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Worlds In Collision

Immanuel Velikovsky
New, unchanged edition (2009). Published by Pa adigma !td. " iginal edition (#9$0) by %oubleday & 'om(any, Inc., )a den 'ity, New *o k. I+,N 9-./#/900.11/##/2

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8"9!%+ IN '"!!I+I"N (%oubleday & 'om(any, Inc., )a den 'ity, New *o k) :his book by Immanuel Velikovsky c eated a 3u o all ove the wo ld when it was (ublished in ;( il o3 #9$0, a 3u o that has not yet subsided. ; cam(aign was ca ied on to c eate the im( ession that the ( ess o3 this count y had e<ected the book. =e e a e a 3ew comments 3 om 3avo able eviews about this wo k, the most cont ove sial volume in many decades> N. *. =?9;!% :9I,@N?, Aohn A. "BNeill> % . Immanuel Velikovsky has assembled into a monumental wo k evidence 3 om all the ea ly civili5ations that in the 3i st and second millennium ,. '. t emendous te est ial cataclysms took (lace. In a magni3icent (iece o3 schola ly histo ical esea ch, the e un3olds a most eCciting (ictu e o3 te est ial events that aises wo ld histo y to a level o3 su(e lative inte est. "bscu e allusions to events in classical and sac ed lite atu e become c ystal clea as he 3its togethe the <igsaw (u55le o3 histo y. % . VelikovskyBs wo k ( esents a stu(endous (ano ama o3 te est ial and human histo ies which will stand as a challenge to scientists to 3 ame a ealistic (ictu e o3 the cosmos. =;9P?9B+ 6;);DIN?, ? ic !a abee> Philoso(hy, science, eligion / the e is sca cely an a ea o3 knowledge o conviction invulne able to % . VelikovskyBs detailed and documented denial that the ?a thBs histo y has been one o3 (eace3ul evolution ... , inging to this (e s(ective all the a((a atus o3 lea ning, % . Velikovsky has unde taken the awesome task o3 making an EinFui y into the a chitectonics o3 the wo ld and its histo yE and o3 a((lying the techniFues o3 schola shi( and (sychoanalysis to the enti e human ace. 9?;%?9B+ %I)?+:, Gulton "u sle > ; single schola has sought a synthesis o3 knowledge and eason in the 3ield o3 science, legend and eligion. :he esult is a theo y o3 ea thBs histo y as a (lanet, 3ascinating as a tale by Aules Ve ne, yet documented with a schola shi( wo thy o3 %a win. '"!!I?9B+, ?dito > E8o lds in 'ollisionE ( omises to be one o3 the most cont ove sial books o3 the yea , (e ha(s o3 the decade ... : emendous volume o3 esea ch amassed by the autho ove a (e iod o3 ten yea s. ;lthough the theo ies % . Velikovsky eC( esses a e ce tain to ( ovoke debate, ( ominent scienti3ic and eligious leade s have 3ound them most eCt ao dina y. N?8+8??4> Velikovsky, a b oad/gauge savant with an inc edible 3ield o3 com(etence in the sciences ... con3i ms the ,ible ... =is 3inal conclusions a e even wo ld/shaking ... I3 VelikovskyBs monumental wo k stands, it will u(set ( evailing views in evolution, (hysical

science and histo y. N?8+8??4, EP o3esso s as +u(( esso sE> ;lthough some o3 the c itics who eviewed VelikovskyBs book conside ed it a ma<o scienti3ic cont ibution, the e could be little Fuestion but that it had d iven the vast ma<o ity o3 the nationBs scientists into a highly unacademic 3u y. Go Velikovsky challenges all the ( esent conce(ts and laws o3 histo y, ast onomy, biology, and geology. "ne o3 the most che ished ights o3 the nationBs teaching ( o3ession is academic 3 eedom. ... *et a small g ou( o3 ( o3esso s themselves stood accused o3 a ma<o assault on academic 3 eedom. P;)?;N:> Nothing in ecent yea s has so eCcited the (ublic imagination, o sti ed u( so heated a cont ove sy, as the 3ascinating new theo y advanced by % . Immanuel Velikovsky, (hysician, scientist, histo ian, (hiloso(he . Its in3e ences (ast and 3utu e, a e so g eat and 3a eaching as to make the hyd ogen bomb and #9$0 t oubles seem like childBs (lay. ;++"'I;:?% P9?++, 9obe t 8. ,lakeslee, +cience ?dito > :he book u(sets all cosmological assum(tions that the sola system (lanets have evolved in thei ( esent o bits 3o billions o3 yea s. @NI:?% P9?++, Paul G, ?llis, +cience ?dito > E8o lds in 'ollisionE caused a commotion among ast onome s but Velikovsky said> E!et them dis( ove the histo ical eco ds on which my book is based.E N?8 9?P@,!I', =a old !. Ickes> % . Velikovsky has con3e ed a g eat boon u(on all o3 us. =e has given us something to think aboutH something even to ( ay about ... Pe ha(s we shall have sense enough to (ut ou heads between ou hands and do some eal thinking about unive sal and lasting (eace. ,""4/"G/:=?/6"N:= '!@, N?8+, Aohn A. "BNeill> I3 you want an intellectual <olt ead E8o lds in 'ollisionE by % . Immanuel Velikovsky. It will 3u nish you mind with a new set o3 ho i5ons. Go he e is a volume 3illed with events, stu(endous, cataclysmic / te est ial and cosmic / ... :his is not <ust a wonde book. It is a se ious ( esentation by a since e schola , and the e is a dee( (hiloso(hic signi3icance unde lying it. % . Velikovsky ( ovides an a ay o3 evidence to su((o t his claims. +chola s may disag ee with % . VelikovskyBs conclusions. :o minds blinded by too much o thodoCy they may seem 3antastic. :hey a e, neve theless, wo thy o3 most se ious thought. +cience and histo y have been standing (at 3o enti ely too long on a theo y o3 man and natu e that eCcludes the (ossibility o3 events outside a dull, sa3e outine. :hey have achieved this static ( og am by hanging velvet cu tains o3 taboo a ound emba assing situations. :hey a e i(e 3o a <olt. % . Velikovsky has (ulled some o3 the cu tains aside. ?V?9*,"%*B+ %I)?+:, ?dito > :his ema kable ten/yea study may ock the civili5ed wo ld, challenging both ou eligious conce(ts and the theo y o3 evolution. :=I+ 8??4 6;);DIN?, )o don ;. ;twate > ?ven be3o e the bookBs (ublication it has been the sub<ect o3 a sto m o3 cont ove sy that has swe(t ac oss the nation ... I do contend that, looking at it 3 om an ove /all (oint o3 view, the autho has done a t emendous <ob, the e33ect o3 which is to link science and eligion. =is book will have an eC(losive e33ect in the wo ld o3 scicnce. :he g eatest value o3 E8o lds in 'ollisionE is this> It sots u( an unusual a(( oach

to some o3 the wo ldBs g eat ( oblems. ;n astounding 3eat o3 esea ch ... an ama5ing list o3 sou ces. In assembling those ( oo3s % . Velikovsky has (lunged headlong into a do5en di33e ent sciences and has dug dee(ly into the oots o3 many. % . Velikovsky, eali5ing the im(act o3 his thesis, has gone to ve y g eat lengths to eveal his method so that it may be sea ched in detail ... ;lthough the o(ening im(act o3 this theo y / due to its sensational natu e / is ce tain to a ouse violent hostility, even this 3eeling will be set aside as it is sea ched and ( obed 3o e o s and t uths. +;:@9%;* ?V?NIN) P"+:, ?dito ial> "ne o3 the most astonishing e(isodes was the e33o t o3 ;me ican scientists to su(( ess a book, 8o lds in 'ollision ... %octo VelikovskyBs o33ense seems to be that he w ites bette than most scientists and in his book eC(ounds a theo y o3 ast onomical activity which di33e s widely 3 om o thodoC theo ies ... +o the o thodoC scientists, 3o getting about )alileo, and the long, woe3ul st uggle o3 scientists to be 3 ee o3 dogma, acted like the autho ita ians with whom they a e continually in con3lict ... Not even a silly season ought to eCcuse scientists 3o book bu ning. ;3te all, they a e always the chie3 victims o3 this kind o3 intole ance. P;:=GIN%?9> :o(/3light scientists think E8o lds in 'ollisionE will 3o ce econside ation o3 the basic (ostulates o3 many ma<o sciences. ;6?9I';N 6?9'@9*> :he cent al thesis o3 this book is stu(endous. % . Velikovsky, who seems to be a ve itable encyclo(edia o3 lea ning, d aws u(on all the sciences and a ts to butt ess his thesis. N. *. +@N%;* 6I99"9 6;);DIN?, =. 8illiam +mith> E8o lds in 'ollisionE ( esents a guments to ( ove that 3amous colossal mi acles o3 ancient times, as elated in 3olklo e and eligious lite atu e, actually ha((ened. ;s Velikovsky sees it, ou a((a ently well/ o de ed unive se is like a 3i ewo ks 3acto y which an e atic s(a k may eC(lode any minute. :he ( omulgation o3 this thesis is eC(ected to eCcite heated ob<ections in the scienti3ic wo ld, but Velikovsky makes a ve y (lausible case. N. *. +@N%;* N?8+, ?dito ial> E8o lds in 'ollisionE is aising such a te i3ic 3u o in scienti3ic ci cles that we donBt see how a news(a(e which claims to be on its toes can igno e the book o dodge 3 om 3 ank discussion o3 it. % . Velikovsky, a widely/t avelled schola and scienti3ic investigato , o33e s a 3lock o3 theo ies which make o thodoC scientists 3oam at the mouth. I=eJ challenges them to ( ove him mistaken. I3 we might ( esume to o33e the seicnti3ic b othe hood a ti(, it would be to get busy t ying to dis( ove Velikovsky with 3acts and 3igu es, and lay o33 t ying to ( omote boycotts aimed at his book. N. *. A"@9N;! & ;6?9I';N, )eo ge ?. +okolsky> 'e tain scientists th eatened with a boycott. "3 cou se, what the lea ned and libe al ( o3esso s wanted was the total su(( ession o3 a book which o((oses thei dogma. +cientists tend to become dogmatic like theologians, whom they denounce as dogmatic. N. *. +@N%;* '"6P;++, :ed. ". :hack ey> :he e is eCcellent g ound 3o suggesting that % . VelikovskyBs 3indings thus 3a may well ank him in contem(o a y and 3utu e histo y with )alileo, Newton, Planck, 4e(le , %a win, ?instein, and the othe g eat intellects who have in tu n bade us evise ou theo ies o3 what the wo ld is like and what laws gove n it and its elation to the unive se.

,"+:"N )!",?, 6a ion !. +ta key> P obably the most stimulating ho o sto y that has eve been w itten. :he e is something o3 (oet y, o3 divine <ustice about the theo y. ,"+:"N P"+:, ;.).=. %iet5 (P o3esso at 6assachusetts Institute o3 :echnology)> Velikovsky ( o(osed a bold and sta tling thesis ... and esults in a book that is abso bing eading ... It seems ce tain that the e must at one time have been a sudden shi3ting o3 the ?a thBs aCis. ,"+:"N P"+:, !este ;llen> "nly a gene ation o3 time and e/eCamination o3 the evidence ( esented by Velikovsky will show whethe he is me ely a b illiant im( ovise o a ( o3ound discove e o3 a new ( inci(le. :he challenge that Velikovsky ( esents to modem science may accom(lish something mo e 3o the t oubled and 3 ightened (eo(le o3 the wo ld than (utting thei scienti3ic house in o de , howeve . It may give a death blow to the g owing ske(ticism o3 many (eo(le whose 3aith in the %ivine ' eato had been shaken in the name o3 scienti3ic enlightenment by the debunke s o3 the holy books. N. *. :I6?+ ,""4 9?VI?8, %avid %em(sey> ;mong gene al non/3iction, E8o lds in 'ollisionE was being outsold by only one book / the ,ible. :he e(icente o3 a lite a y ea thFuake. P=I!;%?!P=I; INK@I9?9> Aohn 6. 6c'ullough> Gew books have so sti ed the wo ld o3 thought3ul menH the a guments ( o and con inevitably must eve be ate th ough lea ned societies 3o months to come. It is this / its ole as a (otent 3e ment in a wo ld o3 not too settled thought / which imbues E8o lds in 'ollisionE with its eal signi3icance. PI::+,@9)= P9?++, Glo ence Gishe Pe y> It is mo e 3ascinating eading than anything to be 3ound on any 3iction table. It is absolutely o iginal and convincing. '=I';)" =?9;!%/;6?9I';N> ; 3abulous sto y ... :his book is evolutiona y and may ( ove almost as wo ld/shaking as i3 Venus had changed he settings again. It is w itten so that any one can unde stand. '=I';)" +@N/:I6?+, ?mmett %edmonH E8o lds in 'ollisionE is clea ly w itten and well/ enough butt essed with data to sta tle any eade into a e/eCamination o3 his ideas about the wo ld. ;nd I eC(ect it may ( ovoke one o3 the biggest a guments since ?instein said the sho test distance between two (oints was a cu ved line. :=? '9?++?:, 'hicago, III., ? win A. ,uis> +eldom has one theo y eCtended into so many 3ields o3 human thought and d awn on so many 3o its evidence ... E8o lds in 'ollisionE ( esents such an a ay o3 evidence that it cannot be igno ed, while the high deg ee o3 schola shi( evident th oughout the book does not (e mit de isive dismissal. 8 itten in non/ technical language, layman and scientist will 3ind it 3ascinating. ,;!:I6"9? ?V?NIN) +@N> Velikovsky has built a (owe 3ul case 3o the contention that those accounts e3lect occu ences which did actually take (lace ... ;nd science does not yet have any way o3 its own to eC(lain these E6i acles.E '!?V?!;N% P9?++, :om ,oa dman> ItBs a book that will be discussed, studied, challenged and de3ended 3o many yea s.

%;!!;+ :I6?+/=?9;!%, 4enneth =o an> +ta tling, astounding, ama5ing and enti ely evolutiona y sto y o3 the unive se. +;N ;N:"NI" ?LP9?++, =en y =. !aw ence> ; book o3 abso bing inte est and one bound to eCcite discussion and 3u the elucidation 3o yea s to come. P"9:!;N% A"@9N;!, !a y =owes> It can be unde stood and a gued about by laymen, and it blacks the eye o3 %ogmatic +cience. P"9:!;N% "9?)"NI;N> ; high (e centage o3 those whose 3ields a e invaded and thei 3acts Fuestioned may be eC(ected to ise to the challenge. :he minds that will be stimulated by this book a e the wo ldBs best. 8ho knows what may come o3 thatM P"9:!;N% (6e.) :?!?)9;6, 4. 8. ,e y> I3 the theo y set 3o th by Velikovsky stands the acid test to which it undoubtedly will be sub<ected, it will u(set the 3oundation o3 the wo ldBs natu al sciences and cont avene theological claims 3o many mi acles desc ibed in the "ld :estament ... =is countless citations build u( a st ong case / a case which sca cely seems to de(end on coincidence. %;*:"N N?8+, =e be t +haw> +u ely Immanuel Velikovsky has w itten so cont ove sial a book that it will be the sub<ect o3 much debate and much diligent intellectual sea ching in the yea s to come. =e is to be admi ed and cong atulated 3o the documentation he has ( esented. %?NV?9 P"+:, ?dwa d V. %und/lce> E8o lds in 'ollisionE is easily the most discussed book o3 the yea , deals with the t uth o 3alsity o3 these ancient biblical sto ies. 9ead this book with an o(en mind and a new vista o3 ideas will be o(ened. 6I;6I =?9;!%, ,eat ice 8ashbu n> :his book has lite ally shaken the thinking wo ld to its 3oundations. Not since %a winBs E" igin o3 the +(eciesE has the e been advanced an idea so o iginal, cont ove sial, and stu(endous in its im(lications. 6"N:)"6?9*, ;labama, ;%V?9:I+?9, 8. A, 6ahoney, A .> *ou a e likely to hea it debated 3u iously ... 8hethe youB e an eC(e t on the sub<ect o me ely some one who me ely looks into the sky occasionally at night to wonde at its magni3icent and myste ious beauty, youBll 3ind this book eCciting and imagination/sti ing ... It is a book that will su((ly many an evening o3 s(i ited conve sation 3o the d awing ooms o3 the wo ld. !"@I+VI!!?, 4entucky, '"@9I?9/A"@9N;!, Aose(h !andau> Velikovsky has hu led his inte ( etation o3 biblical events and wo ld histo y into a wo ld that is in chaos. It could be a book that will a33ect the thinking o3 the ages. E8o lds in 'ollisionE could easily become one o3 the most im(o tant books o3 the 20th centu y. 9;!?I)= N?8+ ",+?9V?9, ;llen ;leCande > "nce in a g eat while you may be 3o tunate enough to come ac oss a t uly ama5ing book. :his is 3a mo e than that / it may well become a bible. =is desc i(tions will make you s(ine tingle as it neve has be3o e. ;ctually, this book is as easy to ead as a weste n and much mo e eCciting. :?NN?++??;N, Nashville, :enn., 'ha les !. Gontenay> :he te m E evolutiona yE is all too 3 eFuently a((lied to books in these days when a cou(le o3 months seems to be the

maCimum acce(ted (e iod between new theo ies o3 va ious kinds. :he te m, howeve , could 3it % . VelikovskyBs book. ,?94?!?* );D?::?, 'ali3o nia> :he book has a oused s(eculation and cont ove sies th oughout the count y ... I3 % . Velikovsky is ight, the e will be many ed 3aces among the eviewe s o3 the land. ";4!;N% P"+: ?NK@I9?9> It is di33icult to laugh away the (a allels o3 legend and t adition ... you encounte some vast (ano amas that a e most stimulating to thought. P9"VI%?N'? A"@9N;!, 4enneth ,. 9obe ts> ;n inc edibly sim(le solution o3 sco es o3 ba33ling ( oblems o3 antiFuity ... ,ut ight o w ong, ational o idiculous, this is 3ascinating 3a e. 9"'4* 6"@N:;IN N?8+, %enve , 'ol., !ee 'asey> "ne o3 the most ama5ing and (e suasive books I have eve ead> E8o lds in 'ollision,E by Velikovsky. =e swee(s away the eCegetes. :he sto ies we lea ned in +unday +chool, he tells us, we e not me e legends but st aight 3acts. :o be su e, he did not convince his 3ellow/schola s. Neithe , 3o that matte , did Pythago as, :hales, )alileo o 'o(e nicus. Now, as in the time o3 these wo thies, schola s me ely smiled and said, E:he case had not been ( oved.E ,ut I do submit he convinced me. 9"'4* 6"@N:;IN N?8+, ;. , anscombe> :his is, without any doubt, the most sensational book o3 the 20th centu y. I3 the 3acts in it stand u( unde cold analysis by othe scientists, and this eviewe believes 90 (e cent o3 them will, almost eve y othe scienti3ic and histo ical teCtbook in the wo ld is outdated ... No book since %a win ( omises to have such an im(act on eve y (hase o3 science, histo y, (hiloso(hy and eligion ... % , VelikovskyBs claims ... a e told in language sim(le enough 3o vi tually any eade , and will ( ove 3ascinating 3o layman and scientist alike ... In sho t, this is eCt ao dina y. %onBt miss it. !"+ ;N)?!?+ :I6?+, 6aCimilian ,e ne s> 'ont ove sy will become mo e and mo e violent as the book gets known, :he e is (lenty o3 eCcitcment, 3ollowing VelikovskyBs t ail o3 3i e, smoke, b imstone, hu icane and ea thFuake. G9?%?9I'4, "klahoma, !?;%?9> ; volume o3 endless 3ascination. '"N)9?++ 8??4!*, Aacob +. 6inkin> 6any th eads the autho has woven into the t emendous ta(est y that is E8o lds in 'ollision.E :he sto y goes on, inte esting, inst uctive and eCciting to the end. In many ways the book is b eathtaking, moving along like a celestial d ama with comets and (lanets 3o its d amatis (e sonae. :=? N;:I"N;! A?8I+= P"+:, 8a d 6oo e> +cientists a e no mo e ece(tive to new ideas than any othe g ou( subsc ibing to c ystalli5ed dogma. It is the e3o e not at all su ( ising that Immanuel Velikovsky has been denounced as a he etic. E8o lds in 'ollisionE Fuestioned the in3allibility o3 some a((a ently natu al laws. ; t emendous amount o3 te ito y is taken inH neve theless, documentation is o33e ed 3o each (a ticula . @nless eade Bs ( e<udices a e com(letely blind it is di33icult to see how he can dismiss E 8o lds in 'ollision.E

"4!;="6; 'I:* "4!;="6;N, ;lice =ughes> %inne tables in ou wa /<itte y town a e agog with this ee ie volume. %?:9"I: N?8+, 'lyde ,eck> ; st ange and wonde 3ul book. ?V?NIN) %I+P;:'=, ?dinbu gh, +cotland> No book in ecent times has been the sub<ect o3 so much cont ove sy. +ome scientists let loose a 3lood o3 denunciato y c iticism and hyste ical ( otests against the (ublication. ... 8hat we have in this (iece o3 schola ly esea ch is the histo y o3 the ea th as a (lanet, 3ascinatingly told and t uth3ully documented. "LG"9% 6;I!, "C3o d, ?ngland> Gascinating alike in its stu(endous (ictu es o3 a wo ld in the g i( o3 cosmic 3o ces, in its (a allels d awn 3 om the annals o3 the ancients in many lands, and its vast im(lications. :=? :I6?+, !ondon> % . Velikovsky is a man o3 much lea ning and he has maste ed the commenta ies u(on the teCt and all books on cosmology as well. ... I:he bookBsJ e(utation has been ... enhanced by da k sto ies o3 scientists allegedly a((lying ( essu e by boycotting the teCt book de(a tment o3 the autho Bs 3i st (ublishing house in a 3 en5ied e33o t to ( event the dest uction o3 thei own e(utation and o3 o thodoC (hysics. )!;+)"8 %;I!* 9?'"9%, )lasgow, +cotland> )igantic, sensational, stagge ing. 6?:="%I+: 9?'"9%?9, !ondon, ?ngland> ; th ille that is su ely without a (ee . A?8I+= '=9"NI'!?, !ondon, % , +ilve stone> Go one schola to have w itten this book, necessitating as it does an encyclo(edic knowledge o3 science, histo y, and 3olklo e, is a ema kable achievement. It me its close study on the (a t o3 scientistsH and it will ewa d the o dina y eade with 3ascinating hou s o3 mental en<oyment. ?%IN,@9)= ?V?NIN) N?8+> :he st ength o3 his evidence is g eat. It is a t uly wonde 3ul book. ;,?9%??N P9?++, ;be deen, +cotland> P obably no book in ou gene ation has caused so much cont ove sy ... In the scienti3ic wo ld it caused a ve itable eC(losion o3 bad tem(e . '"66?9'I;! ;PP?;!, 6em(his> E8o lds in 'ollisionE has o(ened new debate in science. ?33o ts have been made to dismiss this wo k by calling it E ubbishE and EnonsenseE but this will not answe the evidence he has com(iled. It is a 3o egone conclusion that the book will call 3o enewed investigation 3 om othe s o3 the 3acts so long acce(ted. I3 it does no mo e, the autho has ende ed a noble se vice to his ( o3ession and to his 3ellow men. :"9"N:" +;:@9%;* NI)=:, ?dito ial> :he ;me ican scienti3ic wo ld has gone th ough a cataclysm almost as violent as those e3e ed to by % . Velikovsky. '=9I+:I;N '?N:@9*, 8. ?. )a ison> :he book is eCciting eading. :he two 8ellses (=.). and " son) might have collabo ated to conceive it. '=9I+:I;N +'I?N'? 6"NI:"9, ,oston> :his ve i3ication o3 the ,ible seems to us o3 eal im(o tance. It shows what a e sometimes called Emi aclesE to be not violations o3 law but

highe demonst ations o3 s(i itual law than the mate ialist deems (ossible. '=9I+:I;N =?9;!%> :he volume is both da ing and o iginal / and (e ha(s eckless. ,ut also it is 3ascinating. :=? !IVIN) '=@9'=, 6ilwaukee, ?dito ial> I3 you a e wo ied about 9ussia o the hyd ogen bomb, ead E8o lds in 'ollision.E :he cataclysms the ein desc ibed make even the ho o s 3o eshadowed in the daily (a(e s 3ade. :his wo k is heavily documented and anges ove an ama5ing va iety o3 3ields o3 lea ning. P9?+,*:?9I;N, Philadel(hia> :he g eatest sto m cente in the lite a y and scienti3ic wo lds. '=9I+:I;N 9?)I+:?9, ,oston> % . Velikovsky has done us a ve y g eat se vice> he has <a ed the com(lacency o3 ou thinkingH he has em(hasi5ed the im(o tance o3 unde standing and g as(ing the signi3icance o3 ea ly t adition, and has st essed again the limitations o3 human knowledge. ;ll o3 these a e im(o tant in ou gene ation. PI::+,@9)= '"@9I?9, =. ). ,ell> Inc edible genius. 'ont ove sial and ama5ing bookH all will admit that his ideas a e thought ( ovoking. ;@)@+:; '=9"NI'!?, )a.> ;stonishing in many lines. It may be the beginning o3 unde standing o3 new and eCt emely im(o tant conce(ts. 9I'=6"N% :I6?+/%I+P;:'=> :he signi3icance o3 this th illing account may go 3a beyond the 3ascinating inte ( etation o3 wo ld ha((enings in connection with manBs eCistence on this ea th. :he autho has given to ast onome s and cosmologists something to (onde ove . ,?'4!?* P"+:/=?9;!%, 8. Va.> "ne o3 the most signi3icant and 3ascinating books w itten since the invention o3 ( inting. ;nyone who has ead it can neve 3eel Fuite the same, P;+;%?N; +:;9/N?8+, 9ussell 6c'a thyH Immanuel Velikovsky is a ebel against almost all human lea ning. :he e is (lenty o3 oom in the wo ld o3 thought 3o ebellion against some o3 ou hoa y hy(otheses. :9@:=, !ondon, 8. A. , own> 6ake a note o3 the name. It will make news 3o a long while to come. Possibly it will go inging down the co ido s o3 :ime. " (ossibly not, 3o the established o thodoCies a e mo e than o thodoCies. :hey a e inte estsH and the inte ests have at thei command immense (owe s o3 su(( ession. :he man is a he etic, o3 cou se / and I see the ,ell, the ,ook and the 'andle advancing. VelikovskyBs he esies a e eno mous. :hey each to the sta s ... ;nd what a case he makesN ;l eady the o thodoCies have ma ked him down. ;l eady the machines o3 e( ession a e at wo k.

O ;utho Bs P e3ace (#90$) O ;utho Bs P e3ace (#9$0)

P ologue
'ha(te #
O O O O In an Immense @nive se :he 'elestial =a mony :he " igin o3 the Planeta y +ystem :he " igin o3 the 'omets

'ha(te 2
O O O O O O :he Planet ?a th Ice ;ges :he 6ammoths :he Ice ;ge and the ;ntiFuity o3 6an :he 8o ld ;ges :he +un ;ges

Pa t I /// Venus
'ha(te #
O :he 6ost Inc edible +to y O "n the "the +ide o3 the "cean

'ha(te 2
O O O O O O O Gi3ty/:wo *ea s ?a lie :he 9ed 8o ld :he =ail o3 +tones Na(htha :he %a kness ?a thFuake E#1E

'ha(te 1
O O O O O :he :he :he :he :he =u icane :ide ,attle in the +ky 'omet o3 :y(hon +(a k

O :he 'olla(sed +ky

'ha(te 2
O O O O ,oiling ?a th and +ea 6ount +inai :heo(hany ?m(e o *ahou

'ha(te $
O O O O ?ast and 8est :he 9eve sed Pola ity o3 the ?a th :he Kua te s o3 the 8o ld %is(laced 'hanges in the :imes and the +easons

'ha(te 0
O O O O :he +hadow o3 %eath ;mb osia 9ive s o3 6ilk and =oney Ae icho

'ha(te O O O O +tones +us(ended in the ;i PhaPthon ;tlantis :he Gloods o3 %eucalion and "gyges

'ha(te .
O O O O O O O :he Gi3ty/:wo *ea Pe iod Aubilee :he ,i th o3 Venus :he ,la5ing +ta :he Gou /Planet +ystem "ne o3 the Planets is a 'omet :he 'omet Venus

'ha(te 9
O O O O O O Pallas ;thene Deus and ;thene 8o shi( o3 the 6o ning +ta :he +ac ed 'ow ,aal Devuv (,eel5ebub) Venus in the Golklo e o3 the Indians

'ha(te #0
O :he +ynodical *ea o3 Venus O Venus 6oves I egula ly O Venus ,ecomes the 6o ning +ta

Pa t 2 /// 6a s
'ha(te #
O O O O O O ;mos :he *ea /-2Isaiah :he ; give :y ants ;gain Isaiah 6aimonides and +(ino5a, the ?Cegetes

'ha(te 2
O O O O O :he *ea /0.Ignis e 'oelo 6a ch 21 d :he 8o shi( o3 6a s 6a s 6oves the ?a th 3 om Its Pivot

'ha(te 1
O O O O O O O 8hat 'aused Venus and 6a s to +hi3t :hei " bitsM 8hen 8as the Iliad ' eatedM =uit5ilo(ochtli :ao *uddha :he ,undahis !uci3e 'ut %own

'ha(te 2
O O O O O +wo d/)od Gen is/8ol3 +wo d/:ime, 8ol3/:ime +ynodos :he +to me o3 the 8alls

'ha(te $
O :he +teeds o3 6a s O :he :e ible "nes

O +am(les 3 om the Planets O :he ; changels O Planet 8o shi( in Audea in the +eventh 'entu y

'ha(te 0
O O O O O ; 'ollective ;mnesia Golklo e "3 EP eeCisting IdeasE in the +ouls o3 Peo(les :he Pageants o3 the +ky :he +ub<ective Inte ( etation o3 the ?vents and :hei ;uthenticity

'ha(te O O O O O Poles @( ooted :em(les and "belisks :he +hadow 'lock :he 8ate 'lock ; =emis(he e : avels +outhwa d

'ha(te .
O O O O :he *ea o3 100 %ays %isa anged 6onths *ea s o3 :en 6onths :he 9e3o ming o3 the 'alenda

'ha(te 9
O O O O O O O :he :he :he :he :he :he :he 6oon and Its ' ate s Planet 6a s ;tmos(he e o3 6a s :he mal ,alance o3 6a s )ases o3 Venus :he mal ,alance o3 Venus ?nd

O Gacing 6any P oblems O ;cknowledgements

P e3ace #90$

(to the (a(e back edition o3 8o lds in 'ollision)

GI9+: P@,!I+=?% IN #9$0, this book was le3t unchanged in all subseFuent ( intingsH # no have any teCtual changes been made in this (a(e bound edition. :his was so by designH I wished to kee( the teCt in its o iginal 3o m in o de that, unadulte ed, it should 3ace all subseFuent discove ies in the 3ields it cove s o touches u(on. +hould the e have been any changes, the eade o3 a new edition would be unable to <udge to what eCtent a book, he etical in #9$0, could measu e u( to late develo(ments. In #9$0 it was gene ally assumed that the 3undamentals o3 science we e all known and that only details and decimals we e le3t to 3ill in. In the same yea , a cosmologist, ce tainly not o3 a conse vative bent o3 mind, G ed =oyle, w ote in the conclusion o3 his book :he Natu e o3 the @nive se> EIs it likely that any astonishing new develo(ments a e lying in wait 3o usM Is it (ossible that the cosmology o3 $00 yea s hence will eCtend as 3a beyond ou ( esent belie3s as ou cosmology goes beyond that o3 NewtonME ;nd he continued> EI doubt whethe this will be so. I am ( e(a ed to believe that the e will be many advances in the detailed unde standing o3 matte s that still ba33le us ... ,ut by and la ge I think that ou ( esent (ictu e will tu n out to bea an a(( oCimately esemblance to the cosmologies o3 the 3utu e,E and he e3e ed to the limitations o3 o(tical means in (enet ating the de(ths o3 s(ace. :he yea s that have (assed since the (ublication o3 8o lds in 'ollision have seen the 3i st g eat achievements in adio ast onomy, the discove ies o3 the Inte national )eo(hysical *ea , and the dawn o3 the s(ace age. :he (ictu e has changed com(letely. +igns o3 ecent violence, dis u(tion, and 3 agmentation have been obse ved on ea th and elsewhe e in the sola system> a subma ine gigantic canyon that uns almost twice a ound the globe / a sign o3 a global twistH a laye o3 ash o3 eCt ate est ial o igin unde lying all oceansH (aleomagnetic evidence that the magnetic (oles we e suddenly and e(eatedly eve sed and, it is claimed, the te est ial aCis with themH gases esca(ing 3 om some c ate s on the moon, thought to be cold to its cente H an eCceedingly high su 3ace heat o3 Venus. Gu the mo e, with the discove y o3 adio signals coming 3 om Au(ite , o3 the eCistence o3 a magnetos(he e su ounding the ea th, o3 the sola (lasma, o3 the net cha ge on the sun and o3 the magnetic 3ield (e meating the inte (laneta y s(ace, decisive evidence has come u( that the sola system, and the unive se in gene al, a e not elect omagnetically ste ile / a basic change in the unde standing o3 the unive se, its natu e and the 3o ces active in it. :he wo ds 3ound in the P e3ace to the #9$0 edition, designating the wo k as he esy in the ealms whe e the names o3 Newton and %a win eign su( eme, should no longe evoke the same s(ontaneous e<ection on the (a t o3 even the most conse vative in science, unless it is a de3ence mechanism devised to ( otect an inne 3eeling o3 ince titude. E8hat, to the scientist, constitutes a eally satis3acto y so t o3 success 3o a theo yM :he answe lies la gely in the wo ds gene ality, elegance, cont ol and ( ediction.E 2 ;s to gene ality, ha dly anyone aised an ob<ection. Possibly the e was some elegance in the timing> when these wo ds we e w itten in #900, ten yea s a3te the (ublication o3 my book and the g eat o((osition it ( ovoked, some o3 the most com(elling data we e adioed by the s(ace vehicle, Pionee V. I would like to elate he e a 3ew details about the cont ol and ( ediction o3 two c ucial tests, decisive 3o this book. ?a ly in my wo k I came to the unde standing that Venus is a newcome to the (laneta y 3amily, that it had a sto my i3 only sho t histo y, and that it must still be ve y hot and Egiving o33 heatEH 3u the , that it must be su ounded by a ve y eCtensive envelo(e o3 hyd oca bon ((et oleum) gases and dust. +uch claims we e in total disag eement with what was known in #920 when I com(leted the manusc i(t o3 the wo k o in #9$0 when it was (ublished. :o st ess the c ucial natu e o3 these claims, the e we e (ut unde the headings

E:he )ases o3 VenusE and E:he :he mal ,alance o3 VenusE immediately ( eceding the section E:he ?ndE. +hould I be ight in these claims, the enti e chain o3 deductions / o3 which the identi3ication o3 the eCt ate est ial agent o3 the (a oCysms desc ibed is but the 3inal ing / is st engthened. ;nd since these c ucial claims we e in such 3lag ant disco d with acce(ted values, in case o3 con3i mation they ought not to be denoted as lucky guesses. ;s late as #9$9, VenusB g ound tem(e atu e was calculated to be only #-Q', th ee deg ees above the mean annual tem(e atu e o3 the ?a th. ,ut by #90#, 3 om the natu e o3 the adio signals emitted by Venus, it was 3ound that VenusB g ound tem(e atu e is about 1#$Q', o 000QG. % . G. %. % ake o3 the National 9adio ;st onomy "bse vato y, es(onsible 3o this eading, w ote> E8e should have eC(ected a tem(e atu e only slightly g eate than the ea th,E and the 3ind was Ea su ( ise ... in a 3ield in which the 3ewest su ( ises we e eC(ected.E :he e was admittedly no satis3acto y eC(lanation o3 such high tem(e atu e o3 Venus in the 3 ame o3 eC(ected notions. ) eenhouse e33ect could not eC(lain so high a tem(e atu e, not could adioactivity decaying 3o billions o3 yea s. :he 6a ine II, the s(ace vehicle that (assed Venus in %ecembe #902, was inst umented to detect whethe the heat is eal and as high as 000QG. It 3ound it eal and a 3ull .00QG. It 3ound also, that the night side o3 Venus is, i3 anything, hotte than the day side and that light does not (enet ate the cloud cove . It must be gloomy and bleak unde this cove , it is stated in the 6a ine e(o t by the Aet P o(ulsion !abo ato yH ve y little g eenhouse e33ect could eali5e itsel3 unde such conditions. :he othe c ucial test conce ned the gaseous envelo(e o3 the (lanet. In #920, 3ou yea s be3o e the (ublication o3 this book, I di ected a eFuest and inFui y to P o3esso 9. 8ildt o3 *ale and the late P o3esso 8. +. ;dams o3 6ount 8ilson and Paloma obse vato ies, 3o emost autho ity on the sub<ect o3 (laneta y atmos(he e, indicating that the ( esence o3 hyd oca bon gases and dust in the cloud envelo(e o3 Venus would constitute a c ucial test 3o the cosmological conce(ts evolved 3 om the study o3 histo ical sou ces. 8ildt w ote on +e(tembe #1, #920> E:he abso (tion s(ect um o3 VenusB atmos(he e cannot be inte ( eted as esulting 3 om gaseous hyd oca bons.E ;dams answe ed (+e(tembe 9, #920)> E:he e is no evidence o3 the ( esence o3 hyd oca bon gas in the atmos(he e o3 Venus.E I must have been com(letely 3i m in my belie3 o3 not having made a w ong deduction / 3 om the 3i st ( emise o3 global catast o(he to the last one, o3 identi3ying the agent / to have chosen to ( int, in dis ega d o3 the eC(e t o(inions> E"n the basis o3 this esea ch, I assume that Venus must be ich in (et oleum gases.E "n Geb ua y 20, #901, making known the esults o3 the 6a ine ( obe, % . =o ne Newell o3 N;+; announced that, in the <udgement o3 those who we e es(onsible 3o that (a t o3 the ( og am, Venus is ensh ouded in an envelo(e o3 hyd oca bon gases and dust #$ miles thick, 2$ miles above the g ound o3 the (lanet. It was acknowledged as ve y (u55ling that Venus should have such a massive atmos(he e a sco e o3 times heavie than the te est ial atmos(he eH that it should have taken the 3o m o3 an envelo(e 2$ miles above the su 3ace o3 the (lanetH and that it should consist o3 heavy molecules o3 hyd oca bon gases and dust. It was also 3ound that Venus otates et og adely, though ve y slowly, a sign o3 it having been distu bed in its motion in the (ast, o having been ca(tu ed by the sun, o having o iginated in a way di33e ent 3 om that o3 the othe (lanets. ;t the time o3 the 6a ine ( obe, two ( ominent membe s o3 the ;me ican scienti3ic community, V. ,a gmann, ( o3esso o3 Physics, P inceton @nive sity, and !loyd 6ot5, ( o3esso o3 ;st onomy, 'olumbia @nive sity, w ote a lette to +cience, (%ecembe 2#, #902) claiming 3o me the ( ediction o3 the g eat heat o3 Venus, o3 the adio noises 3 om Au(ite , o3 the eCistence o3 a magnetos(he e a ound the ?a th. ; (a(e , E+ome additional eCam(les o3

co ect ( ognosisE, w itten by me, was ( inted in the +e(tembe #901 issue o3 the ;me ican ,ehaviou al +cientistH it contained a su vey o3 va ious tests, con3i mations, and su((o ting evidence. In that issue, s(onso ed by a g ou( o3 eminent men in schola shi( and (ublic a33ai s, is also told the sto y o3 ece(tion / o e<ection / o3 this book, cou(led with e33o ts towa ds its su(( ession> it was actually su(( essed while in the hands o3 its 3i st (ublishe , who had to give it u(, though a No. # national bestselle , unde the eCe ted boycott o3 all this (ublishe Bs teCtbooks by ce tain g ou(s o gani5ed 3o that (u (ose in some o3 the academic councils o3 the count y. +ome attem(ts we e made to minimi5e the value o3 the c ucial tests claimed and con3i mations obtained (a ( ominent ast onome w ote in the %ecembe , #901, issue o3 =a (e Bs> E;s to the Bhigh tem(e atu eB o3 Venus, BhotB is only a elative te mH 3o eCam(le, liFuid ai is hot, elative to liFuid helium,E whe eas I claimed an incandescent state o3 Venus I(.9#J and a gaseous state o3 all hyd oca bons). P o3esso =. =. =ess, 'hai man o3 the +(ace ,oa d o3 the National ;cademy o3 +ciences, voluntee ed to w ite me a lette 3o (ublication>E+ome o3 these ( edictions we e said to be im(ossible when you made themH all o3 them we e ( edicted long be3o e ( oo3 that they we e co ect came to hand. 'onve sely, I do not know o3 any s(eci3ic ( ediction you made that has since ( oven to be 3alse.E I3 my ( emises a e w ong and only by shee chance did I obtain such a sco e, then the theo ists o3 ( obabilities ought to 3ind the odds involvedH i3, as some 3 iendlie ske(tics assume, the sco e is due to an unusual gi3t o3 intuition, then I should be accused o3 so ce y, not only o3 he esy. =oweve , i3 the sto y is a econst uction o3 the events that took (lace and o3 logical im(lications o3 them, then the sco e is but a Enatu al 3allout 3 om a single cent al ideaE (9. Aue gens). Neve theless, mo e e33o ts we e made to disFuali3y this wo k. ,ut ha dly any ast onomical a gument o3 #9$0 could be b ought ( o3itably against my book in #902 without denying all the im(o tant discove ies o3 the inte vening yea s. :he e3o e, attem(ts we e made to evade all these issues and to switch the debate, actually the cam(aign o3 de( eciation, to Fuestioning my ( o(e use o3 sou ces. 8hen a <ou nal ( inted 3o (hysicists se ves its eade s with (hilological a guments in ?gy(tology and commits the task to a <ou nalist Euni3o med and ash,E in the mild a(( aisal o3 P o3esso 6oses 6acias, and ( ints a vulga dis(lay o3 igno ance and disto tion, then it is as good as an admission that none o3 the (hysical a guments em(loyed ea lie could ca y weight and no new ones could be devised. It is about such a guments that the studentBs (a(e , :he %aily P inceton, w ote edito ially (Geb ua y, #902)> E8hile it could have been assumed that anyone challenging the basic ( emises o3 Newton and %a win might by laying himsel3 o(en to a ce tain amount o3 a gument, the (e sonal vitu(e ation, delibe ate mis e( esentation o3 3acts, o33hand misFuotations, e33o ts at su(( ession o3 the books containing the theo ies, and the denial o3 the ight to ebut o((onents in ( o3esso ial <ou nals that % . Velikovsky encounte ed indicate that 3a mo e was going on than Bme eB challenge to established ideas. 8hat the Velikovsky a33ai made c ystal clea R is that the theo ies o3 science may be held not only 3o the t uth they embody, but because o3 the vested inte ests they e( esent 3o those who hold them.E :he de(lo able tactis o3 ce tain g ou(s in the academia alienated the younge gene ation, and the histo ical and (hysical evidence accumulating with each (assing yea did not esca(e thei sight, and conclusions we e d awn. 8hat was unbelievable and he etical in #9$0 is making g eat in oads into the science that claimed dogmatic com(leteness and in3allibility as ecently as then. "n the eve o3 the (ublication o3 8o lds in 'ollision, the (hiloso(he =. ,utte 3ield w ote (:he " igin o3 6ode n +cience, #929)> E,ut the su( eme (a adoC o3 the scienti3ic evolution

is in the 3act that things which we 3ind easy to instil into the boys at school R things which would st ike us as the o dina y natu al way o3 looking at the unive se R de3eated the g eatest intellects 3o centu ies.E :he ;utho (#90$)
777777777777777777777777777777 # ,y the summe o3 #902 #$ ha d/cove ( intings in the @nited +tates , and #2 in ) eat , itain 2 8a en 8eave > E:he Im(e 3ections o3 +cienceE, P oc. "3 the ;me . Philos. +oc ., "ct. #-, #900. 777777777777777777777777777777

P e3ace #9$0
8"9!%+ IN '"!!I+I"N is a book o3 wa s in the celestial s(he e that took (lace in histo ical times. In these wa s the (lanet ea th (a tici(ated too. :his book desc ibes two acts o3 a g eat d ama> one that occu ed thi ty/3ou to thi ty/3ive centu ies ago, in the middle o3 the second millennium be3o e the ( esent e aH the othe in the eighth and the beginning o3 the seventh centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, twenty/siC centu ies ago. ;cco dingly, this volume consists o3 two (a ts, ( eceded by a ( ologue. =a mony o stability in the celestial and te est ial s(he es is the (oint o3 de(a tu e o3 the ( esent/day conce(t o3 the wo ld as eC( essed in the celestial mechanics o3 Newton and the theo y o3 evolution o3 %a win. I3 these two men o3 science a e sac osanct, this book is a he esy. =oweve , mode n (hysics, o3 atoms and o3 the Fuantum theo y, desc ibes d amatic changes in the mic ocosm / the atom / the ( ototy(e o3 the sola systemH a theo y, then, that envisages not dissimila events in the mac ocosm / the sola system / b ings the mode n conce(ts o3 (hysics to the celestial s(he e. :his book is w itten 3o the inst ucted and uninst ucted alike. No 3o mula and no hie ogly(hic will stand in the way o3 those who set out to ead it. I3, occasionally, histo ical evidence does not sFua e with 3o mulated laws, it should be emembe ed that a law is but a deduction 3 om eC(e ience and eC(e iment, and the e3o e laws must con3o m with histo ical 3acts, not 3acts with laws. :he eade is not asked to acce(t a theo y without Fuestion. 9athe , he is invited to conside 3o himsel3 whethe he is eading a book o3 3iction o non/3iction, whethe what he is eading is invention o histo ical 3act. "n one (oint alone, not necessa ily decisive 3o the theo y o3 cosmic catast o(hism, I bo ow c edence> I use a synch onical scale o3 ?gy(tian and =eb ew histo ies which is not o thodoC. It was in the s( ing o3 #920 that I came u(on the idea that in the days o3 the ?Codus, as evident 3 om many (assages o3 the +c i(tu es, the e occu ed a g eat (hysical catast o(he, and that such an event could se ve in dete mining the time o3 the ?Codus in ?gy(tian histo y o in establishing a synch onical scale 3o the histo ies o3 the (eo(les conce ned. :hus I sta ted ;ges in 'haos, a econst uction o3 the histo y o3 the ancient wo ld 3 om the middle o3 the second millennium be3o e the ( esent e a to the advent o3 ;leCande the ) eat. ;l eady in the 3all o3 that same yea , #920, I 3elt that I had acFui ed an unde standing o3 the eal natu e and eCtent o3 that catast o(he, and 3o nine yea s I wo ked on both ( o<ects, the (olitical and the natu al histo ies. ;lthough ;ges in 'haos was 3inished 3i st, in the o de o3 (ublication it will 3ollow this wo k. 8o lds in 'ollision com( ises only the last two acts o3 the cosmic d ama. ; 3ew ea lie acts / one o3 them known as the %eluge / will be the sub<ect o3 anothe volume o3 natu al histo y. :he histo ical/cosmological sto y o3 this book is based on the evidence o3 histo ical teCts o3 many (eo(les a ound the globe, on classical lite atu e, on e(ics o3 no the n aces, on sac ed books o3 the (eo(les o3 the " ient and "ccident, on t aditions and 3olklo e o3 ( imitive (eo(les, on old ast onomical insc i(tions and cha ts, on a chaeological 3inds, and also on geological and (aleontological mate ial.

