You are on page 1of 14

THE ISF TOEFL MOCK TEST SECTION 1 READING This section measures your ability to understand academic passages

s in English. ou can s!ip "uestions and go bac! to them later as long as there is time remaining. #o$ begin the %eading section. Reading Passage 1 This section has a reading passage about the impacts of meteorites on Earth and 12 questions. Think carefully before you select an answer. Questions 1 - 12 Read the passage. Then answer the questions below. After you have answered the first 11 questions you will answer a !ummary "uestion . Meteorite Impact and &inosaur E'tinction There is increasing e(idence that the impacts o) meteorites ha(e had important e))ects on Earth* particularly in the )ield o) biological e(olution. Such impacts continue to pose a natural ha+ard to li)e on Earth. T$ice in the t$entieth century* large meteorite ob,ects are !no$n to ha(e collided $ith Earth. I) an impact is large enough* it can disturb the en(ironment o) the entire Earth and cause an ecological catastrophe. The best-documented such impact too! place ./ million years ago at the end o) the Cretaceous period o) geological history. This brea! in Earth0s history is mar!ed by a mass e'tinction* $hen as many as hal) the species on the planet became e'tinct. 1hile there are a do+en or more mass e'tinctions in the geological record* the Cretaceous mass e'tinction has al$ays intrigued paleontologists because it mar!s the end o) the age o) the dinosaurs. For tens o) millions o) years* those great creatures had )lourished. Then* suddenly* they disappeared. The body that impacted Earth at the end o) the Cretaceous period $as a meteorite $ith a mass o) more than a trillion tons and a diameter o) at least 23 !ilometers. Scientists )irst identi)ied this impact in 2453 )rom the $orld$ide layer o) sediment deposited )rom the dust cloud that en(eloped the planet a)ter the impact. This sediment layer is enriched in the rare metal iridium and other elements that are relati(ely abundant in a meteorite but (ery rare in the crust o) Earth. E(en diluted by the terrestrial material e'ca(ated )rom the crater* this component o) meteorites is easily identi)ied. 6y 2443 geologists had located the impact site itsel) in the ucat7n region o) Me'ico. The crater* no$ deeply buried in sediment* $as originally about 833 !ilometers in diameter. This impact released an enormous amount o) energy* e'ca(ating a crater about t$ice as large as the lunar crater Tycho. The e'plosion li)ted about 233 trillion tons o) dust into the atmosphere* as can be determined by measuring the thic!ness o) the sediment layer )ormed $hen this dust settled to the sur)ace. Such a "uantity o) material $ould ha(e bloc!ed the sunlight completely )rom reaching the sur)ace* plunging Earth into a period o) cold and dar!ness that lasted at least se(eral months. The e'plosion is also calculated to ha(e produced (ast "uantities o) nitric acid and melted roc! that sprayed out o(er much o) Earth* starting $idespread )ires that must ha(e consumed most terrestrial )orests and grassland. 9resumably* those en(ironmental disasters could ha(e been responsible )or the mass e'tinction* including the death o) the dinosaurs. Se(eral other mass e'tinctions in the geological record ha(e been tentati(ely identi)ied $ith large impacts* but none is so dramatic as the Cretaceous e(ent. 6ut e(en $ithout such speci)ic documentation* it is clear that impacts o) this si+e do occur and that their results can be

