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An alternative ring-test geometry for the evaluation of friction under low normal pressure

S.B. Petersen a, P.A.F. Martins b,*, N. Bay a

a b

Laboratoriet for Mekaniske Materialeprocesser, Danmarks Tekniske Uni6ersitet, Bygn. 425, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark Departamento de Engenharia Meca nica, Instituto Superior Te cnico, A6. Ro6isco Pais, 1096 Lisboa Codex, Portugal Received 29 January 1997

Abstract Quantitative evaluation of the tribological conditions at the tool workpiece interface in metal forming is usually accomplished by the ring-compression test. The popularity of the test can be attributed to its practical convenience including the fact that friction can be judged from deformation alone. Due to the geometrical design of the conventional ring-test, the interface stresses will, however, always be greater than the ow stress of the material, thereby impeding quantication of friction, and evaluation of the behaviour of lubricants, for processes where interface stresses below the ow stress of the material occur. This paper presents a new complementary ring-test geometry, which allows the characterisation of friction under low pressure conditions. Finite-element analysis in conjunction with metal experiments applying both the conventional and the modied geometry for different lubricants provides the validation for the general feasibility of the proposed test geometry. 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Friction modelling; Ring-test; Low normal pressure; Finite elements

1. Introduction In metal forming, plastic deformation of the work material is effected by the pressure transmitted through the dies. The frictional conditions prevailing at the tool workpiece interface greatly inuence the stresses acting on the dies, and thereby the material ow and related formation of defects. In view of the recent improvements in the nite-element method, applied in the computer-aided engineering of metal-forming processes, further effort is to be placed on increasing the accuracy of the physical input data. Simulative tests play an important role in the calibration of such computer models in terms of material characterisation and quantication of friction. Especially in case of the latter, experience shows that due to the strongly simplied friction models usually adopted, one should be careful in selecting a simulative test that provides operational conditions similar to those prevailing in the actual process.

* Corresponding author. pmartins@stmw1.ist.utl.pt Fax: + 351 1 8474045; e-mail:

The ring compression test is the most commonly used experimental method for quantitative evaluation of friction in bulk metal forming for a given tool, material and lubricant combination. The test, proposed by Kunogi [1] and later developed to an operative level by Male and Cockcroft [2], consists in the compression of rings (usually; outside diameter/inside diameter/ height = 6/3/2) between at parallel platens. Changes in the internal diameter of the rings are dependent on the tribological conditions at the toolworkpiece interface; friction being evaluated by comparison with similar changes in geometry for a theoretical model assuming a given friction law. The latter is usually presented in the form of calibration curves relating the relative reduction in height with the relative change in the internal diameter. Early studies applied both upper-bound [35] and slab-method [6] techniques, whereas later analyses are based on the utilisation of the nite element-method [7] in order to take into account strain hardening, barrelling of the surfaces and eventual folding over. In all cases the law of constant friction, assuming an average friction factor m, was utilised, except for reference [6] where Coulomb friction was also adopted.

0924-0136/98/$19.00 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved. PII S0924-0136(97)00448-2

15

Recent investigations applying the nite element method [8] implied as well the utilisation of the Wanheim Bay general friction model also [9 11]. As was discussed in [8], the conventional ring-compression test always operates under tool workpiece interface normal stresses above the ow stress of the work material, often more than 1.5 times the ow stress. This fact makes the test unsuitable for simulation of the frictional conditions in processes such as forward extrusion at low reduction (container zone), rolling with front- and back-tension and also a number of sheet metal forming processes including stretch forming and deep drawing, all in which plastic deformation over considerable parts of the tool workpiece interface takes place under normal stresses lower than the ow stress of the material. A variant of the twist compression test for evaluation of friction under normal pressures approximately equal to the ow stress of the work material was proposed in [12]. In addition allowing direct measurement of the friction stress, a major advantage of this test is the possible independent variation of surface enlargement and sliding length under constant normal pressure. However, drawbacks are the requirements for complex special purpose tools and twist compression machinery equipped with transducers for load and torque measurement. In the present work the feasibility of a new complementary ring-test geometry for allowing the characterisation of friction under low pressure conditions (q 5 |0) has been tested. The proposed geometry (Fig. 1) is based on the standard ring-test proportions; outside diameter/inside diameter/height = 6/3/2, with an alternative double-conical outer prole (outer diameter/ smallest diameter = 6/4) providing an initial ratio of 3.86 between the tool workpiece contact area and the horizontal cross sectional area at the symmetry line. Hereby, a reduction of the tool workpiece interface stresses necessary to effect plastic deformation is ensured. As in the case of the conventional ring-compression test, calibration curves based on measurement of the changes in the smallest inside diameter during de-