I3 cosmic u(heavals occu ed in the histo ical (ast, why does not the human ace emembe them, and why was it necessa y to ca y on esea ch to 3ind out about themM I discuss this ( oblem in the +ection E:he 'ollective ;mnesia.E :he task I had to accom(lish was not unlike that 3aced by a (sychoanalyst who, out o3 disassociated memo ies and d eams, econst ucts a 3o gotten t aumatic eC(e ience in the ea ly li3e o3 an individual. In an analytical eC(e iment on mankind, histo ical insc i(tions and legenda y moti3s o3ten (lay the same ole as ecollections (in3antile memo ies) and d eams in the analysis o3 a (e sonality. 'an we, out o3 this (olymo (hous mate ial, establish actual 3actsM 8e shall check one (eo(le against anothe , one insc i(tion against anothe , e(ics against cha ts, geology against legends, until we a e able to eCt act the histo ical 3acts. In a 3ew cases it is im(ossible to say with ce tainty whethe a eco d o a t adition e3e s to one o anothe catast o(he that took (lace th ough the agesH it is also ( obable that in some t aditions va ious elements 3 om di33e ent ages a e 3used togethe . In the 3inal analysis, howeve , it is not so essential to seg egate de3initively the eco ds o3 single wo ld catast o(hes. 6o e im(o tant, it seems, is to establish (#) that the e we e (hysical u(heavals o3 a global cha acte in histo ical timesH (2) that these catast o(hes we e caused by eCt ate est ial agentsH and (1) that these agents can be identi3ied. :he e a e many im(lications that 3ollow 3 om these conclusions. I e3e to them in the ?(ilogue, so that I can omit e3e ence to them he e. ; 3ew eade s went ove this book in manusc i(t and made valuable suggestions and ema ks. In ch onological o de o3 thei eading they a e> % . =o ace 6. 4allen, 3o me ly %ean o3 the ) aduate Gaculty o3 the New +chool 3o +ocial 9esea ch, New *o kH Aohn A. "BNeill, +cience ?dito o3 the New *o k =e ald : ibuneH Aames Putnam, ;ssociate ?dito o3 the 6acmillan 'om(anyH 'li3ton Gadiman, lite a y c itic and commentato H )o don ;. ;twate , 'hai man and 'u ato o3 the =ayden Planeta ium o3 the ;me ican 6useum o3 Natu al =isto y, New *o k. :he last two ead the wo k at thei own eFuest a3te 6 . "BNeill had discussed it in an a ticle in the =e ald : ibune o3 ;ugust ##, #920. I am indebted to all o3 them but I alone am es(onsible 3o content and 3o m. 6iss 6a ion 4uhn clea ed the manusc i(t o3 g ammatical weeds and hel(ed in eading the ( oo3s. 6any an autho has dedicated his book to his wi3e o mentioned he in the ( e3ace. I have always 3elt this was somewhat ostentatious, but now that this wo k is being (ublished, I 3eel I shall be most ung ate3ul i3 I 3ail to mention that my wi3e ?lisheva s(ent almost as much time on it at ou desk as I did. I dedicate this book to he . :he yea s when ;ges in 'haos and 8o lds in 'ollision we e w itten we e yea s o3 a wo ld catast o(he c eated by man / o3 wa that was 3ought on land, on sea, and in the ai . %u ing that time man lea ned how to take a(a t a 3ew o3 the b icks o3 which the unive se is built / the atoms o3 u anium. I3 one day he should solve the ( oblem o3 the 3ission and 3usion o3 the atoms o3 which the c ust o3 the ea th o its wate and ai a e com(osed, he may (e chance, by initiating a chain eaction, take this (lanet out o3 the st uggle 3o su vival among the membe s o3 the celestial s(he e. :he ;utho , New *o k, +e(tembe #929.

P ologue
In an Immense @nive se
Kuota (a s o(ens tanti nobis committitu M / +eneca

'ha(te #

IN ;N I66?N+? unive se a little globe evolves a ound a sta H it is the thi d in the ow / 6e cu y, Venus, ?a th / o3 the (laneta y 3amily. It is o3 a solid co e cove ed ove most o3 its su 3ace with liFuid, and it has a gaseous envelo(e. !iving c eatu es 3ill the liFuidH othe living c eatu es 3ly in the gasH and still othe s c ee( and walk u(on the g ound on the bottom o3 the gaseous ocean. 6an, a being o3 e ect statu e, thinks himsel3 the ( ince o3 c eation. =e 3elt like this long be3o e he, by his own e33o ts, came to know how to 3ly on wings o3 metal a ound the globe. =e 3elt godlike long be3o e he could talk to his 3ellow/man on the othe side o3 the globe. :oday he can see the mic ocosm in a d o( and the elements in the sta s. =e knows the laws gove ning the living cell with its ch omosomes, and the laws gove ning the mac ocosm o3 the sun, moon, (lanets, and sta s. =e assumes that g avitation kee(s the (laneta y system togethe , man and beast on thei (lanet, the sea within its bo de s. Go millions and millions o3 yea s, he maintains, the (lanets have olled along on the same (aths, and thei moons a ound them, and man in these eons has a isen 3 om a one/cell in3uso ium all the long way u( the ladde to his status o3 =omo sa(iens. Is manBs knowledge now nea ly com(leteM ; e only a 3ew mo e ste(s necessa y to conFue the unive se> to eCt act the ene gy o3 the atom / since these (ages we e w itten this has al eady been done / to cu e cance , to cont ol genetics, to communicate with othe (lanets and lea n i3 they have living c eatu es, tooM =e e begins =omo igno amus. =e does not know what li3e is o how it came to be and whethe it o iginated 3 om ino ganic matte . =e does not know whethe othe (lanets o3 this sun o o3 othe suns have li3e on them, and i3 they have, whethe the 3o ms o3 li3e the e a e like those a ound us, ou selves included. =e does not know how this sola system came into being, although he has built u( a 3ew hy(otheses about it. =e knows only that the sola system was const ucted billions o3 yea s ago. =e does not know what this myste ious 3o ce o3 g avitation is that holds him and his 3ellow man on the othe side o3 the (lanet with thei 3eet on the g ound, although he ega ds the (henomenon itsel3 as Ethe law o3 laws.E =e does not know what the ea th looks like 3ive miles unde his 3eet. =e does not know how mountains came into eCistence o what caused the eme gence o3 the continents, although he builds hy(otheses about these, no does he know 3 om whe e oil came / again hy(otheses. =e does not know why, only a sho t time ago, a thick glacial sheet ( essed u(on most o3 ?u o(e and No th ;me ica, as he believes it didH no how (alms could g ow above the (ola ci cle, no how it came about that the same 3auna 3ill the inne lakes o3 the "ld and the New 8o ld. =e does not know whe e the salt in the sea came 3 om. ;lthough man knows that he has lived on this (lanet 3o millions o3 yea s, he 3inds a eco ded histo y o3 only a 3ew thousand yea s. ;nd even these 3ew thousand yea s a e not su33iciently well known. 8hy did the , on5e ;ge ( ecede the I on ;ge even though i on is mo e widely dist ibuted ove the wo ld and its manu3actu e is sim(le than that o3 the alloy o3 co((e and tinM ,y what mechanical means we e st uctu es o3 immense blocks built on the high mountains o3 the ;ndesM 8hat caused the legend o3 the Glood to o iginate in all the count ies o3 the wo ldM Is the e any adeFuate meaning to the te m EantediluvianEM G om what eC(e iences g ew the

eschatological (ictu es o3 the end o3 the wo ldM In this wo k, o3 which the ( esent book is the 3i st (a t, some o3 these Fuestions will be answe ed, but only at the cost o3 giving u( ce tain notions now ega ded as sac ed laws in science / the millions o3 yea s o3 the ( esent constitution o3 the sola system and the ha monious evolution o3 the ea th / with all thei im(lications as ega ds the theo y o3 evolution.

:he 'elestial =a mony

:he sun ises in the east and sets in the west. :he day consists o3 twenty/3ou hou s. :he yea consists o3 10$ days, $ hou s, and 29 minutes. :he moon ci cles a ound the ea th, changing its (hases / c escent, 3ull, dec escent. :he te est ial aCis (oints in the di ection o3 the (ola sta . ;3te winte comes s( ing, then summe and 3all. :hese a e common 3acts. ; e they inva iable lawsM 6ust it be so 3o eve M 8as it so alwaysM :he sun has nine (lanets. 6e cu y has no satellitesH Venus has no satellitesH the ea th has a moonH 6a s has two small t abants, me e (ieces o3 ock, and one o3 them com(letes its month be3o e 6a s ends its dayH Au(ite has eleven moons and eleven di33e ent kinds o3 months to countH +atu n has nine moons, @ anus has 3ive moons, # Ne(tune one, Pluto none. 2 8as it always soM 8ill it be so 3o eve M :he sun otates in an easte ly di ection. ;ll (lanets evolve in thei o bits in the same di ection (counte clockwise i3 seen 3 om the no th) a ound the sun. 6ost o3 thei moons evolve counte clockwise (in di ect motion), but the e a e a 3ew that evolve in the o((osite di ection (in et og ade motion). No o bit is an eCact ci cleH the e is no egula ity in the eccent ical sha(es o3 the (laneta y o bitsH each elli(tical cu ve ve ges in a di33e ent di ection. It is not known 3o ce tain, but it is assumed that 6e cu y (e manently shows the same 3ace to the sun, as ou moon does with es(ect to the ea th. In3o mation obtained by di33e ent methods o3 obse vation o3 Venus is cont adicto yH it is not known whethe Venus otates so slowly that its day eFuals its yea , o so a(idly that the night side is neve su33iciently cooled. 6a s otates in 22 hou s, 1- minutes, 22.0 seconds (mean (e iod), a (e iod com(a able to the te est ial day. Au(ite , which in volume is thi teen hund ed times la ge than the ea th, com(letes a otation in the sho t s(ace o3 9 hou s and $0 minutes. 8hat causes this va iabilityM It is not a law that a (lanet must otate o have days and nightsH still less that its day and night must etu n eve y twenty/3ou hou s. I3 Pluto otates 3 om east to west, 1 it has the sun ising in the west. @ anus has the sun ising and setting neithe in the east no in the west. +o it is not a law that a (lanet o3 the sola system must otate 3 om west to east and that the sun must ise in the east. :he eFuato o3 the ea th is inclined to the (lane o3 its ecli(tic at an angle o3 21SQH this causes the change o3 seasons du ing the annual evolution a ound the sun. :he aCes o3 othe (lanets (oint in the di ections o3 seemingly delibe ate choice. It is not a gene al law 3o all (lanets that winte must 3ollow 3all and summe the s( ing. :he aCis o3 @ anus is (laced almost in the (lane o3 its o bitH 3o about twenty yea s one o3 its (ola egions is the hottest (lace on the (lanet. :hen night g adually descends and twenty yea s late the othe (ole ente s the t o(ics 3o an eFual length o3 time. 2 :he moon has no atmos(he e. It is not known whethe 6e cu y has any atmos(he e. Venus is cove ed with dense clouds, but not o3 wate va(o . 6a s has a t ans(a ent atmos(he e, but almost without oCygen o wate va(o , and its com(osition is unknown. Au(ite and +atu n have gaseous envelo(esH it is not known whethe they have solid co es. It is not a gene al law that a (lanet must have atmos(he e o wate . 6a s is 0.#$ o3 the volume o3 the ea thH the neCt (lanet, Au(ite , is about .,-$0 times as

la ge as 6a s. :he e is no egula ity o3, o elation between, the si5e o3 the (lanets and thei (osition in the system. "n 6a s a e seen EcanalsE and (ola ca(sH on the moon, c ate sH the ea th has e3lecting oceansH Venus has b illiant cloudsH Au(ite has belts and a ed s(otH +atu n has ings. :he celestial ha mony is com(osed o3 bodies di33e ent in si5e, di33e ent in 3o m, di33e ent in the velocity o3 otation, with di33e ently di ected aCes o3 otation, with di33e ent di ections o3 otation, with di33e ently com(osed atmos(he es o without atmos(he es, with a va ying numbe o3 moons o without moons, and with satellites evolving in eithe di ection. It a((ea s then to be by chance that the ea th has a moon, that we have day and night and that thei combined length is eFual to twenty/3ou hou s, that we have a seFuence o3 seasons, that we have oceans and wate , atmos(he e and oCygen, and ( obably also that ou (lanet is (laced between Venus at ou le3t and 6a s at ou ight.
777777777777777777777777777777 # :he 3i3th satellite o3 @ anus was discove ed in #92.. 2 %ue to the g eat distance o3 Ne(tune and Pluto 3 om the ea th, smalle satellites a ound these (lanets may have emained undiscove ed. Note> 8hile this book was on the ( ess anothe satellite o3 Ne(tune was discove ed by ). P. 4ui(e . 1 ). )amow> ,iog a(hy o3 the ?a th (#92#), (. 22. 2 :he eFuato o3 @ anus is inclined at an angle o3 .2Q to the (lane o3 its o bit. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he " igin o3 the Planeta y +ystem

;ll theo ies o3 the o igin o3 the (laneta y system and the motive 3o ces that sustain the motion o3 its membe s go back to the g avitational theo y and the celestial mechanics o3 Newton. :he sun att acts the (lanets, and i3 it we e not 3o a second 3o ce, they would 3all into the sunH but each (lanet is im(elled by a motive 3o ce to ( oceed in a di ection away 3 om the sun, and as a esult, an o bit is 3o med. +imila ly, a satellite o a moon is sub<ect to a 3o ce that d ives it away 3 om its ( ima y, but the att action o3 the ( ima y bends the (ath on which the satellite would have ( oceeded i3 the e had been no att action between the bodies, and out o3 these 3o ces a satellite o bit is t aced. :he ine tia o (e sistence o3 motion im(lanted in (lanets and satellites was (ostulated by Newton, but he did not eC(lain how o when the initial (ull o (ush occu ed. # :he theo y o3 the o igin o3 the (laneta y system which dominated the enti e nineteenth centu y was ( o(osed by +wedenbo g, the theologian, and 4ant, the (hiloso(he . It was (ut into scienti3ic te ms by !a(lace, 2 although not eC(lo ed by him Fuantitatively, and in b ie3 is as 3ollows> =und eds o3 millions o3 yea s ago the sun was nebulous and ve y la ge and had a 3o m a(( oaching that o3 a disc. :his disc was as wide as the whole o bit o3 the 3a thest o3 the (lanets. It otated a ound its cente . "wing to the ( ocess o3 com( ession caused by g avitation, a globula sun sha(ed itsel3 in the cente o3 the disc. ,ecause o3 the otating motion o3 the whole nebula, a cent i3ugal 3o ce was in actionH (a ts o3 matte mo e on the (e i(he y esisted the et acting action di ected towa d the cente and b oke u( into ings which balled into globes / these we e the (lanets in the ( ocess o3 sha(ing. In othe wo ds, as a esult o3 the sh inkage o3 the otating sun, matte b oke away and (o tions o3 this sola mate ial develo(ed into (lanets. :he (lane in which the (lanets evolve is the eFuato ial (lane o3 the sun. :his theo y is now ega ded as unsatis3acto y. :h ee ob<ections stand out above othe s. Gi st, the velocity o3 the aCial otation o3 the sun at the time the (laneta y system was built could not have been su33icient to enable bands o3 matte to b eak awayH but even i3 they had b oken away, they would not have balled into globes. +econd, the !a(lace theo y does not

eC(lain why the (lanets have la ge angula velocity o3 daily otation and yea ly evolution than the sun could have im(a ted to them. :hi d, what made some o3 the satellites evolve et og adely, o in a di ection o((osite to that o3 most o3 the membe s o3 the sola systemM EIt a((ea s to be clea ly established that, whateve st uctu e we assign to a ( imitive sun, a (laneta y system cannot come into being me ely as the esult o3 the sunBs otation. I3 a sun, otating alone in s(ace, is not able o3 itsel3 to ( oduce its 3amily o3 (lanets and satellites, it becomes necessa y to invoke the ( esence and assistance o3 some second body. :his b ings us at once to the tidal theo y.E 1 :he tidal theo y, which, in its ea lie stage, was called the (lanetesimal theo y, 2 assumes that a sta (assed close to the sun. ;n immense tide o3 matte a ose 3 om the sun in the di ection o3 the (assing sta and was to n 3 om the body o3 the sun but emained in its domain, being the mate ial out o3 which the (lanets we e built. In the (lanetesimal theo y the mass that was to n out b oke into small (a ts which solidi3ied in s(aceH some we e d iven out o3 the sola system, and some 3ell back into the sun, but the est moved a ound it because o3 its g avitational (ull. +wee(ing in elongated o bits a ound the sun, they conglome ated, ounded out thei o bits as a esult o3 mutual collisions, and g ew to 3o m (lanets and satellites a ound the (lanets. :he tidal theo y $ does not allow the matte to n 3 om the sun to dis(e se 3i st and eunite late H the tide b oke into a 3ew (o tions that athe Fuickly changed 3 om gaseous to 3luid, and then to the solid state. In su((o t o3 this theo y it was indicated that such a tide, when b oken into a numbe o3 Ed o(s,E would ( obably build the la gest Ed o(sE out o3 its middle (o tion, and small Ed o(sE 3 om its beginning (nea the sun) and its end (most emote 3 om the sun). ;ctually, 6e cu y, nea est to the sun, is a small (lanet. Venus is la ge H ea th is a little la ge than VenusH Au(ite is th ee hund ed and twenty times as la ge as the ea th (in mass)H +atu n is somewhat smalle than Au(ite H @ anus and Ne(tune, though la ge (lanets, a e not as la ge as Au(ite and +atu n. Pluto is Fuite as small as 6e cu y. :he 3i st di33iculty o3 the tidal hy(othesis lies in the ve y (oint adduced in its su((o t, the mass o3 the (lanets. ,etween the ea th and Au(ite the e evolves a small (lanet, 6a s, a tenth (a t o3 the ea th in mass, whe e, acco ding to the scheme, a (lanet ten to 3i3ty times as la ge as the ea th should be eC(ected. ;gain, Ne(tune is la ge and not smalle than @ anus. ;nothe di33iculty is the allegedly a e chance o3 an encounte between two sta s. "ne o3 the autho s o3 the tidal theo y gave this estimate o3 its ( obability> 0 E;t a ough estimate we may su((ose that a given sta Bs chance o3 3o ming a (laneta y system is one in $,000,000,000,000,000,000 yea s.E ,ut since the li3e s(an o3 a sta is much sho te than this 3igu e, Eonly about one sta in #00,000 can have 3o med a (laneta y system in the whole o3 its li3e.E In the galactic system o3 one hund ed million sta s, (laneta y systems E3o m at the ate o3 about one (e 3ive billion yea s ... ou own system, with an age o3 the o de o3 two billion yea s, is ( obably the youngest system in the whole galactic system o3 sta s.E :he nebula and tidal theo ies alike ega d the (lanets as de ivatives o3 the sun, and the satellites as de ivatives o3 the (lanets. :he ( oblem o3 the o igin o3 the moon can be ega ded as distu bing to the tidal theo y. ,eing smalle than the ea th, the moon com(leted ea lie the ( ocess o3 cooling and sh inking, and the luna volcanoes had al eady ceased to be active. It is calculated that the moon (ossesses a lighte s(eci3ic weight than the ea th. It is assumed that the moon was ( oduced 3 om the su(e 3icial laye s o3 the ea thBs body, which a e ich in light silicon, whe eas the co e o3 the ea th, the main (o tion o3 its body, is made o3 heavy metals, (a ticula ly i on. ,ut this assum(tion (ostulates the o igin o3 the moon as not simultaneous with the o igin o3 the ea thH the ea th, being 3o med out o3 a mass e<ected

3 om the sun, had to unde go a ( ocess o3 leveling, which (laced the heavy metals in the co e and silicon at the (e i(he y, be3o e the moon (a ted 3 om the ea th by a new tidal disto tion. :his would mean two consecutive tidal disto tions in a system whe e the chance o3 even one is held eCt emely a e. I3 the (assing o3 one sta nea anothe ha((ens among one hund ed million sta s once in 3ive billion yea s, two occu ences like this 3o one and the same sta seem Fuite inc edible. :he e3o e, as no bette eC(lanation is available, the satellites a e su((osed to have been to n 3 om the (lanets by the sunBs att action on thei 3i st (e ihelion (assage, when, swee(ing along on st etched o bits, the (lanets came close to the sun. :he ci cling o3 the satellites a ound the (lanets also con3 onts eCisting cosmological theo ies with di33iculties. !a(lace built his theo y o3 the o igin o3 the sola system on the assum(tion that all (lanets and satellites evolve in the same di ection. =e w ote that the aCial otation o3 the sun and the o bital evolutions and aCial otations o3 the siC (lanets, the moon, the satellites, and the ings o3 +atu n ( esent 3o ty/th ee movements, all in the same di ection. E"ne 3inds by the analysis o3 the ( obabilities that the e a e mo e than 3ou thousand billion chances to one that this a angement is not the esult o3 chanceH this ( obability is conside ably highe than that o3 the eality o3 histo ical events with ega d to which no one would ventu e a doubt.E - =e deduced that a common and ( imal cause di ected the movements o3 the (lanets and satellites. +ince the time o3 !a(lace, new membe s o3 the sola system have been discove ed. Now we know that though the ma<o ity o3 the satellites evolve in the same di ection as the (lanets evolve and the sun otates, the moons o3 @ anus evolve in a (lane almost (e (endicula to the o bital (lane o3 thei (lanet, and th ee o3 the eleven moons o3 Au(ite , one o3 the nine moons o3 +atu n, and the one moon o3 Ne(tune evolve et og adely. :hese 3acts cont adict the main a gument o3 the !a(lace theo y> a otating nebula could not ( oduce satellites evolving in two di ections. In the tidal theo y the di ection o3 the (lanetsB movements de(ended on the sta that (assed> it (assed in the (lane in which the (lanets now evolve and in a di ection which dete mined thei ci cling 3 om west to east. ,ut why should the satellites o3 @ anus evolve (e (endicula ly to that (lane and some moons o3 Au(ite and +atu n in eve se di ectionsM :his the tidal theo y 3ails to eC(lain. ;cco ding to all eCisting theo ies, the angula velocity o3 the evolution o3 a satellite must be slowe than the velocity o3 otation o3 its (a ent. ,ut the inne satellite o3 6a s evolves mo e a(idly than 6a s otates. +ome o3 the di33iculties that con3 ont the nebula and tidal theo ies also con3 ont anothe theo y that has been ( o(osed in ecent yea s. . ;cco ding to it, the sun is su((osed to have been a membe o3 a double sta system. ; (assing sta c ushed the com(anion o3 the sun, and out o3 its deb is (lanets we e 3o med. In 3u the develo(ment o3 this hy(othesis, it is maintained that the la ge (lanets we e built out o3 the deb is, and the smalle ones, the so/called Ete est ialE (lanets, we e 3o med 3 om the la ge ones by a ( ocess o3 cleavage. :he bi th o3 smalle , solid (lanets out o3 the la ge , gaseous ones is con<ectu ed in o de to eC(lain the di33e ence in the elation o3 weight to volume in the la ge and smalle (lanetsH but this theo y is unable to eC(lain the di33e ence in the s(eci3ic weights o3 the smalle (lanets and thei satellites. ,y a ( ocess o3 cleavage, the moon was bo n o3 the ea thH but since the s(eci3ic weight o3 the moon is g eate than that o3 the la ge (lanets and smalle than that o3 the ea th, it would seem to be mo e in acco d with the theo y that the ea th was bo n o3 the moon, des(ite its smallness. :his con3uses the a gument. :he o igin o3 the (lanets and thei satellites emains unsolved. :he theo ies not only cont adict one anothe , but each o3 them bea s within itsel3 its own cont adictions. EI3 the sun had been unattended by (lanets, its o igin and evolution would have ( esented no

di33iculty.E 9
777777777777777777777777777777 # Isaac Newton> P inci(ia (6athematical P inci(les) (#0.0), ,k. III. 2 P. +. !a(lace> ?C(osition du systTme du monde (#-90). 1 +i Aames =. Aeans> ;st onomy and 'osmogony (#929), (. 209. 2 :he (lanetesimal hy(othesis was develo(ed by :. '. 'hambe lin and G. 9. 6oulton. $ :he tidal theo y was develo(ed by A. =. Aeans and =. Ae33 eys. 0 Aeans> ;st onomy and 'osmogony, (. 209. - !a(lace> :hUo ie analytiFue des ( obabilitUs (1 d ed., #.20), (. lCiH c3. =. Gaye> +u IB" igine du monde (#..2), ((. #1#/#12. . ,y !yttleton and, inde(endently, by 9ussell. 9 Aeans> ;st onomy and 'osmogony, (. 19$. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he " igin o3 the 'omets

:he nebula and tidal theo ies endeavo to eC(lain the o igin o3 the sola system but do not include the comets in thei schemes. 'omets a e mo e nume ous than (lanets. 6o e than siCty comets a e known to belong de3initely to the sola system. :hese a e the comets o3 sho t (e iods (less than eighty yea s)H they evolve in st etched elli(ses and all but one do not go beyond the line ma ked by the o bit o3 Ne(tune. It is estimated that, besides the comets o3 sho t (e iods, seve al hund ed thousand comets visit the sola systemH howeve , it is not known 3o ce tain that they etu n (e iodically. :hey a e seen ( esently at an a(( oCimate ate o3 3ive hund ed in a centu y, and a e said to have an ave age (e iod o3 tens o3 thousands o3 yea s. ; 3ew theo ies o3 the o igin o3 comets have been ( o(osed, but aside 3 om one attem(t to see in them (lanetesimals that did not eceive a side (ull su33iciently st ong to b ing them into ci cula o bits, # no scheme has been develo(ed that eC(lains the o igin o3 the sola system in its enti ety, with its (lanets and cometsH yet no cosmic theo y can (e sist which limits itsel3 to the ( oblem o3 eithe (lanets o comets eCclusively. "ne theo y sees in the comets e ant cosmic bodies a iving 3 om inte stella s(ace. ;3te a(( oaching the sun, they tu n away on an o(en ((a abolic) cu ve. ,ut i3 they ha((en to (ass close to one o3 the la ge (lanets, they may be com(elled to change thei o(en cu ves to elli(ses and become comets o3 sho t (e iod. 2 :his is the theo y o3 ca(tu e> comets o3 long (e iods o o3 no (e iod a e dislodged 3 om thei (aths to become sho t/(e iod comets. 8hat the o igin o3 the long/(e iod comets is emains an unanswe ed Fuestion. :he sho t/(e iod comets a((a ently have some elation to the la ge (lanets. ;bout 3i3ty comets move between the sun and the o bit o3 Au(ite H thei (e iods a e unde nine yea s. Gou comets each the o bit o3 +atu nH two comets evolve inside the ci cle desc ibed by @ anusH and nine comets, with an ave age (e iod o3 seventy/one yea s, move within the o bit o3 Ne(tune. :hese com( ise the system o3 the sho t/(e iod comets as it is known at ( esent. :o the last g ou( belongs the =alley comet, which, among the comets o3 sho t (e iods, has the longest (e iod o3 evolution / about seventy/siC yea s. :hen the e is a g eat ga(, a3te which the e a e comets that eFui e thousands o3 yea s be3o e they etu n to the sun, i3 they etu n at all. :he dist ibution o3 the sho t/(e iod comets suggested the idea that they we e Eca(tu edE by the la ge (lanets. :his theo y has 3o its su((o t the di ect obse vation that comets a e distu bed on thei (ath by the (lanets. ;nothe theo y o3 the comets su((oses thei o igin to have been in the sun, but in a manne unlike that conceived o3 in the tidal theo y o3 the o igin o3 (lanets. 6ighty whi ls on the

su 3ace o3 the sun swee( ignited gases into g eat ( otube ancesH these a e obse ved daily. 6atte is d iven o33 3 om the sun and etu ns to the sun. It is calculated that i3 the velocity o3 the e<ection we e to eCceed 1.2 miles (e second, the s(eed o3 motion in a (a abola, the matte would not etu n to the sun but would become a long/ ange comet. :hen the (ath o3 the e<ected mass might become (e tu bed as a esult o3 its (assage nea one o3 the la ge (lanets, and the comet would become one o3 a sho t (e iod. ,i th o3 a comet in this manne has neve been obse ved, and the ( obability that matte in eC(losion may each a s(eed o3 1.2 miles (e second is highly Fuestionable. It was the e3o e su((osed alte natively that millions o3 yea s ago, when the activity o3 thei gaseous masses was mo e dynamic, the la ge (lanets eC(elled comets 3 om thei bodies. :he s(eed eFui ed 3o the e<ected mass to ove come the g avitational (ull o3 the e<ecting body is less in the case o3 the (lanets than in the case o3 the sun, owing to thei smalle g avitational (ull. It is calculated that a mass hu led 3 om Au(ite at a s(eed o3 about 1. miles (e second, o at only a little mo e than a thi d o3 this velocity in the case o3 Ne(tune, would become eC(elled. :his va iant o3 the theo y neglects the Fuestion o3 the o igin o3 the long/(e iod comets. =oweve , an eC(lanation was o33e ed, acco ding to which the la ge (lanets th ow the comets that (ass close to them 3 om thei sho t o bits into elongated ones, o even eC(el them enti ely 3 om the sola system. 8hen (assing close to the sun, comets emit tails. It is assumed that the mate ial o3 the tail does not etu n to the cometBs head but is dis(e sed in s(aceH conseFuently, the comets as luminous bodies must have a limited li3e. I3 =alleyBs comet has (u sued its ( esent o bit since late ( e/'amb ian times, it must Ehave g own and lost eight million tails, which seems im( obable.E 1 I3 comets a e wasted, thei numbe in the sola system must (e manently diminish, and no comet o3 sho t (e iod could have ( ese ved its tail since geological times. ,ut as the e a e many luminous comets o3 sho t (e iod, they must have been ( oduced o acFui ed at some time when othe membe s o3 the system, the (lanets and the satellites, we e al eady in thei (laces. ; theo y has been o33e ed that once the sola system moved th ough a nebula and obtained its comets the e. %id the sun emit (lanets by sh inkage o by tide, and comets by eC(losionM %id the comets come 3 om inte stella s(ace and we e they ca(tu ed into the sola system by la ge (lanetsM %id the la ge (lanets ( oduce the smalle (lanets by cleavage, o did they eC(el the sho t/(e iod comets 3 om thei bodiesM It is admitted that we cannot know the t uth about the o igin o3 the (laneta y and cometa y systems billions o3 yea s ago. E:he ( oblem o3 the o igin and develo(ment o3 the sola system su33e s 3 om the label Bs(eculative.B It is 3 eFuently said that as we we e not the e when the system was 3o med, we cannot legitimately a ive at any idea o3 how it was 3o med.E 2 :he most we can do, it is believed, is to investigate one (lanet, the one unde ou 3eet, in o de to lea n its (astH and then, by the deductive method, to a((ly the esults to othe membe s o3 the sola system.
777777777777777777777777777777 # ;n attem(t to eC(lain the comets, in the 3 ame o3 the (lanetesimal theo y, as scatte ed deb is o3 a g eat w eck, was made by :. '. 'hambe lin> :he :wo +ola Gamilies (#92.). 2 :hat (lanets a e able to change the (ath o3 a comet is not only known 3 om obse vation but has even been calculated in advance. In #-$. 'lai aut ( edicted the eta dation o3 =alleyBs comet, on its 3i st etu n 3o etold by =alley, 3o a (e iod o3 0#. days, because it had to (ass nea Au(ite and +atu n. It was eta ded 3o almost the com(uted length o3 time. +imila ly, the o bits o3 othe comets we e occasionally disto ted. !eCel:s comet was distu bed by Au(ite in #-0- and in #--0 by the ea th, %B; estBs comet was distu bed in #.00, 8ol3Bs comet in #.-$ and #922. ,y an encounte with Au(ite in #..0, , ookBs comet changed its (e iod 3 om 29 yea s to yea sH the (e iod o3 Au(ite was not alte ed by mo e than two o th ee minutes, and ( obably less. 1 =. N. 9ussell> :he +ola +ystem and Its " igin (#91$), (. 20. 2 =a old Ae33 eys> E:he " igin o3 the +ola +ystemE in Inte nal 'onstitution o3 the ?a th, ,. )utenbe g, ed. (#919). 777777777777777777777777777777