catastrophic. 1hat is a catastrophe )or one group o) li(ing things* ho$e(er* may create opportunities )or another group. Follo$ing each mass e'tinction* there is a sudden e(olutionary burst as ne$ species de(elop to )ill the ecological niches opened by the e(ent. Impacts by meteorites represent one mechanism that could cause global catastrophes and seriously in)luence the e(olution o) li)e all o(er the planet. [A] :ccording to some estimates* the ma,ority o) all e'tinctions o) species may be due to such impacts. [B] Such a perspecti(e )undamentally changes our (ie$ o) biological e(olution. [C] The standard criterion )or the sur(i(al o) a species is its success in competing $ith other species and adapting to slo$ly changing en(ironments. [D] et an e"ually important criterion is the ability o) a species to sur(i(e random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts. Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting gallery* sub,ect to random (iolent e(ents that $ere unsuspected a )e$ decades ago. In 2442 the ;nited States Congress as!ed #:S: to in(estigate the ha+ard posed today by large impacts on Earth. The group conducting the study concluded )rom a detailed analysis that impacts )rom meteorites can indeed be ha+ardous. :lthough there is al$ays some ris! that a large impact could occur* care)ul study sho$s that this ris! is "uite small. Questions 2. The $ord <pose0 on line 8 is closest in meaning to := claim 6= model C= assume &= present 8. In paragraph 8* $hy does the author include the in)ormation that dinosaurs had )lourished )or tens o) millions o) years and then suddenly disappeared> := To support the claim that the mass e'tinction at the end o) the Cretaceous is the bestdocumented o) the do+en or so mass e'tinctions in the geological record. 6= To e'plain $hy as many as hal) o) the species on Earth at the time are belie(ed to ha(e become e'tinct at the end o) the Cretaceous. C= To e'plain $hy paleontologists ha(e al$ays been intrigued by the mass e'tinction at the end o) the Cretaceous. &= To pro(ide e(idence that an impact can be large enough to disturb the en(ironment o) the entire planet and cause an ecological disaster. ?. 1hich o) the )ollo$ing can be in)erred )rom paragraph ? about the location o) the meteorite impact in Me'ico> := The location o) the impact site in Me'ico $as !ept secret by geologists )rom 2453 to 2443. 6= It $as a $ell-!no$n )act that the impact had occurred in the ucat7n region. C= @eologists !ne$ that there had been an impact be)ore they !ne$ $here it had occurred. &= The ucat7n region $as chosen by geologists as the most probable impact site because o) its climate. A. :ccording to paragraph ?* ho$ did scientists determine that a large meteorite had impacted Earth> := They disco(ered a large crater in the ucat7n region o) Me'ico. 6= They )ound a uni"ue layer o) sediment $orld$ide. C= They $ere alerted by archaeologists $ho had been e'ca(ating in the ucat7n region. &= They located a meteorite $ith a mass o) o(er a trillion tons.

/. The $ord <e'ca(ating0* in paragraph A* is closest in meaning to := digging out 6= e'tending C= destroying &= co(ering up .. :ccording to paragraph A* all o) the )ollo$ing statements are true o) the impact at the end o) the Cretaceous period EBCE9TC := : large amount o) dust bloc!ed sunlight )rom Earth. 6= Earth became cold and dar! )or se(eral months. C= #e$ elements $ere )ormed in Earth0s crust. &= Large "uantities o) nitric acid $ere produced. D. The $ord <perspecti(e0* in paragraph /* is closest in meaning to := sense o) (alues 6= point o) (ie$ C= calculation &= complication 5. 9aragraph . supports $hich o) the )ollo$ing statements about the )actors that are essential )or the sur(i(al o) a species> := The most important )actor )or the sur(i(al o) a species is its ability to compete and adapt to gradual changes in its en(ironment. 6= The ability o) a species to compete and adapt to a gradually changing en(ironment is not the only ability that is essential )or sur(i(al. C= Since most e'tinctions o) species are due to ma,or meteorite impacts* the ability to sur(i(e such impacts is the most important )actor )or the sur(i(al o) a species. &= The )actors that are most important )or the sur(i(al o) a species (ary signi)icantly )rom one species to another. 4. 1hich o) the sentences belo$ best e'presses the essential in)ormation in the )ollo$ing sentence> Earth is a target in a cosmic shooting gallery* sub,ect to random (iolent e(ents that $ere unsuspected a )e$ decades ago. := ;ntil recently* nobody reali+ed that Earth is e'posed to unpredictable (iolent impacts )rom space. 6= In the last )e$ decades* the ris! o) a random (iolent impact )rom space has increased. C= Since most (iolent e(ents on Earth occur randomly* nobody can predict $hen or $here they $ill happen. &= : )e$ decades ago* Earth became the target o) random (iolent e(ents originating in outer space. 23. :ccording to the passage* $ho conducted in(estigations about the current dangers posed by large meteorite impacts on Earth> := 9aleontologists 6= @eologists C= The ;nited States Congress &= #:S:

