover they suggested that if GSCM is implemented in the region that will positively affect the market position. In addition finding and implementing innovative techniques and process for GSCM should be considered as business opportunities rather than just environmental regulations. Walton et al (2005), reviewed that how companies developed

environmental/green supply chain strategies. To carry out their study the took interviewing method approach and conduct interviews from top leading companies of United States, United Kingdom, Japan and Korea. They generated a frame work that helps the business to extend its commodity strategy process to integrate environmental criteria. They also concluded that there is a global competition of leading companies to

search for innovative ways to reduce waste and its associated cost, improving market position as well as maintain flexible corporate strategies. They suggest that, to incorporate environmental supply chain the businesses should begin by evaluating role of environmental issues in commodity strategies and develop an EMS so that environmental issues can be measured, monitored and manage in a better way. In the last they suggest that there is a new dimension in GSCM/ESCM of green purchasing which has to be worked on. Muller & Thun (2010), empirically analyzed Green Supply Chain Management of Automotive Industry in the German context. The purpose of the study is to discuss several features of Green Supply Chain Management like time of implementation, external factors, realization and adoption of eco-programs with vendors and customers, internal and external resisting forces. To conduct this study the authors used open and close ended questionnaire about application of Supply Chain and Green Supply Chain Management which was filled by 35 respondents. Eigen-values, Cronbachs Alpha, tsample test, cluster and factor analyses are applied. Their result showed that Comparatively Green Supply Chain Management is a quite innovating concept which is under its developing phase. In the conclusion the writers summarize that Green Supply Chain Management implementation will bring improvements in respect of cost, waste and resource usage. In addition to this the authors suggest that the same level of study is needed to be done in other industries such as electronics, machinery so we could verify the validity of this paper, moreover they also recommended that this study should be conducted in other countries and compare the analysis, as it will give a broader view of applying Green Supply Chain Management. Soler et al (2010), investigated the missing link between environmental information and practice. The purpose of this paper is to locate the unstudied area in the field of Green Supply Chain Management. To carry out the research they considered interview techniques and took interviews from 15 different purchasing managers of 8 different organizations of private and public sectors of food industry of Sweden. The personals involved in this study are food producer, food wholesalers, and public food service department in local regional authorities, private catering chains and national

food retailers. The result indicates that there is a strong interdependence between perceived environmental cost and perceived environmentally informed consumer demand, is affecting environmental information sharing and Green Supply Chain Management practice. In the end the authors suggests that there are some issues related with vertical integration and end users effect on Green Supply Chain Management practice that are to e studied. Zanon et al (2013), identified and analyzed the elements affecting the acquiring of Green Supply Chain Management practice. To conduct this study they surveyed 100 companies of Brazilian electronic sector for data collection and used regression and variance methods for statistical analysis. By using company size, EMS, Hazardous Substances, stronger player in the supply chain (bargaining power), degree of GSCM practice adoption and after analyzing them they concluded the result that company size, EMS and involvement of hazardous materials are positively affecting the GSCM practices. Whereas the term stronger player in the supply chain (bargaining power), is not confirmed as the key factor of GSCM practice adoption. In addition to this the authors suggest that the new researchers should consider other stakeholders from Brazilian electronics sector. Tate et al (2009), analyzed the link between green, lean, and global supply chain strategies and their implication as business strategies. They used wide range of literature reviews as for this study as the research design. The key terms they used in their research are globalization impact, development of sustainability, producing leanly, managing environment and supply chain management. After thorough scrutiny of the papers they dig out the barriers, drivers, converging and contradictory points over these three strategies. They conclude their result that by implementing these strategies they were very able in cost reduction, consumer demands, international standards, and risk. They quoted Toyota Corporation as the prime example of supply chain strategies. In the last, they recommended that these three strategies should be thoroughly examined in global conditions. They advise that in order to seek more about implementations and barriers of these strategies, future researches should be done through grounded theories like interviews and surveys.