:he Planet ?a th

'ha(te 2

:=? P!;N?: ?;9:= has a stony shell / the lithos(he eH it consists o3 igneous ock, like g anite and basalt, with sedimenta y ock on to(. :he igneous ock is the o iginal c ust o3 the ea thH sedimenta y ock is de(osited by wate . :he inne com(osition o3 the ea th is not known. :he ( o(agation o3 seismic waves gives su((o t to the assum(tion that the shell o3 the ea th is ove 2,000 miles thickH on the basis o3 the g avitational e33ect o3 mountain masses (the theo y o3 isostasy), the shell is estimated to be only siCty miles thick. :he ( esence o3 i on in the shell o the mig ation o3 heavy metals 3 om the co e to the shell has not been su33iciently eC(lained. Go these metals to have le3t the co e, they must have been e<ected by eC(losions, and in o de to emain s( ead th ough the c ust, the eC(losions must have been 3ollowed immediately by cooling. I3, in the beginning, the (lanet was a hot conglome ate o3 elements, as the nebula as well as the tidal theo ies assume, then the i on o3 the globe should have become oCidi5ed and combined with all available oCygen. ,ut 3o some unknown eason this did not take (laceH thus the ( esence o3 oCygen in the te est ial atmos(he e is uneC(lained. :he wate o3 the oceans contains a la ge amount o3 soluble sodium chlo ide, common salt. +odium might have come 3 om ocks e oded by ainH but ocks a e (oo in chlo ine and the ( o(o tion o3 sodium and chlo ine in sea wate calls 3o 3i3ty times mo e chlo ine in the igneous ock than it actually contains. :he dee( st ata o3 igneous ock contain no signs o3 3ossil li3e. Incased in sedimenta y ock a e skeletons o3 ma ine and land animals, o3ten in many laye s one u(on the othe . Not in3 eFuently igneous ock is 3ound ( ot uding into sedimenta y ock o even cove ing it ove la ge a eas, (ointing to successive e u(tions o3 igneous ock that became heated and molten a3te the e was li3e on the ea th. @(on st ata which show no signs o3 3ossil li3e a e st ata containing shells, and sometimes the shells a e so nume ous as to constitute the enti e mass o3 the ock. :hey a e o3ten 3ound in the ha dest ock. =ighe st ata contain skeletons o3 land animals, o3ten o3 eCtinct s(ecies, and not in3 eFuently, above the st ata with the emains o3 land animals a e othe st ata with ma ine 3auna. :he s(ecies o3 the animals, and even thei gene a, change with the st ata. :he st ata o3ten assume an obliFue (osition, sometimes being almost ve ticalH 3 eFuently they a e 3aulted and ove tu ned in many ways. 'uvie (#-09/#.12), the 3ounde o3 ve teb ate (aleontology, o the science o3 (et i3ied skeletons o3 animals (ossessing ve teb ae, 3 om 3ish to man, was much im( essed by the (ictu e ( esented by the seFuence o3 the laye s o3 ea th. E8hen the t avelle (asses ove these 3e tile (lains whe e gently 3lowing st eams nou ish in thei cou se an abundant vegetation, and whe e the soil, inhabited by a nume ous (o(ulation, ado ned with 3lou ishing villages, o(ulent cities, and su(e b monuments, is neve distu bed, eCce(t by the avages o3 wa , o by the o(( ession o3 the (owe 3ul, he is not led to sus(ect that Natu e also has had he intestine wa s, and that the su 3ace o3 the globe has been b oken u( by evolutions and catast o(hes. ,ut his ideas change as soon as he digs into that soil which now ( esents so (eace3ul an as(ect.E # 'uvie thought that g eat catast o(hes had taken (lace on this ea th, e(eatedly changing sea beds into continents and continents into sea beds. =e held that gene a and s(ecies we e unchangeable since ' eationH but, obse ving di33e ent animal emains in va ious levels o3 ea th, he concluded that catast o(hes must have annihilated li3e in vast a eas, leaving the g ound 3o othe 3o ms o3 li3e. 8he e did these othe gene a come 3 omM ?ithe they we e newly c eated o , mo e likely they mig ated 3 om othe (a ts o3 the wo ld, which we e not at

that time also visited by cataclysms. =e could not 3ind the cause o3 these cataclysms. =e saw in thei t aces Ethe ( oblem in geology it is o3 most im(o tance to solve,E but he eali5ed that Ein o de to esolve it satis3acto ily, it would be necessa y to discove the cause o3 these events / an unde taking which ( esents a di33iculty o3 Fuite a di33e ent kind.E =e knew only o3 Emany 3 uitless attem(tsE al eady made and he did not 3ind himsel3 able to o33e a solution. E:hese ideas have haunted, I may almost say have to mented me du ing my esea ches among 3ossil bones.E 2 'uvie Bs theo y o3 stabili5ed 3o ms o3 li3e and o3 annihilating catast o(hes was su((lanted by a theo y o3 evolution in geology (!yell) and biology (%a win). :he mountains a e what is le3t o3 (lateaus e oded by wind and wate in a ve y slow ( ocess. +edimenta y ock is det itus o3 igneous ock e oded by ain, then ca ied to sea, and the e slowly de(osited. +keletons o3 bi ds and o3 land animals in these ocks a e ( esumed to have belonged to animals that waded close to the sho e o3 the sea in shallow wate , died while wading, and we e cove ed by sediment be3o e 3ish dest oyed the cadave s o the wate se(a ated the bones o3 thei skeletons. No wides( ead catast o(hes dis u(ted the slow and steady ( ocess. :he theo y o3 evolution, which can be t aced to ; istotle, and which was the teaching o3 !ama ck in the days o3 'uvie and o3 %a win a3te him, has been gene ally acce(ted as t uth by natu al sciences 3o almost a hund ed yea s. +edimenta y ock cove s high mountains and the highest o3 all, the =imalayas. +hells and skeletons o3 sea animals a e 3ound the e. :his means that at some ea ly time 3ish swam ove these mountains. 8hat caused the mountains to iseM ; 3o ce (ushing 3 om within o (ulling 3 om without o twisting on the sides must have elevated the mountains and li3ted continents 3 om the bottom o3 the sea and subme ged othe land masses. I3 we do not know what these 3o ces a e, we cannot answe the ( oblem o3 the o igin o3 the mountains and o3 continents, whe eve on the globe we a e 3aced with it. =e e is how the Fuestion is (ut conce ning the easte n coast o3 No th ;me ica. ENot long ago in a geological sense, the 3lat (lain 3 om New Ae sey to Glo ida was unde the sea. ;t that time the ocean su 3 b oke di ectly on the "ld ;((alachian 6ountains. P eviously the southeaste n (a t o3 the mountain st uctu e had sunk below the sea and become cove ed with a laye o3 sand and mud, thickening seawa d. :he wedge/like mass o3 ma ine sediments was then u(li3ted and cut into by ive s, giving the ;tlantic coastal (lain o3 the @nited +tates. 8hy was it u(li3tedM :o the westwa d a e the ;((alachians. :he geologist tells us o3 the st ess3ul times when a belt o3 ocks eCtending 3 om ;labama to New3oundland was <ammed, th ust togethe , to make this mountain system. 8hyM =ow was it doneM In 3o me times the sea 3looded the egion o3 the g eat (lains 3 om 6eCico to ;laska, and then withd ew. 8hy this changeME 1 :he bi th o3 the 'o dille as / Eagain the myste y o3 mountain/making clamo s 3o solution.E ;nd so on all ove the wo ld. :he =imalayas we e unde the sea. Now ?u asia is th ee miles o mo e above the bottom o3 the Paci3ic. 8hyM E:he ( oblem o3 mountain/making is a veCing one> many o3 them ImountainsJ a e com(osed o3 tangentially com( essed and ove /th ust ocks that indicate sco es o3 miles o3 ci cum3e ential sho tening in the ?a thBs c ust. 9adial sh inkage is woe3ully inadeFuate to cause the obse ved amount o3 ho i5ontal com( ession. :he ein lies the eal (e (leCity o3 the ( oblem o3 mountain/making )eologists have not yet 3ound a satis3acto y esca(e 3 om this dilemma.E 2 ?ven autho s o3 teCtbooks con3ess thei igno ance. E8hy have sea 3loo s o3 emote (e iods become the lo3ty highlands o3 todayM 8hat gene ates the eno mous 3o ces that bend, b eak, and mash the ocks in mountain 5onesM :hese Fuestions still await satis3acto y answe s.E $

:he ( ocess o3 aising the mountains is su((osed to have been ve y slow and g adual. "n the othe hand, it is clea that igneous ock, al eady ha d, had to become 3luid in o de to (enet ate sedimenta y ock o cove it. It is not known what initiated this ( ocess, but it is asse ted that it must have ha((ened long be3o e man a((ea ed on the ea th. +o when skulls o3 ea ly man a e 3ound in late de(osits, o skulls o3 mode n man a e 3ound togethe with bones o3 eCtinct animals in ea ly de(osits, di33icult ( oblems a e ( esented. "ccasionally, also, du ing mining o(e ations, a human skull is 3ound in the middle o3 a mountain, unde a thick cove o3 basalt o g anite, like the 'alave as skull o3 'ali3o nia. =uman emains and human a ti3acts o3 bone, (olished stone, o (otte y a e 3ound unde g eat de(osits o3 till and g avel, sometimes unde as much as a hund ed 3eet. :he o igin o3 clay, sand, and g avel on igneous and sedimenta y ock, o33e s a ( oblem. :he theo y o3 Ice ;ges was (ut 3o th (#.20) to eC(lain this and othe enigmatic (henomena. ;s 3a no th as +(it5be gen, in the (ola ci cle, at some time in the (ast, co al ee3s we e 3o med, which do not occu eCce(t in t o(ical egionsH (alms also g ew on +(it5be gen. :he continent o3 ;nta ctica, which today has not a single t ee on it, must have been cove ed at one time by 3o ests, since it has coal de(osits. ;s we see, the (lanet ea th is 3ull o3 sec ets. 8e have not come close to solving the ( oblem o3 the o igin o3 the sola system by investigating the (lanet unde ou 3eetH on the cont a y, we have 3ound many othe unsolved ( oblems conce ning the lithos(he e, hyd os(he e, and atmos(he e o3 the ea th. +hall we be mo e 3o tunate i3 we t y to unde stand the ( ocess that caused the changes on the globe in the most ecent geological e(och, the time o3 the last glacial (e iod, a (e iod close to the time which is ega ded as histo icalM
777777777777777777777777777777 # ). 'uvie > ?ssay on the :heo y o3 the ?a th ($th ed., #.2-) (?nglish t ansl. "3 %iscou s su les Uvolutions de la su 3ace du globe, et su les changements FuBelles ont ( oduits dans le Tgne animal ). 2 Ibid., ((. 220/222. 1 9. ;. %aly> "u 6obile ?a th (#920), (. 90. 2 G. 4. 6athe > 9eview o3 ,iog a(hy o3 the ?a th by ). )amov , +cience, Aan. #0, #922. $ '. 9. !ongwell, ;. 4no(3, and 9. G. Glint> ; :eCtbook o3 )eology (#919), (. 20$. 777777777777777777777777777777

Ice ;ges
Not many thousands o3 yea s ago, we a e taught, g eat a eas o3 ?u o(e and o3 No th ;me ica we e cove ed with glacie s. Pe (etual ice lay not only on the slo(es o3 high mountains, but loaded itsel3 in heavy masses u(on continents even in mode ate latitudes. 8he e today the =udson, the ?lbe, and the u((e %nie(e 3low, the e we e then 3 o5en dese ts. :hey we e like the immense glacie o3 ) eenland that cove s that island. :he e a e signs that a et eat o3 the glacie s was inte u(ted by a new massing o3 ice, and that thei bo de s di33e ed at va ious times. )eologists a e able to 3ind the bounda ies o3 the glacie s. Ice moves ve y slowly, (ushing stones be3o e it, and accumulations o3 stones o mo aines emain when the glacie et eats melting away. : aces have been 3ound o3 3ive o siC consecutive dis(lacements o3 the ice sheet du ing the Ice ;ge, o o3 3ive o siC glacial (e iods. +ome 3o ce e(eatedly (ushed the ice sheet towa d mode ate latitudes. Neithe the cause o3 the ice ages no the cause o3 the et eat o3 the icy dese t is knownH the time o3 these et eats is also a matte o3 s(eculation. 6any ideas we e o33e ed and guesses made to eC(lain how the glacial e(ochs o iginated and why they te minated. +ome su((osed that the sun at di33e ent times emits mo e o less heat, which causes (e iods o3 heat and cold on the ea thH but no evidence that the sun is such a Eva iable sta E was adduced to su((o t this hy(othesis. "the s con<ectu ed that cosmic s(ace has wa me and coole a eas, and that when ou

sola system t avels th ough the coole a eas, ice descends u(on latitudes close to the t o(ics. ,ut no (hysical agents we e 3ound es(onsible 3o such hy(othetical cold and wa m a eas in s(ace. ; 3ew wonde ed whethe the ( ecession o3 the eFuinoCes o the slow change in the di ection o3 the te est ial aCis might cause (e iodic va iations in the climate. ,ut it was shown that the di33e ence in insolation could not have been g eat enough to have been es(onsible 3o the glacial ages. +till othe s thought to 3ind the answe in the (e iodic va iations in the eccent icity o3 the ecli(tic (te est ial o bit), with glaciation at the maCimal eccent icity. +ome o3 them su((osed that winte in a(helion, the emotest (a t o3 the ecli(tic, would cause glaciationH and some thought that summe in a(helion would ( oduce that e33ect. +ome schola s thought about the changes in the (osition o3 the te est ial aCis. I3 the (lanet ea th is igid, as it is ega ded to be (!. 4elvin), the aCis could not have shi3ted in geological times by mo e than th ee deg ees ()eo ge %a win)H i3 it we e elastic, it could have shi3ted u( to ten o 3i3teen deg ees in a ve y slow ( ocess. :he cause o3 the ice ages was seen by a 3ew schola s in the dec ease o3 the o iginal heat o3 the (lanetH the wa m (e iods between the ice ages we e att ibuted to the heat set 3 ee by a hy(othetical decom(osition o3 o ganisms in the st ata close to the su 3ace o3 the g ound. :he inc ease and dec ease in the action o3 wa m s( ings we e also conside ed. "the s su((osed that dust o3 volcanic o igin 3illed the te est ial atmos(he e and hinde ed insolation, o , cont a iwise, that an inc eased content o3 ca bon dioCide in the atmos(he e obst ucted the e3lection o3 heat ays 3 om the su 3ace o3 the (lanet. ; dec ease in the amount o3 ca bon dioCide in the atmos(he e would cause a 3all o3 tem(e atu e (; henius), but calculations we e made to show that this could not be the eal cause o3 the glacial ages (Vngst Wm). 'hanges in the di ection o3 wa m cu ents in the ;tlantic "cean we e b ought into the discussion, and the Isthmus o3 Panama was theo etically emoved to allow the )ul3 +t eam to (ass into the Paci3ic at the time o3 the glacial (e iods. ,ut it was ( oved that the two oceans we e al eady divided in the Ice ;geH besides, a (a t o3 the )ul3 +t eam would have emained in the ;tlantic anyway. :he (e iodic et eats o3 ice between the glacial (e iods would have eFui ed (e iodic emoval and e(lacement o3 the Isthmus o3 Panama. "the theo ies o3 eFually hy(othetical natu e we e ( o(osedH but the (henomena held es(onsible 3o the changes have not been ( oved to have eCisted, o to have been able to ( oduce the e33ect. ;ll the above/mentioned theo ies and hy(otheses 3ail i3 they cannot meet a most im(o tant condition> In o de 3o ice masses to have been 3o med, inc eased ( eci(itation must have taken (lace. :his eFui es an inc eased amount o3 wate va(o in the atmos(he e, which is the esult o3 inc eased eva(o ation 3 om the su 3ace o3 oceansH but this could be caused by heat only. ; numbe o3 scientists (ointed out this 3act, and even calculated that in o de to ( oduce a sheet o3 ice as la ge as that o3 the Ice ;ge, the su 3ace o3 all the oceans must have eva(o ated to a de(th o3 many 3eet. +uch an eva(o ation o3 oceans 3ollowed by a Fuick ( ocess o3 3 ee5ing, even in mode ate latitudes, would have ( oduced the ice ages. :he ( oblem is> 8hat could have caused the eva(o ation and immediately subseFuent 3 ee5ingM ;s the cause o3 such Fuick alte nation o3 heating and 3 ee5ing o3 la ge (a ts o3 the globe is not a((a ent, it is conceded that Eat ( esent the cause o3 eCcessive ice/making on the lands emains a ba33ling myste y, a ma<o Fuestion 3o the 3utu e eade o3 ea thBs iddles.E # Not only a e the causes o3 the a((ea ance and late disa((ea ance o3 the glacial sheet unknown, but the geog a(hical sha(e o3 the a ea cove ed by ice is also a ( oblem. 8hy did the glacial sheet, in the southe n hemis(he e, move 3 om the t o(ical egions o3 ;3 ica towa d the south (ola egion and not in the o((osite di ection, and, simila ly, why, in the

no the n hemis(he e, did the ice move in India 3 om the eFuato towa d the =imalaya mountains and the highe latitudesM 8hy did the glacie s o3 the Ice ;ge cove the g eate (a t o3 No th ;me ica and ?u o(e, while the no th o3 ;sia emained 3 eeM In ;me ica the (lateau o3 ice st etched u( to latitude 20Q and even (assed ac oss this lineH in ?u o(e it eached latitude $0QH while no theaste n +ibe ia, above the (ola ci cle, even above latitude -$Q, was not cove ed with this (e ennial ice. ;ll hy(otheses ega ding inc eased and diminished insolation due to sola alte ations o the changing tem(e atu e o3 the cosmic s(ace, and othe simila hy(otheses, cannot avoid being con3 onted with this ( oblem. )lacie s a e 3o med in the egions o3 ete nal snowH 3o this eason they emain on the slo(es o3 the high mountains. :he no th o3 +ibe ia is the coldest (lace in the wo ld. 8hy did not the Ice ;ge touch this egion, whe eas it visited the basin o3 the 6ississi((i and all ;3 ica south o3 the eFuato M No satis3acto y solution to this Fuestion has been ( o(osed.
777777777777777777777777777777 # 9. ;. %aly> :he 'hanging 8o ld o3 the Ice ;ge (#912), (. #0. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 6ammoths
No theast +ibe ia, which was not cove ed by ice in the Ice ;ge, conceals anothe enigma. :he climate the e has a((a ently changed d astically since the end o3 the Ice ;ge, and the yea ly tem(e atu e has d o((ed many deg ees below its ( evious level. ;nimals once lived in this egion that do not live the e now, and (lants g ew the e that a e unable to g ow the e now. :he change must have occu ed Fuite suddenly. :he cause o3 this 4limastu 5 has not been eC(lained. In this catast o(hic change o3 climate and unde myste ious ci cumstances, all the mammoths o3 +ibe ia (e ished. :he mammoth belonged to the 3amily o3 ele(hants. Its tusks we e sometimes as much as ten 3eet long. Its teeth we e highly develo(ed and thei EdensityE was g eate than in any othe stage in the evolution o3 the ele(hantsH a((a ently they did not succumb in the st uggle 3o su vival as an un3it ( oduct o3 evolution. :he eCtinction o3 the mammoth is thought to have coincided with the end o3 the last glacial (e iod. :usks o3 mammoths have been 3ound in la ge numbe s in no theast +ibe iaH this well/ ( ese ved ivo y has been an ob<ect o3 eC(o t to 'hina and ?u o(e eve since the 9ussian conFuest o3 +ibe ia and was eC(loited in even ea lie times. In mode n times the ivo y ma ket o3 the wo ld still 3ound its main sou ce o3 su((ly in the tund as o3 no theast +ibe ia. In #-99 the 3 o5en bodies o3 mammoths we e 3ound in these tund as. :he co (ses we e well ( ese ved, and the sledge dogs ate the 3lesh unha med. E:he 3lesh is 3ib ous and ma bled with 3atE and Elooks as 3 esh as well 3 o5en bee3.E # 8hat was the cause o3 thei death and the eCtinction o3 thei aceM 'uvie w ote o3 the eCtinction o3 the mammoths> E9e(eated i u(tions and et eats o3 the sea have neithe all been slow no g adualH on the cont a y, most o3 the catast o(hes which have occasioned them have been suddenH and this is es(ecially easy to be ( oved with ega d to the last o3 these catast o(hes, that which, by a two3old motion, has inundated, and a3te wa ds laid d y, ou ( esent continents, o at least a (a t o3 the land which 3o ms them at the ( esent day. In the no the n egions it has le3t the ca casses o3 la ge Fuad u(eds which became envelo(ed in the ice, and have thus been ( ese ved even to ou own times, with thei skin, thei hai , and thei 3lesh. I3 they had not been 3 o5en as soon as killed, they would have been decom(osed by (ut e3action. ;nd, on the othe hand, this ete nal 3 ost could not ( eviously have occu(ied the (laces in which they have been sei5ed by it, 3o they could not have lived in such a tem(e atu e. It was, the e3o e, at one and the same moment that these animals we e dest oyed and the count y which they inhabited

became cove ed with ice. :his event has been sudden, instantaneous, without any g adation, and what is so clea ly demonst ated with es(ect to this last catast o(he, is not less so with e3e ence to those which have ( eceded it.E 2 :he theo y o3 e(eated catast o(hes annihilating li3e on this (lanet and e(eated c eations o esto ations o3 li3e, o33e ed by %eluc 1 and eC(anded by 'uvie , did not convince the scienti3ic wo ld. !ike !ama ck be3o e 'uvie , %a win a3te him thought that an eCceedingly slow evolutional ( ocess gove ns genetics, and that the e we e no catast o(hes inte u(ting this ( ocess o3 in3initesimal changes. ;cco ding to the theo y o3 evolution, these minute changes came as a esult o3 ada(tation to living conditions in the st uggle o3 the s(ecies 3o su vival. !ike the theo ies o3 !ama ck and %a win, which (ostulate slow changes in animals, with tens o3 thousands o3 yea s eFui ed 3o a minute ste( in evolution, the geological theo ies o3 the nineteenth centu y, and o3 the twentieth as well, ega d the geological ( ocesses as eCceedingly slow and de(endent on e osion by ain, wind, and tides. %a win admitted that he was unable to 3ind an eC(lanation 3o the eCte mination o3 the mammoth, an animal bette develo(ed than the ele(hant which su vived. ,ut in con3o mity with the theo y o3 evolution, his 3ollowe s su((osed that a g adual sinking o3 the land 3o ced the mammoths to the hills, whe e they 3ound themselves isolated by ma shes. =oweve , i3 geological ( ocesses a e slow, the mammoths would not have been t a((ed on the isolated hills. ,esides, this theo y cannot be t ue because the animals did not die o3 sta vation. In thei stomachs and between thei teeth undigested g ass and leaves we e 3ound. :his, too, ( oves that they died 3 om a sudden cause. Gu the investigations showed that the leaves and twigs 3ound in thei stomachs do not now g ow in the egions whe e the animals died, but 3a to the south, a thousand o mo e miles away. It is a((a ent that the climate has changed adically since the death o3 the mammothsH and as the bodies o3 the animals we e 3ound not decom(osed but well ( ese ved in blocks o3 ice, the change in tem(e atu e must have 3ollowed thei death ve y closely o even caused it. :he e emains to be added that a3te sto ms in the ; ctic, tusks o3 mammoths a e washed u( on the sho es o3 a ctic islandsH this ( oves that a (a t o3 the land whe e the mammoths lived and we e d owned is cove ed by the ; ctic "cean.
777777777777777777777777777777 # "bse vation o3 %. G. =e t5 in ,. %igby> :he 6ammoth (#920), (. 9. 2 'uvie > ?ssay on the :heo y o3 the ?a th, ((. #2/#$. 1 A. ;. %eluc (#-2-X#.#-)> !ette s on the Physical =isto y o3 the ?a th (#.1#). 2 +ee ). G. 4un5> Ivo y and the ?le(hant in ; t, in ; chaeology, and in +cience (#9#0), (. 210. 777777777777777777777777777777 2

:he Ice ;ge and the ;ntiFuity o3 6an

:he mammoth lived in the age o3 man. 6an (ictu ed it on the walls o3 cavesH emains o3 men have e(eatedly been 3ound in 'ent al ?u o(e togethe with emains o3 mammothsH occasionally the settlements o3 the neolithic man o3 ?u o(e a e 3ound st ewn with the bones o3 mammoths. # 6an moved southwa d when ?u o(e was cove ed with ice and etu ned when the ice et eated. =isto ical man witnessed g eat va iation in climate. :he mammoth o3 +ibe ia, the meat o3 which is still 3 esh, is su((osed to have been dest oyed at the end o3 the last glacial (e iod, simultaneously with the mammoths o3 ?u o(e and ;laska. I3 this is so, the +ibe ian mammoth was also the contem(o a y o3 a athe mode n man. ;t a time when in ?u o(e, close to the ice sheet, man was still in the late stages o3 neolithic cultu e, in the Nea and 6iddle ?ast / the egion o3 the g eat cultu es o3 antiFuity / he may al eady have ( og essed well into the metal age. :he e eCists no ch onological table o3 neolithic

cultu e because the a t o3 w iting was invented a(( oCimately at the advent o3 the co((e / the ea ly / (e iod o3 the , on5e ;ge. It is ( esumed that the neolithic man o3 ?u o(e le3t (ictu es but no insc i(tions, and conseFuently the e a e no means o3 dete mining the end o3 the Ice ;ge in te ms o3 ch onology. )eologists have t ied to 3ind the time o3 the end o3 the last glacial (e iod by measu ing the det itus ca ied by ive s 3 om the glacie s and the de(osits o3 det itus in lakes. :he Fuantity ca ied by the 9hone 3 om the glacie s o3 the ;l(s and the amount on the bottom o3 the !ake o3 )eneva, th ough which the 9hone 3lows, we e calculated, and 3 om the 3igu es obtained the time and velocity o3 the et eat o3 the glacial sheet o3 the last glacial (e iod we e estimated. ;cco ding to the +wiss schola G ancois Go el, twelve thousand yea s have (assed since the time the ice sheet o3 the last glacial (e iod began to melt, an uneC(ectedly low 3igu e, as it was thought that the ice age ended thi ty to 3i3ty thousand yea s ago. +uch calculations su33e 3 om being only indi ect evaluationsH and since the velocity at which the glacial mud had been de(osited in the lakes was not constant and the amount va ied, the mud must have assembled on the bottom o3 a lake at a 3aste ate in the beginning when the glacie s we e la ge H and i3 the Ice ;ge te minated suddenly, the de(osition o3 det itus would have been much heavie at 3i st, and the e would be little analogy to the accumulation o3 det itus 3 om the seasonal melting o3 snow in the ;l(s. :he e3o e, the time that has ela(sed since the end o3 the last glacial (e iod must have been even sho te than eckoned. )eologists ega d the ) eat !akes o3 ;me ica as having been 3o med at the end o3 the Ice ;ge when the continental glacie et eated and the de( essions 3 eed 3 om the glacie became lakes. In the last two hund ed yea s Niaga a Galls has et eated 3 om !ake "nta io towa d !ake ? ie at the ate o3 3ive 3eet annually, washing down the ocks o3 the bed o3 the 3alls. 2 I3 this ( ocess has been going m at the same ate since the end o3 the last glacial (e iod, about seven thousand yea s we e needed to move Niaga a Galls 3 om the mouth o3 the go ge at Kueenston to its ( esent (osition. :he assum(tion that the Fuantity o3 wate moving th ough the go ge has been uni3o m since the end o3 the Ice ;ge is the basis o3 this calculation, and the e3o e, it was concluded, seven thousand yea s may constitute Ethe maCimum length o3 time since the bi th o3 the 3alls.E 1 In the beginning, when immense masses o3 wate we e eleased by the et eat o3 the continental glacie , the ate o3 movement o3 Niaga a Galls must have been much mo e a(idH the time estimate Emay need signi3icant eduction,E and is sometimes lowe ed to 3ive thousand yea s. 2 :he e osion and sedimentation on the sho es and the bottom o3 !ake 6ichigan also suggest a la(se o3 time counted in thousands, but not in tens o3 thousands, o3 yea s. ;lso the esult o3 (aleontological esea ch in ;me ica ca ies evidence which constitutes Ea gua antee that be3o e the last (e iod o3 glaciation, mode n man, in the 3o m o3 that highly develo(ed ace, the ;me ican Indian, was living on the easte n seaboa d o3 No th ;me icaE (;. 4eith). $ It is assumed that with the advent o3 the last glacial (e iod the Indians et eated southwa d, etu ning to the no th when the ice uncove ed the g ound and when the ) eat !akes eme ged, the basin o3 the +t. !aw ence was 3o med, and Niaga a Galls began its et eat towa d !ake ? ie. I3 the end o3 the last glacial (e iod occu ed only a 3ew thousand yea s ago, in histo ical times o at a time when the a t o3 w iting may have been al eady em(loyed in the cente s o3 ancient civili5ation, the eco ds w itten in ocks by natu e and the eco ds w itten by man must give a coo dinated (ictu e. !et us, the e3o e, investigate the t aditions and the lite a y eco ds o3 ancient man, and com(a e them with the eco ds o3 natu e.
777777777777777777777777777777 # In P edmost in 6o avia a settlement has been eCcavated in which emnants o3 a human cultu e and emains o3 men we e 3ound togethe with skeletons o3 eight hund ed to one thousand mammoths. +houlde blades o3 mammoths we e used in the const uction o3 human g aves.

2 :he ecession has been $ 3eet (e yea since #-02H at ( esent it is 2.1 3eet on the sides o3 the ho seshoe cata act, but substantially mo e in the cente . 1 ). G. 8 ight> E:he %ate o3 the )lacial Pe iod,E :he Ice ;ge in No th ;me ica and Its ,ea ing u(on the ;ntiFuity o3 6an ($th ed., #9##). 2 Ibid., (. $19. '3. also 8. @(ham in ;me ican )eologist, LLVIII, 221, and LLLVI, 2.+. =e dates the u( ise o3 the +t. !aw ence basin 0,000 to -,000 yea s agoH the +t. !aw ence must have been 3 eed 3 om ice be3o e Niaga a Galls could come into 3ull action. Not dissimila 3igu es we e obtained 3 om the et eat o3 the Galls o3 +t. ;nthony on the 6ississi((i at 6innea(olis. $ 4eith thinks that the develo(ment o3 the human skull went th ough a ( ocess o3 advance and et og ession du ing eCceedingly long ages. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 8o ld ;ges
; conce(tion o3 ages that we e b ought to thei end by violent changes in natu e is common all ove the wo ld. :he numbe o3 ages di33e s 3 om (eo(le to (eo(le and 3 om t adition to t adition. :he di33e ence de(ends on the numbe o3 catast o(hes that the (a ticula (eo(le etained in its memo y, o on the way it eckoned the end o3 an age. In the annals o3 ancient ?t u ia, acco ding to Va o, we e eco ds o3 seven ela(sed ages. 'enso inus, an autho o3 the thi d 'h istian centu y and com(ile o3 Va o, w ote that Emen thought that di33e ent ( odigies a((ea ed by means o3 which the gods noti3ied mo tals at the end o3 each age. :he ?t uscans we e ve sed in the science o3 the sta s, and a3te having obse ved the ( odigies with attention, they eco ded these obse vations in thei books.E # :he ) eeks had simila t aditions. E:he e is a (e iod,E w ote 'enso inus, Ecalled Bthe su( eme yea B by ; istotle, at the end o3 which the sun, moon, and all the (lanets etu n to thei o iginal (osition. :his Bsu( eme yea B has a g eat winte , called by the ) eeks kataklysmos, which means deluge, and a g eat summe , called by the ) eeks ek(y osis, o combustion o3 the wo ld. :he wo ld, actually, seems to be inundated and bu ned alte nately in each o3 these e(ochs.E ;naCimenes and ;naCimande in the siCth ( e/'h istian centu y, and %iogenes o3 ;(ollonia in the 3i3th centu y, assumed the dest uction o3 the wo ld with subseFuent ec eation. =e aclitus (/$20 to /2-$) taught that the wo ld is dest oyed in con3lag ation a3te eve y (e iod o3 #0,.00 yea s. ; ista chus o3 +amos in the thi d centu y be3o e the ( esent e a taught that in a (e iod o3 2,2.2 yea s the ea th unde goes two dest uctions / o3 combustion and deluge. :he +toics gene ally believed in (e iodic con3lag ations by which the wo ld was consumed, to be sha(ed anew. E:his is due to the 3o ces o3 eve /active 3i e which eCists in things and in the cou se o3 long cycles o3 time esolves eve ything into itsel3 and out o3 it is const ucted a ebo n wo ldE / so Philo ( esented the notion o3 the +toics that ou wo ld is e3ashioned in (e iodic con3lag ations. 2 In one such catast o(he the wo ld will meet its ultimate dest uctionH colliding with anothe wo ld, it will 3all a(a t into atoms out o3 which, in a long ( ocess, a new ea th will be c eated somewhe e in the unive se. E%emoc itus and ?(icu us,E eC(lained Philo, E(ostulate many wo lds, the o igin o3 which they asc ibe to the mutual im(acts and inte lacing o3 atoms, and thei dest uction to the counte /blows and collisions by the bodies so 3o med.E ;s this ea th goes to its ultimate dest uction, it (asses th ough ecu ing cosmic catast o(hes and is e/3o med with all that lives on it. =esiod, one o3 the ea liest ) eek autho s, w ote about 3ou ages and 3ou gene ations o3 men that we e dest oyed by the w ath o3 the (laneta y gods. :he thi d age was the age o3 b on5eH when it was dest oyed by Deus, a new gene ation e/(eo(led the ea th, and using b on5e 3o a ms and tools, they began to use i on, too. :he he oes o3 the : o<an 8a we e o3 this 3ou th gene ation. :hen a new dest uction was dec eed, and a3te that came Eyet

anothe gene ation, the 3i3th, o3 men who a e u(on the bounteous ea thE / the gene ation o3 i on. 1 In anothe wo k o3 his, =esiod desc ibed the end o3 one o3 the ages. E:he li3e/giving ea th c ashed a ound in bu ning ... all the land seethed, and the "ceanBs st eams ... it seemed even as i3 ?a th and wide =eaven above came togethe H 3o such a mighty c ash would have a isen i3 ?a th we e being hu led to uin, and =eaven 3 om on high we e hu ling he down.E 2 ;nalogous t aditions o3 3ou eC(i ed ages (e sist on the sho es o3 the ,engal +ea and in the highland o3 :ibet / the ( esent age is the 3i3th. $ :he sac ed =indu book ,hagavata Pu ana tells o3 3ou ages and o3 ( alayas o cataclysms in which, in va ious e(ochs, mankind was nea ly dest oyedH the 3i3th age is that o3 the ( esent. :he wo ld ages a e called 4al(as o *ugas. ?ach wo ld age met its dest uction in catast o(hes o3 con3lag ation, 3lood, and hu icane. ?5ou Vedam and ,haga Vedam, sac ed =indu books, kee(ing to the scheme o3 3ou eC(i ed ages, di33e only in the numbe o3 yea s asc ibed to each. 0 In the cha(te , E8o ld 'ycles,E in Visuddhi/6agga, it is said that Ethe e a e th ee dest uctions> the dest uction by wate , the dest uction by 3i e, the dest uction by wind,E but that the e a e seven ages, each o3 which is se(a ated 3 om the ( evious one by a wo ld catast o(he. 9e3e ence to ages and catast o(hes is 3ound in ;vesta (Dend/;vesta), the sac ed sc i(tu es o3 6a5daism, the ancient eligion o3 the Pe sians. . ,ahman *ast, one o3 the books o3 ;vesta, counts seven wo ld ages o millennia. 9 Da athust a (Do oaste ), the ( o(het o3 6a5daism, s(eaks o3 Ethe signs, wonde s, and (e (leCity which a e mani3ested in the wo ld at the end o3 each millennium.E #0 :he 'hinese call the (e ished ages kis and numbe ten kis 3 om the beginning o3 the wo ld until 'on3ucius. ## In the ancient 'hinese encyclo(edia, +ing/li/ta/tsiuen/chou, the gene al convulsions o3 natu e a e discussed. ,ecause o3 the (e iodicity o3 these convulsions, the s(an o3 time between two catast o(hes is ega ded as a Eg eat yea .E ;s du ing a yea , so du ing a wo ld age, the cosmic mechanism winds itsel3 u( and Ein a gene al convulsion o3 natu e, the sea is ca ied out o3 its bed, mountains s( ing out o3 the g ound, ive s change thei cou se, human beings and eve ything a e uined, and the ancient t aces e33aced.E #2 ;n old t adition, and a ve y (e sistent one, o3 wo ld ages that went down in cosmic catast o(hes was 3ound in the ;me icas among the Incas, #1 the ;5tecs, and the 6ayas. #2 ; ma<o (a t o3 stone insc i(tions 3ound in *ucatan e3e to wo ld catast o(hes. E:he most ancient o3 these 3 agments Ikatuns o calenda stones o3 *ucatanJ e3e , in gene al, to g eat catast o(hes which, at inte vals and e(eatedly, convulsed the ;me ican continent, and o3 which all nations o3 this continent have ( ese ved a mo e o less distinct memo y.E #$ 'odices o3 6eCico and Indian autho s who com(osed the annals o3 thei (ast give a ( ominent (lace to the t adition o3 wo ld catast o(hes that decimated humankind and changed the 3ace o3 the ea th. In the ch onicles o3 the 6eCican kingdom it is said> E:he ancients knew that be3o e the ( esent sky and ea th we e 3o med, man was al eady c eated and li3e had mani3ested itsel3 3ou times.E #0 ; t adition o3 successive c eations and catast o(hes is 3ound in the Paci3ic / on =awaii #and on the islands o3 Polynesia> the e we e nine ages and in each age a di33e ent sky was above the ea th. #. Icelande s, too, believed that nine wo lds went down in a succession o3 ages, a t adition that is contained in the ?dda. #9 :he abbinical conce(tion o3 ages c ystalli5ed in the (ost/?Cilic (e iod. ;l eady be3o e the bi th o3 ou ea th, wo lds had been sha(ed and b ought into eCistence, only to be dest oyed in time. E=e made seve al wo lds be3o e ou s, but =e dest oyed them all.E :his ea th, too, was not c eated at the beginning to satis3y the %ivine Plan. It unde went esha(ing, siC

consecutive e/moldings. New conditions we e c eated a3te each o3 the catast o(hes. "n the 3ou th ea th lived the gene ation o3 the :owe o3 ,abelH we belong to the seventh age. ?ach o3 the ages o Eea thsE has a name. +even heavens we e c eated and seven ea ths we e c eated> the most emoved, the seventh, ? et5H the siCth, ;damahH the 3i3th, ; kaH the 3ou th, =a abahH the thi d, *abbashahH the second, :evelH and Eou own land called =eled, and like the othe s, it is se(a ated 3 om the 3o egoing by abyss, chaos, and wate .E 20 ) eat catast o(hes changed the 3ace o3 the ea th. E+ome (e ished by deluge, othe s we e consumed by con3lag ation,E w ote the Aewish (hiloso(he Philo. 2# ;cco ding to the abbinical autho ity 9ashi, ancient t adition knows o3 (e iodic colla(ses o3 the 3i mament, one o3 which occu ed in the days o3 the %eluge, and which e(eated themselves at inte vals o3 #,0$0 yea s. 22 :he du ation o3 the wo ld ages va ies in ; menian and ; abian t aditions. 21
777777777777777777777777777777 # 'enso inus> !ibe de die natali Cviii. 2 Philo> "n :he ?te nity o3 the 8o ld (t ansl. G. =. 'olson, #92#), +ec. .. 1 =esiod> 8o ks and %ays (t ansl. =. ). ?velyn/8hite, #9#2), #. #09. 2 =esiod>:heogony (t ansl. ?velyn/8hite, #9#2), ##. 09133. $ ?. 6oo > :he =indu Pantheon (#.#0), (. #02H ;. von =umboldt> Vues des 'o dillT es (#.#0), ?nglish t ansl.> 9esea ches 'once ning the Institutions and 6onuments o3 the ;ncient Inhabitants o3 ;me ica (#.#2), Vol. II, ((. #$33. 0 +ee '. G. Volney> New 9esea ches on ;ncient =isto y (#.$0), (. #$-. - =. '. 8a en> ,uddhism in : anslations (#.90), ((. 12033. . G. 'umont> E!a Gin du monde selon les mages occidentauC,E 9evue de lBhistoi e des eligions (#91#), (. $0H =. +. Nybe g> %ie 9eligionen des alten I an (#91.), ((. 2.33. 9 E,ahman *astE (t ansl. ?. 8. 8est) in Pahlavi :eCts (:he +ac ed ,ooks o3 the ?ast, ed. G. 6. 6ulle , V I#..0J), #9#. +ee 8. ,ousset> E%ie =immels eise de +eele,E ; chiv 3Y 9eligionswissenscha3t, IV (#90#). #0 E%inka d,E ,k. VIII, 'ha(. LIV (t ansl. 8est), in Pahlavi :eCts (:he +ac ed ,ooks o3 the ?ast, LLLVII I#.92J), 11. ## =. 6u ay, A. ' aw3u d, and othe s> ;n =isto ical and %esc i(tive ;ccount o3 'hina (2nd ed., #.10), I, 20. #2 ). +chlegel> @ anog a(hie chinoise (#.-$), (. -20, with e3e ence to 8ou/3oung. #1 =. ,. ;leCande > !atin ;me ican 6ythology (#920), (. 220. #2 =umboldt> 9esea ches, II, #$. #$ '. ?. , asseu de ,ou bou g> +Bil eCiste des +ou ces de lBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue dans les monuments Ugy(tiens, etc. (#.02), (. #9. #0 , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue (#.$-/#.$9), I, $1. #- ,. ,. %iCon> "ceanic 6ythology (#9#0), (. #$. #. ,. 8. 8illiamson> 9eligious and 'osmic ,elie3s o3 'ent al Polynesia (#911), I, .9. #9 :he Poetic ?dda> VWlus(a (t ansl. 3 om the Icelandic by =. ;. ,ellows, #921), 2nd stan5a. 20 !ouis )in5be g> !egends o3 the Aews(#92$), I. 2, 9 / #0, -2H V, #, #0. 2# Philo> 6oses, II, C, $1. 22 'ommenta y to )enesis##>#. 21 +ee 9. ?isle > 8eltmantel und =immels5elt(#9#0), II, 2$#. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he +un ;ges

;n o3t/ e(eated occu ence in the t aditions o3 the wo ld ages is the advent o3 a new sun in the sky at the beginning o3 eve y age. :he wo d EsunE is substituted 3o the wo d EageE in the cosmogonical t aditions o3 many (eo(les all ove the wo ld. :he 6ayas counted thei ages by the names o3 thei consecutive suns. :hese we e called 8ate +un, ?a thFuake +un, =u icane +un, Gi e +un. E:hese suns ma k the e(ochs to which a e att ibuted the va ious catast o(hes the wo ld has su33e ed.E # ICtlilCochitl (ci ca #$0./#02.), the native Indian schola , in his annals o3 the kings o3 :e5cuco, desc ibed the wo ld ages by the names o3 Esuns.E 2 :he 8ate +un (o +un o3

8ate s) was the 3i st age, te minated by a deluge in which almost all c eatu es (e ishedH the ?a thFuake +un o age (e ished in a te i3ic ea thFuake when the ea th b oke in many (laces and mountains 3ell. :he wo ld age o3 the =u icane +un came to its dest uction in a cosmic hu icane. :he Gi e +un was the wo ld age that went down in a ain o3 3i e. 1 E:he nations o3 'ulhua o 6eCico,E =umboldt Fuoted )Zma a, the +(anish w ite o3 the siCteenth centu y, Ebelieve acco ding to thei hie ogly(hic (aintings, that, ( evious to the sun which now enlightens them, 3ou had al eady been successively eCtinguished. :hese 3ou suns a e as many ages, in which ou s(ecies has been annihilated by inundations, by ea thFuakes, by a gene al con3lag ation, and by the e33ect o3 dest oying tem(ests.E 2 ?ve y one o3 the 3ou elements (a tici(ated in each o3 the catast o(hesH deluge, hu icane, ea thFuake, and 3i e gave thei names to the catast o(hes because o3 the ( edominance o3 one o3 them in the u(heavals. +ymbols o3 the successive suns a e (ainted on the ( e/ 'olumbian lite a y documents o3 6eCico. $ E'inco soles Fue son edades,E o E3ive suns that a e e(ochs,E w ote )Zma a in his desc i(tion o3 the conFuest o3 6eCico. 0 ;n analogy to this sentence o3 )Zma a may be 3ound in !ucius ;m(elius, a 9oman autho , who, in his book !ibe memo ialis, w ote> E+oles 3ue e FuinFueE (:he e we e 3ive suns)> It is the same belie3 that )Zma a 3ound in the New 8o ld. :he 6eCican ;nnals o3 'uauhtitlan, w itten in Nahua/Indian (ci ca #$-0) and based on ancient sou ces, contains the t adition o3 seven sun e(ochs. 'hicon/:onatiuh o Ethe +even +unsE is the designation 3o the wo ld cycles o acts in the cosmic d ama. . :he ,uddhist sac ed book o3 Visuddhi/6agga contains a cha(te on E8o ld 'ycles.E 9 E:he e a e th ee dest uctions> the dest uction by wate , the dest uction by 3i e, the dest uction by wind.E ;3te the catast o(he o3 the deluge, Ewhen now a long (e iod has ela(sed 3 om the cessation o3 the ains, a second sun a((ea ed.E In the inte im the wo ld was envelo(ed in gloom. E8hen this second sun a((ea s, the e is no distinction o3 day and night,E but Ean incessant heat beats u(on the wo ld.E 8hen the 3i3th sun a((ea ed, the ocean g adually d ied u(H when the siCth sun a((ea ed, Ethe whole wo ld became 3illed with smoke.E E;3te the la(se o3 anothe long (e iod, a seventh sun a((ea s, and the whole wo ld b eaks into 3lames.E :his ,uddhist book e3e s also to a mo e ancient E%iscou se on the +even +uns.E #0 :he , ahmans called the e(ochs between two dest uctions Ethe g eat days.E ## :he +ibylline books ecite the ages in which the wo ld unde went dest uction and egene ation. E:he +ibyl told as 3ollows> B:he nine suns a e nine ages ... Now is the seventh sun.BE :he +ibyl ( o(hesied two ages yet to come / that o3 the eighth and o3 the ninth sun.