22. Loo! at the )our letters E:* 6* C* and &= that indicate $here the )ollo$ing sentence could be added to the passage in paragraph .. This is the criterion emphasi+ed by &ar$in0s theory o) e(olution by natural selection. Choose the place $here the sentence )its best. := Option F:G 6= Option F6G C= Option FCG &= Option F&G Su!!a"# Question :n introductory sentence )or a brie) summary o) the passage is pro(ided belo$. Complete the summary by selecting the TH%EE ans$er choices that e'press the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they e'press ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. 1rite your ans$er choices in the spaces $here they belong. ou can $rite in the number o) the ans$er choice or the $hole sentence.

Scientists ha(e lin!ed the mass e'tinction at the end o) the Cretaceous $ith a meteorite impact on Earth.

Ans$e" %&oi%es E:= Scientists had belie(ed )or centuries that meteorite acti(ity in)luenced e(olution on Earth. E6= The site o) the large meteorite impact at the end o) the Cretaceous period $as identi)ied in 2443. EC= There ha(e also been large meteorite impacts on the sur)ace o) the Moon* lea(ing craters li!e Tycho. E&= :n iridium-enriched sediment layer and a large impact crater in the ucat7n pro(ide e(idence that a large meteorite struc! Earth about ./ million years ago. EE= Large meteorite impacts* such as one at the end o) the Cretaceous period* can seriously a))ect climate* ecological niches* plants* and animals. EF= Meteorite impacts can be ad(antageous )or some species* $hich thri(e* and disastrous )or other species* $hich become e'tinct.

Reading 'assage 2 This section has a reading passage about the development of language and grammar and 1# questions. Think carefully before you select an answer. Questions 1-1( Read the passage. Then answer the questions below. After you have answered the first $ questions you will answer a !ummary "uestion . The Creators o) @rammar #o student o) a )oreign language needs to be told that grammar is comple'. 6y changing $ord se"uences and by adding a range o) au'iliary (erbs and su))i'es* $e are able to communicate tiny (ariations in meaning. 1e can turn a statement into a "uestion* state $hether an action has ta!en place or is soon to ta!e place* and per)orm many other $ord tric!s to con(ey subtle di))erences in meaning. #or is this comple'ity inherent to the English language. :ll languages* e(en those o) so-called Hprimiti(eH tribes ha(e cle(er grammatical components. The Chero!ee pronoun system* )or e'ample* can distinguish bet$een Hyou and IH* Hse(eral other people and IH and Hyou* another person and IH. In English* all these meanings are summed up in the one* crude pronoun H$eH. @rammar is uni(ersal and plays a part in e(ery language* no matter ho$ $idespread it is. So the "uestion that has ba))led many linguists is - $ho created grammar> :t )irst* it $ould appear that this "uestion is impossible to ans$er. To )ind out ho$ grammar is created* someone needs to be present at the time o) a languageHs creation* documenting its emergence. Many historical linguists are able to trace modern comple' languages bac! to earlier languages* but in order to ans$er the "uestion o) ho$ comple' languages are actually )ormed* the researcher needs to obser(e ho$ languages are started )rom scratch. :ma+ingly* ho$e(er* this is possible. Some o) the most recent languages e(ol(ed due to the :tlantic sla(e trade. :t that time* sla(es )rom a number o) di))erent ethnicities $ere )orced to $or! together under coloni+erHs rule. Since they had no opportunity to learn each otherHs languages* they de(eloped a ma!e-shi)t language called a pidgin. 9idgins are strings o) $ords copied )rom the language o) the lando$ner. They ha(e little in the $ay o) grammar* and in many cases it is di))icult )or a listener to deduce $hen an e(ent happened* and $ho did $hat to $hom. [A] Spea!ers need to use circumlocution in order to ma!e their meaning understood. [B] Interestingly* ho$e(er* all it ta!es )or a pidgin to become a comple' language is )or a group o) children to be e'posed to it at the time $hen they learn their mother tongue. [C] Sla(e children did not simply copy the strings o) $ords uttered by their elders* they adapted their $ords to create a ne$* e'pressi(e language. [D] Comple' grammar systems $hich emerge )rom pidgins are termed creoles* and they are in(ented by children. Further e(idence o) this can be seen in studying sign languages )or the dea). Sign languages are not simply a series o) gesturesI they utilise the same grammatical machinery that is )ound in spo!en languages. Moreo(er* there are many di))erent languages used $orld$ide. The creation o) one such language $as documented "uite recently in #icaragua. 9re(iously* all dea) people $ere isolated )rom each other* but in 24D4 a ne$ go(ernment introduced schools )or the dea). :lthough children $ere taught speech and lip reading in the classroom* in the playgrounds they began to in(ent their o$n sign system* using the gestures that they used at home. It $as basically a pidgin. Each child used the signs di))erently* and there $as no consistent grammar. Ho$e(er* children $ho ,oined the school later* $hen this in(enti(e sign system $as already around* de(eloped a "uite di))erent sign language. :lthough it $as based on the signs o) the older children* the younger childrenHs language $as more )luid and compact* and it utilised a large range o) grammatical de(ices to clari)y meaning. 1hat is more* all the children used the signs in the same $ay. : ne$ creole $as born. Some linguists belie(e that many o) the $orldHs most established languages $ere creoles at )irst. The English past tense Jed ending may ha(e e(ol(ed )rom the (erb HdoH. HIt endedH may

