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Temporal lobe Prosopagnosia o Damage to the inferior temporal cortex, typically on R.

. o Unable to identify familiar individuals by their facial characteristics. Patient LH: Damage to R temporal lobe traumatic in!ury " R#$% &ouldn't recognise familiar faces, report that they (ere familiar or ans(er )uestions about faces from memory. &ould identify particular people by non*facial cues e.g. voice, body, shape, gait. &ould still identify other ob!ects. +ace*responsive neurons o +ire in response to faces. ,ot generally in response to other complex ob!ects or to components of the face reconfigured randomly. o Response is invariant over many transformations. o -ome neurons (hich discriminate very specifically e.g. orientation of face, even ga.e direction o -ome respond to expression o -ome respond to a particular identity over a range of expressions% o -ome argue that this is inborn face units present in baby mon/eys% o 0thers argue that it develops over the course of life " type of expertise can be seen for e.g. dogs, cars if expert1long*trained% Parallel: $lexia o 2nability to recognise (ords presented visually. o $rea (ithin 0# (hich responds only to (ords and not (ord*li/e stimuli " couldn't have developed for purpose of reading therefore must develop in the course of learning to read. Parietal Lobe &linical: Parietal lobe lesions contralateral neglect syndrome. $nimal studies: o -ingle neuron recordings ,eurons in specific regions of parietal cortex of the rhesus mon/ey are activated (hen the animal attends to a target e.g. a light associated (ith re(ard !uice%%. $ctivity of some neurons in parietal cortex varied systematically as a function of the amount of !uice associated (ith each target and therefore the amount of attention paid. o 3ehavioural studies indicate that attended stimuli are responded to ma/e )uic/ly and more accurately than unattended stimuli. f4R2 scans of human ss as/ed to pay attention to a visual stimulus in the lo(er visual hemifield reveal enhanced neural responses to those stimuli in the corresponding retinotopic portion of the contralateral occipital cortex. 5lectrophysiological recordings from single ,s in extrastriate visual cortex in mon/eys reveal enhanced neural responses to visual stimuli (hen attended compared to (hen ignored. 3alint's syndrome normally follo(s bilateral parietal cortex lesions% o -imultagnosia #ypically can recognise single ob!ects but can't compute spatial relationships bet(een ob!ects. Perform poorly if as/ed if t(o rectangles at top or bottom of ovals. Perform (ell (hen as/ed if eyes (ere at top or bottom of face. $ble to use ventral face processing stream but not dorsal spatial processing. Points about attention in schizophrenia Latent inhibition -ome evidence that acute schi.ophrenics exhibit impaired latent inhibition although this is controversial% o Latent inhibition is the normal decrement in the rate of association of a &- and a U- that occurs (hen the to*be*conditioned stimulus is initially pre*exposed to the sub!ect (ithout the U-. -ome authors have claimed that this can be mimic/ed in 6healthy7 sub!ects given amphetamine 8a role for D$% and animal models. $ntipsychotics D$ R antagonists% normalise L2 in these patients and models. 2mpaired L2 also seen in high schi.otypal individuals. &ognitive explanation is that associations may be formed )uic/ly (ithout ta/ing into account prior experience% and may persist despite ne( information. Pre-pulse inhibition PP2: Presentation of the same stimulus at a lo(er intensity, prior to presentation of the normal stimulus, reduces the startle response. $mphetamine impairs the startle response in animals. 2mpaired PP2 seen in schi.ophrenia respond to all stimuli (hether salient or not. Reversed by antipsychotics.

Backward masking Present the target, follo(ed by an inter*stimulus interval 2-2% follo(ed by a mas/ noise or structure%. -chi.ophrenics need a longer 2-2 to identify the target deficit is reduced by medication%. Proposed explanations: o Perceptual deficit in ventral stream such that grouping and shape segregation is impaired8 o 9or/ing memory deficit8 Presentation of mas/ shortly after (ould interfere (ith maintenance of information 6online7 in the absence of (or/ing memory. o Reduced signal*to*noise ratio8