:he abo igines o3 , itish No th ,o neo, even today, decla e that the sky was o iginally low, and that siC suns (e ished, and at ( esent the wo ld is illuminated by the seventh sun. #1 +even sola ages a e e3e ed to in 6ayan manusc i(ts, in ,uddhist sac ed books, in the books o3 the +ibyl. In all Fuoted sou ces the EsunsE a e eC(lained (by the sou ces themselves) as signi3ying consecutive e(ochs, each o3 which went down in a g eat, gene al dest uction. %id the eason 3o the substitution o3 the wo d EsunE 3o Ee(ochE by the (eo(les o3 both hemis(he es lie in the changed a((ea ance o3 the lumina y and in its changed (ath ac oss the sky in each wo ld ageM
777777777777777777777777777777 # , asseu > +ou ces de IBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue , (. 2$. 2 Ge nando de ;lva ICtlilCochitl> "b as =istZ icas (#.9# / #.92), Vol. II, =isto ia 'hichimeca. 1 ;leCande > !atin ;me ican 6ythology, (. 9#. 2 =umboldt> 9esea ches, II, #0. $ 'odeC Vaticanus ;, (lates vii/C. 0 G. !. de )Zma a> 'onFuista de 6eCico (#.-0 ed.), II, 20#. - !ibe memo ialis iC.

. , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue, I, 200. 9 8a en> ,uddhism in : anslations, (. 122. #0 Ibid. ## In the :almud the E)odBs dayE is eFual to a millennium, so also in II Pete 1>.. #2 A. +chlei3e > E%ie ? 5ahlung de +ibylle. ?in ;(ok y(h nach den ka shunischen, a abischen und athio(ischen =andsch i3ten 5u !ondon, "C3o d, Pa is und 9om,E %enksch i<t de 4aise l. ;kademie de 8iss., Philos. / hist. 4lasse (Vienna), !III (#9#0). #1 '3. %iCon> "ceanic 6ythology, (. #-.. 777777777777777777777777777777

Pa t # Venus
No book, o collection o3 books, in the histo y o3 mankind has had a mo e attentive eading, a wide ci culation, o mo e diligent investigation than the "ld :estament. / 9. =. P3ei33e , Int oduction to the "ld :estament

:he 6ost Inc edible +to y

'ha(te #

:=? 6"+: IN'9?%I,!? sto y o3 mi acles is told about Aoshua ben Nun who, when (u suing the 'anaanite kings at ,eth/ho on, im(lo ed the sun and the moon to stand still. E;nd he said in the sight o3 Is ael, +un, stand thou still u(on )ibeonH and thou, 6oon, in the valley o3 ;<alon. ;nd the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the (eo(le had avenged themselves u(on thei enemies. Is not this w itten in the book o3 Aashe M +o the sun stood still in the midst o3 heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole dayE (Aoshua #0>#2/#1). :his sto y is beyond the belie3 o3 even the most imaginative o the most (ious (e son. 8aves o3 sto my sea may have d owned one host and been me ci3ul to anothe . :he ea th could c ack asunde and swallow u( human beings. :he Ao dan could be blocked by a slice o3 its bank 3alling into the bed o3 the ive . Ae ichoBs walls / not by the blast o3 t um(ets, but by an incidental ea thFuake / could have been b eached. ,ut that the sun and the moon should halt in thei movement ac oss the 3i mament / this could be only the ( oduct o3 3ancy, a (oetic image, a meta(ho H # a hideous im(lausibility when im(osed as a sub<ect 3o belie3H 2 a matte 3o sco n / it mani3ests even a want o3 eve ence 3o the +u( eme ,eing. ;cco ding to the knowledge o3 ou age / not o3 the age when the ,ook o3 Aoshua o o3 Aashe was w itten / this could have ha((ened i3 the ea th had ceased 3o a time to oll along its ( esc ibed (ath. Is such a distu bance conceivableM No eco d o3 the slightest con3usion is egiste ed in the ( esent annals o3 the ea th. ?ach yea consists o3 10$ days, $ hou s, and 29 minutes. ; de(a tu e o3 the ea th 3 om its egula otation is thinkable, but only in the ve y im( obable event that ou (lanet should meet anothe heavenly body o3 su33icient mass to dis u(t the ete nal (ath o3 ou wo ld. It is t ue that ae olites o meteo ites each ou ea th continually, sometimes by the thousands and tens o3 thousands. ,ut no dislocation o3 ou ( ecise tu ning ound and ound has eve been (e ceived. :his does not mean that a la ge body, o a la ge numbe o3 bodies, could not st ike the te est ial s(he e. :he la ge numbe o3 aste oids between the o bits o3 the (lanets 6a s and Au(ite suggests that at some unknown time anothe (lanet evolved the eH now only these meteo ites 3ollow a(( oCimately the (ath along which the dest oyed (lanet ci cled the sun. Possibly a comet an into it and shatte ed it. :hat a comet may st ike ou (lanet is not ve y ( obable, but the idea is not absu d. :he heavenly mechanism wo ks with almost absolute ( ecisionH but unstable, thei way lost, comets by the thousands, by the millions, evolve in the sky, and thei inte 3e ence may distu b the ha mony. +ome o3 these comets belong to ou system. Pe iodically they etu n, but not at ve y eCact inte vals, owing to the (e tu bations caused by g avitation towa d the la ge (lanets when they 3ly too close to them. ,ut innume able othe comets, o3ten seen

only th ough the telesco(e, come 3lying in 3 om immeasu able s(aces o3 the unive se at ve y g eat s(eed, and disa((ea / (ossibly 3o eve . +ome comets a e visible only 3o hou s, some 3o days o weeks o even months. 'once ning the wonde o3 the sun standing still> E:he +c i(tu e did not intend to teach men (hiloso(hy, o accommodate itsel3 to the t ue and Pythago ic system o3 the wo ld.E ;nd again> E:he ( o(hets and holy (enmen themselves ... being seldom o neve (hiloso(he s, we e not ca(able o3 e( esenting these things othe wise than they, with the vulga , unde stood them.E 6ight it ha((en that ou ea th, the ea th unde ou 3eet, would oll towa d (e ilous collision with a huge mass o3 meteo ites, a t ail o3 stones 3lying at eno mous s(eed a ound and ac oss ou sola systemM :his ( obability was analy5ed with 3e vo du ing the last centu y. G om the time o3 ; istotle, who asse ted that a meteo ite, which 3ell at ;egos(otami when a comet was glowing in the sky, had been li3ted 3 om the g ound by the wind and ca ied in the ai and d o((ed ove that (lace, until the yea #.01 when, on ;( il 20, a showe o3 meteo ites 3ell at #B;igle in G ance and was investigated by ,iot 3o the G ench ;cademy o3 +ciences, the schola ly wo ld / and in the meantime the e lived 'o(e nicus, )alileo )alilei, 4e(le , Newton, and =uygens / did not believe that such a thing as a stone 3alling 3 om the sky was (ossible at all. ;nd this des(ite many occasions when stones 3ell be3o e the eyes o3 a c owd, as did the ae olite in the ( esence o3 ?m(e o 6aCimilian and his cou t in ?nsisheim, ;lsace, on Novembe -, #292. 1 "nly sho tly be3o e #.01, the ;cademy o3 +ciences o3 Pa is e3used to believe that, on anothe occasion, stones had 3allen 3 om the sky. :he 3all o3 meteo ites on Auly 22, #-90 in southwest G ance was ( onounced Eun (hUnomTne (hysiFuement im(ossible.E 2 +ince the yea #.01, howeve , schola s have believed that stones 3all 3 om the sky. I3 a stone can collide with the ea th, and occasionally a showe o3 stones, too, cannot a 3ull/si5ed comet 3ly into the 3ace o3 the ea thM It was calculated that such a (ossibility eCists but that it is ve y unlikely to occu . $ I3 the head o3 a comet should (ass ve y close to ou (ath, so as to e33ect a disto tion in the ca ee o3 the ea th, anothe (henomenon besides the distu bed movement o3 the (lanet would ( obably occu > a ain o3 meteo ites would st ike the ea th and would inc ease to a to ent. +tones sco ched by 3lying th ough the atmos(he e would be hu led on home and head. In the ,ook o3 Aoshua, two ve ses be3o e the (assage about the sun that was sus(ended on high 3o a numbe o3 hou s without moving to the "ccident, we 3ind this (assage> E;s they Ithe 'anaanite kingsJ 3led 3 om be3o e Is ael, and we e in the going down to ,eth/ ho on ... the !o d cast down g eat stones 3 om heaven u(on them unto ;5ekah, and they died> they we e mo e which died with hail stones Istones o3 ba adJ than they whom the child en o3 Is ael slew with the swo d.E 0 :he autho o3 the ,ook o3 Aoshua was su ely igno ant o3 any connection between the two (henomena. =e could not be eC(ected to have had any knowledge about the natu e o3 ae olites, about the 3o ces o3 att action between celestial bodies, and the like. ;s these (henomena we e eco ded to have occu ed togethe , it is im( obable that the eco ds we e invented. :he meteo ites 3ell on the ea th in a to ent. :hey must have 3allen in ve y g eat numbe s 3o they st uck down mo e wa io s than the swo ds o3 the adve sa ies. :o have killed (e sons by the hund eds o thousands in the 3ield, a cata act o3 stones must have 3allen. +uch a to ent o3 g eat stones would mean that a t ain o3 meteo ites o a comet had st uck ou (lanet. :he Fuotation in the ,ible 3 om the ,ook o3 Aashe is laconic and may give the im( ession that the (henomenon o3 the motionless sun and moon was local, seen only in Palestine between the valley o3 ;<alon and )ibeon. ,ut the cosmic cha acte o3 the ( odigy is (ictu ed

in a thanksgiving ( aye asc ibed to Aoshua> +un and moon stood still in heaven, and :hou didst stand in :hy w ath against ou o(( esso s ... ;ll the ( inces o3 the ea th stood u(, the kings o3 the nations had gathe ed themselves togethe ... :hou didst dest oy them in :hy 3u y, and :hou didst uin them in :hy age. Nations aged 3 om 3ea o3 :hee, kingdoms totte ed because o3 :hy w ath ... :hou didst (ou out :hy 3u y u(on them ... :hou didst te i3y them in :hy w ath ... :he ea th Fuaked and t embled 3 om the noise o3 :hy thunde s. :hou didst (u sue them in :hy sto m, :hou didst consume them in the whi lwind ... :hei ca casses we e like ubbish. :he wide adius ove which the heavenly w ath swe(t is em(hasi5ed in the ( aye > E;ll the kingdoms totte ed...E ; to ent o3 la ge stones coming 3 om the sky, an ea thFuake, a whi lwind, a distu bance in the movement o3 the ea th / these 3ou (henomena belong togethe . It a((ea s that a la ge comet must have (assed ve y nea to ou (lanet and dis u(ted its movementH a (a t o3 the stones dis(e sed in the neck and tail o3 the comet smote the su 3ace o3 ou ea th a shatte ing blow. ; e we entitled, on the basis o3 the ,ook o3 Aoshua, to assume that at some date in the middle o3 the second millennium be3o e the ( esent e a the ea th was inte u(ted in its egula otation by a cometM +uch a statement has so many im(lications that it should not be made thoughtlessly. :o this I say that though the im(lications a e g eat and many, the ( esent esea ch in its enti ety is an inte linked seFuence o3 documents and othe evidence, all o3 which in common ca y the weight o3 this and othe statements in this book. :he ( oblem be3o e us is one o3 mechanics. Points on the oute laye s o3 the otating globe (es(ecially nea the eFuato ) move at a highe linea velocity than (oints on the inne laye s, but at the same angula velocity. 'onseFuently, i3 the ea th we e suddenly sto((ed (o slowed down) in its otation, the inne laye s might come to est (o thei otational velocity might be slowed) while the oute laye s would still tend to go on otating. :his would cause 3 iction between the va ious liFuid o semi3luid laye s, c eating heatH on the oute most (e i(he y the solid laye s would be to n a(a t, causing mountains and even continents to 3all o ise. ;s I shall show late , mountains 3ell and othe s ose 3 om level g oundH the ea th with its oceans and continents became heatedH the sea boiled in many (laces, and ock liFue3iedH volcanoes ignited and 3o ests bu ned. 8ould not a sudden sto( by the ea th, otating at a little ove one thousand miles an hou at its eFuato , mean a com(lete dest uction o3 the wo ldM +ince the wo ld su vived, the e must have been a mechanism to cushion the slowing down o3 te est ial otation, i3 it eally occu ed, o anothe esca(e 3o the ene gy o3 motion besides t ans3o mation into heat, o both. " i3 otation (e sisted undistu bed, the te est ial aCis may have tilted in the ( esence o3 a st ong magnetic 3ield, so that the sun a((ea ed to lose 3o hou s its diu nal movement. . :hese ( oblems a e ke(t in sight and a e 3aced in the ?(ilogue o3 this volume.
777777777777777777777777777777 # E'e tainly one could not conceive a mo e e33ective 3light o3 3ancy, o one mo e 3itted 3o the heights o3 one he oic and ly ical com(osition.E ). +chia(a elli> ;st onomy in the "ld :estament (#90$), (. 20. 2 8. 8histon w ote in his New :heo y o3 the ?a th (0th ed., #-$$), ((. #9/2#, conce ning the wonde o3 the sun standing still> E:he +c i(tu e did not intend to teach men (hiloso(hy, o accomodate itsel3 to the t ue Pythago ic

system o3 the wo ld.E ;nd again> E:he ( o(hets and holy (enmen themselves ... being seldom o neve (hiloso(he s, we e not ca(able o3 e( esenting these things othe wise than they, with the vulga , unde stood them.E 1 '. P. "livie > 6eteo s (#92$), (. 2. 2 P. ,e tholon> Pubblica5ioni della s(ecola ast onomica Vaticana (#9#1). $ %. G. ; ago com(uted on some occasion that the e is one chance in 2.0 million that a comet will hit the ea th. Neve theless, a hole one mile in diamete in ; i5ona is a sign o3 an actual headlong collision o3 the ea th with a small comet o aste oid. "n Aune 10, #90., a calculated 3o ty/thousand ton mass o3 i on 3ell in +ibe ia at 00Q $0B no th latitude and #0#Q $-B east longitude. In #920 the small )iacobini / Dinne comet (assed within #1#,000 miles o3 the (oint whe e the ea th was eight days late . 8hile investigating whethe an encounte between the ea th and a comet had been the sub<ect o3 a ( evious discussion, I 3ound that 8. 8histon, NewtonBs successo at 'amb idge and a contem(o a y o3 =alley, in his New :heo y o3 the ?a th (the 3i st edition o3 which a((ea ed in #090) t ied to ( ove that the comet o3 #0.0, to which he (e oneously) asc ibed a (e iod o3 $-$ S yea s, caused the biblical %eluge on an ea ly encounte . ). 'uvie , who was unable to o33e his own eC(lanation o3 the causes o3 g eat cataclysms, e3e s to the theo y o3 8histon in the 3ollowing te ms> E8histon 3ancied that the ea th was c eated 3 om the atmos(he e o3 one comet, and that it was deluged by the tail o3 anothe . :he heat which emained 3 om its 3i st o igin, in his o(inion, eCcited the whole antediluvian (o(ulation, men and animals, to sin, 3o which they we e all d owned in the deluge, eCce(ting the 3ish, whose (assions we e a((a ently less violent.E Ignatius %onnelly, autho , e3o me , and membe o3 the @nited +tates =ouse o3 9e( esentatives, t ied in his book 9agna ok (#..1) to eC(lain the ( esence o3 till and g avel on the ock subst atum in ;me ica and ?u o(e by hy(othesi5ing an encounte with a comet, which ained till on the te est ial hemis(he e 3acing it at that moment. =e (laced the event in an inde3inite (e iod, but at a time when man al eady (o(ulated the ea th. %onnelly did not show any awa eness that 8histon was his ( edecesso . =is assum(tion that the e is till only in one hal3 o3 the ea th is a bit a y and w ong. 0 Aoshua #0>##. - )in5be g> !egends, IV, ##/#2. . :his eC(lanation was suggested to me by 6. ;b amovich o3 :el ;viv. 777777777777777777777777777777

"n the "the +ide o3 the "cean

:he ,ook o3 Aoshua, com(iled 3 om the mo e ancient ,ook o3 Aashe , elates the o de o3 events. EAoshua ... went u( 3 om )ilgal all night.E In the ea ly mo ning he 3ell u(on his enemies unawa es at )ibeon, and Echased them along the way that goes u( to ,eth/ho on.E ;s they 3led, g eat stones we e cast 3 om the sky. :hat same day (Ein the day when the !o d delive ed u( the ;mo itesE) the sun stood still ove )ibeon and the moon ove the valley o3 ;<alon. It has been noted that this desc i(tion o3 the (osition o3 the lumina ies im(lies that the sun was in the 3o enoon (osition. # :he ,ook o3 Aoshua says that the lumina ies stood in the midst o3 the sky. ;llowing 3o the di33e ence in longitude, it must have been ea ly mo ning o night in the 8este n =emis(he e. 8e go to the shel3 whe e stand books with the histo ical t aditions o3 the abo igines o3 'ent al ;me ica. :he sailo s o3 'olumbus and 'o tes, a iving in ;me ica, 3ound the e lite ate (eo(les who had books o3 thei own. 6ost o3 these books we e bu ned in the siCteenth centu y by the %ominican monks. Ve y 3ew o3 the ancient manusc i(ts su vived, and these a e ( ese ved in the lib a ies o3 Pa is, the Vatican, the P ado, and % esdenH they a e called codici, and thei teCts have been studied and (a tly ead. =oweve , among the Indians o3 the days o3 the conFuest and also o3 the 3ollowing centu y the e we e lite a y men who had access to the knowledge w itten in (ictog a(hic sc i(t by thei 3o e3athe s. 2 In the 6eCican ;nnals o3 'uauhtitlan 1 / the histo y o3 the em(i e o3 'ulhuacan and 6eCico, w itten in Nahua/Indian in the siCteenth centu y / it is elated that du ing a cosmic catast o(he that occu ed in the emote (ast, the night did not end 3o a long time. :he biblical na ative desc ibes the sun as emaining in the sky 3o an additional day

(Eabout a whole dayE). :he 6id ashim, the books o3 ancient t aditions not embodied in the +c i(tu es, elate that the sun and the moon stood still 3o thi ty/siC itim, o eighteen hou s, 2 and thus 3 om sun ise to sunset the day lasted about thi ty hou s. In the 6eCican annals it is stated that the wo ld was de( ived o3 light and the sun did not a((ea 3o a 3ou 3old night. In a ( olonged day o night time could not be measu ed by the usual means at the dis(osal o3 the ancients. $ +ahagun, the +(anish savant who came to ;me ica a gene ation a3te 'olumbus and gathe ed the t aditions o3 the abo igines, w ote that at the time o3 one cosmic catast o(he the sun ose only a little way ove the ho i5on and emained the e without movingH the moon also stood still. 0 I am dealing with the 8este n =emis(he e 3i st, because the biblical sto ies we e not known to its abo igines when it was discove ed. ;lso, the t adition ( ese ved by +ahagun bea s no t ace o3 having been int oduced by the missiona ies> in his ve sion the e is nothing to suggest Aoshua ben Nun and his wa against the 'anaanite kingsH and the (osition o3 the sun, only a ve y little above the easte n ho i5on, di33e s 3 om the biblical teCt, though it does not cont adict it. 8e could 3ollow a (ath a ound the ea th and inFui e into the va ious t aditions conce ning the ( olonged night and ( olonged day, with sun and moon absent o ta ying at di33e ent (oints along the 5odiac, while the ea th unde went a bomba dment o3 stones in a wo ld abla5e. ,ut we must (ost(one this <ou ney. :he e was mo e than one catast o(he when, acco ding to the memo y o3 mankind, the ea th e3used to (lay the ch onomete by undistu bed otation on its aCis. Gi st, we must di33e entiate the single occu ences o3 cosmic catast o(hes, some o3 which took (lace be3o e the one desc ibed he e, some a3te itH some o3 which we e o3 g eate eCtent, and some o3 lesse .
777777777777777777777777777777 # =. =ol5inge > EAosuaE (#90#), (. 20, in E=andcommenta 5um ;lten :estament,E ed. 4. 6a ti. 9. ?isle > EAoshua and the +un,E ;me ican Aou nal o3 +emitic !anguages and !ite atu e, L!= (#920), .1> EIt would have had no sense ea ly in the mo ning o3 a battle, with a whole day ahead, to have ( ayed 3o the lengthening o3 the sunlight even into the night time.E 2 :he 6ayan tongue is still s(oken by about 100,000 (eo(le, but o3 the 6ayan hie ogly(hics only the cha acte s em(loyed in the calenda a e known 3o ce tain. 1 4nown also as 'odeC 'himal(o(oca. E:his manusc i(t contains a se ies o3 annals o3 ve y ancient date, many o3 which go back to mo e than a thousand yea s be3o e the 'h istian e aE (, asseu ). 2 +e3e =a/*asha , ed. !. )oldschmidt (#921)H Pi kei 9abbi ?liese (=eb ew sou ces di33e as to how long the sun stood stillH the ,abylonian :almud, : actate ;boda Da a 2$aH :a gum =abakkuk 1>##. $ 8ith the eCce(tion o3 the wate clock. 0 ,e na dino de +ahagun (#299P X #$90)> =isto ia gene al de las cosas de Nueva ?s(a[a , new ed. #91. ($ vols.) and #920 (1 vols.). G ench t ansl. %. Aou danet and 9. +imeon (#..0), (. 2.#. 777777777777777777777777777777

Gi3ty/two *ea s ?a lie

'ha(te 2

:=? P9?/'"!@6,I;N w itten t aditions o3 'ent al ;me ica tell us that 3i3ty/two yea s be3o e the catast o(he that closely esembles that o3 the time o3 Aoshua, anothe catast o(he o3 wo ld dimensions had occu ed. # It is the e3o e only natu al to go back to the old Is aelite t aditions, as na ated in the +c i(tu es, to dete mine whethe they contain evidence o3 a co es(onding catast o(he. :he time o3 the 8ande ing in the %ese t is given by the +c i(tu es as 3o ty yea s. :hen, 3o a numbe o3 yea s be3o e the day o3 the distu bed movement o3 the ea th, the ( ot acted conFuest o3 Palestine went on. 2 It seems easonable, the e3o e, to ask whethe a date 3i3ty/ two yea s be3o e this event would coincide with the time o3 the ?Codus. In the wo k ;ges in 'haos, I desc ibe at some length the catast o(he that visited ?gy(t and ; abia. In that wo k it is eC(lained that the ?Codus took (lace amid a g eat natu al u(heaval that te minated the (e iod o3 ?gy(tian histo y known as the 6iddle 4ingdom. :he e I endeavo to show that contem(o a y ?gy(tian documents desc ibe the same disaste accom(anied by Ethe (lagues o3 ?gy(t,E and that the t aditions o3 the ; abian Peninsula elate simila occu ences in this land and on the sho es o3 the 9ed +ea. In that wo k I e3e also to ,ekeBs idea that 6t. +inai was a smoking volcano. =oweve , I eveal that Ethe sco(e o3 the catast o(he must have eCceeded by 3a the measu e o3 the distu bance which could be caused by one active volcano,E and I ( omise to answe the Fuestion> E"3 what natu e and dimension was this catast o(he, o this se ies o3 catast o(hes, accom(anied by (laguesME and to (ublish an investigation into the natu e o3 g eat catast o(hes o3 the (ast. ,oth wo ks / the econst uction o3 histo y and the econst uction o3 natu al histo y / we e conceived within the sho t inte val o3 hal3 a yea H the desi e to establish a co ect histo ical ch onology be3o e 3itting the acts o3 natu e into the (e iods o3 human histo y im(elled me to com(lete ;ges in 'haos 3i st. 1 I shall em(loy some o3 the histo ical mate ial 3 om the 3i st cha(te s o3 ;ges in 'haos. :he e I use it 3o the (u (ose o3 synch oni5ing events in the histo ies o3 the count ies a ound the easte n 6edite aneanH he e I shall use it to show that the same events took (lace all a ound the wo ld, and to eC(lain the natu e o3 these events.
777777777777777777777777777777 # :hese sou ces will be cited on subseFuent (ages. 2 ;cco ding to abbinical sou ces, the wa o3 conFuest in Palestine lasted 3ou teen yea s. 1 In o de o3 (ublication it will 3ollow the ( esent volume. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 9ed 8o ld
In the middle o3 the second millennium be3o e the ( esent e a, as I intend to show, the ea th unde went one o3 the g eatest catast o(hes in its histo y. ; celestial body that only sho tly be3o e had become a membe o3 the sola system / a new comet / came ve y close to the ea th. :he account o3 this catast o(he can be econst ucted 3 om evidence su((lied by a la ge numbe o3 documents. :he comet was on its way 3 om its (e ihelion and touched the ea th 3i st with its gaseous tail. !ate in this book I shall show that it was about this comet that +e vius w ote> ENon igneo sed sanguineo ubo e 3uisseE (It was not o3 a 3laming but o3 a bloody edness). "ne o3 the 3i st visible signs o3 this encounte was the eddening o3 the ea thBs su 3ace by a 3ine dust o3 usty (igment. In sea, lake, and ive this (igment gave a bloody colo ing to the wate . ,ecause o3 these (a ticles o3 3e uginous o othe soluble (igment, the wo ld tu ned

ed. :he 6anusc i(t KuichU o3 the 6ayas tells that in the 8este n =emis(he e, in the days o3 a g eat cataclysm, when the ea th Fuaked and the sunBs motion was inte u(ted, the wate in the ive s tu ned to blood. # I(uwe , the ?gy(tian eyewitness o3 the catast o(he, w ote his lament on (a(y us> 2 E:he ive is blood,E and this co es(onds with the ,ook o3 ?Codus (->20)> E;ll the wate s that we e in the ive we e tu ned to blood.E :he autho o3 the (a(y us also w ote> BPlague is th oughout the land. ,lood is eve ywhe e,E and this, too, co es(onds with the ,ook o3 ?Codus (->2#)> E:he e was blood th oughout all the land o3 ?gy(t.E :he ( esence o3 the hematoid (igment in the ive s caused the death o3 3ish 3ollowed by decom(osition and smell. E;nd the ive stankE (?Codus ->2#). E;nd all the ?gy(tians digged ound about the ive 3o wate to d inkH 3o they could not d ink o3 the wate o3 the ive E (?Codus ->22). :he (a(y us elates> E6en sh ink 3 om tastingH human beings thi st a3te wate ,E and E:hat is ou wate N :hat is ou ha((inessN 8hat shall we do in es(ect the eo3M ;ll is uin.E :he skin o3 men and o3 animals was i itated by the dust, which caused boils, sickness, and the death o3 cattle / Ea ve y g ievous mu ain.E 1 8ild animals, 3 ightened by the (o tents in the sky, came close to the villages and cities. 2 :he summit o3 mountainous :h ace eceived the name E=aemus,E and ;(ollodo us elated the t adition o3 the :h acians that the summit was so named because o3 the Est eam o3 blood which gushed out on the mountainE when the heavenly battle was 3ought between Deus and :y(hon, and :y(hon was st uck by a thunde bolt. $ It is said that a city in ?gy(t eceived the same name 3o the same eason. 0 :he mythology which (e soni3ied the 3o ces o3 the cosmic d ama desc ibed the wo ld as colo ed ed. In one ?gy(tian myth the bloody hue o3 the wo ld is asc ibed to the blood o3 "si is, the mo tally wounded (lanet godH in anothe myth it is the blood o3 +eth o ;(o(iH in the ,abylonian myth the wo ld was colo ed ed by the blood o3 the slain :iamat, the heavenly monste . :he Ginnish e(os o3 4alevala desc ibes how, in the days o3 the cosmic u(heaval, the wo ld was s( inkled with ed milk. . :he ;ltai :ata s tell o3 a catast o(he when Eblood tu ns the whole wo ld ed,E and a wo ld con3lag ation 3ollows. 9 :he " (hic hymns e3e to the time when the heavenly vault, Emighty "lym(us, t embled 3ea 3ully ... and the ea th a ound sh ieked 3ea 3ully, and the sea was sti ed Ihea(edJ, t oubled with its (u (le waves.E #0 ;n old sub<ect 3o debate is> 8hy is the 9ed +ea so namedM I3 a sea is called ,lack o 8hite, that may be due to the da k colo ing o3 the wate o to the b ightness o3 the ice and snow. :he 9ed +ea has a dee( blue colo . ;s no bette eason was 3ound, a 3ew co al 3o mations o some ed bi ds on its sho es we e ( o(osed as eC(lanations o3 its name. ## !ike all the wate in ?gy(t, the wate on the su 3ace o3 the +ea o3 the Passage was o3 a ed tint. It a((ea s that 9a(hael was not mistaken when, in (ainting the scene o3 the (assage, he colo ed the wate ed. It was, o3 cou se, not this mountain o that ive o that sea eCclusively that was eddened, thus ea ning the name 9ed o ,loody, as distinguished 3 om othe mountains and seas. ,ut c owds o3 men, whe eve they we e, who witnessed the cosmic u(heaval and esca(ed with thei lives, asc ibed the name =aemus o 9ed to (a ticula (laces. :he (henomenon o3 EbloodE aining 3 om the sky has also been obse ved in limited a eas and on a small scale in mo e ecent times. "ne o3 these occasions, acco ding to Pliny, was du ing the consulshi( o3 6anius ;cilius and )aius Po cius. #2 ,abylonians, too, eco ded ed dust and ain 3alling 3 om the skyH #1 instances o3 Ebloody ainE have been eco ded in dive s count ies. #2 :he ed dust, soluble in wate , 3alling 3 om the sky in wate d o(s, does

not o iginate in clouds, but must come 3 om volcanic e u(tions o 3 om cosmic s(aces. :he 3all o3 meteo ite dust is a (henomenon gene ally known to take (lace mainly a3te the (assage o3 meteo itesH this dust is 3ound on the snow o3 mountains and in (ola egions. #$
777777777777777777777777777777 # , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue, I, #10. 2 ;. =. )a dine > ;dmonitions o3 an ?gy(tian +age 3 om a hie atic (a(y us in !eiden (#909). Its autho was an ?gy(tian named I(uwe . =e ea3te the teCt will be cited as E Pa(y us I(uwe .E In ;ges in 'haos I shall develo( evidence to show that this (a(y us desc ibes events contem(o aneous with the end o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom in ?gy(t and the ?Codus. It must have been com(osed sho tly 3ollowing the catast o(he. 1 ?Codus 9>1H c3. Pa(y us I(uwe $>$. 2 )in5be g> !egends, V, 210. $ ;(ollodo us> :he !ib a y (t ansl. A. ). G a5e , #92#), VI. 0 G a5e Bs comment to ;(ollodo usB !ib a y, I, $0. - :he +even :ablets o3 ' eation , ed. !. 8. 4ing (#902). . 4alevala, 9une 9. 9 @. =olmbe g> Ginno/@g ic, +ibe ian 6ythology (#92-), (. 1-0. #0 E:o 6ine vaE in " (hic hymns (t ansl. ;. ,uckley), ed. with the "dyssey o3 =ome (#.0#). ## =. +. Palme > +inai (#.92). P obably at that time the mountainous land o3 +ei , u(on which the Is aelites wande ed, eceived the name ?dom (9ed), and ? yth ea (Ee yth aiosE / E edE in ) eek) its nameH ? yth ean +ea was in antiFuity the name o3 the ; abian )ul3 o3 the Indian "cean, a((lied also to the 9ed +ea. #2 Pliny> Natu al =isto y, ii, $-. ;nothe instance, acco ding to Pluta ch, occu ed in the eign o3 9omulus. #1 G. L. 4ugle > E,abylonische Deito dnungE (Vol. II o3 his +te nkunde und +te ndienst in ,abel) (#909 / #9#0), (. ##2. #2 %. G. ; ago> ;st onomie (o(ulai e (#.$2 / #.$-), IV, 209 3.H ;bel/9Umusat> 'atalogue des bolides et des aU olithes obse vUs \ la 'hine et dans les (ays voisins (#.#9), (. 0. #$ It is estimated that a(( oCimately one ton o3 meteo ite dust 3alls daily on the globe. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he =ail o3 +tones

Gollowing the ed dust, a Esmall dust,E like Eashes o3 the 3u nace,E 3ell Ein all the land o3 ?gy(tE (?Codus 9>.), and then a showe o3 meteo ites 3lew towa d the ea th. "u (lanet ente ed dee(e into the tail o3 the comet. :he dust was a 3o e unne o3 the g avel. :he e 3ell Ea ve y g ievous hail, such as has not been in ?gy(t since its 3oundationsE (?Codus 9>#.). +tones o3 Eba ad,E he e t anslated Ehail,E is, as in most (laces whe e mentioned in the +c i(tu es, the te m 3o meteo ites. 8e a e also in3o med by 6id ashic and :almudic sou ces that the stones which 3ell on ?gy(t we e hotH # this 3its only meteo ites, not a hail o3 ice. 2 In the +c i(tu es it is said that these stones 3ell Emingled with 3i eE (?Codus 9>22), the meaning o3 which I shall discuss in the 3ollowing section, and that thei 3all was accom(anied by Eloud noisesE (kolot), ende ed as Ethunde ings,E a t anslation which is only 3igu ative, and not lite ally co ect, because the wo d 3o Ethunde E is aam, which is not used he e. :he 3all o3 meteo ites is accom(anied by c ashes o eC(losion/like noises, and in this case they we e so Emighty,E that, acco ding to the +c i(tu al na ative, the (eo(le in the (alace we e te i3ied as much by the din o3 the 3alling stones as by the dest uction they caused (?Codus 9>2.). :he ed dust had 3 ightened the (eo(le, and a wa ning to kee( men and cattle unde shelte had been issued> E)athe thy cattle and all that thou hast in the 3ieldH 3o u(on eve y man and beast which shall be 3ound in the 3ield, and shall not be b ought home, the hailstones shall come down u(on them, and they shall dieE (?Codus 9>#9). E;nd he that ega ded not the wo d o3 the !o d le3t his se vants and his cattle in the 3ieldE (?Codus 9>2#). +imila ly, the ?gy(tian eyewitness> E'attle a e le3t to st ay, and the e is none to gathe them togethe . ?ach man 3etches 3o himsel3 those that a e b anded with his name.E 1 Galling stones and 3i e made the 3 ightened cattle 3lee. I(uwe also w ote> E: ees a e dest oyed,E ENo 3 uits, no he bs a e 3ound,E E) ain has

(e ished on eve y side,E E:hat has (e ished which yeste day was seen. :he land is le3t to its wea iness like the cutting o3 3laC.E 2 In one day 3ields we e tu ned to wasteland. In the ,ook o3 ?Codus (9>2$) it is w itten> E;nd the hail Istones o3 ba adJ smote eve y he b o3 the 3ield, and b ake eve y t ee o3 the 3ield.E :he desc i(tion o3 such a catast o(he is 3ound in the Visuddhi/6agga, a ,uddhist teCt on the wo ld cycles. E8hen a wo ld cycle is dest oyed by wind ... the e a ises in the beginning a cycle/dest oying g eat cloud ... :he e a ises a wind to dest oy the wo ld cycle, and 3i st it aises a 3ine dust, and then coa se dust, and then 3ine sand, and then coa se sand, and then g it, stones, u( to boulde s as la ge ... as mighty t ees on the hill to(s.E :he wind Etu ns the g ound u(side down,E la ge a eas Ec ack and a e th own u(wa ds,E Eall the mansions on ea thE a e dest oyed in a catast o(he when Ewo lds clash with wo lds.E $ :he 6eCican ;nnals o3 'uauhtitlan desc ibe how a cosmic catast o(he was accom(anied by a hail o3 stonesH in the o al t adition o3 the Indians, too, the moti3 is e(eated time and again> In some ancient e(och the sky E ained, not wate , but 3i e and ed/hot stones,E 0 which is not di33e ent 3 om the =eb ew t adition.
777777777777777777777777777777 # :he ,abylonian :almud, : actate ,e akhot $2bH othe sou ces in )in5be g> !egends, VI, #-.. 2 In the ,ook o3 Aoshua it is said that Eg eat stonesE 3ell 3 om the sky, and then they a e e3e ed to as Estones o3 ba ad.E E:he ancient ?gy(tian wo d 3o Bhail,B a , is also a((lied to a d iving showe o3 sand and stonesH in the contest between =o us and +et, Isis is desc ibed as sending u(on the latte Ea n saE, Ea hail o3 sandE. ;. 6acaliste > E=ail,E in =astings> %ictiona y o3 the ,ible (#90#/#902). 1 Pa(y us I(uwe 9>2/1 2 Ibid., 2>#2H 0>#H 0>1H $>#2. $ E8o ld 'ycles,E Visuddhi/6agga, in 8a en> ,uddhism in : anslations, (. 12.. 0 ;leCande > !atin ;me ican 6ythology, (. -2. 777777777777777777777777777777

' ude (et oleum is com(osed o3 two elements, ca bon and hyd ogen. :he main theo ies o3 the o igin o3 (et oleum a e> #. :he ino ganic theo y> =yd ogen and ca bon we e b ought togethe in the ock 3o mations o3 the ea th unde g eat heat and ( essu e. 2. :he o ganic theo y> ,oth the hyd ogen and ca bon which com(ose (et oleum come 3 om the emains o3 (lant and animal li3e, in the main 3 om mic osco(ic ma ine and swam( li3e. :he o ganic theo y im(lies that the ( ocess sta ted a3te li3e was al eady abundant, at least at the bottom o3 the ocean. # :he tails o3 comets a e com(osed mainly o3 ca bon and hyd ogen gases. !acking oCygen, they do not bu n in 3light, but the in3lammable gases, (assing th ough an atmos(he e containing oCygen, will be set on 3i e. I3 ca bon and hyd ogen gases, o va(o o3 a com(osition o3 these two elements, ente the atmos(he e in huge masses, a (a t o3 them will bu n, binding all the oCygen available at the momentH the est will esca(e combustion, but in swi3t t ansition will become liFuid. Galling on the g ound, the substance, i3 liFuid, would sink into the (o es o3 the sand and into cle3ts between the ocksH 3alling on wate , it would emain 3loating i3 the 3i e in the ai is eCtinguished be3o e new su((lies o3 oCygen a ive 3 om othe egions. :he descent o3 a sticky 3luid which came ea thwa d and bla5ed with heavy smoke is ecalled in the o al and w itten t aditions o3 the inhabitants o3 both hemis(he es. Po(ol/Vuh, the sac ed book o3 the 6ayas, na ates> 2 EIt was uin and dest uction ... the sea was (iled u( ... it was a g eat inundation ... (eo(le we e d owned in a sticky substance aining 3 om the sky ... :he 3ace o3 the ea th g ew da k and the gloomy ain endu ed days and nights ... ;nd then the e was a g eat din o3 3i e above thei heads.E :he enti e