Fig. 2. Nominal friction stress as a function of nominal normal pressure and friction factor for the Wanheim Bay friction model.

formation have been established using the nite element method. To emphasise the necessity of such a low pressure test, a comparison between the evaluation of friction for the conventional as well as the for the new geometry has been made for three different lubricants; calibration being based on both the law of constant friction and the WanheimBay general friction model.

2. Modelling

The friction model usually adopted in nite-element computer programs is either Amontons law ~n = vq or the law of constant friction, ~n = mk. In the simulation of bulk metal forming processes, the use of Amontons law gives occasion for an over-estimation of the friction stresses at the toolworkpiece interface, because the normal pressure often reaches values considerably greater than the ow stress of the material. Consequently, the friction stress becomes greater than the ow stress of the material in pure shear. Prompted by the difculties with Amontons law, several researchers have included the law of constant friction in nite element programs for bulk metal forming. However, as the friction does not depend on the current state of stress at the toolworkpiece interface, but simply on a material property, the friction stress is over-estimated at low normal pressures in the case where calibration is performed at greater levels of interfacial normal pressure [8]. The application of the general friction model developed by Wanheim and Bay [10] involves a major improvement in the ability to replicate friction at the toolworkpiece interface when both low and high normal pressures occur. The WanheimBay general friction model assumes friction to be proportional to the

Fig. 1. Proposed ring-test geometry for calibration of friction models at low levels of nominal normal pressure.

16

Fig. 3. (a) Presenting theoretical results for reduction of the internal diameter as a function of the height reduction for the alternative ring-test geometry (Wanheim Bay friction law); and (b) computed velocity elds for three different values of friction for the law of constant friction at 10, 30 and 60% height reduction, where the continuous line (N) indicates the predicted neutral line (surface).

normal stress at low normal pressure (q /|0 \ 1.5) and going towards a constant value at high normal pressure (q /|0 \ 3), Fig. 2. The two ranges are combined via an intermediate transition region. According to the model the friction stress, ~n, at the contact interface can be expressed as: ~n = fhk (1)

where k is the ow shear stress, f is the friction factor, and h the ratio between the real and the apparent contact area between a smooth tool and a rough workpiece surface. In practice the friction factor f is determined experimentally and the term h is calculated according to the analytical expressions for the WanheimBay friction model established by Gerved [13] (see also [14]):

17

Fig. 4. Theoretical results for reduction of the internal diameter as a function of the height reduction for the alternative ring-test geometry (law of constant friction).

( fh = ) ( fh = )

~n q /|0 ~ % n = k q %/|0 k

~n ~ % ~% = n+ f n k k k 1 exp

(for q 5 q %)

(2)

2 q% 1+y 2 + arcos( f ) +

1 f = |0

3(1 +

1 f )

n

(3)

(4) (5)

~% n = 1

1 f k

(for q \ q %)

The normal stress q at the contact surface between tool and workpiece is obtained from: q = (|ij n ) n (6) where |ij is the state of stress at the boundary and n is the unit normal to the die surface.

The nite-element program PLAST2 utilised throughout this study is a special-purpose two-dimensional computer program developed to perform numerical simulation of bulk metal forming processes. The program is based on the rigidplastic ow formulation derived from one of the extremum principles due to Hill [15]: y=

Fig. 5. Pressure-multiplying factor for predicting the average interface normal stress as a function of the height reduction, during ring compression of both the conventional (C) and the alternative (A) test geometry.