once ha(e been HIt end-didH. There)ore it $ould appear that e(en the most $idespread languages $ere partly created by children. Children appear to ha(e innate grammatical machinery in their brains* $hich springs to li)e $hen they are )irst trying to ma!e sense o) the $orld around them. Their minds can ser(e to create logical* comple' structures* e(en $hen there is no grammar present )or them to copy. Questions 2. In paragraph 2* $hy does the $riter include in)ormation about the Chero!ee language> KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices3 N:L;EL 3 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect:= To sho$ ho$ simple* traditional cultures can ha(e complicated grammar structures KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices3 N:L;EL 2 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect6= To sho$ ho$ English grammar di))ers )rom Chero!ee grammar KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices3 N:L;EL 8 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectC= To pro(e that comple' grammar structures $ere in(ented by the Chero!ees. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices3 N:L;EL ? O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect&= To demonstrate ho$ di))icult it is to learn the Chero!ee language 8. 1hat can be in)erred about the sla(esH pidgin language> KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices2 N:L;EL 3 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect:= It contained comple' grammar. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices2 N:L;EL 2 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect6= It $as based on many di))erent languages. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices2 N:L;EL 8 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectC= It $as di))icult to understand* e(en among sla(es. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices2 N:L;EL ? O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect&= It $as created by the land-o$ners.

?. :ll the )ollo$ing sentences about #icaraguan sign language are true EBCE9TC KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices8 N:L;EL 3 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect:= The language has been created since 24D4. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices8 N:L;EL 2 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect6= The language is based on speech and lip reading. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices8 N:L;EL 8 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectC= The language incorporates signs $hich children used at home. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices8 N:L;EL ? O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect&= The language $as per)ected by younger children. A. In paragraph ?* $here can the )ollo$ing sentence be placed> It included standardised $ord orders and grammatical mar!ers that e'isted in neither the pidgin language* nor the language o) the coloni+ers. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices? N:L;EL 3 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect:= Option F:G 6= Option F6G C= Option FCG &= Option F&G

/. HFrom scratchH in paragraph 8 is closest in meaning toC KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choicesA N:L;EL 3 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect:= )rom the (ery beginning KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choicesA N:L;EL 2 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect6= in simple cultures

KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choicesA N:L;EL 8 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectC= by copying something else KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choicesA N:L;EL ? O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect&= by using $ritten in)ormation .. 1hich sentence is closest in meaning to the highlighted sentence> @rammar is uni(ersal and plays a part in e(ery language* no matter ho$ $idespread it is. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices. N:L;EL 3 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect:= :ll languages* $hether they are spo!en by a )e$ people or a lot o) people* contain grammar. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices. N:L;EL 2 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect6= Some languages include a lot o) grammar* $hereas other languages contain a little. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices. N:L;EL 8 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectC= Languages $hich contain a lot o) grammar are more common that languages that contain a little. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices. N:L;EL ? O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect&= The grammar o) all languages is the same* no matter $here the languages e(ol(ed.