(o(ulation o3 the land was annihilated. :he 6anusc i(t KuichU (e (etuated the (ictu e o3 the (o(ulation o3 6eCico (e ishing in a down(ou o3 bitumen> 1 E:he e descended 3 om the sky a ain o3 bitumen and o3 a sticky substance ... :he ea th was obscu ed and it ained day and night. ;nd men an hithe and thithe and we e as i3 sei5ed by madnessH they t ied to climb to the oo3s, and the houses c ashed downH they t ied to climb the t ees, and the t ees cast them 3a awayH and when they t ied to esca(e in caves and cave ns, these we e suddenly closed.E ; simila account is ( ese ved in the ;nnals o3 'uauhtitlan. 2 :he age which ended in the ain o3 3i e was called Kuiauh/tonatiuh, which means Ethe sun o3 3i e/ ain.E $ ;nd 3a away, in the othe hemis(he e, in +ibe ia, the Voguls ca ied down th ough the centu ies and millennia this memo y> E)od sent a sea o3 3i e u(on the ea th ... :he cause o3 the 3i e they call Bthe 3i e/wate .BE 0 =al3 a me idian to the south, in the ?ast Indies, the abo iginal t ibes elate that in the emote (ast E+engle/%asE o Ewate o3 3i eE ained 3 om the skyH with ve y 3ew eCce(tions, all men died. :he eighth (lague as desc ibed in the ,ook o3 ?Codus was Eba ad Imeteo itesJ and 3i e mingled with the ba ad, ve y g ievous, such as the e was none like it in all the land o3 ?gy(t since it became a nationE (?Codus 9>22). :he e we e Ethunde Ico ect> loud noisesJ and ba ad, and the 3i e an along u(on the g oundE (?Codus 9>21). :he Pa(y us I(uwe desc ibes this consuming 3i e> E)ates, columns, and walls a e consumed by 3i e. :he sky is in con3usion.E . :he (a(y us says that this 3i e almost EeCte minated mankind.E :he 6id ashim, in a numbe o3 teCts, state that na(htha, togethe with hot stones, (ou ed down u(on ?gy(t. E:he ?gy(tians e3used to let the Is aelites go, and =e (ou ed out na(htha ove them, bu ning blains Ibliste sJ.E It was Ea st eam o3 hot na(htha.E 9 Na(htha is (et oleum in ; amaic and =eb ew. :he (o(ulation o3 ?gy(t was E(u sued with st ange ains and hails and showe s ineCo able, and utte ly consumed with 3i e> 3o what was most ma velous o3 all, in the wate which Fuencheth all things the 3i e w ought yet mo e mightily,E #0 which is the natu e o3 bu ning (et oleumH in the egiste o3 the (lagues in Psalms #0$ it is e3e ed to as E3laming 3i e,E and in %aniel (->#0) as E ive o3 3i eE o E3ie y st eam.E In the Passove =aggadah it is said that Emighty men o3 Pul and !ud I!ydia in ;sia 6ino J we e dest oyed with consuming con3lag ation on the Passove .E In the valley o3 the ?u(h ates the ,abylonians o3ten e3e ed to Ethe ain o3 3i e,E vivid in thei memo y. ## ;ll the count ies whose t aditions o3 3i e/ ain I have cited actually have de(osits o3 oil> 6eCico, the ?ast Indies, +ibe ia, I aF, and ?gy(t. Go a s(an o3 time a3te the combustive 3luid (ou ed down, it may well have 3loated u(on the su 3ace o3 the seas, soaked the su 3ace o3 the g ound, and caught 3i e again and again. EGo seven winte s and summe s the 3i e has aged ... it has bu nt u( the ea th,E na ate the Voguls o3 +ibe ia. #2 :he sto y o3 the wande ing in the dese t contains a numbe o3 e3e ences to 3i e s( inging out o3 the ea th. :he Is aelites t aveled th ee daysB <ou ney away 3 om the 6ountain o3 the !awgiving, and it ha((ened that Ethe 3i e o3 the !o d bu nt among them, and consumed them that we e in the utte most (a ts o3 the cam(E (Numbe s ##>#). :he Is aelites continued on thei way. :hen came the evolt o3 4o ah and his con3ede ates. E;nd the ea th o(ened he mouth, and swallowed them u( ... ;nd all Is ael that we e ound about them 3led at the c y o3 them ... ;nd the e came out a 3i e 3 om the !o d, and consumed the two hund ed and 3i3ty men that o33e ed incense.E #1 8hen they kindled the 3i e o3 incense, the va(o s which

ose out o3 the cle3t in the ock caught the 3lame and eC(loded. @naccustomed to handling this oil, ich in volatile de ivatives, the Is aelite ( iests 3ell victims to the 3i e. :he two elde sons o3 ;a on, Nadab and ;bihu, Edied be3o e the !o d, when they o33e ed st ange 3i e be3o e the !o d, in the wilde ness o3 +inai.E #2 :he 3i e was called st ange because it had not been known be3o e and because it was o3 3o eign o igin. I3 oil 3ell on the dese t o3 ; abia and on the land o3 ?gy(t and bu ned the e, vestiges o3 con3lag ation must be 3ound in some o3 the tombs built be3o e the end o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom, into which the oil o some o3 its de ivatives might have see(ed. 8e ead in the desc i(tion o3 the tomb o3 ;nte3oke , Vi5ie o3 +esost is I, a (ha aoh o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom> E; ( oblem is set us by a con3lag ation, clea ly delibe ate, which has aged in the tomb, as in many anothe ... :he combustible mate ial must not only have been abundant, but o3 a light natu eH 3o a 3ie ce 3i e which s(eedily s(ent itsel3 seems alone able to account 3o the 3act that tombs so bu nt emain absolutely 3 ee 3 om blackening, eCce(t in the lowest (a tsH no a e cha ed emains 3ound as a ule. :he conditions a e (u55ling.E

E;nd what does natu al histo y tell usME asked Philo in his "n :he ?te nity o3 the 8o ld, #0 and answe ed> E%est uctions o3 things on ea th, dest uctions not o3 all at once but o3 a ve y la ge numbe , a e att ibuted by it to two ( inci(al causes, the t emendous onslaughts o3 3i e and wate . :hese two visitations, we a e told, descend in tu ns a3te ve y long cycles o3 yea s. 8hen the agent is the con3lag ation, a st eam o3 heaven/sent 3i e (ou s out 3 om above and s( eads ove many (laces and ove uns g eat egions o3 the inhabited ea th.E :he ain o3 3i e/wate cont ibuted to the ea thBs su((ly o3 (et oleumH ock oil in the g ound a((ea s to be, (a tly at least, Esta oilE b ought down at the close o3 wo ld ages, notably the age that came to its end in the middle o3 the second millennium be3o e the ( esent e a. :he ( iests o3 I an wo shi(ed the 3i e that came out o3 the g ound. :he 3ollowe s o3 Do oast ianism o 6a5daism a e also called 3i e wo shi(e s. :he 3i e o3 the 'aucasus was held in g eat esteem by all the inhabitants o3 the ad<acent lands. 'onnected with the 'aucasus and o iginating the e is the legend o3 P ometheus. #- =e was chained to a ock 3o b inging 3i e to man. :he allego ical cha acte o3 this legend gains meaning when we conside ;ugustineBs wo ds that P ometheus was a contem(o a y o3 6oses. #. :o ents o3 (et oleum (ou ed down u(on the 'aucasus and we e consumed. :he smoke o3 the 'aucasus 3i e was still in the imaginative sight o3 "vid, 3i3teen centu ies late , when he desc ibed the bu ning o3 the wo ld. :he continuing 3i es in +ibe ia, the 'aucasus, in the ; abian dese t, and eve ywhe e else we e bla5es that 3ollowed the g eat con3lag ation o3 the days when the ea th was caught in va(o s o3 ca bon and hyd ogen. In the centu ies that 3ollowed, (et oleum was wo shi((ed, bu ned in holy (lacesH it was also used 3o domestic (u (oses. :hen many ages (assed when it was out o3 use. "nly in the middle o3 the last centu y did man begin to eC(loit this oil, (a tly cont ibuted by the comet o3 the time o3 the ?Codus. =e utili5ed its gi3ts, and today his highways a e c owded with vehicles ( o(elled by oil. Into the heights ose man, and he accom(lished the age/old d eam o3 3lying like a bi dH 3o this, too, he uses the emnants o3 the int uding sta that (ou ed 3i e and sticky va(o u(on his ancesto s.
777777777777777777777777777777 # ?ven be3o e Pluta ch the ( oblem o3 the o igin o3 (et oleum was much discussed. +(eaking o3 the visit o3 ;leCande to the (et oleum sou ces o3 I aF, Pluta ch said> B:he e has been much discussion about the o igin o3 Ithis na(hthaJ.E ,ut in the eCtant teCt o3 Pluta ch a sentence containing one o3 two ival views is missing. :he emaining teCt eads> E ... o whethe athe the liFuid substance that 3eeds the 3lame 3lows out 3 om the soil which is ich and ( oductive o3 3i e.E Pluta ch> !ives (t ansl. ,. Pe in, #9#9), :he !i3e o3 ;leCande , CCv. 2 Po(ol/Vuh, le liv e sac U> ed. , asseu (#.0#), 'ha(. Ill, (. 2$. 1 , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue, I, $$.

2 , asseu > +ou ces de lBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue, (. 2.. $ ?. +ele > )esammelte ;bhandlungen 5u ame ikanischen +( ach/ und ;lte tumsgeschichte (#902/#921), II, -9.. 0 =olmbe g> Ginno/@g ic, +ibe ian 6ythology, (. 10.. - Ibid., (. 109. ;lso ;. Nott ott> %ie )osne ische 6ission unte den 4ohls (#.-2). (. 2$. +ee 9. ;nd ee> %ie Glutsagen (#.9#). . Pa(y us I(uwe 2>#0H ->#H ##>##H #2>0. 9 6id ash :anhuma, 6id ash Psikta 9aboti, and 6id ash 8a/*osha. Go othe sou ces see )in5be g> !egends, II, 122/121, and V, 220. #0 :he 8isdom o3 +olomon (t ansl. =olmes. #9#1) in :he ;(oc y(ha and Pseude(ig a(ha o3 the "ld :estament, ed. 9. =. 'ha les. ## +ee ;. +chott> E%ie Ve gleiche in den ;kkadischen 4Wnigsinsch i3ten,E 6itt. d. Vo de asiat. )es., LLL (#92$), .9, #00. #2 =olmbe g> Ginno/@g ic, +ibe ian 6ythology, (. 109. #1 Numbe s #0>12/1$. '3. Psalms #00>#-/#.. #2 Numbe s 1>2H c3. Numbe s 20>0#. #$ N. de )a is %avies> :he :omb o3 ;nte3oke , Vi5ie o3 +esost is I (#920), (. $. #0 "n :he ?te nity o3 the 8o ld, Vol. IL o3 Philo (t ansl. G. =. 'olson, #92#), +ect. #20/#2-. #- +ee ;. "l ik> 9agna Wk ()e man ed., #922). #. :he 'ity o3 )od, ,k. LVIII, 'ha(. .. (t ansl. 6. %ods, ed. P. +cha33, #90-). 777777777777777777777777777777

:he %a kness
:he ea th ente ed dee(e into the tail o3 the on ushing comet and a(( oached its body. :his a(( oach, i3 one is to believe the sou ces, was 3ollowed by a distu bance in the otation o3 the ea th. :e i3ic hu icanes swe(t the ea th because o3 the change o eve sal o3 the angula velocity o3 otation and because o3 the swee(ing gases, dust, and cinde s o3 the comet. Nume ous abbinical sou ces desc ibe the calamity o3 da knessH the mate ial is collated as 3ollows> # ;n eCceedingly st ong wind endu ed seven days. ;ll the time the land was sh ouded in da kness. E"n the 3ou th, 3i3th, and siCth days, the da kness was so dense that they Ithe (eo(le o3 ?gy(tJ could not sti 3 om thei (lace.E E:he da kness was o3 such a natu e that it could not be dis(elled by a ti3icial means. :he light o3 the 3i e was eithe eCtinguished by the violence o3 sto m, o else it was made invisible and swallowed u( in the density o3 the da kness ... Nothing could be disce ned ... None was able to s(eak o to hea , no could anyone ventu e to take 3ood, but they lay themselves down ... thei outwa d senses in a t ance. :hus they emained, ove whelmed by the a33liction.E :he da kness was o3 such kind that Ethei eyes we e blinded by it and thei b eath chokedEH 2 it was Enot o3 o dina y ea thy kind.E 1 :he abbinical t adition, cont adicting the s(i it o3 the +c i(tu al na ative, states that du ing the (lague o3 da kness the vast ma<o ity o3 the Is aelites (e ished and that only a small 3 action o3 the o iginal Is aelite (o(ulation o3 ?gy(t was s(a ed to leave ?gy(t. Go ty/nine out o3 eve y 3i3ty Is aelites a e said to have (e ished in this (lague. 2 ; sh ine o3 black g anite 3ound at el/; ish on the bo de o3 ?gy(t and Palestine bea s a long insc i(tion in hie ogly(hics. It eads> E:he land was in g eat a33liction. ?vil 3ell on this ea th ... :he e was a g eat u(heaval in the esidence ... Nobody could leave the (alace Ithe e was no eCit 3 om the (alaceJ du ing nine days, and du ing these nine days o3 u(heaval the e was such a tem(est that neithe men no gods Ithe oyal 3amilyJ could see the 3aces o3 those beside them.E $ :his eco d em(loys the same desc i(tion o3 the da kness as ?Codus #0>22> E;nd the e was a thick da kness in all the land o3 ?gy(t th ee days. :hey saw not one anothe , neithe ose any 3 om his (lace 3o th ee days.E

:he di33e ence in the numbe o3 the days (th ee and nine) o3 the da kness is educed in the abbinical sou ces, whe e the time is given as seven days. :he di33e ence between seven and nine days is negligible i3 one conside s the sub<ectivity o3 the time estimation unde such conditions. ;(( aisal o3 the da kness with es(ect to its im(enet ability is also sub<ectiveH abbinical sou ces say that 3o (a t o3 the time the e was a ve y slight visibility, but 3o the est (th ee days) the e was no visibility at all. It should be ke(t in mind that, as in the case I have al eady discussed, a day and a night o3 da kness o light can be desc ibed as one day o as two days. :hat both sou ces, the =eb ew and the ?gy(tian, e3e to the same event can be established by anothe means also. Gollowing the ( olonged da kness and the hu icane, the (ha aoh, acco ding to the hie ogly(hic teCt o3 the sh ine, (u sued the Eevil/doe sE to Ethe (lace called Pi/4hi oti.E :he same (lace is mentioned in ?Codus #2>9> E,ut the ?gy(tian (u sued a3te them, all the ho ses and cha iots o3 Pha aoh ... and ove took them encam(ing by the sea, beside Pi/ha/khi oth.E 0 :he insc i(tion on the sh ine also na ates the death o3 the (ha aoh du ing this (u suit unde eCce(tional ci cumstances> ENow when the 6a<esty 3ought with the evil/doe s in this (ool, the (lace o3 the whi l(ool, the evil/doe s ( evailed not ove his 6a<esty. =is 6a<esty lea(t into the (lace o3 the whi l(ool.E :his is the same a(otheosis desc ibed in ?Codus #$>#9> EGo the ho se o3 Pha aoh went in with his cha iots and with his ho semen into the sea, and the !o d b ought again the wate s o3 the sea u(on them.E I3 Ethe ?gy(tian da knessE was caused by the ea thBs stasis o tilting o3 its aCis, and was agg avated by a thin cinde dust 3 om the comet, then the enti e globe must have su33e ed 3 om the e33ect o3 these two concu ing (henomenaH in eithe the easte n o the weste n (a ts o3 the wo ld the e must have been a ve y eCtended, gloomy day. Nations and t ibes in many (laces o3 the globe, to the south, to the no th, and to the west o3 ?gy(t, have old t aditions about a cosmic catast o(he du ing which the sun did not shineH but in some (a ts o3 the wo ld the t aditions maintain that the sun did not set 3o a (e iod o3 time eFual to a 3ew days. : ibes o3 the +udan to the south o3 ?gy(t e3e in thei tales to a time when the night would not come to an end. 4alevala, the e(os o3 the Ginns, tells o3 a time when hailstones o3 i on 3ell 3 om the sky, and the sun and the moon disa((ea ed (we e stolen 3 om the sky) and did not a((ea againH in thei stead, a3te a (e iod o3 da kness, a new sun and a new moon we e (laced in the sky. . 'aius Aulius +olinus w ites that E3ollowing the deluge which is e(o ted to have occu ed in the days o3 "gyges, a heavy night s( ead ove the globe.E 9 In the manusc i(ts o3 ;vila and 6olina, who collected the t aditions o3 the Indians o3 the New 8o ld, it is elated that the sun did not a((ea 3o 3ive daysH a cosmic collision o3 sta s ( eceded the cataclysmH (eo(le and animals t ied to esca(e to mountain caves. E+ca cely had they eached the e when the sea, b eaking out o3 bounds 3ollowing a te i3ying shock, began to ise on the Paci3ic coast. ,ut as the sea ose, 3illing the valleys and the (lains a ound, the mountain o3 ;ncasma ca ose, too, like a shi( on the waves. %u ing the 3ive days that this cataclysm lasted, the sun did not show its 3ace and the ea th emained in da kness.E #0 :hus the t aditions o3 the Pe uvians desc ibe a time when the sun did not a((ea 3o 3ive days. In the u(heaval, the ea th changed its ( o3ile, and the sea 3ell u(on the land. ## ?ast o3 ?gy(t, in ,abylonia, the eleventh tablet o3 the ?(ic o3 )ilgamesh I)ilgamishJ e3e s to the same events. G om out the ho i5on ose a da k cloud and it ushed against the ea thH the land was sh iveled by the heat o3 the 3lames. E%esolation ... st etched to heavenH all that was b ight was tu ned into da kness ... No could a b othe distinguish his b othe ... +iC days ... the hu icane, deluge, and tem(est continued swee(ing the land ... and all human

back to its clay was etu ned.E #2 :he I anian book ;nugita eveals that a th ee3old day and th ee/3old night concluded a wo ld age, #1 and the book ,undahis, in a conteCt that I shall Fuote late and that shows a close elation to the events o3 the cataclysm I desc ibe he e, tells o3 the wo ld being da k at midday as though it we e in dee(est night> it was caused, acco ding to the ,undahis, by a wa between the sta s and the (lanets. #2 ; ( ot acted night, dee(ened by the on ushing dust swee(ing in 3 om inte (laneta y s(ace, envelo(ed ?u o(e, ;3 ica, and ;me ica, the valleys o3 the ?u(h ates and the Indus also. I3 the ea th did not sto( otating but slowed down o was tilted, the e must have been a longitude whe e a ( olonged day was 3ollowed by a ( olonged night. I an is so situated that, i3 one is to believe the I anian t adition, the sun was absent 3o a th ee3old day, and then it shone 3o a th ee3old day. Ga the to the east the e must have been a ( ot acted day co es(onding to the ( ot acted night in the west. ;cco ding to ,ahman *ast, at the end o3 a wo ld age in easte n I an o in India the sun emained ten days visible in the sky. In 'hina, du ing the eign o3 the ?m(e o *ahou, a g eat catast o(he b ought a wo ld age to a close. Go ten days the sun did not set. #$ :he events o3 the time o3 the ?m(e o *ahou dese ve close eCaminationH I shall etu n to the sub<ect sho tly. #0
777777777777777777777777777777 # )in5be g> !egends, II, 100. 2 Aose(hus> Aewish ;ntiFuities (t ansl. =. +t. A. :hacke ay, #910), ,k. II, Civ. $. 1 )in5be g> !egends, II, 1$9. 2 :a gum *e ushalmi> ?Codus #0>21H 6ekhilta dB abbi +imon ben Aokhai (#90$), (. 1.. $ G. !. ) i33ith. :he ;ntiFuities o3 :el/el/*ahudiyeh and 6iscellaneous 8o k in !owe ?gy(t in #..-/.. (#.90)H ). )oyon> BE!es : avauC de 'hou et les t ibulations de )eb dBa( es !e Naos 222. dBIsmailia,E 4emi, 9evue de Philol. et dBa ch. ]gy(t. (#910). 0 :he syllable EhaE is the de3inite a ticle in =eb ew and in this case belongs between EPiE and E4hi oth.E - !. G obenius> %ichten und %enken im +udan (#92$), (. 1.. . 4alevala (t ansl. A. 6. ' aw3o d, #...), (. Ciii. 9 'aius Aulius +olinus> Polyhisto . G ench t ansl. by 6. ;. ;gnant, #.2-, 'ha(, Ci, eads> Ea heavy night s( ead ove the globe 3o nine consecutive days.E "the t anslato s ende > Enine consecutive months.E #0 , asseu > +ou ces de lBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue, (. 20. ## ;nd ee> %ie Glutsagen, (. ##$. #2 :he ?(ic o3 )ilgamish (t ansl. 9. '. :hom(son, #92.). #1 E:he ;nugitaE (t ansl. 4. :. :elang, #..2) in Vol. VIII o3 :he +ac ed ,ooks o3 the ?ast. #2 E:he ,undahisE in Pahlavi :eCts (t ansl. ?. 8. 8est) (:he +ac ed ,ooks o3 the ?ast, V I#..0J), Pt. I, (. #-. #$ '3. E*ao,E @nive sal !eCicon (#-12/#-$2), Vol. !L. #0 :he way the ?gy(tians estimated the time the sun was not in the sky must have been simila to the 'hinese method o3 estimation. It is ve y ( obable that these (eo(les eckoned the distu bance as lasting 3ive days and 3ive nights (because a nine3old o ten3old (e iod ela(sed 3 om one sun ise o sunset to the othe ). 777777777777777777777777777777

?a thFuake
:he ea th, 3o ced out o3 its egula motion, eacted to the close a(( oach o3 the body o3 the comet> a ma<o shock convulsed the lithos(he e, and the a ea o3 the ea thFuake was the enti e globe. I(uwe witnessed and su vived this ea thFuake. E:he towns a e dest oyed. @((e ?gy(t has become waste ... ;ll is uin.E E:he esidence is ove tu ned in a minute.E # "nly an ea thFuake could have ove tu ned the esidence in a minute. :he ?gy(tian wo d 3o Eto ove tu nE is used in the sense o3 Eto ove th ow a wall.E 2 :his was the tenth (lague. E;nd Pha aoh ose u( in the night, he, and all his se vants, and all the ?gy(tiansH and the e was a g eat c y in ?gy(tH 3o the e was not a house whe e the e was not one deadE (?Codus #2>10). =ouses 3ell, smitten by one violent blow. EI:he angel o3

the !o dJ (assed ove the houses o3 the child en o3 Is ael in ?gy(t, when he smote the ?gy(tians, and delive ed ou housesE (?Codus #2>2-). Noga3, meaning Esmote,E is the wo d used 3o a ve y violent blow, as, 3o instance, go ing by the ho ns o3 an oC. :he Passove =aggadah says> E:he 3i stbo n o3 the ?gy(tians didst :hou c ush at midnight.E :he eason why the Is aelites we e mo e 3o tunate in this (lague than the ?gy(tians ( obably lies in the kind o3 mate ial o3 which thei dwellings we e const ucted. "ccu(ying a ma shy dist ict and wo king on clay, the ca(tives must have lived in huts made o3 clay and eeds, which a e mo e esilient than b ick o stone. E:he !o d will (ass ove the doo , and will not su33e the dest oye to come and smite you houses.E 1 ;n eCam(le o3 the selective action o3 a natu al agent u(on va ious kinds o3 const uction is na ated also in 6eCican annals. %u ing a catast o(he accom(anied by hu icane and ea thFuake, only the (eo(le who lived in small log cabins emained unin<u edH the la ge buildings we e swe(t away. E:hey 3ound that those who lived in small houses had esca(ed, as well as the newly/ma ied cou(les, whose custom it was to live 3o a 3ew yea s in cabins in 3 ont o3 those o3 thei 3athe s/in/law.E 2 In ;ges in 'haos (my econst uction o3 ancient histo y), I shall show that E3i st/bo nE (bkho ) in the teCt o3 the (lague is a co u(tion o3 EchosenE (bcho ). ;ll the 3lowe o3 ?gy(t succumbed in the catast o(he. EGo sooth> :he child en o3 ( inces a e dashed against the walls ... the child en o3 ( inces a e cast out in the st eetsEH Ethe ( ison is uined,E w ote I(uwe , $ and this eminds us o3 ( inces in (alaces and ca(tives in dungeons who we e victims in the disaste (?Codus #2>29). :o con3i m my inte ( etation o3 the tenth (lague as an ea thFuake, which should be obvious 3 om the eC( ession, Eto smite the houses,E I 3ind a co obo ating (assage o3 ; ta(anus in which he desc ibes the last night be3o e the ?Codus, and which is Fuoted by ?usebius> :he e was Ehail and ea thFuake by night, so that those who 3led 3 om the ea thFuake we e killed by the hail, and those who sought shelte 3 om the hail we e dest oyed by the ea thFuake. ;nd at that time all the houses 3ell in, and most o3 the tem(les.E 0 ;lso, =ie onymus (+t. Ae ome) w ote in an e(istle that Ein the night in which ?Codus took (lace, all the tem(les o3 ?gy(t we e dest oyed eithe by an ea thshock o by the thunde bolt.E - +imila ly in the 6id ashim> E:he seventh (lague, the (lague o3 ba ad Imeteo itesJ> ea thFuake, 3i e, meteo ites.E . It is also said that the st uctu es which we e e ected by the Is aelite slaves in Pithom and 9amses colla(sed o we e swallowed by the ea th. 9 ;n insc i(tion which dates 3 om the beginning o3 the New 4ingdom e3e s to a tem(le o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom that was Eswallowed by the g oundE at the close o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom. #0 :he head o3 the celestial body a(( oached ve y close, b eaking th ough the da kness o3 the gaseous envelo(e, and acco ding to the 6id ashim, the last night in ?gy(t was as b ight as the noon on the day o3 the summe solstice. ## :he (o(ulation 3led. E6en 3lee ... :ents a e what they make like the dwelle s o3 hills,E w ote I(uwe . #2 :he (o(ulation o3 a city dest oyed by an ea thFuake usually s(ends the nights in the 3ields. :he ,ook o3 ?Codus desc ibes a hu ied 3light 3 om ?gy(t on the night o3 the tenth (lagueH a EmiCed multitudeE o3 non/Is aelites le3t ?gy(t togethe with the Is aelites, who s(ent thei 3i st night in +ukkoth (huts). #1 E:he lightnings lightened the wo ld> the ea th t embled and shook ... :hou leddest thy (eo(le like a 3lock by the hand o3 6oses and ;a on.E #2 :hey we e b ought out o3 ?gy(t by a (o tent which looked like a st etched a m / Eby a st etched out a m and by g eat te o s,E o Ewith a mighty hand, and with an outst etched a m, and with g eat te ibleness, and with signs, and with wonde s.E #$
777777777777777777777777777777 # Pa(y us I(uwe 2>##H 1>#1.

2 )a dine Bs commenta y to Pa(y us I(uwe . 1 ?Codus #2>21. :he 4ing Aames ve sion, Ewill not su33e the dest oye to come in unto you houses to smite you,E is not co ect. 2 %iego de !anda> *ucatan, be3o e and a3te the 'onFuest (t ansl. 8. )ates, #91-), (. #.. $ Pa(y us I(uwe $>0H 0>#2. 0 ?usebius> P e(a ation 3o the )os(el (t ansl. ?. =. )i33o d, #901), ,k. IL, 'ha(, CCvii. - '3. +. ,ocha t> =ie o5oicon (#0-$), I, 122. . :he 6ishna o3 9abbi ?lie5e , ed. =. ). ?nelow (#911). 9 )in5be g> !egends, II, 22#. Pithom was eCcavated by ?. Naville ( :he +to e/'ity o3 Pithom and the 9oute o3 the ?Codus I#..$J), but he did not dig beneath the laye o3 the New 4ingdom. #0 :he insc i(tion o3 Kueen =atshe(sut at +(eos ; temidos, A. , easted> ;ncient 9eco ds o3 ?gy(t, Vol. II, +ec. 100. ## Doha ii, 1.aX1.b. #2 Pa(y us I(uwe #0>2. #1 ?Codus #2>1-/1.. #2 Psalms -->#., 20. #$ %eute onomy 2>12H 20>.. 777777777777777777777777777777

E;t midnightE all the houses o3 ?gy(t we e smittenH Ethe e was not a house whe e the e was not one dead.E :his ha((ened on the night o3 the 3ou teenth o3 the month ;viv (?Codus #2>0H #1>2). :his is the night o3 Passove . It a((ea s that the Is aelites o iginally celeb ated Passove on the eve o3 the 3ou teenth o3 ;viv. :he month ;viv is called Ethe 3i st monthE (?Codus #2>#.). :hout was the name o3 the 3i st month o3 the ?gy(tians. 8hat, 3o the Is aelites, became a 3east, became a day o3 sadness and 3asting 3o the ?gy(tians. E:he thi teenth day o3 the month :hout IisJ a ve y bad day. :hou shalt not do anything on this day. It is the day o3 the combat which =o us waged with +eth.E # :he =eb ews counted (and still count) the beginning o3 the day 3 om sunsetH 2 the ?gy(tians eckoned 3 om sun ise. 1 ;s the catast o(he took (lace at midnight, 3o the Is aelites it was the 3ou teenth day o3 the (3i st) monthH 3o the ?gy(tians it was the thi teenth day. ;n ea thFuake caused by contact o collision with a comet must be 3elt simultaneously all a ound the wo ld. ;n ea thFuake is a (henomenon that occu s 3 om time to timeH but an ea thFuake accom(anying an im(act in the cosmos would stand out and be ecalled as a memo able date by su vivo s. In the calenda o3 the 8este n =emis(he e, on the thi teenth day o3 the month, called olin, EmotionE o Eea thFuake,E 2 a new sun is said to have initiated anothe wo ld age. $ :he ;5tecs, like the ?gy(tians, eckoned the day 3 om sun ise. 0 =e e we have, en (assant, the answe to the o(en Fuestion conce ning the o igin o3 the su(e stition which ega ds the numbe #1, and es(ecially the thi teenth day, as unlucky and inaus(icious. It is still the belie3 o3 many su(e stitious (e sons, unchanged th ough thousands o3 yea s and even eC( essed in the same te ms> E:he thi teenth day is a ve y bad day. *ou shall not do anything on this day.E I do not think that any eco d o3 this belie3 can be 3ound dating 3 om be3o e the time o3 the ?Codus. :he Is aelites did not sha e this su(e stition o3 the evil/wo king numbe thi teen (o 3ou teen).
777777777777777777777777777777 # 8. 6aC 6Ylle > ?gy(tian 6ythology (#9#.), (. #20. 2 !eviticus 21>12. 1 4. +ethe> %ie ^gy(tische Deit echnung ()Wttingen )es. d. 8iss., #920), ((. #1033. 2 +ee 'odeC Vaticanus No. 1--1 (,), elucidated by ?. +ele (#902/#901). $ +ele > )esammelte ;bhandlungen, II, -9., .00.

0 !. Idele > =isto ische @nte suchungen Ybe die ast onomischen ,eobachtungen de ;lien (#.00), (. 20. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he =u icane

'ha(te 1

:=? +8IG: +=IG:IN) o3 the atmos(he e unde the im(act o3 the gaseous (a ts o3 the comet, the d i3t o3 ai att acted by the body o3 the comet, and the ush o3 the atmos(he e esulting 3 om ine tia when the ea th sto((ed otating o shi3ted its (oles, all cont ibuted to ( oduce hu icanes o3 eno mous velocity and 3o ce and o3 wo ldwide dimensions. 6anusc i(t : oano and othe documents o3 the 6ayas desc ibe a cosmic catast o(he du ing which the ocean 3ell on the continent, and a te ible hu icane swe(t the ea th. # :he hu icane b oke u( and ca ied away all towns and all 3o ests. 2 ?C(loding volcanoes, tides swee(ing ove mountains, and im(etuous winds th eatened to annihilate humankind, and actually did annihilate many s(ecies o3 animals. :he 3ace o3 the ea th changed, mountains colla(sed, othe mountains g ew and ose ove the on ushing cata act o3 wate d iven 3 om oceanic s(aces, numbe less ive s lost thei beds, and a wild to nado moved th ough the deb is descending 3 om the sky. :he end o3 the wo ld age was caused by EE=u akanEE, the (hysical agent that b ought da kness and swe(t away houses and t ees and even ocks and mounds o3 ea th. G om this name is de ived Ehu icane,E the wo d we use 3o a st ong wind. E=u akanE dest oyed the ma<o (a t o3 the human ace. In the da kness swe(t by wind, esinous stu33 3ell 3 om the sky and (a tici(ated with 3i e and wate in the dest uction o3 the wo ld. 1 Go 3ive days, save 3o the bu ning na(htha and bu ning volcanoes, the wo ld was da k, since the sun did not a((ea . :he theme o3 a cosmic hu icane is eite ated time and again in the =indu Vedas and in the Pe sian ;vesta 2 and Ediluvium ventiE, the deluge o3 wind, is a te m known 3 om many ancient autho s. $ In the +ection, E:he %a kness,E I Fuoted abbinical sou ces on the EeCceedingly st ong west windE that endu ed 3o seven days when the land was envelo(ed in da kness, and the hie ogly(hic insc i(tion 3 om el/; ish about Enine days o3 u(heavalE when Ethe e was such a tem(estE that nobody could leave the (alace o see the 3aces o3 those beside him, and the eleventh tablet o3 the ?(ic o3 )ilgamesh which says that EsiC days and a night ... the hu icane, deluge, and tem(est continued swee(ing the land,E and mankind (e ished almost altogethe . In the battle o3 the (lanet/god 6a duk with :iamat, Ehe I6a dukJ c eated the evil wind, and the tem(est, and the hu icane, and the 3ou 3old wind, and the seven3old wind, and the whi lwind, and the wind which had no eFual.E 0 :he 6ao is na ate - that amid a stu(endous catast o(he Ethe mighty winds, the 3ie ce sFualls, the clouds, dense, da k, 3ie y, wildly d i3ting, wildly bu sting,E ushed on c eation, in thei midst :awhi i/ma/tea, 3athe o3 winds and sto ms, and swe(t away giant 3o ests and lashed the wate s into billows whose c ests ose high like mountains. :he ea th g oaned te ibly, and the ocean 3led. E:he ea th was subme ged in the ocean but was d awn by :e3aa3anau,E elate the abo igines o3 Paumotu in Polynesia. :he new isles Ewe e bated by a sta .E In the month o3 6a ch the Polynesians celeb ate a god, :aa3anua. . EIn ; abic, :y3oon is a whi lwind and :u3an is the %elugeH and the same wo d occu s in 'hinese as :y/3ong.E It a((ea s as though the noise o3 the hu icane was ove toned by a sound not unlike the name :y(hon, as i3 the sto m we e calling him by name. :he cosmic u(heaval ( oceeded with a Emighty st ong west wind,E #0 but be3o e the climaC, in the sim(le wo ds o3 the +c i(tu es, Ethe !o d caused the sea to go back by a st ong east wind all that night, and made the sea d y land, and the wate s we e divided.E ## :he Is aelites we e on the sho e o3 the +ea o3 Passage at the climaC o3 the cataclysm. :he name EAam +u3E is gene ally ende ed as E9ed +eaEH the Passage is su((osed to have taken (lace eithe at the )ul3 o3 +ue5 o at ;kaba )ul3 o3 the 9ed +ea, but sometimes the site o3

the Passage is identi3ied as one o3 the inne lakes on the oute 3 om +ue5 to the 6edite anean. It is a gued that Esu3E means E eedE ((a(y us eed), and since (a(y us eed does not g ow in salt wate , Aam +u3 must have been a lagoon o3 3 esh wate . #2 8e will not ente he e into a discussion whe e the +ea o3 the Passage was. :he insc i(tion on the sh ine 3ound in el/; ish may ( ovide some indication whe e the Pha aoh was engul3ed by the whi l(oolH #1 in any event, the to(og a(hical dist ibution o3 sea and land did not emain the same as be3o e the cataclysm o3 the days o3 the ?Codus. ,ut the name o3 the +ea o3 the Passage / Aam +u3 / is de ived not 3 om E eed,E but 3 om Ehu icane,E Esu3E, Esu3aE, in =eb ew. In ?gy(tian the 9ed +ea is called Esha iE, which signi3ies the Esea o3 (e cussionE (Ema e (e cussionisE) o the Esea o3 the st okeE o Eo3 the disaste E. #2 :he =aggadah o3 Passove says> E:hou didst swee( the land o3 6o(h and No(h ... on the Passove .E #$ :he hu icane that b ought to an end the 6iddle 4ingdom in ?gy(t / Ethe blast o3 heavenly dis(leasu eE in the language o3 6anetho / swe(t th ough eve y co ne o3 the wo ld. In o de to distinguish, in the t aditions o3 the (eo(les, this diluvium venti o3 cosmic dimensions 3 om local disast ous sto ms, othe cosmic distu bances like disa((ea ance o3 the sun o change o3 the sky must be 3ound accom(anying the hu icane. In the Aa(anese cosmogonical myth, the sun goddess hid he sel3 3o a long time in a heavenly cave in 3ea o3 the sto m god. E:he sou ce o3 light disa((ea ed, the whole wo ld became da k,E and the sto m god caused monst ous dest uction. )ods made te ible noise so that the sun should ea((ea , and 3 om thei tumult the ea th Fuaked. #0 In Aa(an and in the vast eCtent o3 the ocean hu icanes and ea thFuakes a e not a e occu encesH but they do not distu b the day / night succession, no is the e any esulting (e manent change in the sky and its lumina ies. E:he sky was low,E elate the Polynesians o3 :akao3o Island, and Ethen the winds and wate s(outs and the hu icanes came, and ca ied u( the sky to its ( esent height.E #E8hen a wo ld cycle is dest oyed by wind,E says the ,uddhist teCt on the E8o ld 'ycles,E the wind also tu ns Ethe g ound u(side down, and th ows it into the sky,E and Ea eas o3 one hund ed leagues in eCtent, two hund ed, th ee hund ed, 3ive hund ed leagues in eCtent, c ack and a e th own u(wa d by the 3o ce o3 the windE and do not 3all again but a e Eblown to (owde in the sky and annihilated.E E;nd the wind th ows u( also into the sky the mountains which enci cle the ea th ... ItheyJ a e g ound to (owde and dest oyed.E :he cosmic wind blows and dest oys Ea hund ed thousand times ten million wo lds.E #.
777777777777777777777777777777 # , asseu > 6anusc i(t : oano (#.09), (. #2#. 2 In the documents o3 the collection o3 4ingsbo ough, the w itings o3 )Zma a, 6itolinia, +ahagun, !anda, 'ogolludo, and othe autho s o3 the ea ly (ost/conFuest time, the cataclysm o3 deluge, hu icane, and volcanoes is e3e ed to i nume ous (assages. +ee, e.g., )Zma a, 'onFuista de 6UCico, II, ((. 20#33. 1 Po(ol/Vuh, 'ha(. III. 2 '3. ;. A. 'a noy> I anian 6ythology (#9#-). $ '3. ?isle > 8eltmantel und =immels5elt, II, 2$1. :he :almud also occasionally uses the notion o3 Ecosmic wind.E :he ,abylonian :almud, : actate ,e akhot, #1. 0 +even :ablets o3 ' eation, the 3ou th tablet. - ?. ,. :ylo > P imitive 'ultu e (#929), I, 12233. . 8illiamson> 9eligious and 'osmic ,elie3s o3 'ent al Polynesia , I, 10, #$2, 21-. #0 ). 9awlinson> :he =isto y o3 =e odotus (#.$./#.02), II, 22$ note. ## ?Codus #0>#9. #2 ?Codus #2>2#. #1 '3. Isaiah #9>0. #2 +ee (. 00. e #$ ;ke blad> Aou nal asiatiFue, LIII (#.12), 129H G. G esnel, Ibid.> 2 +U ie, LI (#.2.)H c3. Pey on> !eCicon linguae co(ticae (#.1$), (. 102. #$ 6o(h and No(h e3e to 6em(his.

#0 Nihongi> E'h onicles o3 Aa(an 3 om the ?a liest :imesE (t ansl. 8. ). ;ston), : ansactions and P oceedings o3 the Aa(anese +ociety, I (#.90), 1-3., 2-. #- 8illiamson> 9eligious and 'osmic ,elie3s o3 'ent al Polynesia , I, 22. #. 8a en> E8o ld 'ycles,E ,uddhism, (. 12.. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he :ide
:he ocean tides a e ( oduced by the action o3 the sun and to a la ge eCtent by that o3 the moon. ; body la ge than the moon o one nea e to the ea th would act with g eate e33ect. ; comet with a head as la ge as the ea th, (assing su33iciently close, would aise the wate s o3 the oceans miles high. # :he slowing down o stasis o3 the ea th in its otation would cause a tidal ecession o3 wate towa d the (oles, 2 but the celestial body nea by would distu b this (olewa d ecession, d awing the wate towa d itsel3. :he t aditions o3 many (eo(les (e sist that seas we e to n a(a t and thei wate hea(ed high and th own u(on the continents. In o de to establish that these t aditions e3e to one and the same event, o at least to an event o3 the same o de , we must kee( to this guiding seFuence> the g eat tide 3ollowed a distu bance in the motion o3 the ea th. :he 'hinese annals, which I have mentioned and which I intend to Fuote mo e eCtensively in a subseFuent section, say that in the time o3 ?m(e o *ahou the sun did not go down 3o ten days. :he wo ld was in 3lames, and Ein thei vast eCtentE the wate s Eove to((ed the g eat heights, th eatening the heavens with thei 3loods.E :he wate o3 the ocean was hea(ed u( and cast u(on the continent o3 ;siaH a g eat tidal wave swe(t ove the mountains and b oke in the middle o3 the 'hinese ?m(i e. :he wate was caught in the valleys between the mountains, and the land was 3looded 3o decades. :he t aditions o3 the (eo(le o3 Pe u tell that 3o a (e iod o3 time eFual to 3ive days and 3ive nights the sun was not in the sky, and then the ocean le3t the sho e and with a te ible din b oke ove the continentH the enti e su 3ace o3 the ea th was changed in this catast o(he. 1 :he 'hoctaw Indians o3 "klahoma elate> E:he ea th was (lunged in da kness 3o a long time.E Ginally a b ight light a((ea ed in the no th, Ebut it was mountain/high waves, a(idly coming nea e .E 2 In these t aditions the e a e two concu ent elements> a com(lete da kness that endu ed a numbe o3 days (in ;sia, ( olonged day) and, when the light b oke th ough, a mountain/ high wave that b ought dest uction. :he =eb ew sto y o3 the (assage o3 the sea contains the same elements. :he e was a ( olonged and com(lete da kness (?Codus #0>2#). :he last day o3 the da kness was at the 9ed +ea. $ 8hen the wo ld (lunged out o3 da kness, the bottom o3 the sea was uncove ed, the wate s we e d iven a(a t and hea(ed u( like walls in a double tide. 0 :he +e(tuagint t anslation o3 the ,ible says that the wate stood Eas a wall,E and the 4o an, e3e ing to this event, says Blike mountains.E In the old abbinical lite atu e it is said that the wate was sus(ended as i3 it we e Eglass, solid and massive.E :he commentato 9ashi, guided by the g ammatical st uctu e o3 the sentence in the ,ook o3 ?Codus, eC(lained in acco dance with 6echilta> E:he wate o3 all oceans and seas was divided.E . :he 6id ashim contain the 3ollowing desc i(tion> E:he wate s we e (iled u( to the height o3 siCteen hund ed miles, and they could be seen by all the nations o3 the ea th.E 9 :he 3igu e in this sentence intends to say that the hea( o3 wate was t emendous. ;cco ding to the +c i(tu es, the wate s climbed the mountains and stood above them, and they mounted to the heavens. #0 ; sea ent a(a t was a ma velous s(ectacle and could not have been 3o gotten. It is

mentioned in nume ous (assages in the +c i(tu es. E:he (illa s o3 heaven t emble ... =e divideth the sea with his (owe .E ## E6a velous things did he in the sight o3 thei 3athe s ... =e divided the sea, and caused them to (ass th oughH and he made the wate s to stand as a hea(.E #2 E=e gathe eth the wate s o3 the sea togethe as a hea( ... let all the inhabitants o3 the wo ld stand in awe o3 him.E #1 :hen the ) eat +ea (the 6edite anean) b oke into the 9ed +ea in an eno mous tidal wave.