&

| m ; dV +

&

1 2

Km; 2 6 dV +

&

~nur dS

&

Ti ui dS (7)

SC

SF

where | is the effective stress, m ; is the effective strainrate, Ti represents surface traction, K is a large posi-

18

tive constant penalising the volumetric strain rate component, m; 6, in order to enforce the incompressibility constraint on the kinematically admissible velocity elds, and V is the control volume limited by the surfaces SU and SF, where velocity ui and traction Ti are prescribed respectively. In Eq. (7) the power consumption due to friction is expressed by: yC =

3.2. Material

The material employed was an E1CM commercially pure aluminium, having the following stressstrain relationship obtained by means of compression tests carried out on cylindrical specimens: |0 = 142(0.05 + m )0.27 MPa (11)

&

~nur dS

(8)

SC

where SC is the contact interface, ur is the relative velocity and ~n is the friction stress between the material and the die. In order to avoid numerical problems due to abrupt changes in the friction stress at the neutral point, Chen and Kobayashi [16] proposed the following function expressed in terms of the law of constant friction: ~n = mk

During the ring-test, lubrication consisted in the application of a MoS2 paste, commercial kerosene or providing dry friction conditions.

3.3. Procedure

Conventional and alternative ring-test specimens were manufactured with dimensions respectively; 30:15:10 and 30:20:15:10 (mm). Before commencing a test the tool platens were inspected for deposits, any such were removed by ne paper grinding (2500 c ) followed by ne polishing with alumina ) to ensure a mechanically suspension (3000 + 8000 A clean condition. Prior to lubrication, each specimen was degreased with acetone and, for experiments under dry friction, the tool platens were degreased also. The specimen was centred between the platens and compression was performed at a constant punch velocity of 1.5 mm s 1 to a pre-determined height reduction, whilst recording the load. Note was taken only of the maximum load experienced. Calculation of the height and inside hole reduction was based on measurement of respectively the height and inside diameter before and after deformation; the smallest inside diameter of the deformed specimen, being determined as the average of three measurements. In order to allow detailed comparison with the computed changes in geometry for the complementary ringtest when applying each of the three lubrication forms, the external prole of selected specimens (approximately 60% height reduction) was digitised using an inductive probe.

2 y

arctan

"

ur u0

ur ur

(9)

where u0 is an arbitrary constant much smaller than the relative velocity. Eq. (9) ensures a smooth transition of the frictional stress near to the neutral point. In the case of the Wanheim Bay general friction model in Eq. (1) the function simply becomes: ~n = fhk

2 y

arctan

"

ur u0

ur ur

(10)

Implementation of the Wanheim Bay friction model into the nite element program PLAST2 is described in more detail in [8].

3. Experimental equipment, material and procedure The experimental work initially comprised a series of ring-test experiments adopting the conventional ring geometry followed by similar tests with the proposed alternative geometry.

3.1. Equipment

Compression was carried out at room temperature on a 500 kN hydraulic press between parallel polished platens. Force was applied to the platens through two load cells based on traditional strain-gauge technology wired in to a full Wheatstone bridge. Using a strain gauge conditioner and amplier system, data from the load cells was recorded by a PC using a data acquisition board. Measurements of height and internal diameter were made utilising a digital calibre, whereas details of the geometrical prole of the deformed specimens were obtained on a toolmakers microscope equipped with an X Y micrometer table connected to a PC-based data-logging system.

4. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the low pressure ring-test In agreement with the procedure utilised for the evaluation of friction in the conventional ring-test, theoretically derived calibration curves were established for the low pressure ring geometry, relating the reduction in height with the reduction in the smallest internal diameter. Theoretical analysis was based on the nite element method, applying respectively the law of constant friction and the WanheimBay general friction model.

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Fig. 6. Finite-element meshes for dry friction ( f = 1.0) and frictionless conditions ( f = 0.0) for three different height reductions (10, 30 and 60%), with plots of the corresponding nominal normal pressure distribution.