D. :ll o) the )ollo$ing are )eatures o) the ne$ #icaraguan sign language EBCE9TC KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choicesD N:L;EL 3 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect:= :ll children used the same gestures to sho$ meaning. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choicesD N:L;EL 2 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect6= The meaning $as clearer than the pre(ious sign language. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choicesD N:L;EL 8 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectC= The hand mo(ements $ere smoother and smaller. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choicesD N:L;EL ? O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect&= #e$ gestures $ere created )or e(eryday ob,ects and acti(ities. 5. 1hich idea is presented in the )inal paragraph> KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices5 N:L;EL 3 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect:= English $as probably once a creole. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices5 N:L;EL 2 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect6= The English past tense system is inaccurate. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices5 N:L;EL 8 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectC= Linguists ha(e pro(en that English $as created by children. KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices5 N:L;EL ? O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect&= Children say English past tenses di))erently )rom adults. 4. Loo! at the $ord HconsistentH in paragraph A. This $ord could best be replaced by $hich o) the )ollo$ing> KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices4 N:L;EL 3 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect:= natural KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices4 N:L;EL 2 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect6= predictable KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices4 N:L;EL 8 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectC= imaginable KI#9;T T 9ELM radio #:MEL choices4 N:L;EL ? O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect&= uni)orm

Su!!a"# Question 1hich TH%EE ideas best sum up the main ideas o) the passage>

KI#9;T T 9ELM chec!bo' N:L;EL 3 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect:= Some children are better at grammar than others. KI#9;T T 9ELM chec!bo' N:L;EL 2 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect6= Children ha(e the mental capacity to create comple' languages. KI#9;T T 9ELM chec!bo' N:L;EL 8 O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectC= Children are better at learning grammar than adults. KI#9;T T 9ELM chec!bo' N:L;EL ? O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irect&= Children pre)er to in(ent their o$n grammar rules than to copy e'isting rules. KI#9;T T 9ELM chec!bo' N:L;EL A O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectE= Children do not only learn grammar by copying other people. KI#9;T T 9ELM chec!bo' N:L;EL / O M:C%O6;TTO# HTML&irectF= :ll creole languages $ere per)ected by children.