It was an unusual event, and because it was unusual, it became the most im( essive ecollection in the ve y long histo y o3 this (eo(le. ;ll (eo(les and nations we e blasted by the same 3i e and shatte ed in the same 3u y. :he t ibes o3 Is ael on the sho e o3 a sea 3ound in this annihilation thei salvation 3 om bondage. :hey esca(ed dest uction but thei o(( esso s (e ished be3o e thei eyes. :hey eCtolled the ' eato , took u(on themselves the bu den o3 mo al ules, and conside ed themselves chosen 3o a g eat destiny. 8hen the +(ania ds conFue ed *ucatan, Indians ve sed in thei ancient lite atu e elated to the conFue o s the t adition handed down to them by thei ancesto s> thei 3o e3athe s we e delive ed 3 om (u suit by some othe (eo(le when the !o d o(ened 3o them a way in the midst o3 the sea. #$ :his t adition is so simila to the Aewish t adition o3 the Passage that some o3 the 3 ia s who came to ;me ica believed that the Indians o3 ;me ica we e o3 Aewish o igin. G ia %iego de !anda w ote> E+ome old men o3 *ucatan say that they have hea d 3 om thei ancesto s that this count y was (eo(led by a ce tain ace who came 3 om the east, whom )od delive ed by o(ening 3o them twelve oads th ough the sea. I3 this is t ue, all the inhabitants o3 the Indies must be o3 Aewish descent.E #0 It may have been an echo o3 what ha((ened at the +ea o3 Passage, o a desc i(tion o3 a simila occu ence at the same time but in anothe (lace. ;cco ding to the !a(land cosmogonic sto y, #- Ewhen the wickedness inc eased among the human beings,E the midmost o3 the ea th Et embled with te o so that the u((e laye s o3 the ea th 3ell away and many o3 the (eo(le we e hu led down into those caved/in (laces to (e ish.E E;nd Aubmel, the heaven/lo d himsel3, came down ... =is te ible ange 3lashed like ed, blue, and g een 3i e/se (ents, and (eo(le hid thei 3aces, and the child en sc eamed with 3ea ... :he ang y god s(oke> BI shall eve se the wo ld. I shall bid the ive s 3low u(wa dH I shall cause the sea to gathe togethe itsel3 u( into a huge towe ing wall which I shall hu l u(on you wicked ea th/child en, and thus dest oy them and all li3e.BE Aubmel set a sto m/wind blowing, and the wild ai /s(i its aging ... Goaming, dashing, ising sky/high came the sea/wall, c ushing all things. Aubmel, with one st ong u(heaval, made the ea th/lands all tu n ove H then, the wo ld again he ighted. Now the mountains and the highlands could no mo e be seen by ,ei<ke IsunJ. Gilled with g oans o3 dying (eo(le, was the 3ai ea th, home o3 mankind. No mo e ,ei<ke shone in heaven. ;cco ding to the !a(land e(ic, the wo ld was ove whelmed by the hu icane and the sea, and almost all human beings (e ished. ;3te the sea/wall 3ell on the continent, gigantic waves continued to oll and dead bodies we e dashed about in da k wate s. :he g eat ea thFuake and the chasms that o(ened in the g ound, the a((ea ance o3 a

celestial body with se (entlike 3lashes, ive s 3lowing u(wa d, a sea/wall that c ushed eve ything, mountains that became leveled o cove ed with wate , the wo ld that was tu ned ove and then ighted, the sun that no mo e shone in the sky / all these a e moti3s which we 3ound in the desc i(tion o3 the calamities o3 the time o3 the ?Codus. In many (laces o3 the wo ld, and es(ecially in the no th, la ge boulde s a e 3ound in a (osition which ( oves that a g eat 3o ce must have li3ted them u( and ca ied them long distances be3o e de(ositing them whe e they a e 3ound today. +ometimes these la ge loose ocks a e o3 enti ely di33e ent mine al com(osition than the local ocks, but a e akin to 3o mations many miles away. :hus, occasionally an e atic boulde o3 g anite (e ches on to( o3 a high idge o3 dole ite, whe eas the nea est outc o(s o3 g anite lie 3a away. :hese e atic boulde s may weigh as much as ten thousand tons, about as much as one hund ed thi ty thousand (eo(le. #. :o eC(lain these 3acts, the schola s o3 the 3i st hal3 o3 the nineteenth centu y assumed that eno mous tides had swe(t ove the continents and ca ied with them masses o3 stone. :he t ans3e o3 the ocks was eC(lained by the tides, but what could have caused those billows to ise high ove the continentsM EIt was conceived that somehow and somewhe e in the 3a no th a se ies o3 gigantic waves was myste iously ( o(agated. :hese waves we e su((osed to have ( eci(itated themselves u(on the land, and then swe(t madly on ove mountain and valley alike, ca ying along with them a mighty bu den o3 ocks and stones and ubbish. +uch deluges we e styled Bwaves o3 t anslationBH and the till was believed to e( esent the mate ials which they hu ied along with them in thei wild cou se ac oss the count y.E #9 :he stones and boulde s on the hillto(s and the mounds o3 sand and g avel in the lowlands we e eC(lained by this theo y. ' itics, howeve , maintained that Eit was un3o tunate 3o this view that it violated at the ve y outset the 3i st ( inci(les o3 science, by assuming the 3o me eCistence o3 a cause which the e was little in natu e to wa ant ... s(asmodic ushes o3 the sea ac oss a whole count y had 3o tunately neve been eC(e ienced within the memo y o3 man.E 20 :hat the co ectness o3 the last sentence is Fuestionable is shown by e3e ences to the t aditions o3 a numbe o3 (eo(les. 8he eve (ossible, the movement o3 stones was att ibuted to the ( og ess o3 the ice sheet in the glacial ages and to glacie s on the mountain slo(es. ;gassi5, in #.20, assumed that <ust as the ;l(ine mo aines we e le3t behind by the et eating glacie s, so the mo aines in the 3lat/lands o3 no the n ?u o(e and ;me ica could have been caused by the movement o3 g eat continental ice sheets (and thus int oduced the theo y o3 ice ages). ;lthough this is co ect to some eCtent, the analogy is not eCact, as the glacie s o3 the ;l(s (ush the stones down, not u( the slo(e. 6eeting an u(wa d motion o3 the ice, la ge boulde s would ( obably sink into the ice. :he ( oblem o3 the mig ation o3 the stones must be ega ded as only (a tially connected with the ( og ess and et eat o3 the ice sheet, i3 at all. ,illows miles high t aveled ove the land, o iginating in causes desc ibed in this book. It can be established by the eCtent o3 denudation o3 the ocks unde the e atic boulde s that the latte we e de(osited at thei (laces du ing human histo y. +o, 3o instance, in 8ales and *o kshi e, whe e this e33ect was evaluated in te ms o3 time, the Eamount o3 denudation o3 limestone ocks on which boulde s lieE is a E( oo3 that a (e iod o3 no mo e than siC thousand yea s has ela(sed since the boulde s we e le3t in thei (ositions.E 2# :he 3act that accumulations o3 stones we e t ans3e ed 3 om the eFuato towa d the highe latitudes, an enigmatic ( oblem in the ice theo y, can be eC(lained by the (olewa d ecession o3 the eFuato ial wate s at the moment the velocity o3 otation o3 the ea th was educed o its (oles we e shi3ted. In the No the n =emis(he e, in India, the mo aines we e

ca ied 3 om the eFuato not only towa d highe latitudes, but also towa d the =imalaya 6ountains, and in the +outhe n =emis(he e 3 om the eFuato ial egions o3 ;3 ica towa d the highe latitudes, ac oss the ( ai ies and dese ts and 3o ests o3 the black continent.

777777777777777777777777777777 # '3. A. !alande> ;b UgU dBast onomie (#-9$), (. 120, who com(uted that a comet with a head as la ge as the ea th, at a distance o3 #1,290 lieues, o about 3ou diamete s o3 the ea th, would aise ocean tides 2,000 toises o about 3ou kilomete s high. 2 P. 4i chenbe g> !a :hUo ie de la elativitU (#922), ((. #1#/#12. 1 ;nd ee> %ie Glutsagen, (. ##$. 2 =. +. ,ellamy> 6oons, 6yths and 6an (#91.), (. 2--. $ ?Codus #2>20H )in5be g> !egends, II, 1$9. 0 E:he wate s we e a wall unto them on thei ight hand, and on thei le3t.E ?Codus #2>22. - ;. 'almet> 'ommentai e, lB?Code (#-0.), (. #$9> E!es eauC demeu ent sus(endues, comme une glace solide et massive.E . 9ashiBs 'ommenta y to Pentateuch (?nglish t ansl. by 6. 9osenbaum and ;. 6. +ilbe man, #910). 9 )in5be g> !egends, III, 22H :a gum *e ushalmi, ?Codus #2>22. #0 Psalms #02>0/.H #0->2$/20. ## Aob 20>##/#2. #2 Psalms -.>#2/#1. #1 Psalms 11>-/.. #2 6ekhilta ,eshalla 0, 11aH othe sou ces in )in5be g> !egends, VI, #0. #$ ;ntonio de =e e a, =isto ia gene al de las Indias "ccidentales, Vol. IV, ,k. #0, 'ha(. 2. #0 %e !anda> *ucatan, (. .. it #- !eonne de 'amb ey> !a(land !egends (#920). #. :he 6adison boulde nea 'onway, New =am(shi e, measu es 90 by 20 by 1. 3eet, and weighs almost #0,000 tons. EIt is com(osed o3 g anite, Fuite unlike the bed ock beneath itH hence the boulde is ty(ically Be aticBE %aly> :he 'hanging 8o ld o3 the Ice ;ge, (. #0. #9 A. )eikie> :he ) eat Ice ;ge and Its 9elation to the ;ntiFuity o3 6an (#.92), ((. 2$/20. 20 Ibid. 2# @(ham> :he )lacial !ake ;gassi5 (#.9$), (. 219. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he ,attle in the +ky

;t the same time that the seas we e hea(ed u( in immense tides, a (ageant went on in the sky which ( esented itsel3 to the ho i3ied onlooke s on ea th as a gigantic battle. ,ecause this battle was seen 3 om almost all (a ts o3 the wo ld, and because it im( essed itsel3 ve y st ongly u(on the imagination o3 the (eo(les, it can be econst ucted in some detail. 8hen the ea th (assed th ough the gases, dust, and meteo ites o3 the tail o3 the comet, distu bed in otation, it ( oceeded on a disto ted o bit. ?me ging 3 om the da kness, the ?aste n =emis(he e 3aced the head o3 the comet. :his head only sho tly be3o e had (assed close to the sun and was in a state o3 candescence. :he night the g eat ea thFuake shook the globe was, acco ding to abbinical lite atu e, as b ight as the day o3 the summe solstice. ,ecause o3 the ( oCimity o3 the ea th, the comet le3t its own o bit and 3o a while 3ollowed the o bit o3 the ea th. :he g eat ball o3 the comet et eated, then again a(( oached the ea th, sh ouded in a da k column o3 gases which looked like a (illa o3 smoke du ing the day and o3 3i e at night, and the ea th once mo e (assed th ough the atmos(he e o3 the comet, this time at its neck. :his stage was accom(anied by violent and incessant elect ical discha ges between the atmos(he e o3 the tail and the te est ial atmos(he e. :he e was an inte val o3 about siC days between these two close a(( oaches. ?me ging 3 om the gases o3 the comet, the ea th seems to have changed the di ection o3 its otation, and the (illa o3 smoke moved to the o((osite ho i5on. # :he column looked like a gigantic moving se (ent. 8hen the tidal waves ose to thei highest (oint, and the seas we e to n a(a t, a t emendous s(a k 3lew between the ea th and the globe o3 the comet, which instantly (ushed down the mileshigh billows. 6eanwhile, the tail o3 the comet and its head, having

become entangled with each othe by thei close contact with the ea th, eCchanged violent discha ges o3 elect icity. It looked like a battle between the b illiant globe and the da k column o3 smoke. In the eCchange o3 elect ical (otentials, the tail and the head we e att acted one to the othe and e(elled one 3 om the othe . G om the se (entlike tail eCtensions g ew, and it lost the 3o m o3 a column. It looked now like a 3u ious animal with legs and with many heads. :he discha ges to e the column to (ieces, a ( ocess that was accom(anied by a ain o3 meteo itesB u(on the ea th. It a((ea ed as though the monste we e de3eated by the b illiant globe and bu ied in the sea, o whe eve the meteo ites 3ell. :he gases o3 the tail subseFuently envelo(ed the ea th. :he globe o3 the comet, which lost a la ge (o tion o3 its atmos(he e as well as much o3 its elect ical (otential, withd ew 3 om the ea th but did not b eak away 3 om its att action. ;((a ently, a3te a siC/week inte val, the distance between the ea th and the globe o3 the comet again diminished. :his new a(( oach o3 the globe could not be eadily obse ved because the ea th was sh ouded in the clouds o3 dust le3t by the comet on its 3o me a(( oach as well as by dust e<ected by the volcanoes. ;3te enewed discha ges, the comet and the ea th (a ted. :his behavio o3 the comet is o3 g eat im(o tance in ( oblems o3 celestial mechanics. :hat a comet, encounte ing a (lanet, can become entangled and d awn away 3 om its own (ath, 3o ced into a new cou se, and 3inally libe ated 3 om the in3luence o3 the (lanet is ( oved by the case o3 !eCellBs comet, which in #-0- was ca(tu ed by Au(ite and its moons. Not until #--9 did it 3 ee itsel3 3 om this entanglement. ; (henomenon that has not been obse ved in mode n times is an elect ical discha ge between a (lanet and a comet and also between the head o3 a comet and its t ailing (a t. :he events in the sky we e viewed by the (eo(les o3 the wo ld as a 3ight between an evil monste in the 3o m o3 a se (ent and the light/god who engaged the monste in battle and thus saved the wo ld. :he tail o3 the comet, lea(ing back and 3o th unde the discha ges o3 the 3laming globe, was ega ded as a se(a ate body, inimical to the globe o3 the comet. ; 3ull su vey o3 the eligious and 3olklo e moti3s which mi o this event would eFui e mo e s(ace than is at my dis(osal he eH it is di33icult to 3ind a (eo(le o t ibe on the ea th that does not have the same moti3 at the ve y 3ocus o3 its eligious belie3s. 2 +ince the desc i(tions o3 the battle between 6a duk and :iamat, the d agon, o Isis and +eth, o Vishnu and the se (ent, o 4 ishna and se (ent, o " mu5d and ;h iman 3ollow an almost identical (atte n and have many details in common with the battle o3 Deus and :y(hon, I shall give he e ;(ollodo usB desc i(tion o3 this battle. 1 :y(hon Eout/to((ed all the mountains, and his head o3ten b ushed the sta s. "ne o3 his hands eached out to the west and the othe to the east, and 3 om them ( o<ected a hund ed d agonsB heads. G om the thighs downwa d he had huge coils o3 vi(e s which ... emitted a long hissing ... =is body was all winged ... and 3i e 3lashed 3 om his eyes. +uch and so g eat was :y(hon when, hu ling kindled ocks, he made 3o the ve y heaven with hissing and shouts, s(outing a g eat <et o3 3i e 3 om his mouth.E :o the sky o3 ?gy(t Deus (u sued :y(hon E ushing at heaven.E EDeus (elted :y(hon at a distance with thunde bolts, and at close Fua te s st uck him down with an adamantine sickle, and as he 3led (u sued him closely as 3a as 6ount 'asius, which ove hangs +y ia. :he e, seeing the monste so e wounded, he g a((led with him. ,ut :y(hon twined about him and g i((ed him in his coils ... E E=aving ecove ed his st ength Deus suddenly 3 om heaven iding in a cha iot o3 winged ho ses, (elted :y(hon with thunde bolts ... +o being again (u sued he I:y(honJ came to :h ace and in 3ighting at 6ount =aemus he heaved whole mountains ... a st eam o3 blood gushed out on the mountain, and they say that 3 om that ci cumstance the mountain was called =aemus IbloodyJ. ;nd when he sta ted to 3lee th ough the +icilian sea, Deus cast 6ount ?tna in +icily u(on him. :hat is a huge mountain, 3 om which down to this day they

say that blasts o3 3i e issue 3 om the thunde bolts that we e th own.E :he st uggle le3t dee( ma ks on the enti e ancient wo ld. +ome dist icts we e es(ecially associated with the events o3 this cosmic 3ight. :he ?gy(tian sho e o3 the 9ed +ea was called :y(honia. 2 +t abo na ates also that the ; imi (; amaeans o +y ians) we e te i3ied witnesses o3 the battle o3 Deus with :y(hon. ;nd :y(hon, Ewho, they add, was a d agon, when st uck by the bolts o3 lightning, 3led in sea ch o3 a descent unde g ound,E $ and not only did he cut 3u ows into the ea th and 3o m the beds o3 the ive s, but descending unde g ound, he made 3ountains b eak 3o th. +imila desc i(tions come 3 om va ious (laces o3 the ancient wo ld, in which the nations elate the eC(e ience o3 thei ancesto s who witnessed the g eat catast o(he o3 the middle o3 the second millennium. ;t that time the Is aelites had not yet a ived at a clea monotheistic conce(t and, like othe (eo(les, they saw in the g eat st uggle a con3lict between good and evil. :he autho o3 the ,ook o3 ?Codus, su(( essing this conce(tion o3 the ancient Is aelites, ( esented the (o tent o3 3i e and smoke moving in a column as an angel o messenge o3 the !o d. =oweve , many (assages in othe books o3 the +c i(tu es ( ese ved the (ictu e as it im( essed itsel3 u(on eyewitnesses. 9ahab is the =eb ew name 3o the conteste with the 6ost =igh. E" !o d )od o3 hosts, who is a st ong !o d like unto theeM ... :hou hast b oken 9ahab in (ieces ... :he heavens a e thine, the ea th also is thine> as 3o the wo ld and the 3ulness the eo3, thou hast 3ounded them. :he no th and the south thou hast c eated them.E 0 %eute o/Isaiah ( ayed> E;wake, awake, (ut on st ength, " a m o3 the !o dH awake as in the ancient days, in the gene ations o3 old. ; t thou not it that hath cut 9ahab, and wounded the d agonM ; t thou not it which hath d ied the sea, the wate s o3 the g eat dee(H that hath made the de(ths o3 the sea a way 3o the ansomed to (ass ove ME - G om these (assages it is clea that the battle o3 the !o d with 9ahab was not a ( imeval battle be3o e ' eation, as some schola s think. . Isaiah ( o(hesied 3o the 3utu e> EIn that day the !o d with his so e and g eat and st ong swo d shall (unish leviathan the (ie cing se (ent, even leviathan that c ooked se (entH and he shall slay the d agon that is in the sea.E 9 :he Ec ooked se (entE is shown in many ancient (ictu es 3 om 'hina to India, to Pe sia, to ;ssy ia, to ?gy(t, to 6eCico. 8ith the ise o3 the monotheistic conce(t, the Is aelites ega ded this c ooked se (ent, the conteste with the 6ost =igh, as the !o dBs own c eation. E=e st etcheth out the no th ove the em(ty (lace, and hangeth the ea th u(on nothing ... :he (illa s o3 heaven t emble ... =e divideth the sea with his (owe ... his hand hath 3o med the c ooked se (ent.E #0 :he Psalmist also says> E ## E)od is my 4ing o3 old ... :hou didst divide the sea by thy st ength ... :hou b akest the heads o3 leviathan in (ieces ... :hou didst cleave the 3ountain and the 3lood> :hou d iedst u( mighty ive s.E :he sea was cle3t, the ea th was cut with 3u ows, g eat ive s disa((ea ed, othe s a((ea ed. :he ea th umbled 3o many yea s, and the (eo(les thought that the 3ie y d agon that had been st uck down had descended unde g ound and was g oaning the e.
777777777777777777777777777777 # '3. ?Codus #2>#9. 2 I intend to handle a (o tion o3 this mate ial in an essay on E:he % agonE. 1 ;(ollodo us> :he !ib a y, ?(itome II (t ansl. G a5e ). 2 +t abo> :he )eog a(hy (t ansl. =. !. Aones, #922), vii, 1, .. $ Ibid. 0 Psalms .9>#0/#2. - Isaiah $#>9/#0. . +ee +. 9einach> 'ults, 6yths and 9eligion (#9#2), ((. 22 33H =. )unkel> +chW(3ung und 'haos in @ 5eit und ?nd5eit (#.9$)H A. Pede sen> Is ael, Its !i3e and 'ultu e (#920), ((. 2-233. 9 Isaiah 2->#. #0 Aob 20>-/#1.

## Psalms -2>#2/#$. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 'omet o3 :y(hon

"3 all the myste ious (henomena which accom(anied the ?Codus, this myste ious Pilla seems the 3i st to demand eC(lanation. / 8. Phythian/;dams :he 'all o3 Is ael

"ne o3 the (laces o3 the heavenly combat between elementa y 3o ces o3 natu e / as na ated by ;(ollodo us and +t abo / was on the way 3 om ?gy(t to +y ia. # ;cco ding to =e odotus, the 3inal act o3 the 3ight between Deus and :y(hon took (lace at !ake +e bon on the coastal oute 3 om ?gy(t to Palestine. 2 "n the way 3 om ?gy(t to Palestine the Is aelites, a3te a night o3 te o and st ong east wind, witnessed the u(heaval o3 the day o3 the Passage. :hese (a allel ci cumstances lead to a conclusion that will sound somewhat st ange. :y(hon (:y(heus) lies on the bottom o3 the sea whe e the s(ellbound Is aelites saw the u(heaval o3 natu e> da kness, hu icane, mountains o3 wate , 3i e and smoke, eco ded in the ) eek legend as the ci cumstances in which the battle o3 Deus with the d agon :y(hon was 3ought. In the same (it o3 the sea lie the (ha aoh and his hosts. 1 @( to now I have identi3ied 9ahab/:y(hon as a comet. ,ut i3 :y(hon lies on the bottom o3 the sea, is he not the (ha aohM :his would mean that in the legend o3 :y(hon two elements we e welded togethe > the (ha aoh, who (e ished in the catast o(he, and the out ageous ebel against Deus, the lo d o3 the sky. 2 In PlinyBs Natu al =isto y, the ninety/3i st section o3 the second book eads> $ E; te ible comet was seen by the (eo(le o3 ?tho(ia and ?gy(t, to which :y(hon, the king o3 that (e iod, gave his nameH it had a 3ie y a((ea ance and was twisted like a coil, and it was ve y g im to behold> it was not eally a sta so much as what might be called a ball o3 3i e.E :he visit o3 a disast ous comet, so many times e3e ed to in this book, is told in (lain wo ds, not in disguise. =oweve , I must 3ind su((o t 3o my assum(tion that the comet o3 the days o3 4ing :y(hon was the comet o3 the days o3 the ?Codus. I investigated the w itings o3 the old ch onog a(he s, and in 'ometog a(hia o3 =evelius (#00.) I 3ound e3e ence to the wo ks o3 'alvisius, =elvicus, =e licius, and 9ockenbach, all o3 whom used manusc i(ts 3o the most (a t and not ( inted sou ces, as they lived only a little ove a centu y a3te the invention o3 movable cha acte s and the ( inting ( ess. =evelius w ote (in !atin)> EIn the yea o3 the wo ld 22$1 (#29$ ,.'.), acco ding to ce tain autho ities, a comet was seen in +y ia, ,abylonia, India, in the sign Ao, in the 3o m o3 a disc, at the ve y time when the Is aelites we e on thei ma ch 3 om ?gy(t to the P omised !and. +o 9ockenbach. :he ?Codus o3 the Is aelites is (laced by 'alvisius in the yea o3 the wo ld 22$1, o #29$ ,.'.E 0 I was 3o tunate enough to locate one co(y o3 9ockenbachBs %e cometis t actatus novus methodicus in the @nited +tates. - :his book was (ublished in 8ittenbe g in #002. Its autho was ( o3esso o3 ) eek, mathematics, and law, and dean o3 (hiloso(hy at G ank3o t. =e w ote his book using old sou ces which he did not name> EeC ( obatissimis i antiFuissimis vete um sc i(to ibusE (3 om the most t ustwo thy and the most ancient o3 the ea ly w ite s). ;s a esult o3 his diligent gathe ing o3 ancient mate ial, he made the 3ollowing ent y> EIn the yea o3 the wo ld two thousand 3ou hund ed and 3i3ty/th ee / as many t ustwo thy autho s, on the basis o3 many con<ectu es, have dete mined / a comet a((ea ed which Pliny also mentioned in his second book. It was 3ie y, o3 i egula ci cula 3o m, with a w a((ed headH it was in the sha(e o3 a globe and was o3 te ible as(ect. It is said that 4ing :y(hon

uled at that time in ?gy(t ... 'e tain Iautho itiesJ asse t that the comet was seen in +y ia, ,abylonia, India, in the sign o3 'a( ico n, in the 3o m o3 a disc, at the time when the child en o3 Is ael advanced 3 om ?gy(t towa d the P omised !and, led on thei way by the (illa o3 cloud du ing the day and by the (illa o3 3i e at night.E . 9ockenbach did not d aw any conclusion on the elation o3 the comet o3 the days o3 ?Codus to the natu al (henomena o3 that timeH his intent was only to 3iC the date o3 the comet o3 :y(hon. ;mong the ea ly autho s, !ydus, +e vius (who Fuotes ;vienus), =e(haestion, and Aunctinus, in addition to Pliny, mention the :y(hon comet. 9 It is de(icted as an immense globe (globus immodicus) o3 3i e, also as a sickle, which is a desc i(tion o3 a globe illuminated by the sun, and close enough to be obse ved thus. Its movement was slow, its (ath was close to the sun. Its colo was bloody> EIt was not o3 3ie y, but o3 bloody edness.E It caused dest uction Ein ising and setting.E +e vius w ites that this comet caused many (lagues, evils, and hunge . :o discove what we e the manusc i(t sou ces o3 ;b aham 9ockenbach that led him to the same conclusion at which we have a ived, namely, that the :y(hon comet a((ea ed in the time o3 the ?Codus, is a task not yet accom(lished. +e vius says that mo e in3o mation about the calamities caused by this comet is to be 3ound in the w itings o3 the 9oman ast ologe 'am(este and in the wo ks o3 the ?gy(tian ast ologe Petosi is. #0 It is (ossible that co(ies o3 wo ks o3 some autho s containing citations 3 om the w itings o3 these ancient ast ologe s, ( ese ved in the lib a ies o3 ?u o(e, we e 9ockenbachBs manusc i(t sou ces. 'am(este , as Fuoted by !ydus, was ce tain that should the comet :y(hon again meet the ea th, a 3ou /day encounte would su33ice to dest oy the wo ld. ## :his im(lies also that the 3i st encounte with the comet :y(hon b ought the ea th to the b ink o3 dest uction. ,ut even without this sombe ( ognostication o3 'am(este , we have a ve y im(osing and Fuite ineChaustible a ay o3 e3e ences to :y(hon and its dest uctive action against the wo ld> almost eve y ) eek autho e3e ed to it. :he eal natu e o3 :y(hon being that o3 a comet, as eC(lained by Pliny and othe s, all e3e ences to the disaste s caused by :y(hon must be unde stood as desc i(tions o3 natu al catast o(hes in which the ea th and the comet we e involved. ;s is known, Pallas o3 the ) eeks was anothe name 3o :y(honH also +eth o3 the ?gy(tians was an eFuivalent o3 :y(hon. #2 :hus the numbe o3 e3e ences to the comet :y(hon can be enla ged by e3e ences to Pallas and +eth. It was not only ;b aham 9ockenbach who synch oni5ed the a((ea ance o3 the comet :y(hon with the ?Codus o3 the Is aelites 3 om ?gy(t. !ooking 3o autho s who might have done likewise, I 3ound that +amuel ,ocha t, a schola ly w ite o3 the seventeenth centu y, in his book =ie o5oicon, #1 has a (assage in which he maintains that the (lagues o3 the days o3 the ?Codus esemble the calamities that :y(hon b ought in his t ain, and that the e3o e Ethe 3light o3 :y(hon is the ?Codus o3 6oses 3 om ?gy(t.E #2 In this he actually 3ollows the (assage t ansmitted by Pluta ch. #$ ,ut since :y(hon, acco ding to Pliny and othe s, was a comet, +amuel ,ocha t was close to the conclusions at which we a ive, t aveling along anothe oute.
777777777777777777777777777777 # 6ount 'asius, mentioned by ;(ollodo us, is the name o3 6ount !ebanon as well as o3 6ount +inai. '3. Pom(onius 6ela> %e situ o bis. 2 =e odotus iii, $. ;lso ;(ollonius 9hodius in the ; gonautica, ,k. ii, says that :y(hon Esmitten by the bolt o3 Deus ... lies whelmed beneath the wate s o3 the +e bonian lake.E 1 In ;ges in 'haos, evidence will be ( esented to identi3y the (ha aoh o3 the ?Codus as :aui :hom, the last king o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom. =e is :au :imaeus (:utimaeus) o3 6anetho, in whose days Ea blast o3 )odBs dis(leasu eE 3ell u(on ?gy(t and te minated the (e iod at ( esent known as the 6iddle 4ingdom. :he name o3 his Fueen is given in the naos o3 el/; ish as E:e(hnutE. E9a/uah/abE is a name met among the ?gy(tian kings o3 that (e iod (8.6.G. Pet ie> ; =isto y o3 ?gy(t, I, 22-)H it could have se ved as o igin 3o the =eb ew wo d 3o d agon, E9ahabE. +ee note 2.

2 ;ctually, Ed agonE became the a((ellation o3 ?gy(tian (ha aohs in the ( o(hetic lite atu e. '3. ?5ekiel 12>2. $ Pliny> Natu al =isto y, ii, 9# (t ansl. 9ackham, #91.). 0 A. =evelius> 'ometog a(hia (#0..), ((. -92 3. - In the lib a y o3 the ;me ican ;ntiFua ian +ociety, 8o ceste , 6ass. . E;nno mundi, bis millesimo, Fuad igentesimo FuinFuagesimo te tio, 'ometa (ut multi ( obati auto es. de tem(o e hoc statuunt, eC con<ectu is multis) cuius Plinius FuoFue lib. 2 ca(. 2$ mentionem 3acit, igneus, 3o mam im(e 3ecti ci culi, & in se convoluti ca(utFH globi e( aesentans, as(ectu te ibilis a((a uit, :y(honFH a ege, tune tem(o is eC ;egy(to im(e ium tenente, dictus est, Fui eC, ut homines 3ide digni asse unt, auCilio gigantum. eges ;egy(to u devicit. Visus FuoFH est, ut aliFui volut, in +i ia, ,abylonia, India, in signo ca( icomi, sub 3o ma otae, eo tem(o e, Fuando 3ilii Is ael eC ;egy(to in te am ( omissam, duce ac viae monst ato e, (e diem columna nubis, noctu ve o columna ignis, ut ca(. -...9.#0 legitu ( o3ecti sunt.E 9 Aohannis !au entii !ydi !ibe de ostentis et calenda ia ) aeca omnia (ed. by '. 8achsmuth, #.9-), (. #-#. In this wo k 8achsmuth also ( inted eCce (ts 3 om =e(haestion, ;vienus a(ud +e vium, and Aunctinus. #0 :he time when 'am(este 3lou ished is not known, but it is assumed to have been in the thi d o 3ou th centu y o3 the ( esent e a. +ee Pauly/8issowa> 9eal/?ncyclo(^die de classischen ;lte tumswissenscha3t , s.v. :he time o3 Petosi is is tentatively dated in the second ( e/'h istian e a (Pauly/8issowa, s.v.). ,ut he is mentioned in :he %ana_des o3 ; isto(hanes (/22. to /1..). +ee also ?. 9iess> Neche(sonis et Petosi idis 3 agmenta magica (#.90). ## 'am(este in !ydus !ibe de ostentisH c3. =andwW te buch des deutschen ;be glaubens (#912/#911), Vol. V, s.v. E4omet.E #2 E:he ?gy(tians egula ly call :y(hon, B+ethBH it means Bove maste ingB and Bove (owe ing,B and in ve y many instances Btu ning back,B and again Bove (assingB.E Pluta ch> Isis and "si is (t ansl. G. '. ,abbitt, #910), 2# and 29. #1 ,ocha t> =ie o5oicon, I, 121. #2 EGuga :y(honis est 6osis eC ?gy(to eCcessus.E Ibid., (. 12#. #$ E:hose who elate that :y(honBs 3light 3 om the battle Iwith =o usJ was made on the back o3 an ass and lasted seven days, and that a3te he had made his esca(e, he became the 3athe o3 sons, =ie osolymus IAe usalemJ and Audaeus, a e mani3estly, as the ve y names show, attem(ting to d ag the Aewish t aditions into the legend.E Pluta ch> Isis and "si is, 12. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he +(a k
; (henomenon o3 g eat signi3icance took (lace. :he head o3 the comet did not c ash into the ea th, but eCchanged ma<o elect ical discha ges with it. ; t emendous s(a k s( ang 3o th at the moment o3 the nea est a(( oach o3 the comet, when the wate s we e hea(ed at thei highest above the su 3ace o3 the ea th and be3o e they 3ell down, 3ollowed by a ain o3 deb is to n 3 om the ve y body and tail o3 the comet. E;nd the ;ngel o3 )od, which went be3o e the cam( o3 Is ael, emoved and went behind themH and the (illa o3 the cloud went 3 om be3o e thei 3ace, and stood behind them ... and it was a cloud and da kness but it gave light by night.E ;n eCceedingly st ong wind and lightnings ent the cloud. In the mo ning the wate s ose as a wall and moved away. E;nd the child en o3 Is ael went into the midst o3 the sea u(on the d y g ound> and the wate s we e a wall unto them on thei ight hand, and on thei le3t. ;nd the ?gy(tians (u sued ... ;nd it came to (ass, that in the mo ning watch the !o d looked unto the host o3 the ?gy(tians th ough the (illa o3 3i e and o3 the cloud, and t oubled the host o3 the ?gy(tians, and took o33 thei cha iot wheels ... and the wate s etu ned, and cove ed the cha iots, and the ho semen, and all the host o3 Pha aoh that came into the sea a3te themH the e emained not so much as one o3 them.E # :he immense tides we e caused by the ( esence o3 a celestial body close byH they 3ell when a discha ge occu ed between the ea th and the othe body. ; ta(anus, the autho o3 the no longe eCtant %e Audaeis, a((a ently knew that the wo ds, E:he !o d looked unto the host o3 the ?gy(tians th ough the (illa o3 3i e and o3 the cloud,E e3e to a g eat lightning. ?usebius Fuotes ; ta(anus> E,ut when the ?gy(tians ... we e (u suing them, a 3i e, it is said, shone out u(on them 3 om the 3 ont, and the sea ove 3lowed

the (ath again, and the ?gy(tians we e all dest oyed by the 3i e and the 3lood.E 2 :he g eat discha ges o3 inte (laneta y 3o ce a e commemo ated in the t aditions, legends, and mythology o3 all the (eo(les o3 the wo ld. :he god / Deus o3 the ) eeks, "din o3 the Icelande s, @kko o3 the Ginns, Pe un o3 the 9ussian (agans, 8otan (8oden) o3 the )e mans, 6a5da o3 the Pe sians, 6a duk o3 the ,abylonians, +hiva o3 the =indus / is (ictu ed with lightning in his hand and desc ibed as the god who th ew his thunde bolt at the wo ld ove whelmed with wate and 3i e. +imila ly, many (salms o3 the +c i(tu es commemo ate the g eat discha ges. E:hen the ea th shook and t embledH the 3oundations also o3 the hills moved and we e shaken ... =e bowed the heavens also, and came down ... he did 3ly u(on the wings o3 the wind ... ;t the b ightness that was be3o e him his thick clouds (assed, hail stones and coals o3 3i e. :he !o d also thunde ed in the heavens, and the =ighest gave his voiceH hail stones and coals o3 3i e ... and he shot out lightnings ... :hen the channels o3 wate s we e seen, and the 3oundations o3 the wo ld we e discove ed.E 1 E:he voice o3 the !o d is (owe 3ul ... :he voice o3 the !o d b eaketh the ceda s ... :he voice o3 the !o d divideth the 3lames o3 3i e. :he voice o3 the !o d shaketh the wilde nessH the !o d shaketh the wilde ness o3 4adesh.E 2 E:he kingdoms we e movedH he utte ed his voice, the ea th melted.E $ E:he wate s saw theeH they we e a3 aid> the de(ths also we e t oubled ... the skies sent out a sound> thine a ows also went ab oad. :he voice o3 thy thunde was in the heavenH the lightnings lightened the unive se> the ea th t embled and shook.E 0 E'louds and da kness a e ound about him ... a 3i e goeth be3o e him and bu neth u( his enemies ound about ... =is lightnings enlightened the wo ld> the ea th saw, and t embled.E Nothing is easie than to add to the numbe o3 such Fuotations 3 om othe (a ts o3 the +c i(tu es / Aob, the +ong o3 %ebo ah, the P o(hets. 8ith the 3all o3 the double wall o3 wate , the ?gy(tian host was swe(t away. :he 3o ce o3 the im(act th ew the (ha aohBs a my into the ai . E'ome and see the wo ks o3 )od> he is te ible in his doing towa d the child en o3 men. =e tu ned the sea into d y land> they went th ough the 3lood on 3oot ... :hou hast caused men to ide ove ou headsH we went th ough 3i e and th ough wate .E . :his tossing o3 the ?gy(tian host into the ai by an avalanche o3 wate is e3e ed to also in the ?gy(tian sou ce I Fuoted be3o e> on the sh ine 3ound in el/; ish the sto y is told o3 a hu icane and o3 a ( olonged da kness when nobody could leave the (alace, and o3 the (u suit by the (ha aoh :aoui/:hom o3 the 3leeing slaves whom he 3ollowed to Pikhi oti, which is the biblical Pi/ha/khi oth. E=is 6a<esty lea(t into the (lace o3 the whi l(ool.E :hen it is said that he was Bli3ted by a g eat 3o ce.E 9 ;lthough the la ge (a t o3 the Is aelite 3ugitives we e al eady out o3 the each o3 the 3alling tidal waves, a g eat numbe o3 them (e ished in this disaste , as in the ( evious ones o3 3i e and hu icane o3 cinde s. :hat Is aelites (e ished at the +ea o3 Passage is im(lied in Psalm 0. whe e mention is made o3 Emy (eo(leE that emained in Ethe de(ths o3 the sea.E :hese tidal waves also ove whelmed enti e t ibes who inhabited :ehama, the thousand/ mile/long coastal egion o3 the 9ed +ea. E)od sent against the %<o homites swi3t clouds, ants, and othe signs o3 his age, and many o3 them (e ished ... In the land o3 %<ohainah an im(etuous to ent ca ied o33 all o3 them in a night. :he scene o3 this catast o(he is known by the name o3 Idam (3u y).E :he autho o3 this (assage, 6asudi, an ; ab autho o3 the tenth centu y, Fuotes an ea lie autho , "meyah, son o3 ;bu/+alt> EIn days o3 yo e the %<o homites settled in :ehama, and a violent 3lood ca ied all o3 them away.E #0 !ikewise the t adition elated in 4itab ;laghaniu is 3amilia with the (lague o3 insects (ants o3 the smallest va iety) that 3o ced the t ibe to mig ate 3 om =ed<a5 to thei native land, whe e they we e dest oyed by E:ou3anE / a deluge. In my econst uction o3 ancient histo y, I

endeavo to establish the synch onism o3 these events and the ?Codus.