In the rst part of this section, ideal plastic material is treated, and on the basis of the numerical modelling, an analysis of the deformation pattern is made possible including a detailed description of the normal pressure distribution at the tool workpiece interface. In the second part a general comparison is made between theoretical and experimental results for the conventional and alternative ring geometry using E1CM aluminium samples under the application of three different forms of lubrication: MoS2, kerosene and dry friction.

Fig. 3(a) shows the calibration curves for the alternative ring geometry when assuming an ideal plastic material, with friction described by the Wanheim Bay general friction model. As may be observed, a consistent set of calibration curves are obtained for the entire range of friction: f = 0 1.0. Consequently, as for the conventional ringtest geometry, the reduction in internal diameter is found to increase with increasing friction. However, the simulations indicate a reduced sensitivity at low friction values when compared to similar calibration curves for the conventional geometry. This can be explained on the basis of the velocity elds plotted in

Fig. 3(b). During initial deformation (left of I), plastic deformation is localised in the central part of the sample giving rise to a temporary dominant inward ow regardless of the frictional constraint. Upon further deformation a dead zone is predicted to develop in this region for low values of friction; no changes occur in the internal diameter wherefore the calibration curves exhibit a horizontal slope (region III). With increasing frictional constraint the signicance of this phenomenon is reduced and for the extreme condition f = 1.0 the rate of reduction in the internal diameter, in terms of the height reduction, becomes practically constant. For even greater reductions in height (right of II), the cross-sectional geometry of the ring approaches the conventional rectangular shape and the calibration curves spread out showing an increased sensitivity. In relation to the change in crosssectional geometry, it should be noted, that the upper position of the neutral line is seen to be almost xed at the original internal diameter during deformation, whilst the slope changes progressively from passing diagonally to passing vertically through the sample. The above described phenomena were as well observed when applying the law of constant friction (Fig. 4). With reference to Section 4.3 it should be noted that similar changes in internal diameter correspond to quite different values of the friction factors f and m.

20

S.B. Petersen et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 79 (1998) 1424 Table 2 Corresponding friction factors for the applied lubricants Kerosene m f 0.25 0.525 Dry friction 0.85 1.0

Table 1 Percentage of tool workpiece contact area experiencing a normal pressure lower than or equal to the material ow stress, as a function of height reduction and friction factor h0h h0 10 30 60 53 45 90 90 66 29 f = 0.0 (%) f = 1.0 (%)

4.2. Predicted normal pressure distribution for ideal plas tic material

In order to evaluate the proposed geometry in terms of providing low pressure conditions (q 5 |0) at the tool workpiece interface, the average nominal normal pressure (q /|0) was plotted as a function of the height reduction for both the conventional (C) and the alternative (A) ring geometry. In Fig. 5 plots for extreme frictional conditions are shown. Comparison between the two sets of curves indicates a considerable reduction of the nominal normal pressure for the entire range of deformation when using the alternative ring geometry under high friction. For the conventional ring geometry the normal pressure is seen to be greater than the ow stress of the material for all levels of deformation, regardless of the frictional conditions, whilst for the alternative geometry the normal pressure remains lower than or equal to the material ow stress up to a height reduction of approximately 45%. This indicates the possibility of allowing low pressure friction evaluation in the most sensitive region (height reduction \ 30%) of the calibration curves plotted in Fig. 3(a). However, special attention should be given to the fact that, for

height reductions lower than approximately 45%, the average nominal normal pressure is greater for frictionless condition ( f = 0.0) than when assuming dry friction ( f = 1.0). Theoretical justication for this unanticipated result is found when observing the computed geometry of the deformed specimen (Fig. 6). For frictionless conditions, rotation around the tangential direction of the material placed at the rim causes the specimen to lose contact with the tool locally. Hereby the actual toolworkpiece contact area diminishes considerably due to the above-described effect on the average normal pressure to effect plastic deformation. Experimental evidence for the development of such a gap is presented in Section 4.3. In Fig. 6, the distributions of the nominal normal pressure are presented together with lines indicating the average nominal normal pressure (from Fig. 5). Observing the pressure distributions for frictionless conditions ( f = 0), it is noted that the average nominal normal pressure remains practically constant (q /|0 : 1.0) with deformation, although the nominal normal pressure varies in the radial direction. This variation can be attributed only to the cross-sectional geometry being non-uniform, since for an ideal plastic material and frictionless conditions a uniform pressure distribution (q /|0 = 1.0) is obtained for the conventional ring geometry with a rectangular cross-section.