Reading 'assage ) This section has a reading passage about smart energy and 1# questions. Think carefully before you select an answer. Questions 11( Read the passage. Then answer the questions below. After you have answered the first $ questions you will answer a !ummary "uestion . Smart Energy The ne't )e$ decades $ill see great changes in the $ay energy is supplied and used. In some ma,or oil producing nations* Hpea! oilH has already been reached* and there are increasing )ears o) global $arming. Conse"uently* many countries are )ocusing on the s$itch to a lo$ carbon economy. This transition $ill lead to ma,or changes in the supply and use o) electricity. [A] Firstly* there $ill be an increase in o(erall demand* as consumers s$itch )rom oil and gas to electricity to po$er their homes and (ehicles. [B] Secondly* there $ill be an increase in po$er generation* not only in terms o) ho$ much is generated* but also ho$ it is generated* as there is gro$ing electricity generation )rom rene$able sources. [C] To meet these challenges* countries are in(esting in Smart @rid technology. [D] This system aims to pro(ide the electricity industry $ith a better understanding o) po$er generation and demand* and to use this in)ormation to create a more e))icient po$er net$or!. Smart @rid technology basically in(ol(es the application o) a computer system to the electricity net$or!. The computer system can be used to collect in)ormation about supply and demand and impro(e engineerHs ability to manage the system. 1ith better in)ormation about electricity demand* the net$or! $ill be able to increase the amount o) electricity deli(ered per unit generated* leading to potential reductions in )uel needs and carbon emissions. Moreo(er* the computer system $ill assist in reducing operational and maintenance costs. Smart @rid technology o))ers bene)its to the consumer too. They $ill be able to collect real-time in)ormation on their energy use )or each appliance. Narying tari))s throughout the day $ill gi(e customers the incenti(e to use appliances at times $hen supply greatly e'ceeds demand* leading to great reductions in bills. For e'ample* they may use their $ashing machines at night. Smart meters can also be connected to the internet or telephone system* allo$ing customers to s$itch appliances on or o)) remotely. Furthermore* i) houses are )itted $ith the apparatus to generate their o$n po$er* appliances can be set to run directly )rom the on-site po$er source* and any e'cess can be sold to the grid. 1ith these changes comes a range o) challenges. The )irst in(ol(es managing the supply and demand. Sources o) rene$able energy* such as $ind* $a(e and solar* are notoriously unpredictable* and nuclear po$er* $hich is also set to increase as nations s$itch to alternati(e energy sources* is in)le'ible. 1ith oil and gas* it is relati(ely simple to increase the supply o) energy to match the increasing demand during pea! times o) the day or year. 1ith alternati(e sources* this is )ar more di))icult* and may lead to blac!outs or system collapse. 9otential solutions include in(estigating ne$ and e))icient $ays to store energy and encouraging consumers to use electricity at o))-pea! times. : second problem is the )act that many rene$able po$er generation sources are located in remote areas* such as $indy uplands and coastal regions* $here there is currently a lac! o) electrical in)rastructure. #e$ in)rastructures there)ore must be built. Than!)ully* $ith impro(ed smart technology* this can be done more e))iciently by reducing the rein)orcement or construction costs. :lthough Smart Technology is still in its in)ancy* pilot schemes to promote and test it are already under$ay. Consumers are currently testing the ne$ smart meters $hich can be used in their homes to manage electricity use. There are also a number o) demonstrations being planned to sho$ ho$ the smart technology could practically $or!* and trials are in place to test the ne$ electrical in)rastructure. It is li!ely that technology $ill be added in HlayersH* starting $ith

H"uic! $inH methods $hich $ill pro(ide initial carbon sa(ings* to be )ollo$ed by more ad(anced systems at a later date. Cities are prime candidates )or in(estment into smart energy* due to the high population density and high-energy use. It is here $here Smart Technology is li!ely to be promoted )irst* utilising a range o) sustainable po$er sources* transport solutions and an in)rastructure )or charging electrically po$ered (ehicles. The in)rastructure is already changing )ast. 6y the year 83/3* changes in the energy supply $ill ha(e trans)ormed our homes* our roads and our beha(iour. Questions 2. :ccording to paragraph 2* $hat has happened in some oil producing countries> := They are un$illing to sell their oil any more. 6= They are not producing as much oil as they used to. C= The supply o) oil is unpredictable. &= @lobal $arming is more se(er here than in other countries. 8. 1here in paragraph 2 can the )ollo$ing sentence be placed> There is also li!ely more electricity generation centres* as households and communities ta!e up the opportunity to install photo(oltaic cells and small-scale $ind turbines. := Option F:G 6= Option F6G C= Option FCG &= Option F&G ?. 1hich o) the )ollo$ing is #OT a bene)it o) Smart @rid technology to consumers> := It can reduce their electricity bills. 6= It can tell them ho$ much energy each appliance is using. C= It can allo$ them to turn appliances on and o)) $hen they are not at home. &= It can reduce the amount o) energy needed to po$er appliances. A. :ccording to paragraph A* $hat is the problem $ith using rene$able sources o) po$er> := They do not pro(ide much energy. 6= They o)ten cause system )ailure and blac!outs. C= They do not supply a continuous )lo$ o) energy. &= They canHt be used at o))-pea! times. /. In paragraph /* $hat can be in)erred about cities in the )uture> := More people $ill be li(ing in cities in the )uture than no$adays. 6= 9eople in cities $ill be using cars and buses po$ered by electricity. C= :ll buildings $ill generate their o$n electricity. &= Smart @rid technology $ill only be a(ailable in cities. .. The $ord HremoteH in paragraph / could be best replace byC := isolated 6= cro$ded C= attracti(e &= alone