777777777777777777777777777777 # ?Codus #2>#933. 2 ?usebius> P e(a ation 3o the )os(el (t ansl. )i33o d), ,k. iC, 'ha(, CCvii. 'almet, 'ommentai e, lB?Code, (. #$2, co ectly unde stood the (assage in ; ta(anus because he (a a(h ases it as 3ollows> E; ta(anus dans ?usTbe dit Fue les ?gy(tiens 3u ent 3 a((Us de la 3oud e, et abbatus (a le 3eu du ciel dans le m`me tem(s Fue lBeau de la me vint tombe su euC.E 1 Psalms #.>-/#$. 2 Psalms 29>2/.. $ Psalms 20>0. 0 Psalms -->#0/#9. E:evelE is the unive se, but the 4ing Aames Ve sion t anslates Ewo ldEH wo ld is EolamE. - Psalms 9->2/2. . Psalms 00>$/#2. "n cosmic discha ges see in3 a the sections, EIgnis e 'oeloE and E+ynodos.E 9 ) i33ith> :he ;ntiFuities o3 :el/el/*ahudiyehH )oyon, E!es t avauC de 'hou et les t ibulations de )eb,E 4emi (#910). #0 ?I/6aaoudi> !es P ai ies dBo (t ansl. '. ,a bie and P. de 'ou teille, #.0#), III, 'ha(. 19. ;n ?nglish t anslation is by ;. +( enge (#.2#)> ?l/6asBudi> 6eadows o3 )old and 6ines o3 )ems. ## G. G esnel> E+u lB=istoi e des ; abes avant IBlslamisme (4itab alaghaniyy),E Aou nal asiatiFue (#.1.). 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 'olla(sed +ky

:he ain o3 meteo ites and 3i e 3 om the sky, the clouds o3 dust o3 eCogenous o igin that d i3ted low, and the dis(lacement o3 the wo ld Fua te s c eated the im( ession that the sky had colla(sed. :he ancient (eo(les o3 6eCico e3e ed to a wo ld age that came to its end when the sky colla(sed and da kness ensh ouded the wo ld. # +t abo elates, in the name o3 Ptolemaeus, the son o3 !agus, a gene al o3 ;leCande and 3ounde o3 the ?gy(tian dynasty called by his name, that the 'elti who lived on the sho es o3 the ;d iatic we e asked by ;leCande what it was they most 3ea ed, to which they e(lied that they 3ea ed no one, but only that the sky might colla(se. 2 :he 'hinese e3e to the colla(se o3 the sky which took (lace when the mountains 3ell. 1 ,ecause mountains 3ell o we e leveled at the same time when the sky was dis(laced, ancient (eo(les, not only the 'hinese, thought that mountains su((o t the sky. E:he ea th t embled, and the heavens d o((ed ... the mountains melted,E says the +ong o3 %ebo ah. 2 E:he ea th shook, the heavens also d o((ed at the ( esence o3 )od> even +inai itsel3 was moved,E says the (salmist. $ :he t ibes o3 +amoa in thei legends e3e to a catast o(he when Ein days o3 old the heavens 3ell down.E :he heavens o the clouds we e so low that the (eo(le could not stand e ect without touching them. 0 :he Ginns tell in thei 4alevala that the su((o t o3 the sky gave way and then a s(a k o3 3i e kindled a new sun and a new moon. - :he !a((s make o33e ings accom(anied by the ( aye that the sky should not lose its su((o t and 3all down. . :he ?skimos o3 ) eenland a e a3 aid that the su((o t o3 the sky may 3ail and the sky 3all down and kill all human beingsH a da kening o3 the sun and the moon will ( ecede such a catast o(he. 9 :he ( imitives o3 ;3 ica, in easte n as well as weste n ( ovinces o3 the continent, tell about the colla(se o3 the sky in the (ast. :he "vahe e o t ibesmen say that many yea s ago Ethe ) eats o3 the skyE (?yu u) let the sky 3all on the ea thH almost all the (eo(le we e killed, only a 3ew emained alive. :he t ibes o3 4anga and !oanga also have a t adition o3 the colla(se o3 the sky which annihilated the human ace. :he 8anyo o in @nyo o likewise elate that the sky 3ell on the ea th and killed eve ybody> the god 4ag a th ew the 3i mament u(on the ea th to dest oy mankind. #0

:he t adition o3 the 'ashinaua, the abo igines o3 weste n , a5il, is na ated as 3ollows> E:he lightnings 3lashed and the thunde s oa ed te ibly and all we e a3 aid. :hen the heaven bu st and the 3 agments 3ell down and killed eve ything and eve ybody. =eaven and ea th changed (laces. Nothing that had li3e was le3t u(on the ea th.E ## In this t adition a e included the same elements> the lightnings and thunde ings, Ethe bu sting o3 heaven,E the 3all o3 meteo ites. ;bout the change o3 (laces between heaven and ea th the e is mo e to say, and I shall not (ost(one the sub<ect 3o long.
777777777777777777777777777777 # +ele > )esammelte ;bhandlungen, II, -9.. 2 +t abo> :he )eog a(hy, vii, 1, .. 1 ;. Go ke> :he 8o ld 'once(tion o3 the 'hinese (#92$), (. 21. 2 Audges $>2/$. $ Psalms 0.>.. "n (e iodic colla(ses o3 the 3i mament see also 9ashiBs commenta y on )enesis ##>#, e3e ed to in the +ection, E8o ld ;ges.E 0 8illiamson> 9eligious and 'osmic ,elie3s o3 'ent al Polynesia , I, 2#. - +ee +ection, E:he %a kness,E note .. . "l ik> 9agna Wk ()e man ed.), (. 220. 9 Ibid., (. 200. :he t adition was told by the ?skimos to P. ?gede (#-12/#-20). #0 !. G obenius> %ie 8eltanschauung de Natu vWlke (#.9.), ((. 1$$/1$-. ## ,ellamy> 6oons, 6yths and 6an, (. .0. 777777777777777777777777777777

,oiling ?a th and +ea

'ha(te 2

:8" '?!?+:I;! ,"%I?+ we e d iven nea to each othe . :he inte io o3 the te est ial globe (ushed towa d the eCte io . :he ea th, distu bed in its otation, develo(ed heat. :he land su 3ace became hot. Va ious sou ces o3 many (eo(les desc ibe the melting o3 the ea thBs su 3ace and the boiling o3 the sea. :he ea th bu st and lava 3lowed. :he 6eCican sac ed book, Po(ol Vuh, the 6anusc i(t 'akchiFuel, the 6anusc i(t : oano all eco d how the mountains in eve y (a t o3 the 8este n =emis(he e simultaneously gushed lava. :he volcanoes that o(ened along the enti e chain o3 the 'o dille as and in othe mountain anges and on 3lat land vomited 3i e, va(o , and to ents o3 lava. :hese and othe 6eCican sou ces elate how, at the closing hou s o3 the age that was b ought to an end by the ain o3 3i e, mountains swelled unde the ( essu e o3 molten masses and new idges oseH new volcanoes s( ang out o3 the ea th, and st eams o3 lava 3lowed out o3 the cle3t ea th. # ?vents unde lying ) eek and 6eCican t aditions a e na ated in the +c i(tu es. E:he mountains shake with the swelling ... the ea th melted.E 2 E'louds and da kness ... 3i e ... the ea th saw and t embled. :he hills melted like waC.E 1 E=e looketh on the ea th, and it t embleth> he toucheth the hills, and they smoke.E 2 E:he ea th t embled ... the mountains melted ... even that +inai.E $ E=e ebuketh the sea, and maketh it d y, and d ieth u( all the ive s ... :he mountains Fuake at him, and the hills melt, and the ea th is bu ned ... yea, the wo ld, and all that dwell the ein.E 0 :he ive s steamed, and even the bottom o3 the sea boiled he e and the e. E:he sea boiled, all the sho es o3 the ocean boiled, all the middle o3 it boiled,E says the Dend/;vesta. :he sta :ist ya made the sea boil. :he t aditions o3 the Indians etain the memo y o3 this boiling o3 the wate in ive and sea. :he t ibes o3 , itish 'olumbia tell> E) eat clouds a((ea ed ... such a g eat heat came, that 3inally the wate boiled. Peo(le <um(ed into the st eams and lakes to cool themselves, and died.E . "n the No th Paci3ic coast o3 ;me ica the t ibes insist that the ocean boiled> EIt g ew ve y hot ... many animals <um(ed into the wate to save themselves, but the wate began to boil.E 9 :he Indians o3 the +outhe n @te t ibe in 'olo ado eco d in thei legends that the ive s boiled. #0 Aewish t adition, as ( ese ved in the abbinical sou ces, decla es that the mi e at the bottom o3 the +ea o3 Passage was heated. E:he !o d 3ought against the ?gy(tians with the (illa o3 cloud and 3i e. :he mi e was heated to the boiling (oint by the (illa o3 3i e.E ## :he abbinical sou ces say also that the (illa o3 3i e and o3 smoke leveled mountains. #2 =esiod in his :heogony, elating the u(heaval caused by a celestial collision, says> E:he huge ea th g oaned ... ; g eat (a t o3 the huge ea th was sco ched by the te ible va(o and melted as tin melts when heated by manBs a t ... o as i on, which is ha dest o3 all things, is so3tened by glowing 3i e in mountain glens.E #1 ;cco ding to the t aditions o3 the New 8o ld, the ( o3ile o3 the land changed in a catast o(he, new valleys we e 3o med, mountain idges we e to n a(a t, new gul3s we e cut out, ancient heights we e ove tu ned and new ones s( ang u(. :he 3ew su vivo s o3 the uined wo ld we e envelo(ed in da kness, Ethe sun in some way did not eCist,E and in inte vals in the light o3 bla5ing 3i es they saw the silhouettes o3 new mountains. :he 6ayan sac ed book Po(ol/Vuh says that the god E olled mountainsE and E emoved mountains,E and Eg eat and small mountains moved and shaked.E 6ountains swelled with lava. 'oni aya/Vi acocha, the god o3 the Incas aised mountains 3 om the 3lat land and

3lattened othe mountains. #2 ;nd simila ly, E8hen Is ael went out o3 ?gy(t ... the sea saw and 3led ... the mountains ski((ed like ams, and the little hills like lambs ... : emble, thou ea th, at the ( esence o3 the !o d.E #$ E8hich emoveth the mountains ... which ove tu neth them in his ange H which shaketh the ea th out o3 he (lace ... which commandeth the sun and it iseth not ... which alone s( eadeth out the heavens, and t eadeth u(on the waves o3 the sea.E #0
777777777777777777777777777777 # +ee +ele > )esammelte ;bhandlungen, II, -9.. 2 Psalms 20>1/0. 1 Psalms 9->2/$. 2 Psalms #02>12. $ +ong o3 %ebo ah, Audges $>2/$. 0 Nahum #>2/$. - :he Dend/;vesta (Pt. II, (. 9$ o3 A. %a mestete Bs t anslation, #..1)H 'a noy> I anian 6ythology, (. 20.. . E4aska :alesE collected by A. ;. :eit> Aou nal o3 ;me ican Golklo e, LLL (#9#-), 220. 9 +. :hom(son> :ales o3 the No th ;me ican Indians (#929)H =. ,. ;leCande > No th ;me ican 6ythology (#9#0), (. 2$$. #0 9. =. !owie> E+outhe n @te,E Aou nal o3 ;me ican Golklo e, LLLVII (#922). ## )in5be g> !egends, III, 29. #2 Ibid., II, 1-$H III, 1#0H VI, ##0. : actate ,e akhot, $9a/$9b. #1 =esiod> :heogony (t ansl. ?velyn/8hite), ##. .$033. #2 , asseu > +ou ces de lBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue, ((. 10, 1$, 1-, 2-. #$ Psalms ##2>#/-. #0 Aob 9>$/.. 777777777777777777777777777777

6ount +inai
;long the easte n sho e o3 the 9ed +ea the e st etches a mountainous c est with a numbe o3 volcanic c ate s, at ( esent eCtinguishedH some, howeve , we e active not many centu ies ago. "ne o3 these volcanoes is usually desc ibed as the 6ount o3 the !awgiving> In the seventies o3 the last centu y a schola , 'ha les ,eke, suggested that 6ount +inai was a volcano in the ; abian %ese t. # :he ,ook o3 %eute onomy (2>##) says Ethe mountain bu ned with 3i e unto the midst o3 heaven, with da kness, clouds, and thick da kness.E ,ekeBs idea was e<ected by his contem(o a ies and ultimately by himsel3. 2 6ode n schola s, howeve , ag ee with his o iginal theo y, and 3o this eason they look 3o the 6ount o3 the !awgiving among the volcanoes o3 6ount +ei and not on the t aditional +inai Peninsula whe e the e a e no volcanoes. :hus the claims o3 the ival (eaks o3 the +inai Peninsula 3o the hono o3 being the 6ount o3 the !awgiving 1 a e silenced by new contestants. It is t ue that it is stated Ethe mountains melted ... even that +inai,E 2 but this melting o3 summits does not necessa ily mean an o(ening u( o3 c ate s. 9ocks tu ned into a 3lowing mass. :he (lateau o3 the +inai Peninsula is cove ed with 3o mations o3 basalt lavaH $ wide st etches o3 the ; abian %ese t also glisten with lava. 0 !ava 3o mations, inte s(e sed with eCtinguished volcanoes, st etch 3 om the vicinity o3 Palmy a southwa d into ; abia as 3a as 6ecca. - "nly a 3ew thousand yea s ago the dese ts glowed with the beacons o3 many volcanoes, mountains melted, and lava 3lowed ove the g ound 3 om nume ous 3issu es. :he celestial body that the g eat ; chitect o3 natu e sent close to the ea th, made contact with it in elect ical discha ges, et eated, and a(( oached again. I3 we a e to believe the +c i(tu al data, the e ela(sed seven weeks, o by anothe com(utation, about two months . 3 om the day o3 the ?Codus to the day o3 the evelation at 6ount +inai.

E:he e we e thunde s and lightnings, and a thick cloud u(on the mount, and the voice o3 the t um(et eCceeding loudH so that all the (eo(le that was in the cam( t embled ... ;nd mount +inai was altogethe on a smoke ... and the smoke the eo3 ascended as the smoke o3 a 3u nace, and the whole mount Fuaked g eatly. ;nd when the voice o3 the t um(et sounded long, and waCed loude and loude , 6oses s(ake, and )od answe ed him by a voice.E 9 :he :almud and 6id ashim desc ibe the 6ountain o3 the !awgiving as Fuaking so g eatly that it a((ea ed as i3 it we e li3ted u( and shaken above the heads o3 the (eo(leH and the (eo(le 3elt as it they we e no longe standing secu ely on the g ound, but we e held u( by some invisible 3o ce. #0 :he ( esence o3 a heavenly body ove head caused this (henomenon and this 3eeling. E:hen the ea th shook and t embledH the 3oundations also o3 the hills moved and we e shaken, because he was w oth ... =e bowed the heavens also, and came down> and da kness was unde his 3eet ... ;t the b ightness that was be3o e him his thick clouds (assed, hail stones and coals o3 3i e. :he !o d also thunde ed in the heavens ... hail stones and coals o3 3i e ... =e shot out lightnings ... :hen the channels o3 wate s we e seen, and the 3oundations o3 the wo ld we e discove ed.E ## ?a th and heaven (a tici(ated in the cosmic convulsion. In the Gou th ,ook o3 ?5 a the occu ences witnessed at 6ount +inai a e desc ibed in these wo ds> E:hou didst bow down the heavens, didst make the ea th Fuake, and convulsed the wo ld. :hou didst cause the dee(s to t emble and didst ala m the s(he es.E #2 :he a(( oach o3 a sta towa d the ea th in the days o3 the evelation at +inai is im(lied by the teCt o3 the : actate +habbat> ;lthough the ancesto s o3 the late ( oselytes we e not ( esent at the 6ountain o3 the !awgiving, thei sta was the e close by. #1 ;n autho o3 the 3i st centu y o3 the ( esent e a, whose wo k on biblical antiFuities has been asc ibed to Philo, the ;leCand ian (hiloso(he , thus desc ibes the commotion on the ea th below and in the sky above> E:he mountain I+inaiJ bu ned with 3i e and the ea th shook and the hills we e emoved and the mountains ove th ownH the de(ths boiled, and all the inhabitable (laces we e shaken ... and 3lames o3 3i e shone 3o th and thunde ings and lightnings we e multi(lied, and winds and tem(ests made a oa ing> the sta s we e gathe ed togethe IcollidedJ.E #2 9e3e ing to the ve se, E=e bowed the heavens also, and came downE (Psalms #.), Pseudo/Philo desc ibes the events o3 6ount +inai and says that the !o d Eim(eded the cou se o3 the sta s.E #$ E:he ea th was sti ed 3 om he 3oundation, and the mountains and the ocks t embled in thei 3astenings, and the clouds li3ted u( thei waves against the 3lame o3 the 3i e that it should not consume the wo ld ... and all the waves o3 the sea came togethe .E #0 :he =indus de(ict the cosmic catast o(he at the end o3 a wo ld age> E:he whole wo ld b eaks into 3lames. +o also a hund ed thousand times ten million wo lds. ;ll the (eaks o3 6ount +ine u, even those which a e hund eds o3 leagues in height, c umble and disa((ea in the sky. :he 3lames o3 3i e ise u( and envelo( the heaven.E #- :he siCth sun o sun age ended. +imila ly, in the Aewish t adition, with the evelation at +inai the siCth wo ld age was te minated and the seventh began. #.
777777777777777777777777777777 # ,eke> 6ount +inai, a Volcano (#.-1). 2 :he !ate % . 'ha les ,ekeBs %iscove ies o3 +inai in ; abia and o3 6idian (#.-.), ((. 210, $0#. 1 '3. Palme , +inai> G om the Gou th ?gy(tian %ynasty to the P esent %ay . 2 +ong o3 %ebo ah, Audges $>$. $ 8. 6. Glinde s Pet ie> E:he 6etals in ?gy(t,E ;ncient ?gy(t (#9#$), e3e s to Ethe eno mous e u(tion o3 3e uginous basalt ... which ( obably bu nt u( 3o ests in its out3low.E 0 N. )lueck> :he "the +ide o3 the Ao dan (#920), (. 12. - '. P. ) ant> :he +y ian %ese t (#91-), (. 9.

. ?Codus #9>#. 9 ?Codus #9>#0/#9. #0 '3. )in5be g> !egends, II, 92, 9$. ## Psalms #.>-/#$. ;n identical teCt is 3ound in 2 +amuel 22. #2 IV ?5 a (t ansl. ,oC), in :he ;(oc y(ha and Pseude(ig a(ha o3 the "ld :estament, ed. 9. =. 'ha les. #1 :he ,abylonian :almud, : actate +habbat #20a. ;cco ding to 6id ash +hi (#$a/#$b) the (ha aoh wa ned the Is aelites not to leave ?gy(t, because they would meet the bloody sta 9a (in =eb ew E?vilE). #2 :he ,iblical ;ntiFuities o3 Philo (t ansl. 6. 9. Aames, #9#-), 'ha(. LI. #$ Ibid., 'ha(. LLIII. #0 Ibid., 'ha(. LLLII. #- 8a en> ,uddhism, (. 121. #. 6id ash 9abba, ,e eshit. 777777777777777777777777777777

?a thFuakes a e o3ten accom(anied by a oa ing noise that comes 3 om the bowels o3 the ea th. :his (henomenon was known to ea ly geog a(he s. Pliny # w ote that ea thFuakes a e E( eceded o accom(anied by a te ible sound.E Vaults su((o ting the g ound give way and it seems as though the ea th heaves dee( sighs. :he sound was att ibuted to the gods and called theo(hany. :he e u(tions o3 volcanoes a e also accom(anied by loud noises. :he sound ( oduced by 4 akatoa in the ?ast Indies, du ing the e u(tion o3 #..1, was so loud that it was hea d as 3a as Aa(an, 1,000 miles away, the 3a thest distance t aveled by sound eco ded in mode n annals. 2 In the days o3 the ?Codus, when the wo ld was shaken and ocked, and all volcanoes vomited lava and all continents Fuaked, the ea th g oaned almost unceasingly. ;t an initial stage o3 the catast o(he, acco ding to =eb ew t adition, 6oses hea d in the silence o3 the dese t the sound which he inte ( eted to mean, EI am that I am.E 1 EI am *ahweh,E hea d the (eo(le in the 3 ight3ul night at the 6ountain o3 the !awgiving. 2 E:he whole mount Fuaked g eatlyE and Ethe voice o3 the t um(et sounded long.E $ E;nd all the (eo(le saw the oa s, and the to ches, and the noise o3 the t um(et, and the mountain smoking> and when the (eo(le saw it, they t embled, and stood a3a o33.E 0 It was a (e 3ect setting 3o hea ing wo ds in the voice o3 natu e in an u( oa . ;n ins(i ed leade inte ( eted the voice he hea d, ten long, t um(etlike blasts. :he ea th g oaned> 3o weeks now all its st ata had been disa anged, its o bit disto ted, its wo ld Fua te s dis(laced, its oceans th own u(on its continents, its seas tu ned into dese ts, its mountains u(heaved, its islands subme ged, its ive s unning u(st eam / a wo ld 3lowing with lava, shatte ed by meteo ites, with yawning chasms, bu ning na(htha, vomiting volcanoes, shaking g ound, a wo ld ensh ouded in an atmos(he e 3illed with smoke and va(o . :wisting o3 st ata and building o3 mountains, ea thFuakes and umbling o3 volcanoes <oined in an in3e nal din. It was a voice not only in the dese t o3 +inaiH the enti e wo ld must have hea d it. E:he sky and the ea th esounded ... mountains and hills we e moved,E says the 6id ash. E!oud did the 3i mament oa , and ea th with echo esounded,E says the ?(ic o3 )ilgamesh. - In =esiod Ethe huge ea th g oanedE when Deus lashed :y(hon with his bolts / Ethe ea th esounded te ibly, and the wide heaven above.E . :he a(( oach o3 two cha ged globes towa d each othe could also ( oduce t um(etlike sounds, va ying as the distance between them inc eased o lessened. 9 It a((ea s that this (henomenon is desc ibed by Pseudo/Philo as Etestimony o3 the t um(ets between the sta s and thei !o d.E #0 =e e we can t ace the o igin o3 the Pythago ean notion o3 the Emusic o3 the s(he esE and the idea that sta s make music. In ,abylonia the s(he es o3 the (lanets we e called EvoicesE and they we e su((osed to ( oduce music. ## ;cco ding to 6id ashic

lite atu e, the t um(et sounding at 6ount +inai had seven di33e ent (itches (o notes), and the abbinical lite atu e s(eaks o3 Ethe heavenly musicE hea d at the evelation. E;t the 3i st sound the sky and the ea th moved, the seas and the ive s tu ned to 3light, mountains and hills we e loosened in thei 3oundations.E #2 =ome de(icts a simila occu ence in these wo ds> E:he wide ea th ang, and ound about g eat heaven (ealed as with a t um(et.E #1 E:he wo ld all bu ns at the blast o3 the ho n,E is said in the VWlus(a. #2 E;cco ding to the =eb ew t adition, all the nations hea d the oa ing o3 the lawgiving. It a((ea s that at 6ount +inai the sound that Esounded longE ose ten timesH in this oa ing the =eb ews hea d the %ecalogue. E:hou shalt not killE (E!o ti 5ahE)H E:hou shalt not commit adulte yE (E!o tinB a3E)H E:hou shalt not stealE (E!o tignovE) ... E:hese wo ds Io3 the %ecalogueJ ... we e not hea d by Is ael alone, but by the inhabitants o3 all the ea th. :he %ivine voice divided itsel3 into the seventy tongues o3 men, so that all might unde stand it ... :he souls o3 the heathens almost 3led 3 om them when they hea d it.E #$ :he din caused by the g oaning ea th e(eated itsel3 again and again, but not so loud, as subte anean st ata ead<usted themselves a3te being dislocatedH ea thFuakes incessantly shook the g ound 3o yea s. :he Pa(y us I(uwe calls these yea s Eyea s o3 noise.E E*ea s o3 noise. :he e is no end to noise,E and again, E"h, that the ea th would cease 3 om noise, and tumult (u( oa ) be no mo e.E #0 :he sound ( obably had the same (itch all ove the wo ld as it came 3 om the dee( inte io o3 the ea th, all o3 whose st ata we e dislocated when it was th own 3 om its o bit and 3o ced 3 om its aCis. :he g eat king/lawgive o3 'hina, in whose time a d ead3ul cataclysm took (lace and the o de o3 natu e was distu bed, bo e the name *ahou. #- In the P e3ace to the +hu 4ing, att ibuted to 'on3ucius, it is w itten> E?Camining into antiFuity, we 3ind that the ?m(e o *aou was called Gang/heun.E #. *ahou was a su name given to him in the time 3ollowing the 3lood, a((a ently ins(i ed by the sound o3 the ea thBs g oaning. :he same sound was hea d in those yea s in the 8este n =emis(he e o whe eve the ancesto s o3 the Indians then lived. :hey elate that once when the heavens we e ve y close to the ea th, all mankind li3ted the sky little by little at the e(eated shouting E:ahu,E which ang all ove the wo ld. #9 In Indonesia an oath is accom(anied by the invocation o3 the heavenly bodies. ;n a ow is shot towa d the sky, Ewhile all ( esent aise a c y o3 B<u <u huwe.BE 20 :he same sound is hea d in the ve y name Ao, Aove (Au(ite ). :he name *ahweh is ( ese ved in sho te 3o ms, as well, *ahou and *o, 2# as the name o3 the %eity in the ,ible. 22 %iodo us w ote o3 6oses that he had eceived his laws 3 om the )od invoked by the name Iao. 21 In 6eCico, *ao o *aotl is the god o3 wa H the simila ity o3 sound has al eady been noted. 22 Nihongi, ch onicles o3 Aa(an 3 om the ea liest times, begins with a e3e ence to the time when Eo3 old, heaven and ea th we e not yet se(a ated, and the In and *o not yet divided.E *o is the ea th. :he time when the sky touched the ea th is the time when the heavy dust and va(o /cha ged clouds o3 the comet envelo(ed the globe and lay ve y close to the g ound.
777777777777777777777777777777 # Pliny> Natu al =isto y, ii, .2. 2 ). A. +ymons (ed.)> :he ? u(tion o3 4 akatoa> 9e(o t o3 the 4 akatoa 'ommittee o3 the 9oyal +ociety (o3 !ondon) (#...). 1 ?Codus 1>#2. 2 ?Codus 20>#.

$ ?Codus #9>#./#9. 0 ?Codus 20>#.H Ethe thunde ings and the lightningsE o3 the 4ing Aames Ve sion is not an eCact t anslation o3 E4olotE and E!a(idimE. - ?(ic o3 )ilgamish (t ansl. :hom(son). . :heogony, ##. .2033., .$233. 9 :his (henomenon o3 sound between two cha ged bodies changing with distance is utili5ed 3o musical e33ect by :he emin. #0 :he ,iblical ;ntiFuities o3 Philo, 'ha(. LLLII. ## ?. G. 8eidne > =andbuch de ,abylonischen ;st onomie (#9#$), I, -$. #2 +e3e Pi kei 9abbi ?liese . #1 :he Iliad, CCi, 1.$33. (t ansl. ;. :. 6u ay, #922). #2 '3. 8. ,ousset> :he ;ntich ist !egend (t ansl. ;. =. 4eane, #.90), (. ##1. #$ )in5be g> !egends, III, 9-H the ,abylonian :almud, : actate +habbat ..b. #0 Pa(y us I(uwe 2>2, 2/$. #- Go the 'hinese ( onunciation o3 this name see 9. van ,e gen> +to y o3 'hina (#902), (. ##2> E;t the time o3 the 3lood, the ?m(e o o3 'hina was named *au (*ah/oo).E #. +hoo/king, the 'anon o3 *aou (t ansl. Aames !egge), Vol. Ill, Pt. # o3 :he 'hinese 'lassics (=ongkong, #.0$). In this edition !egge used this s(elling o3 the name o3 the book and o3 the name o3 the kingH his late s(elling is di33e ent. In Volume !L o3 the @nive sal !eCicon (!ei(5ig and =alle, #-12/#-$2), s.v. E*ao,E it is said that some call *ao by the name E:amE and also E:aoE. :his is cu ious because in my econst uction o3 ancient histo y I come to the conclusion that the name o3 the (ha aoh o3 the ?Codus was :aui :hom () eek E:au :imaeusE) o3 the :hi teenth %ynasty, the last o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom. =e was a contem(o a y o3 this 'hinese king. #9 G. +helton> E6ythology o3 Puget +ound> " igin o3 the ?Cclamation B*ahuBE Aou nal o3 ;me ican Golklo e, LLLVII (#922). 20 A. ). G a5e > :he 8o shi( o3 Natu e (#920), (. 00$. G. ,oas> 4wakiutl 'ultu e as 9e3lected in 6ythology (#91$), (. #10, tells o3 *uwe gendayusens na laC (Edie wind edge o3 ou wo ldE), 3 om whe e also come Edeath/ b inging a ows that set mountains on 3i e.E 2# Psalms 0.>2. 22 '3. 9. ;. ,owman> E*ahweh the +(eake ,E Aou nal o3 Nea ?aste n +tudies, III (#922). =. :o c5yne > %ie ,undeslade und die ;n3^nge de 9eligion Is aels (#910), (. iii, sees a connection between the name <hwh and the ; ab wo d wahwa, to oa . 21 %iodo us o3 +icily> !ib a y o3 =isto y, I, 92. 22 , asseu > Kuat e lett es su le 6eCiFue, (. 1-2. 777777777777777777777777777777

?m(e o *ahou
:he histo y o3 'hina is commonly su((osed to eCtend back to g ay antiFuity. ,ut in eality the sou ces o3 the ancient (e iod o3 the 'hinese (ast a e ve y scanty, 3o they we e dest oyed by the ?m(e o :sin/chi/hoang (220/209 be3o e the ( esent e a). =e o de ed all books on histo y and ast onomy, as well as wo ks o3 classic lite atu e, to be bu ned. +ea ch 3o these books was made th oughout the em(i e 3o this (u (ose. :he sto y (e sists that a 3ew emnants o3 the old lite atu e we e again (ut into w iting 3 om the memo y o3 an old manH some we e said to have been 3ound hidden in the se(ulche o3 'on3ucius, and a e asc ibed to his (en. "3 these 3ew emains o3 the old lo e, the most che ished a e those which tell o3 the ?m(e o *ahou and his times. =is (e sonality and his (e iod a e conside ed as Ethe most aus(icious in the 'hinese annals.E # :he histo y o3 'hina ( eceding his eign is asc ibed to the mythical (e iod o3 the 'hinese (ast. In the days o3 *ahou the event occu ed which se(a ates the almost oblite ated and ve y dim (ast o3 'hina 3 om the (e iod that is conside ed histo ical> 'hina was ove whelmed by an immense catast o(he. E;t that time the mi acle is said to have ha((ened that the sun du ing a s(an o3 ten days did not set, the 3o ests we e ignited, and a multitude o3 abominable ve min was b ought 3o th.E 2 EIn the li3etime o3 *ao I*ahouJ the sun did not set 3o ten 3ull days and the enti e

land was 3looded.E 1 ;n immense wave Ethat eached the skyE 3ell down on the land o3 'hina. E:he wate was well u( on the high mountains, and the 3oothills could not be seen at all.E 2 (:his ecalls Psalm #02> E:he wate s stood above the mountains ... they go u( by the mountainsE and Psalm #0-> E:he waves mount u( to the heaven.E) E%est uctive in thei ove 3low a e the wate s o3 the inundation,E said the em(e o . EIn thei vast eCtent they emb ace the hills and ove to( the g eat heights, th eatening the heavens with thei 3loods.E :he em(e o o de ed that all e33o ts be made to o(en outlets 3o the wate s that we e caught in the valleys between the mountains. Go many yea s the (o(ulation labo ed, t ying to 3 ee the (lains and valleys o3 the wate s o3 the 3lood by digging channels and d aining the 3ields. Go a conside able numbe o3 yea s all e33o ts we e in vain. :he ministe who was in cha ge o3 this u gent and immense wo k, 4hwan, was sentenced to death because o3 his 3ailu e / EGo nine yea s he labo ed, but the wo k was unaccom(lishedE $ / and only his son *u succeeded in d aining the land. :his achievement was so highly ated that *u became em(e o o3 'hina a3te 4ing +hun, 3i st successo to *ahou. :his *u was the 3ounde o3 the new and notable dynasty called by his name. :he ch onicles o3 mode n 'hina ( ese ve eco ds o3 one million lives lost in a single ove 3low o3 the *ellow 9ive . 0 ;nothe natu al catast o(he / the ea thFuake / also caused g eat devastation in 'hina at va ious times> it is estimated that in the yea #$$0 the Fuaking ea th took .10,000 lives and 1,000,000 in #002. - 8as not the catast o(he o3 the time o3 *ahou one o3 the ma<o inundations o3 ive s, as mode n schola s su((ose it to have beenM ,ut the 3act that this catast o(he has been vivid in t aditions 3o thousands o3 yea s, while neithe the ove 3low o3 the *ellow 9ive , when a million (eo(le (e ished, no the g eat ea thFuakes, (lay a cons(icuous (a t in the ecollections o3 the nation, is an a gument against the established inte ( etation. 9ive s do not ove 3low in the 3o m o3 a sky/high wave. :he ove 3lowing ive s o3 'hina subside in a 3ew weeks, and the wate does not emain in the (lains until the 3ollowing s( ing, but 3lows away, and the g ound d ies in a 3ew mo e weeks. :he 3lood o3 *ahou eFui ed d aining 3o many yea s, and du ing all this (e iod wate cove ed the lowe (a t o3 the count y. *ahouBs eign is emembe ed 3o the 3ollowing unde taking> :his em(e o sent schola s to di33e ent (a ts o3 'hina, and even to Indo/'hina, to 3ind out the location o3 no th, west, east, and south by obse ving the di ection o3 the sunBs ising and setting and the motion o3 the sta s. =e also cha ged his ast onome s to 3ind out the du ation o3 seasons, and to d aw u( a new calenda . :he +hu 4ing is called the oldest book o3 'hinese ch onicles, ew itten 3 om memo y o 3 om some hidden manusc i(t a3te the bu ning o3 books by :sin/chi/ hoang. In its oldest section, the canon o3 *aou I*ahouJ, it is w itten> E:he eu(on *aou I*ahouJ commanded =e and =o, in eve ent acco dance with the wide heavens, to calculate and delineate the movements and a((ea ances o3 the sun, the moon, the sta s, and the 5odiacal s(acesH and to delive es(ect3ully the seasons to the (eo(le.E . :he necessity, soon a3te the 3lood, o3 3inding anew the 3ou di ections and lea ning anew the movements o3 the sun and the moon, o3 delineating the 5odiacal signs, o3 com(iling the calenda , o3 in3o ming the (o(ulation o3 'hina o3 the seFuence o3 the seasons, c eates the im( ession that du ing the catast o(he the o bit o3 the ea th and the yea , the inclination o3 the aCis and the seasons, the o bit o3 the moon and the month, changed. 8e a e not told what caused the cataclysm, but it is w itten in ancient annals that du ing the eign o3 *ahou Ea b illiant sta issued 3 om the constellation *in.E 9 ;cco ding to the old :ibetan t aditions, the highlands o3 :ibet, too, we e 3looded in a g eat cataclysm. #0 :he t aditions o3 the :ibetans s(eak also o3 te i3ying comets that caused g eat u(heavals. ##

'alculations we e unde taken to establish the dates o3 the ?m(e o *ahou. "n the basis o3 a ema k that the constellation Niao, thought to be the constellation =yd a, culminated at sunset on the day o3 the ve nal eFuinoC in the time o3 *ahou, it was eckoned that the 3lood occu ed in the twenty/thi d centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, but this date has been Fuestioned by many. +ometimes it has also been su((osed that the EGlood o3 *ahouE was the 'hinese sto y o3 the unive sal 3lood, but this (oint o3 view has been abandoned. :he sto y o3 the deluge o3 Noah has its (a allel in a 'hinese t adition about a unive sal 3lood in ( ehisto ic times, in the days o3 Go/hi, who alone o3 all the count y was saved. :he 3lood o3 *ahou is sometimes ega ded as simultaneous with the 3lood o3 "gyges. :he 3lood o3 "gyges did not occu in the thi d millennium, but in the middle o3 the second millennium be3o e this e a. In the section entitled E:he Gloods o3 %eucalion and "gyges,E the synch onism o3 these devastations with the catast o(hes o3 the days o3 6oses and Aoshua will be demonst ated and su((o ted by ancient and ch onological sou ces. 8hen we summa i5e what has been told about the time o3 *ahou, we have the 3ollowing data> the sun did not set 3o a numbe o3 days, the 3o ests we e set on 3i e, ve min 3illed the count y, a high wave E eaching the skyE (ou ed ove the 3ace o3 the land and swe(t wate ove the mountain (eaks and 3illed the valleys 3o many yea sH in the days o3 *ahou the 3ou Fua te s o3 the heaven we e established anew, and obse vations o3 the du ation o3 the yea and month and o3 the o de o3 the seasons we e made. :he histo y o3 'hina in the (e iod be3o e this catast o(he is Fuite oblite ated. ;ll these data a e in acco d with the t aditions o3 the Aewish (eo(le about the events connected with the ?Codus> the sun disa((ea ed 3o a numbe o3 daysH the land was 3illed with ve minH gigantic sky/high tidal waves divided the seaH the wo ld bu ned. ;s we shall see, the =eb ew sou ces, too, eveal that a new calenda was established eckoning 3 om the days o3 the catast o(he and that the seasons and the 3ou Fua te s o3 the heaven we e no longe the same.
777777777777777777777777777777 # =. 6u ay, A. ' aw3u d, and othe s> ;n =isto ical and %esc i(tive ;ccount o3 'hina. 2 E*ao,E @nive sal !eCicon, Vol. !L (#-29). 1 A. =Ybne > 4u 5e G agen aus de (olitischen =isto ie (#-29). 2 :he +hu 4ing, the 'anon o3 *ao (t ansl. !egge, #.-9). +ee also '. !. A. de )uignes> !e 'houking (#--0). Pt. #, 'ha(. #, and A. 6o yniac> =istoi e gUnU ale de la 'hine (#.--), #,$1. $ :he +hu 4ing. 0 ;nd ee> %ie Glutsagen, (. 10H '. %ecke t> E%e =oangho und seine +t omlau3^nde ungE, )lobus, Deitsch i3t 3Y !^nde / und VWlke kunde, !III (#...), #29, conce ning the 3lood o3 #..-. - %aly> "u 6obile ?a th, (. 1. . :he +hoo/king (=ong 4ong edition). 9 :he ;nnals o3 the ,amboo ,ooks, Vol. 1, Pt. # o3 :he 'hinese 'lassics (t ansl. !egge), (. ##2. #0;nd ee> %ie Glutsagen, Fuoting +. :u ne > ;n ;ccount o3 an ?mbassy to the 'ou t o3 the :eshoo !ama in :ibet (#.00). ## ?ckstein> +u les +ou ces de la cosmogonie du +anchoniathon (#.00), (. 22-. #02 777777777777777777777777777777

?ast and 8est

'ha(te $

"@9 P!;N?: 9":;:?+ 3 om west to east. =as it always done soM In this otation 3 om west to east, the sun is seen to ise in the east and set in the west. 8as the east the ( imeval and only (lace o3 the sun iseM :he e is testimony 3 om all (a ts o3 the wo ld that the side which is now tu ned towa d the evening once 3aced the mo ning. In the second book o3 his histo y, =e odotus elates his conve sations with ?gy(tian ( iests on his visit to ?gy(t some time du ing the second hal3 o3 the 3i3th centu y be3o e the ( esent e a. 'oncluding the histo y o3 thei (eo(le, the ( iests told him that the (e iod 3ollowing thei 3i st king cove ed th ee hund ed and 3o ty/one gene ations, and =e odotus calculated that, th ee gene ations being eFual to a centu y, the whole (e iod was ove eleven thousand yea s. :he ( iests asse ted that within histo ical ages and since ?gy(t became a kingdom, E3ou times in this (e iod (so they told me) the sun ose cont a y to his wontH twice he ose whe e he now sets, and twice he set whe e he now ises.E # :his (assage has been the sub<ect o3 eChaustive commenta ies, the autho s o3 which t ied to invent eve y (ossible eC(lanation o3 the (henomenon, but 3ailed to conside the meaning which was (lainly stated by the ( iests o3 ?gy(t, and thei e33o ts th ough the centu ies have emained 3 uitless. :he 3amous ch onologist o3 the siCteenth centu y, Aose(h +calige , weighed the Fuestion whethe the +othis (e iod, o time eckoning by yea s o3 10$ days which, when com(a ed with the Aulian calenda , accumulated an e o o3 a 3ull yea in #,20# yea s, was hinted at by this (assage in =e odotus, and ema ked> E+ed hoc non 3ue it occasum et o ientem muta eE (No eve sal o3 sun ise and sunset takes (lace in a +othis (e iod). 2 %id the wo ds o3 the ( iests to =e odotus e3e to the slow change in the di ection o3 the te est ial aCis du ing a (e iod o3 a(( oCimately 2$,.00 yea s, which is b ought about by its s(inning o by the slow movement o3 the eFuinoctial (oints o3 the te est ial o bit (( ecession o3 the eFuinoCes)M +o thought ;leCande von =umboldt o3 Ethe 3amous (assage o3 the second book o3 =e odotus which so st ained the sagacity o3 the commentato s.E 1 ,ut this is also a violation o3 the meaning o3 the wo ds o3 the ( iests, 3o du ing the (e iod o3 s(inning, o ient and "ccident do not eCchange (laces. "ne may doubt the t ustwo thiness o3 the ( iestsB statements, o o3 ?gy(tian t adition in gene al, o attack =e odotus 3o igno ance o3 the natu al sciences, 2 but the e is no way to econcile the (assage with ( esent/day natu al science. It emains Ea ve y ema kable (assage o3 =e odotus that has become the des(ai o3 commentato s.E $ Pom(onius 6ela, a !atin autho o3 the 3i st centu y, w ote> E:he ?gy(tians ( ide themselves on being the most ancient (eo(le in the wo ld. In thei authentic annals ... one may ead that since they have been in eCistence, the cou se o3 the sta s has changed di ection 3ou times, and that the sun has set twice in that (a t o3 the sky whe e it ises today.E 0 It should not be deduced that 6elaBs only sou ce 3o this statement was =e odotus. 6ela e3e s eC(licitly to ?gy(tian w itten sou ces. =e mentions the eve sal in the movement o3 the sta s as well as o3 the sunH i3 he had co(ied =e odotus, he would ( obably not have mentioned the eve sal in the movement o3 the sta s (side a). ;t a time when the movement o3 the sun, (lanets, and sta s was not yet ega ded as the esult o3 the movement o3 the ea th, the change in the di ection o3 the sun was not necessa ily connected in 6elaBs mind with a simila change in the movement o3 all heavenly bodies. I3, in 6elaBs time, the e we e ?gy(tian histo ical eco ds which e3e ed to the ising o3 the sun in the west, we ought to investigate the old ?gy(tian lite a y sou ces eCtant today.