Fig. 7. Reduction of internal diameter as a function of height reduction for upsetting with conventional ring-test geometry (6:3:2 proportions) in aluminium applying different forms of lubrication, showing also calibration curves according to the law of constant friction (unbroken) and the Wanheim Bay model (dotted).

21

Fig. 8. Reduction of internal diameter as a function of height reduction for upsetting with the alternative ring-test geometry (6:4:3:2 proportions) in aluminium applying different forms of lubrication, for calibration curves according to: (a) the Wanheim Bay model; and (b) the law of constant friction.

The inuence of the previously mentioned gap developing at the rim of the sample is observed clearly by a narrowing of the pressure distribution for f = 0.0 when comparing with that obtained for f = 1.0. As a consequence, the average nominal normal pressure remains lower for f = 1.0 up to a particular height reduction (approximately 45%). This is reected in the fraction of the tool workpiece contact area experiencing normal pressures lower than the material ow stress (Table 1).

4.3. Ring compression test in aluminium with con6entional and alternati6e geometry

Fig. 7 presents, for dry friction conditions and lubrication with MoS2 and kerosene, the results for the conventional ring compression test of aluminium. In the same diagram are plotted the calibration curves computed by the nite element method assuming either the law of constant friction or the WanheimBay general friction model.

22

Fig. 9. Upsetting with the alternative ring-test geometry (60% height reduction): (a) measured gap at the rim of the sample for the applied lubricants: (b) experimental and computed gap for low friction: and (c) experimental and computed external prole.

Although the slopes of the curves for the constant and general friction models are basically identical, the corresponding values of m and f differ considerably; the m factor being the lowest. As an example, for calibration of the two friction models with the results obtained when applying kerosene as a lubricant, the value of f is seen to be twice the corresponding m value (see also Table 2). Results from experiments with the alternative ringtest geometry are presented in Fig. 8, together with the theoretical curves calculated on the basis of the friction calibration values taken from the ring compression test with the conventional geometry (Fig. 7). The latter are plotted as continuous lines, whilst dashed curves represent best-t calibrations to the experimental data; the difference in friction factor supposingly representing the limitation to the given friction model in replicating the frictional conditions under different levels of tool workpiece normal pressure. Such differences are found to be moderate when applying the Wanheim Bay general model for all levels of friction (Fig. 8(a)). The same regards the application of the law of constant friction

for low (MoS2) and moderate (kerosene) levels of friction, whereas for high friction (dry) a signicant correction of the friction factor m, from 0.85 to 0.375, is required to t the experimental data (Fig. 8(b)).

Fig. 10. Experimental and theoretical load curves for upsetting with the alternative ring-test geometry under dry friction.

23

That both models replicate the frictional conditions equally well, when applying either MoS2 or kerosene as a lubricant, is believed to be related with the previously mentioned loss of contact between the tool and the workpiece at the rim of the sample for low and moderate friction (see also Fig. 9); thereby giving rise to an increase in the pressure towards a level closer to the ow stress of the material refer to Section 4.2. For dry friction such a gap does not develop (see also Fig. 9) and a low tool workpiece pressure level is preserved. For the law of constant friction this gives rise to a considerable over-estimation of the frictional constraint when, as in this case, calibration has been carried out with the conventional ring compression test geometry. The strong inuence of this over-estimation on the material ow is illustrated clearly by the comparison made in Fig. 9, between the computed and the actual prole of a deformed ring-test sample. On the other hand a good prediction is achieved when adopting the Wanheim Bay friction model. The same applies when comparing the predicted upsetting load with the experimentally recorded load for dry friction conditions: the Wanheim Bay model allows an accurate calculation whereas the law of constant friction implies an over-estimated prediction (Fig. 10).