D. The $ord Hunder$ayH in paragraph . is closest in meaning toC

:= permanent 6= complete C= bene)icial &= in progress 5. 1hat is the main idea o) the )inal paragraph> Eparagraph .=. := To describe $ho $ill bene)it )rom Smart @rid technology )irst. 6= To outline the ad(antages o) Smart @rid technology. C= To summarise the main ideas in the pre(ious paragraphs. &= To describe ho$* $here and $hen Smart Technology $ill be introduced. 4. In paragraph .* $hat can be in)erred about the introduction o) Smart @rid Technology> := The technologies $hich produce most bene)its $ill be introduced )irst. 6= The cheapest technologies $ill be introduced )irst. C= The technologies $hich are most di))icult to put into place $ill be introduced )irst. &= Technologically ad(anced systems $ill be introduced )irst.

Su!!a"# Question 1hich TH%EE o) the aspects belo$ are ans$ered in the passage> := Ho$ consumers are li!ely to respond to Smart @rid technology. 6= The problems $hich $ill ha(e to be o(ercome in s$itching to Smart @rid technology. C= The reasons $hy Smart @rid technology $ill be needed in the )uture. &= : comparison bet$een Smart @rid technology and the present electrical distribution system. E= The $ays Smart @rid technology $ill a))ect the $ay consumers use energy. F= :n analysis o) the costs and bene)its o) Smart @rid technology.

Reading Passage * This section has a reading passage about monkey economics and % questions. Think carefully before you select an answer.

Questions 1 + Read the passage. Then answer the questions below. After you have answered the first & questions you will answer a !ummary "uestion .

Ris,-Ta,ing and t&e -on,e# E%ono!# Humans are uni"uely smart among all the other species on the planet. 1e are capable o) outstanding )eats o) technology and engineering. Then $hy are $e so prone to ma!ing mista!es> :nd $hy do $e tend to ma!e the same ones time and time again> 1hen 9rimate 9sychologist Laurie Santos )rom the Comparati(e Cognition Lab at ale ;ni(ersity posed this "uestion to her team* they $ere thin!ing in particular o) the errors o) ,udgement $hich led to the recent collapse o) the )inancial mar!ets. Santos came to t$o possible ans$ers to this "uestion. Either humans ha(e designed en(ironments $hich are too comple' )or us to )ully understand* or $e are biologically prone to ma!ing bad decisions. In order to test these theories* the team selected a group o) 6ro$n Capuchin mon!eys. Mon!eys $ere selected )or the test because* as distant relati(es o) humans* they are intelligent and ha(e the capacity to learn. Ho$e(er* they are not in)luenced by any o) the technological or cultural en(ironments $hich a))ect human decision-ma!ing. The team $anted to test $hether the capuchin mon!eys* $hen put into similar situations as humans* $ould ma!e the same mista!es. [A] O) particular interest to the scientists $as $hether mon!eys $ould ma!e the same mista!es $hen ma!ing )inancial decisions. [B] In order to )ind out* they had to introduce the mon!eys to money. [C] The mon!eys soon cottoned on* and as $ell as learning simple e'change techni"ues* $ere soon able to distinguish HbargainsH J I) one team-member o))ered t$o grapes in e'change )or a metal disc and another team-member o))ered one grape* the mon!eys chose the t$o-grape option. [D] Interestingly* $hen the data about the mon!eyHs purchasing strategies $as compared $ith economistHs data on human beha(iour* there $as a per)ect match. So* a)ter establishing that the mon!ey mar!et $as operating e))ecti(ely* the team decided to introduce some problems $hich humans generally get $rong. One o) these issues is ris!ta!ing. Imagine that someone ga(e you P2333. In addition to this P2333* you can recei(e either := an additional P/33 or 6= someone tosses a coin and i) it lands HheadsH you recei(e an additional P2333* but i) it lands HtailsH you recei(e no more money. O) these options* most people tend to choose option :. They pre)er guaranteed earnings* rather than running the ris! o) recei(ing nothing. #o$ imagine a second situation in $hich you are gi(en P8333. #o$* you can choose to either := lose P/33* lea(ing you $ith a total o) P2/33* or 6= toss a coinI i) it lands HheadsH you lose nothing* but i) it lands HtailsH you lose P2333* lea(ing you $ith only P2333. Interestingly* $hen $e stand to lose money* $e tend to choose the more ris!y choice* option 6. :nd as $e !no$ )rom the e'perience o) )inancial in(estors and gamblers* it is un$ise to ta!e ris!s $hen $e are on a losing strea!. So $ould the mon!eys ma!e the same basic error o) ,udgement> The team put them to the test by gi(ing them similar options. In the )irst test* mon!eys had the option o) e'changing their disc )or one grape and recei(ing one bonus grape* or e'changing the grape )or one grape and sometimes recei(ing t$o bonus grapes and sometimes recei(ing no bonus. It turned out that mon!eys* li!e humans* chose the less ris!y option in times o) plenty. Then the e'periment $as re(ersed. Mon!eys $ere offered three grapes* but in option : $ere only actually given t$o