Zou & Couani (2012), discussed green development of Supply Chain Management as the new business race. In this paper they discussed that there are some risks that have a remarkable risk linked with green supply chain management. For this study they go for survey questionnaires filled out by selected industrial professionals from Australia. Their results identifies that there are two very significant risks associated with Green Supply Chain that are lacking in the commitment in the supply chain to go green and higher cost of investments. In addition the result also showed that there can be a remarkable improvement if research work is done on training and education, coordination in supply chain, knowledge & information sharing and merger of experience and technology application. In the end they recommended that global data bases should be maintained in order to form standards and to share information that could help in implementing Green Supply Chain Management more effectively. Muller & Seuring (2008), investigated the core issues regarding Green Supply Chain Management. To carry out their research they were assisted by the Delphi technique in which they took a team of experts and asked them to share their opinion about the Green Supply Management implementation and the barriers resisting it. The committee extracted four major issues that are incentives and pressure for sustainable supply chain management, identification and measurement of impacts on supply chain management, supplier management, and supply chain management. In the end the authors recommended that future research should to figure out the factors that cause these issues. In the end they suggest that the government should take measures and implement multilateral trade agreements to include environmental norms. In addition to this they said that the local government should restrict the businesses to develop initiatives to improve environmental supply chains. Chien & Shih (2007) inquired the adoption of green supply chain practices by Taiwan electrical and electronic industry. The adoption in this industry was the result of implementation of restriction of environmental supply chain practices from European Union. In this study the authors briefly studied the relation and impact of green supply chain, environmental performance and financial stability. To conduct this study the researchers used literature review, interviews and surveys of ISO 14001 certified

companies in the year 2004. The researchers applied reliability test, validity test, measurement of central tendencies, Root mean square residual, RMSEA, chi-square, test on their variables: environmental performance, green supply chain, green procurement, green manufacturing, and financial performance. The result showed a very positive point that the adoption of Original Equipment Manufacturing and Original Desigining and manufacturing manufactures have a very graceful impact of attaining the goal of Green Supply Chain Management. In addition they got control on wast management, and costs of good they manufacture. Hu & Hsu (2008), interrogated the reliability and consistency of Green Supply Chain Management practices in Taiwan electronic industry. Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, likert scaling, factor analyses and interviewing approach was applied on the variables GSCM, priority approaches, green purchasing, TQM, customer focus, zero waste, life cycle analysis and continuous improvement. The results clarify that the Taiwan electric industry mainly considers the supplier management performance in implementing Green Supply Chain Management. But they recommended that establishment of environmental databases, and involvement of top management is the most important approaches to attain the Sustainable Supply Chain Management. Handfield et al (2008), discussed the relationship of EMS and GSCM, their drivers, barriers and implementation. In this research they used a survey questionnaire filled by 489 facility managers in 2003. The survey was developed and pre-tested by OECD and academic researchers. The sample was then interrogated by post hoc Harman single factor test, factor analysis, fishers exact and chi square test. In the result they concluded that adoption of EMS can enhance GSCM practices and results by up to 22%. In the end the researchers suggests that EMS adopter are comparatively more capable of improving environment not only in their business limits but also in their vendors and customers networks. Walker & Brammer (2009), examined the sustainable procurement in the government sector of United Kingdom. This study consists on interviews and on the survey questionnaire filled by 106 government procurement officers. After analyzing sample the authors concluded that a considerable fluctuation is present in the public

sector in the sustainable procurement practices. They discussed that the government sector commonly prefer the local suppliers, and due to which the sustainable procurement practices are generally neglected. Education is considered as the key influencer in this matter and cost is considered as leading resistance. In the end they recommend that same level of investigation should be done in the European countries as to compare and study the differences of approaches and results. Vachon (2009), analyzed the link between Green Supply Chain and the Environmental technologies. In this paper author focused on the survey from US and Canadian package printing industry. In this research, author used Chi-square, GFI, TLI, AGFI, CFI, NFI, and RMSEA tests were applied on the variables Environmental collaboration, Environmental monitoring, supply base size and customer concentration. The results indicated that environmental collaboration with suppliers is positively influencing the waste management procedures. And customer concentration has a limited share in greening the supply chain management. Lai et al (2006), discussed Green Supply Chain Management practices as the missing gap in Supply Chain Management. To judge their study they go for different case studies and took a cross sectional survey of automobile, chemical/petroleum, electrical/electronic and power generating industries in china. For the evaluation of their study they applied Chi-square, Factor analysis, Cronbachs alpha, correlation, and ANOVA on the variables IEM, GP, CC, IR, ECO and GSCM. The result shows that adoption of Green Supply Chain Management is based upon the capacity of the business. The capacity of the firm in adopting GSCM is depended upon the investments, motivation, technology implementations, and knowledge. Tu et al (2008), investigated the role of trust and information sharing in green supply chains with the respect of cooperation and competition. For the evaluation of this study the sample was consisted of 288 ISO certified major sustainable producing businesses in Taiwan and 22 research papers were cross investigated. The author

concluded their result that trust and knowledge sharing in terms of participation, communication, shared values and learning capacity plays a very significantly productive role in Greening the Supply Chain. Whereas competition and opportunistic

behavior might be very harmful for Green supply Chain. In the end the authors recommended that the supply chain management team should focus on knowledge sharing and cooperative behaviors and action and also look forward for the advancement of trust based relationships so the goal of competitive advantage of knowledge sharing could be achieved.