Acknowledgements SBP thanks the TMR/EC programme for having funded part of this project.

Appendix A. Notation d0, d f h0, h k m q q% initial and actual internal ring diameter friction factor in the WanheimBay general friction model initial and actual ring height ow shear stress friction factor in the law of constant friction normal pressure normal pressure at the limit of proportionality

Greek letters h |0 ~n ~% n ratio between the real and the apparent contact area material ow stress friction stress friction stress at the limit of proportionality

5. Conclusions References With their background in the practical convenience of the ring compression test, modications to the conventional geometry to include a double-conical outer prole have been proposed in an attempt to extend the practicable range for the test to allow the evaluation of friction under low tool workpiece interface pressures (q 5 |0). The feasibility of the alternative geometry was analysed through a combined theoretical experimental work applying the nite-element method in conjunction with tests in aluminium under three levels of friction (MoS2, kerosene and dry). Judging from the friction calibration curves established by numerical simulation adopting the law of constant friction and the Wanheim Bay general friction model, the sensitivity of the alternative geometry was found to be lower than that of the conventional ring-test geometry. Nevertheless, when applying the law of constant friction, the importance of the proposed alternative geometry was demonstrated by the detection of a considerable deviation in the calibration values determined from experiments with each of the two geometries. For the Wanheim Bay friction model, where the level of the normal interface pres[1] M. Kunogi, J. Sci. Res. Inst. 50 (1956) 215. [2] A.T. Male, M.G. Cockcroft, A method for the determination of the coefcient of friction of metals under conditions of bulk plastic deformation, J. Inst. Metal. 93 (1964) 38. [3] Kudo, H., An analysis of plastic compressive deformation of lamella between rough plates by energy method, Proc. 5th. Japan Nat. Congr. Appl. Mech., Japan, 1955, p. 75. [4] H. Kudo, Some analytical and experimental studies of axisymmetric cold forging and extrusion I, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 2 (1960) 102. [5] Avitzur, B., Metal Forming: Processes and Analysis, McGrawHill, New York, 1968. [6] J.B. Hawkyard, W. Johnson, An analysis of the changes in geometry of a short hollow cylinder during axial compression, Int. J. Mech. Sc. 9 (1967) 163. [7] V. Nagpal, G.D. Lahoti, T. Altan, A numerical method for simultaneous prediction of metal ow and temperatures in upset forging of rings, Trans. ASME J. Eng. Ind. 100 (1978) 413. [8] Petersen S.B., Martins, P.A.F., Bay, N., Friction in bulk metal forming a general friction model vs. the law of constant friction, J. Mater. Proc. Technol. 66 (1997) 186. [9] T. Wanheim, First World Conference on Industrial Tribology, New Delhi, 1972, Wear 25 (1973) 225. [10] T. Wanheim, N. Bay, A model for friction in metal forming processes, Ann. CIRP 27 (1978) 189. [11] N. Bay, Friction stress and normal stress in bulk metal forming processes, J. Mech. Work. Technol. 14 (1987) 203. [12] B.G. Hansen, N. Bay, Two new methods for testing lubricants for cold forging, J. Mech. Work. Technol. 13 (1986) 189.

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S.B. Petersen et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 79 (1998) 1424 [15] Hill R., The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Oxford University Press, London, 1950. [16] C. Chen, S. Kobayashi, Rigid plastic nite element analysis of ring compression, applications of numerical methods of forming processes, ASME AMD 28 (1978) 163.

[13] Gerved, G., Analyse af Friktions- og Trykfordeling ved Stukning, MM Report No. 85, Institute of Manufacturing Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 1985. [14] P. Christensen, H. Everfelt, N. Bay, Pressure distribution in plate rolling, Ann. CIRP 35 (1986) 141.

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