grapes. In option 6* they had a )i)ty-)i)ty chance o) recei(ing all three grapes or one grape only. The results $ere that mon!eys* li!e humans* ta!e more ris!s in times o) loss. The implications o) this e'periment are that because mon!eys ma!e the same irrational ,udgements that humans do* maybe human error is not a result o) the comple'ity o) our )inancial institutions* but is imbedded in our e(olutionary history. I) this is the case* our errors o) ,udgement $ill be (ery di))icult to o(ercome. On a more optimistic note ho$e(er* humans are )ully capable o) o(ercoming limitations once $e ha(e identi)ied them. 6y recognising them* $e can design technologies $hich $ill help us to ma!e better choices in )uture. Questions 2. 1hat $as the aim o) the e'periment outlined abo(e> := To in(estigate $hether mon!eys could learn to use money 6= To in(estigate $here human mista!es come )rom C= To )ind out $hether it is better to ta!e ris!s in times o) loss &= To determine $hether mon!eys ma!e more mista!es than humans 8. 1here in paragraph ? could the )ollo$ing sentence be best placed> The team distributed metal discs to the mon!eys* and taught them that the discs could be e'changed $ith team-members )or )ood. := Option F:G 6= Option F6G C= Option FCG &= Option F&G ?. 1hich o) the )ollo$ing statements is the best paraphrase o) the highlighted sentence belo$> On a more optimistic note ho$e(er* humans are )ully capable o) o(ercoming limitations once $e ha(e identi)ied them. := Hope)ully* humans $ill soon be able to sol(e these problems. 6= Fortunately* humans can sol(e problems that $e !no$ about. C= Luc!ily* humans do not ha(e many limitations $hich ha(e been identi)ied. &= 1e are happy to note that $e can sol(e the problem $hich $e ha(e identi)ied. A. The $ords Hcottoned onH are closest in meaning toC := learnt 6= !ne$ C= completed &= concluded /. 1hich paragraph addresses $hy mon!eys $ere chosen )or the e'periment> := 9aragraph 8 6= 9aragraph ? C= 9aragraph A &= 9aragraph / .. 1hat can be in)erred about Laurie Santos> := She thin!s that both humans and mon!eys are greedy. 6= Her ,ob )re"uently in(ol(es $or!ing $ith mon!eys. C= She belie(es that humans should ne(er ta!e ris!s. &= She pre)ers mon!eys to humans. D. The $ord they in the passage QHo$e(er* they are not in)luenced by any o) the technological or cultural en(ironments $hich a))ect human decision-ma!ingR re)ers to

:= Humans 6= &istant relati(es C= Mon!eys &= &istant relati(es o) humans Su!!a"# .uestion 1hich TH%EE o) the )ollo$ing statements are supported by the te't> := 6oth mon!eys and humans ta!e ris!s at any opportunity. 6= %is!-ta!ing beha(iour among humans is the same as that among mon!eys. C= Human mista!es are due to the comple'ity o) our en(ironment. &= Mon!eys and humans ta!e more ris!s i) there is the chance they $ill lose out. E= HumansH perception o) ris! has probably been part o) our minds )or millions o) years. F= Mon!eys ma!e )e$er errors o) ,udgement that humans do.