:he 6agical Pa(y us =a is s(eaks o3 a cosmic u(heaval o3 3i e and wate when Ethe south becomes no th, and the ?a th tu ns ove .E . In the Pa(y us I(uwe it is simila ly stated that Ethe land tu ns ound Iove J as does a (otte Bs wheelE and the E?a th tu ned u(side down.E 9 :his (a(y us bewails the te ible devastation w ought by the u(heaval o3 natu e. In the ? mitage Pa(y us (!ening ad, ###0b ecto) also, e3e ence is made to a catast o(he that tu ned the Bland u(side downH ha((ens that which neve (yet) had ha((ened.E #0 It is assumed that at that time / in the second millennium / (eo(le we e not awa e o3 the daily otation o3 the ea th, and believed that the 3i mament with its lumina ies tu ned a ound the ea thH the e3o e, the eC( ession, Ethe ea th tu ned ove ,E does not e3e to the daily otation o3 the globe. No do these desc i(tions in the (a(y i o3 !eiden and !ening ad leave oom 3o a 3igu ative eC(lanation o3 the sentence, es(ecially i3 we conside the teCt o3 the Pa(y us =a is / the tu ning ove o3 the ea th is accom(anied by the inte change o3 the south and no th (oles. E=a akhteE is the ?gy(tian name 3o the weste n sun. ;s the e is but one sun in the sky, it is su((osed that =a akhte means the sun at its setting. ,ut why should the sun at its setting be ega ded as a deity di33e ent 3 om the mo ning sunM :he identity o3 the ising and the setting sun is seen by eve yone. :he insc i(tions do not leave any oom 3o misunde standing> E=a akhte, he iseth in the west.E ## :he teCts 3ound in the (y amids say that the lumina y Eceased to live in the "ccident, and shines, a new one, in the o ient.E #2 ;3te the eve sal o3 di ection, wheneve it may have occu ed, the wo ds EwestE and Esun iseE we e no longe synonyms, and it was necessa y to cla i3y e3e ences by adding> Ethe west which is at the sun/setting.E It was not me e tautology, as the t anslato o3 this teCt thought. #1 Inasmuch as the hie ogly(hics we e deci(he ed in the nineteenth centu y, it would be only easonable to eC(ect that since then the commenta ies on =e odotus and 6ela would have been w itten a3te consulting the ?gy(tian teCts. In the tomb o3 +enmut, the a chitect o3 Kueen =atshe(sut, a (anel on the ceiling shows the celestial s(he e with the signs o3 the 5odiac and othe constellations in Ea eve sed o ientationE o3 the southe n sky. #2 :he end o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom antedated the time o3 Kueen =atshe(sut by seve al centu ies. :he ast onomical ceiling ( esenting a eve sed o ientation must have been a vene ated cha t, made obsolete a numbe o3 centu ies ea lie . E; cha acte istic 3eatu e o3 the +enmut ceiling is the ast onomically ob<ectionable o ientation o3 the southe n (anel.E :he cente o3 this (anel is occu(ied by the " ion/+i ius g ou(, in which " ion a((ea s west o3 +i ius instead o3 east. E:he o ientation o3 the southe n (anel is such that the (e son in the tomb looking at it has to li3t his head and 3ace no th, not south.E E8ith the eve sed o ientation o3 the south (anel, " ion, the most cons(icuous constellation o3 the southe n sky, a((ea ed to be moving eastwa d, i.e., in the w ong di ection.E #$ :he eal meaning o3 Ethe i ational o ientation o3 the southe n (anelE and the E eve sed (osition o3 " ionE a((ea s to be this> the southe n (anel shows the sky o3 ?gy(t as it was be3o e the celestial s(he e inte changed no th and south, east and west. :he no the n (anel shows the sky o3 ?gy(t as it was on some night o3 the yea in the time o3 +enmut. 8as the e no autochthonous t adition in ) eece about the eve sals o3 the evolution o3 the sun and sta sM Plato w ote in his dialogue, :he +tatesman (Politicus)> EI mean the change in the ising and setting o3 the sun and the othe heavenly bodies, how in those times they used to set in the

Fua te whe e they now ise, and used to ise whe e they now set ... the god at the time o3 the Fua el, you ecall, changed all that to the ( esent system as a testimony in 3avo o3 ;t eus.E :hen he ( oceeded> E;t ce tain (e iods the unive se has its ( esent ci cula motion, and at othe (e iods it evolves in the eve se di ection ... "3 all the changes which take (lace in the heavens this eve sal is the g eatest and most com(lete.E #0 Plato continued his dialogue, using the above (assage as the int oduction to a 3antastic (hiloso(hical essay on the eve sal o3 time. :his minimi5es the value o3 the Fuoted (assage des(ite the catego ical 3o m o3 his statement. :he eve sal o3 the movement o3 the sun in the sky was not a (eace3ul eventH it was an act o3 w ath and dest uction. Plato w ote in Politicus> E:he e is at that time g eat dest uction o3 animals in gene al, and only a small (a t o3 the human ace su vives.E :he eve sal o3 the movement o3 the sun was e3e ed to by many ) eek autho s be3o e and a3te Plato. ;cco ding to a sho t 3 agment o3 a histo ical d ama by +o(hocles ( ;t eus), the sun ises in the east only since its cou se was eve sed. EDeus ... changed the cou se o3 the sun, causing it to ise in the east and not in the west.E #?u i(ides w ote in ?lect a> E:hen in his ange a ose Deus, tu ning the sta sB 3eet back on the 3i e3 etted wayH yea, and the sunBs ca s(lendou /bu ning, and the misty eyes o3 the mo ning g ey. ;nd the 3lash o3 his cha iot/wheels back/3lying 3lushed c imson the 3ace o3 the 3ading day ... :he sun ... tu ned backwa d ... with the scou ge o3 his w ath in a33liction e(aying mo tals.E #. 6any autho s in late centu ies eali5ed that the sto y o3 ;t eus desc ibed some event in natu e. ,ut it could not have been an ecli(se. +t abo was mistaken when he t ied to ationali5e the sto y by saying that ;t eus was an ea ly ast onome who Ediscove ed that the sun evolves in a di ection o((osite to the movement o3 the heavens.E #9 %u ing the night the sta s move 3 om east to west two minutes 3aste than the sun which moves in the same di ection du ing the day. 20 ?ven in (oetical language such a (henomenon would not have been desc ibed as 3ollows> E;nd the sun/ca Bs winged s(eed 3 om the ghastly st i3e tu ned back, changing his weste ing t ack th ough the heavens unto whe e blush/bu ning dawn ose,E as ?u i(ides w ote in anothe wo k o3 his. 2# +eneca knew mo e than his olde contem(o a y +t abo. In his d ama :hyestes, he gave a (owe 3ul desc i(tion o3 what ha((ened when the sun tu ned backwa d in the mo ning sky, which eveals much ( o3ound knowledge o3 natu al (henomena. 8hen the sun eve sed its cou se and blotted out the day in mid/"lym(us (noon), and the sinking sun beheld ;u o a, the (eo(le, smitten with 3ea , asked> E=ave we o3 all mankind been deemed dese ving that heaven, its (oles u(to n, should ove whelm usM In ou time has the last day comeME 22 :he ea ly ) eek (hiloso(he s, and es(ecially Pythago as, would have known about the eve sal o3 the evolution o3 the sky, i3 it actually occu ed, but as Pythago as and his school ke(t thei knowledge sec et, we must de(end u(on the autho s who w ote about the Pythago eans. ; istotle says that the Pythago eans di33e ed between the ight / and the le3t / hand motion o3 the sky (Ethe side 3 om which the sta s iseE is heavenBs ight, Eand whe e they set ... its le3tE 21), and in Plato we 3ind> E; di ection 3 om le3t to ight / and that will be 3 om west to east.E 22 :he ( esent sun moves in the o((osite di ection. In the language o3 a symbolic and (hiloso(hical ast onomy, ( obably o3 Pythago ean o igin, Plato desc ibes in :imaeus the e33ects o3 a collision o3 the ea th Eove taken by a tem(est o3 windsE with Ealien 3i e 3 om without, o a solid lum( o3 ea th,E o wate s o3 Ethe immense 3lood which 3oamed in and st eamed outE> the te est ial globe engages in all motions, E3o wa ds and backwa ds, and again to ight and to le3t, and u(wa ds and downwa ds, wande ing eve y way in all the siC di ections.E 2$ ;s the esult o3 such a collision, desc ibed in a not easily unde standable teCt which

e( esents the ea th as (ossessing a soul, the e was a Eviolent shaking o3 the evolutions o3 the +oul,E Ea total blocking o3 the cou se o3 the same,E Eshaking o3 the cou se o3 the othe ,E which E( oduced all manne o3 twistings, and caused in thei ci cles 3 actu es and dis u(tu es o3 eve y (ossible kind, with the esult that, as they Ithe ea th and the E(e (etually 3lowing st eamEMJ ba ely held togethe one with anothe , they moved indeed but mo e i ationally, being at one time eve sed, at anothe obliFue, and again u(side down.E 20 In PlatoBs te minology, E evolution o3 the sameE is 3 om east to west, and E evolution o3 the othe E is 3 om west to east. 2- In :he +tatesman, Plato (ut this symbolic language into ve y sim(le te ms, s(eaking o3 the eve sal o3 the Fua te s in which the sun ises and sets. I shall etu n late to some othe ) eek e3e ences to the sun setting in the east. 2. 'aius Aulius +olinus, a !atin autho o3 the thi d centu y o3 the ( esent e a, w ote o3 the (eo(le living on the southe n bo de s o3 ?gy(t> E:he inhabitants o3 this count y say that they have it 3 om thei ancesto s that the sun now sets whe e it 3o me ly ose.E 29 :he t aditions o3 (eo(les ag ee in synch oni5ing the changes in the movement o3 the sun with g eat catast o(hes which te minated wo ld ages. :he changes in the movement o3 the sun in each successive age make the use by many (eo(les o3 the te m EsunE 3o EageE unde standable. E:he 'hinese say that it is only since a new o de o3 things has come about that the sta s move 3 om east to west.E 10 E:he signs o3 the 'hinese 5odiac have the st ange (eculia ity o3 ( oceeding in a et og ade di ection, that is, against the cou se o3 the sun.E 1# In the +y ian city @ga it (9as +ham a) was 3ound a (oem dedicated to the (lanet/goddess ;nat, who Emassac ed the (o(ulation o3 the !evantE and who EeCchanged the two dawns and the (osition o3 the sta s.E 12 :he hie ogly(hics o3 the 6eCicans desc ibe 3ou movements o3 the sun, Enahui ollin tonatiuhE. E:he Indian autho s t anslate BollinB by Bmotions o3 the sun.B 8hen they 3ind the numbe BnahuB added, they ende Bnahui ollinB by the wo ds Bsun (tonatiuh) in his 3ou motions.BE 11 :hese E3ou motionsE e3e Eto 3ou ( ehisto ic sunsE o Ewo ld ages,E with shi3ting ca dinal (oints. 12 :he sun that moves towa d the east, cont a y to the ( esent sun, is called by the Indians E:eotl !eCcoE. 1$ :he (eo(le o3 6eCico symboli5ed the changing di ection o3 the sunBs movement as a heavenly ball game, accom(anied by u(heavals and ea thFuakes on the ea th. 10 :he eve sal o3 east and west, i3 combined with the eve sal o3 no th and south, would tu n the constellations o3 the no th into constellations o3 the south, and show them in eve sed o de , as in the cha t o3 the southe n sky on the ceiling o3 +enmutBs tomb. :he sta s o3 the no th would become sta s o3 the southH this is what seems to be desc ibed by the 6eCicans as the Ed iving away o3 the 3ou hund ed southe n sta s.E 1:he ?skimos o3 ) eenland told missiona ies that in an ancient time the ea th tu ned ove and the (eo(le who lived then became anti(odes. 1. =eb ew sou ces on the ( esent ( oblem a e nume ous. 19 In : actate +anhed in o3 the :almud it is said> E+even days be3o e the deluge, the =oly "ne changed the ( imeval o de and the sun ose in the west and set in the east.E 20 E:evelE is the =eb ew name 3o the wo ld in which the sun ose in the west. 2# E; abotE is the name o3 the sky whe e the ising (oint was in the west. 22 =ai )aon, the abbinical autho ity who 3lou ished between 919 and #01., in his 9es(onses e3e s to the cosmic changes in which the sun ose in the west and set in the east. 21 :he 4o an s(eaks o3 the !o d Eo3 two easts and o3 two wests,E 22 a sentence which ( esented much di33iculty to the eCegetes. ;ve hoes, the ; ab (hiloso(he o3 the twel3th centu y, w ote about the eastwa d and westwa d movements o3 the sun. 2$

9e3e ences to the eve sal o3 the movement o3 the sun that have been gathe ed he e do not e3e to one and the same time> the %eluge, the end o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom, the days o3 the ; give ty ants, we e se(a ated by many centu ies. :he t adition hea d by =e odotus in ?gy(t s(eaks o3 3ou eve sals. !ate in this book and again in the book that will deal with ea lie catast o(hes, I shall etu n to this sub<ect. ;t this (oint, I leave histo ical and lite a y evidence on the eve sal o3 ea thBs ca dinal (oints 3o the testimony o3 the natu al sciences on the eve sal o3 the magnetic (oles o3 the ea th.

777777777777777777777777777777 # =e odotus> ,k. ii, #22 (t ansl. ;. %. )odley, #92#). 2 Aose(h +calige > "(us de emendatione tem(o um (#029), III, #9.. 1 =umboldt> Vues des 'o dillT es, II, #1# (9esea ches, II, 10). 2 ;. 8iedemann> =e odots 5weites 9uch (#.90), (. $00> E:ie3e +tu3e seine natu wissenscha3tlichen 4enntnisse.E $ P. 6. de la Gaye in =istoi e de lBa t Ugy(tien by P isse dB;vennes (#.-9), (. 2#. 0 Pom(onius 6ela> %e situ o bis. i. 9. .. - 6ela, di33e ing 3 om =e odotus, com(uted the length o3 ?gy(tian histo y as eFual to 110 gene ations until ;masis (died /$2$) and 3igu ed it at mo e than thi teen thousand yea s. . =. ". !ange> E%e 6agische Pa(y us =a isE, 4. %anske Videnskabemes +elskab (#92-), (. $.. 9 Pa(y us I(uwe 2>.. '3. !angeBs ()e man) t anslation o3 the (a(y us ( +it5ungsbe ichte d. P euss. ;kad. de 8issenscha3ten I#901J, ((. 00#/0#0). #0 )a dine > Aou nal o3 ?gy(tian ; chaeology, I (#9#2)H 'amb idge ;ncient =isto y, I, 120. ## , easted> ;ncient 9eco ds o3 ?gy(t, III, +ec. #.. #2 !. +(eele s> !es :eCtes des Py amides (#921), I. #1 4. Piehl> Insc i(tions hiU ogly(hiFues, seconde sU ie (#.92), (. 0$> ElBouest Fui est \ lBoccident.E #2 ;. Pogo> E:he ;st onomical 'eiling %eco ation in the :omb o3 +enmut (LVIIIth %ynasty),E Isis (#910), (. 100. #$ Ibid., ((. 100, 1#$, 1#0. #0 Plato> :he +tatesman o Politicus (t ansl. =. N. Gowle , #92$), ((. 29, $1. #- :he G agments o3 +o(hocles, ed. by ;. '. Pea son (#9#-), III. $, G agment -1.H see also ibid., I, 91. :hose o3 the ) eek autho s who asc ibed a (e manent change in the di ection o3 the sun to the time o3 the ; give ty ant ;t eus, con3used two events and welded them into one> a lasting eve sal o3 west and east in ea lie times and a tem(o a y et og ade movement o3 the sun in the days o3 the ; give ty ants. #. ?u i(ides> ?lect a (t ansl. ;. +. 8ay), ##. -2-33. #9 +t abo> :he )eog a(hy, i, 2, #$. 20 ?ve y night sta s ise 3ou minutes ea lie > the ea th otates 100b times in a yea in elation to the sta s, but 10$b times in elation to the sun. 2# ?u i(ides> " estes (t ansl. ;. +. 8ay), ##. #00#33. 22 +eneca> :hyestes (t ansl. G. A. 6ille ), ##. -9233. 21 ; istotle> "n the =eavens, II, ii (t ansl. 8. 4. '. )uth ie, #919). '3. also Pluta ch, who, in his :he "(inions o3 the Philoso(he s, w ote that acco ding to Pythago as, Plato, and ; istotle, Eeast is the ight side, and west is the le3t side.E 22 Plato> !aws (t ansl. 9. ). ,u y, #920), ,k. iv, ##. -00 %. 2$ Plato> :imaeus (t ansl. ,u y, #929), 21 , and '. 20 '3. ,u yBs comments to :imaeus, notes, ((. -2, .0. 2- Plato> :imaeus, 21 % and ?. 2. +ee 3o lite atu e G a5e Bs note to ?(itome II in his t anslation o3 ;(ollodo usH 8iedemann> =e odots 5weites ,uch, (. $00H Pea son> :he G agments o3 +o(hocles, III, note to G agment -1.. 29 +olinus> Polyhisto , CCCii. 10 ,ellamy> 6oons, 6yths and 6an, (. 09. 1# Ibid. 12 '. Vi olleaud> E!a deesse ;nat,E 6ission de 9as +ham a, Vol. IV (#91.). 11 =umboldt> 9esea ches, I, 1$#. +ee also by the same autho , ?Camen c itiFue de lBhistoi e de la gUog a(hie du nouveau continent (#.10/#.19), II, 1$$. 12 +ele > )esammelte ;bhandlungen, II, -99. 1$ +ele , (e (leCed by the statement o3 the old 6eCican sou ces that the sun moved towa d the east, w ites> E:he t aveling towa d the east and the disa((ea ance in the east ... must be unde stood lite ally ... =oweve , one cannot imagine the sun as wande ing eastwa d> the sun and the enti e 3i mament o3 the 3iCed sta s t avel westwa d.E E?iniges Ybe die natY lichen ) undlagen meCicanische 6ythenE (#90-) in )esammelte ;bhandlungen, Vol. III. 10 Ibid. ;lso , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue, I, #21. 1- +ele > Ecbe die natY lichen ) undlagen,E )esammelte ;bhandlungen, III, 120. 1. "l ik> 9agna Wk, (. 20-.

19 +ee 6. +teinschneide > =eb ^ische ,ibliog a(hie (#.--), Vol. LVIII. 20 : actate +anhed in #0.b. 2# +teinschneide > =eb ^ische ,ibliog a(hie, Vol. LVIII, ((. 0#33. 22 )in5be g> !egends, I, 09. 21 :aam Dekenim $$b, $.b. 22 4o an> +u a !V. 2$ +teinschneide > =eb ^ische ,ibliog a(hie, Vol. LVIII. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 9eve sed Pola ity o3 the ?a th

; thunde bolt, on st iking a magnet, eve ses the (oles o3 the magnet. :he te est ial globe is a huge magnet. ; sho t ci cuit between it and anothe celestial body could esult in the no th and south magnetic (oles o3 the ea th eCchanging (laces. It is (ossible to detect in the geological eco ds o3 the ea th the o ientation o3 the te est ial magnetic 3ield in (ast ages. E8hen lava cools and 3 ee5es 3ollowing a volcanic outbu st, it takes u( a (e manent magneti5ation de(endent u(on the o ientation o3 the ?a thBs magnetic 3ield at the time. :his, because o3 small ca(acity 3o magneti5ation in the ?a thBs magnetic 3ield a3te 3 ee5ing, may emain ( actically constant. I3 this assum(tion be co ect, the di ection o3 the o iginally acFui ed (e manent magneti5ation can be dete mined by tests in the labo ato y, ( ovided that eve y detail o3 the o ientation o3 the mass tested is ca e3ully noted and ma ked when it is emoved.E # 8e would eC(ect to 3ind a 3ull eve sal o3 magnetic di ection. ;lthough e(eated heating o3 lava and ocks can change the (ictu e, the e must have emained ocks with inve ted (ola ity. ;nothe autho w ites> E?Camination o3 magneti5ation o3 some igneous ocks eveals that they a e (ola i5ed o((ositely 3 om the ( evailing ( esent di ection o3 the local magnetic 3ield and many o3 the olde ocks a e less st ongly magneti5ed than mo e ecent ones. "n the assum(tion that the magneti5ation o3 the ocks occu ed when the magma cooled and that the ocks have held thei ( esent (ositions since that time, this would indicate that the (ola ity o3 the ?a th has been com(letely eve sed within ecent geological times.E 2 ,ecause the (hysical 3acts seemed enti ely inconsistent with eve y cosmological theo y, the autho o3 the above (assage was cautious not to d aw 3u the conclusions 3 om them. :he eve sed (ola ity o3 lava indicates that in ecent geological times the magnetic (oles o3 the globe we e eve sedH when they had a ve y di33e ent o ientation, abundant 3lows o3 lava took (lace. ;dditional ( oblems, and o3 a la ge sco(e, a e> whethe the (osition o3 the magnetic (oles has anything to do with the di ection o3 otation o3 the globe, and whethe the e is an inte de(endence in the di ection o3 the magnetic (oles o3 the sun and o3 the (lanets.
777777777777777777777777777777 # A. ;. Gleming> E:he ?a thBs 6agnetism and 6agnetic +u veysE in :e est ial 6agnetism and ?lect icity, ed. by A. ;. Gleming (#919), (. 12. 2 ;. 6cNish> E"n 'auses o3 the ?a thBs 6agnetism and Its 'hangesE in :e est ial 6agnetism and ?lect icity, ed. by Gleming, (. 120. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he Kua te s o3 the 8o ld %is(laced

:he t aditions gathe ed in the section be3o e last e3e to va ious e(ochsH actually, =e odotus and 6ela say that acco ding to ?gy(tian annals, the eve sal o3 the west and east ecu ed> the sun ose in the west, then in the east, once mo e in the west, and again in the

east. 8as the cosmic catast o(he that te minated a wo ld age in the days o3 the 3all o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom and o3 the ?Codus one o3 these occasions, and did the ea th change the di ection o3 its otation at that timeM I3 we cannot asse t this much, we can at least maintain that the ea th did not emain on the same o bit, no did its (oles stay in thei (laces, no was the di ection o3 the aCis the same as be3o e. :he (osition o3 the globe and its cou se we e not settled when the ea th 3i st came into contact with the on ushing cometH in PlatoBs te ms, al eady (a tly Fuoted, the motion o3 the ea th was changed by Eblocking o3 the cou seE and went th ough Eshaking o3 the evolutionsE with Edis u(tu es o3 eve y (ossible kind,E so that the (osition o3 the ea th became Eat one time eve sed, at anothe obliFue, and again u(side down,E and it wande ed Eeve y way in all siC di ections.E :he :almud and othe ancient abbinical sou ces tell o3 g eat distu bances in the sola movement at the time o3 the ?Codus and the Passage o3 the +ea and the !awgiving. # In old 6id ashim it is e(eatedly na ated that 3ou times the sun was 3o ced out o3 its cou se in the 3ew weeks between the day o3 the ?Codus and the day o3 the !awgiving. 2 :he ( olonged da kness (and ( olonged day in the Ga ?ast) and the ea thshock (i.e., the ninth and the tenth (lagues) and the wo ld con3lag ation we e the esult o3 one o3 these distu bances in the motion o3 the ea th. ; 3ew days late , i3 we 3ollow the biblical na ation, immediately be3o e the hu icane changed its di ection, Ethe (illa o3 cloud went 3 om be3o e thei 3aces and stood behind themEH this means that the column o3 3i e and smoke tu ned about and a((ea ed 3 om the o((osite di ection. 6ountainous tides uncove ed the bottom o3 the seaH a s(a k s( ang between two celestial bodiesH and Eat the tu ning o3 the mo ning,E 1 the tides 3ell in a cataclysmic avalanche. :he 6id ashim s(eak o3 a distu bance in the sola movement on the day o3 the Passage> the sun did not ( oceed on its cou se. 2 "n that day, acco ding to the Psalms (-0>.), Ethe ea th 3ea ed and was still.E It is (ossible that ;mos (.>./9) is eviving the memo y o3 this event when he mentions the E3lood o3 ?gy(t,E at the time Ethe ea th was cast out o3 the sea, and d y land was swallowed by the sea,E and Ethe sun was b ought down at noon,E although, as I show late on, ;mos might have e3e ed to a cosmic catast o(he o3 a mo e ecent date. ;lso, the day o3 the !awgiving, when the wo lds collided again, was, acco ding to nume ous abbinical sou ces, a day o3 unusual length> the motion o3 the sun was distu bed. $ "n this occasion, and gene ally in the days and months 3ollowing the Passage, the gloom, the heavy and cha ged clouds, the lightning, and the hu icanes, aside 3 om the devastation by ea thFuake and 3lood, made obse vation ve y di33icult, i3 not im(ossible. E:hey walk on in da kness> all the 3oundations o3 the ea th a e out o3 cou seE (Psalms .2>$) is a meta(ho used by the Psalmist. :he Pa(y us I(uwe , which says that Ethe ea th tu ned ove like a (otte Bs wheelE and Ethe ea th is u(side down,E was w itten by an eyewitness o3 the (lagues and the ?Codus. 0 :he change is desc ibed also in the wo ds o3 anothe (a(y us (=a is) which I have Fuoted once be3o e> E:he south becomes no th, and the ea th tu ns ove .E 8hethe the e was a com(lete eve sal o3 the ca dinal (oints as a esult o3 the cosmic catast o(he o3 the days o3 the ?Codus, o only a substantial shi3t, is a ( oblem not solved he e. :he answe was not a((a ent even to contem(o a ies, at least 3o a numbe o3 decades. In the gloom that endu ed 3o a gene ation, obse vations we e im(ossible, and ve y di33icult when the light began to b eak th ough. :he 4alevala elates that Ed eaded shadesE envelo(ed the ea th, and Ethe sun occasionally ste(s 3 om his accustomed (ath.E - :hen @kko/Au(ite st uck 3i e 3 om the sun to light a new sun and a new moon, and a new wo ld age began. In VWlus(a (Poetic ?dda) o3 the Icelande s we ead> No knowledge she Ithe sunJ had whe e he home should be,

:he moon knew not what was his, :he sta s knew not whe e thei stations we e. :hen the gods set o de among the heavenly bodies. :he ;5tecs elated> E:he e had been no sun in eCistence 3o many yea s ... I:he chie3sJ began to (ee th ough the gloom in all di ections 3o the eC(ected light, and to make bets as to what (a t o3 heaven he Ithe sunJ should 3i st a((ea in. +ome said B=e e,B and some said B:he eBH but when the sun ose, they we e all ( oved w ong, 3o not one o3 them had 3iCed u(on the east.E . +imila ly, the 6ayan legend tells that Eit was not known 3 om whe e the new sun would a((ea .E E:hey looked in all di ections, but they we e unable to say whe e the sun would ise. +ome thought it would take (lace in the no th and thei glances we e tu ned in that di ection. "the s thought it would be in the south. ;ctually, thei guesses included all di ections because the dawn shone all a ound. +ome, howeve , 3iCed thei attention on the o ient, and maintained that the sun would come 3 om the e. It was thei o(inion that ( oved to be co ect.E 9 ;cco ding to the 'om(endium o3 8ong/shi/+hing (#$20/#$90), it was in the Eage a3te the chaos, when heaven and ea th had <ust se(a ated, that is, when the g eat mass o3 cloud <ust li3ted 3 om the ea th,E that the heaven showed its 3ace. #0 In the 6id ashim it is said that du ing the wande ing in the dese t the Is aelites did not see the 3ace o3 the sun because o3 the clouds. :hey we e also unable to o ient themselves on thei ma ch. ## :he eC( ession e(eatedly used in the ,ooks o3 Numbe s and Aoshua, Ethe east, to the sun ising,E #2 is not tautology, but a de3inition, which, by the way, testi3ies to the ancient o igin o3 the lite a y mate ials that se ved as sou ces 3o these booksH it is an eC( ession that has its counte (a t in the ?gy(tian Ethe west which is at the sun/setting.E :he cosmological allego y o3 the ) eeks has Deus, ushing on his way to engage :y(hon in combat, steal ?u o(a (? ev, the evening land) and ca y he to the west. ; abia (also ? ev) ke(t its name, Ethe evening land,E #1 though it lies to the east o3 the cente s o3 civili5ation / ?gy(t, Palestine, ) eece. ?usebius, one o3 the Gathe s o3 the 'hu ch, assigned the Deus/ ?u o(a e(isode to the time o3 6oses and the %eucalion Glood, and ;ugustine w ote that ?u o(a was ca ied by the king o3 ' ete to his island in the west, EbetwiCt the de(a tu e o3 Is ael out o3 ?gy(t and the death o3 Aoshua.E #2 :he ) eeks, like othe (eo(les, s(oke o3 the eve sal o3 the Fua te s o3 the ea th and not me ely in allego ies but in lite al te ms. :he eve sal o3 the ea thBs otation, e3e ed to in the w itten and o al sou ces o3 many (eo(les, suggests the elation o3 one o3 these events to the cataclysm o3 the day o3 the ?Codus. !ike the Fuoted (assage 3 om Visuddhi/6agga, the ,uddhist teCt, and the cited t adition o3 the 'ashinaua t ibe in weste n , a5il, the ve sions o3 the t ibes and (eo(les o3 all 3ive continents include the same elements, 3amilia to us 3 om the ,ook o3 ?Codus> lightning and Ethe bu sting o3 heaven,E which caused the ea th to be tu ned Eu(side down,E o Eheaven and ea th to change (laces.E "n the ;ndaman Islands the natives a e a3 aid that a natu al catast o(he will cause the wo ld to tu n ove . #$ In ) eenland also the ?skimos 3ea that the ea th will tu n ove . #0 'u iously enough, the cause o3 such (e tu bation is evealed in belie3s like that o3 the (eo(le o3 Glande s in G ance. :hus we ead> EIn 6enin (Glande s) the (easants say, on seeing a comet> B:he sky is going to 3allH the ea th is tu ning ove NBE #777777777777777777777777777777 # +ee, e.g., the ,abylonian :almud, : actate :aanit 20H : actate ;voda Da a 2$a. 2 Pi kei 9abbi ?liese 2#H )in5be g> !egends, VI, 2$/20. 1 9ashi, the commentato , is su ( ised by the combination o3 the wo ds, Eat the tu ning o3 the mo ningE (Eli3not haboke E). :he wo d Eli3notE (3 om E(anaE), when used with e3e ence to time, means Eto tu n awayE o Eto go

down.E :he wo d is a((lied he e, not to Eday,E which goes down, but to the mo ning, which ises, changes to day, but does not go down. 2 6id ash Psikta 9abotiH !ikutim 6imid ash ?le =adva im (ed. ,ube , #..$). $ )in5be g> !egends, III, #09. 0 +ee the +ection, E:he 9ed 8o ldE, (.$#, note 2. - A. 6. ' aw3o d in the P e3ace to his t anslation o3 4alevala. . Kuoted by I. %onnelly> 9agna ok, (. 2#$, 3 om ;nd es de "lmos. %onnelly thought that this t adition signi3ied that Ein the long/continued da kness they had lost all knowledge o3 the ca dinal (ointsEH he did not conside that it might e3e to the dis(lacement o3 the ca dinal (oints. 9 +ahagun> =isto ia gene al de las cosas de Nueva ?s(a[a, ,k. VII, 'ha(. 2. #0 Kuoted by %onnelly> 9agna ok, (. 2#0. ## ?Codus #2>1H Numbe s #0>1#. #2 Numbe s 2>1H 12>#$H Aoshua #9>#2. #1 '3. Isaiah 2#>#1. In Ae emiah 2$>20 the name E; abE is used to denote Ea mingled (eo(le.E #2 ?usebius> 8e ke, Vol. V, %ie 'h onik (t ansl. A. 4a st, #9##), E'h onikon 4anonEH +t. ;ugustine> :he 'ity o3 )od, ,k. LVIII, 'ha(. #2. #$ =astings> E?schatology,E ?ncyclo(edia o3 9eligion and ?thics. #0 "l ik> 9agna Wk. (. 200. #- 9evue des t aditions (o(ulai es, LVII (#902/#901), $-#. 777777777777777777777777777777

'hanges in the :imes and the +easons

6any agents collabo ated to change the climate. Insolation was im(ai ed by heavy clouds o3 dust, and the adiation o3 heat 3 om the ea th was eFually hinde ed. # =eat was gene ated by the ea thBs contacts with anothe celestial bodyH the ea th was emoved to an o bit 3a the 3 om the sunH the (ola egions we e dis(lacedH oceans and seas eva(o ated and the va(o s ( eci(itated as snow on new (ola egions and in the highe latitudes in a long Gimbul/winte and 3o med new ice sheetsH the aCis on which the ea th otated (ointed in a di33e ent di ection, and the o de o3 the seasons was distu bed. +( ing 3ollows winte and 3all 3ollows summe because the ea th otates on an aCis inclined towa d the (lane o3 its evolution a ound the sun. +hould this aCis become (e (endicula to that (lane, the e would be no seasons on the ea th. +hould it change its di ection, the seasons would change thei intensity and thei o de . :he ?gy(tian (a(y us known as Pa(y us ;nastasi IV contains a com(laint about gloom and the absence o3 sola lightH it says also> E:he winte is come as (instead o3) summe , the months a e eve sed and the hou s a e diso de ed.E 2 E:he b eath o3 heaven is out o3 ha mony ... :he 3ou seasons do not obse ve thei ( o(e times,E we ead in the :eCts o3 :aoism. 1 In the histo ical memoi s o3 +e/6a :sBien, as in the annals o3 the +hu 4ing which we have al eady Fuoted, it is said that ?m(e o *ahou sent ast onome s to the Valley o3 "bscu ity and to the +omb e 9esidence to obse ve the new movements o3 the sun and o3 the moon and the sy5ygies o the o bital (oints o3 the con<unctions, also Eto investigate and to in3o m the (eo(le o3 the o de o3 the seasons.E 2 It is also said that *ahou int oduced a calenda e3o m> he b ought the seasons into acco d with the obse vationsH he did the same with the monthsH and he Eco ected the days.E $ Pluta ch gives the 3ollowing desc i(tion o3 a de angement o3 seasons> E:he thickened ai concealed the heaven 3 om view, and the sta s we e con3used with a diso de ly huddle o3 3i e and moistu e and violent 3luCions o3 winds. :he sun was not 3iCed to an unwande ing and ce tain cou se, so as to distinguish o ient and "ccident, no did he b ing back the seasons in o de .E 0 In anothe wo k o3 his, Pluta ch asc ibes these changes to :y(hon, Ethe dest uctive, diseased and diso de ly,E who caused Eabno mal seasons and tem(e atu es.E -

It is cha acte istic that in the w itten t aditions o3 the (eo(les o3 antiFuity the diso de o3 the seasons is di ectly connected with the de angement in the motion o3 the heavenly bodies. :he o al t aditions o3 ( imitive (eo(les in va ious (a ts o3 the wo ld also etain memo ies o3 this change in the movement o3 the heavenly bodies, the seasons, the 3low o3 time, du ing a (e iod when da kness envelo(ed the wo ld. ;s an eCam(le I Fuote the t adition o3 the " aibi in ; i5ona. :hey say that the 3i mament hung low and the wo ld was da k, and no sun, no moon, no sta s we e seen. E:he (eo(le mu mu ed because o3 the da kness and the cold.E :hen the (lanet god 6achito Ea((ointed times, and seasons, and ways 3o the heavenly bodies.E . ;mong the Incas the Eguiding (owe in egulating the seasons and the cou ses o3 the heavenly bodiesE was @i a/cocha. E:he sun, the moon, the day, the night, s( ing, winte , a e not o dained in vain by thee, " @i a/cocha.E 9 :he ;me ican sou ces, which s(eak o3 a wo ld colo ed ed, o3 a ain o3 3i e, o3 wo ld con3lag ation, o3 new ising mountains, o3 3 ightening (o tents in the sky, o3 a twenty/3ive/ yea gloom, im(ly also that Ethe o de o3 the seasons was alte ed at that e(och.E E:he ast onome s and geologists whose conce n is all this ... should <udge o3 the causes which could e33ect the de angement o3 the day and could cove the ea th with teneb osity,E w ote a cle gyman who s(ent many yea s in 6eCico and in the lib a ies o3 the "ld 8o ld which sto e ancient manusc i(ts o3 the 6ayas and wo ks o3 ea ly Indian and +(anish autho s about them. #0 It did not occu to him that the biblical na ative o3 the time o3 the ?Codus contains the same elements. 8ith the end o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom in ?gy(t, when the Is aelites le3t that count y, the old o de o3 seasons came to an end and a new wo ld age began. :he Gou th ,ook o3 ?5 a, which bo ows 3 om some ea lie sou ces, e3e s to the Eend o3 the seasonsE in these wo ds> EI sent him I6osesJ and led my (eo(le out o3 ?gy(t, and b ought them to 6ount +inai, and held him by me 3o many days. I told him many wond ous things, showed him the sec ets o3 the times, decla ed to him the end o3 the seasons.E ## ,ecause o3 va ious simultaneous changes in the movement o3 the ea th and the moon, and because obse vation o3 the sky was hinde ed when it was hidden in smoke and clouds, the calenda could not be co ectly com(utedH the changed lengths o3 the yea , the month, and the day eFui ed ( olonged, unobst ucted obse vation. :he wo ds o3 the 6id ashim, that 6oses was unable to unde stand the newB calenda , e3e to this situationH Ethe sec ets o3 the calenda E (Esod ha/avou E), o mo e ( ecisely, Ethe sec et o3 the t ansitionE 3 om one time/ eckoning to anothe , was evealed to 6oses, but he had di33iculty in com( ehending it. 6o eove , it is said in abbinical sou ces that in the time o3 6oses the cou se o3 the heavenly bodies became con3ounded. #2 :he month o3 the ?Codus, which occu ed in the s( ing, became the 3i st month o3 the yea > E:his month shall be unto you the beginning o3 months> it shall be the 3i st month o3 the yea to you.E #1 :hus, the st ange situation was c eated in the Aewish calenda that the New *ea is obse ved in the seventh month o3 the yea > the beginning o3 the calenda yea was moved to a (oint about hal3 a yea away 3 om the New *ea in the autumn. 8ith the 3all o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom and the ?Codus, one o3 the g eat wo ld ages came to its end. :he 3ou Fua te s o3 the wo ld we e dis(laced, and neithe the o bit no the (oles no , ( obably, the di ection o3 otation emained the same. :he calenda had to be ad<usted anew. :he ast onomical values o3 the yea and the day could not be the same be3o e and a3te an u(heaval in which, as the Fuoted Pa(y us ;nastasi IV says, the months we e eve sed and Ethe hou s diso de ed.E :he length o3 the yea du ing the 6iddle 4ingdom is not known 3 om any contem(o aneous document. ,ecause in the Py amid teCts dating 3 om the "ld 4ingdom the e is mention o3

E3ive days,E it was e oneously concluded that in that (e iod a yea o3 10$ days was al eady known. #2 ,ut no insc i(tion o3 the "ld o 6iddle 4ingdom has been 3ound in which mention is made o3 a yea o3 10$ days o even 100 days. Neithe is any e3e ence to a yea o3 10$ days o to E3ive daysE 3ound in the ve y nume ous insc i(tions o3 the New 4ingdom ( io to the dynasties o3 the seventh centu y. #$ :hus the in3e ence that Ethe 3ive daysE o3 the Py amid :eCts o3 the "ld 4ingdom signi3y the 3ive days ove 100 is not well 3ounded. :he e eCists a di ect statement 3ound as a gloss on a manusc i(t o3 :imaeus that a calenda o3 a sola yea o3 th ee hund ed and siCty days was int oduced by the =yksos a3te the 3all o3 the 6iddle 4ingdomH #0 the calenda yea o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom a((a ently had 3ewe days. :he 3act I ho(e to be able to establish is that 3 om the 3i3teenth centu y to the eighth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a the ast onomical yea was eFual to 100 daysH neithe be3o e the 3i3teenth centu y, no a3te the eighth centu y was the yea o3 this length. In a late cha(te o3 this wo k eCtensive mate ial will be ( esented to demonst ate this (oint. #:he numbe o3 days in a yea du ing the 6iddle 4ingdom was less than 100H the ea th then evolved on an o bit somewhat close to the ( esent o bit o3 Venus. ;n investigation into the length o3 the ast onomical yea du ing the (e iods o3 the "ld and 6iddle 4ingdoms is ese ved 3o that (a t o3 this wo k which will deal with the cosmic catast o(hes that occu ed be3o e the beginning o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom o3 ?gy(t. =e e I give s(ace to an old 6id ashic sou ce which, taking issue with a cont adiction in the sc i(tu al teCts e3e ing to the length o3 time the Is aelites so<ou ned in ?gy(t, maintains that E)od hastened the cou se o3 the (lanets du ing Is aelBs stay in ?gy(t,E so that the sun com(leted 200 evolutions du ing the s(ace o3 2#0 egula yea s. #. :hese 3igu es must not be taken as co ect, since the intention was to econcile two biblical teCts, but the e3e ence to the di33e ent motion o3 the (lanets in the (e iod o3 the Is aelitesB stay in ?gy(t du ing the 6iddle 4ingdom is wo th mentioning. In 6id ash 9abba, #9 it is said on the autho ity o3 9abbi +imon that a new wo ld o de came into being with the end o3 the siCth wo ld age at the evelation on 6ount +inai. E:he e was a weakening (EmetashE) o3 the c eation. =ithe to wo ld time was counted, but hence3o th we count it by a di33e ent eckoning.E 6id ash 9abba e3e s also to Ethe g eate length o3 time taken by some (lanets.E #9
777777777777777777777777777777 # '3. the wo ks o3 ; hemus on the in3luence o3 ca bon dioCide in the atmos(he e on the tem(e atu e, and A. :yndall (=eat a 6ode o3 6otion, 0th ed., ((. 2#-/2#.) on the in3luence o the climate o3 a theo etical laye o3 ole3iant gas su ounding ou ea th at a sho t distance above its su 3ace. 2 ;. ? man> ?gy(tian !ite atu e (#92-). ( 109. '3. also A. Vandie > !a Gamine dans lB?gy(te ancienne (#910), (. ##.> E!es mois sont \ lBenve s, et les heu es se con3ondentE ( Pa(y us ;nastasi IV, #0), and 9. 8eill> ,ases, mUthodes, et Usultats de la ch onologie Ugy(tienne (#920), (. $$. 1 :eCts o3 :aoism (t ansl. !egge), I, 10#. 2 !es 6emoi es histo iFues de +e/ma :sBien (t ansl. ?. 'havannes, #.9$), (. 2-. $ Ibid., (. 02. 0 Pluta ch> E"3 ?ating o3 Glesh,E 6o als (t ansl. Eby seve al hands,E evised by 8. )oodwin, ed. #.9.). - Pluta ch> Isis and "si is, 29. . %onnelly> 9agna ok, (. 2#2. 9 '. 6a kham> :he Incas o3 Pe u, ((. 9-/9.. #0 , asseu > +ou ces de lBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue, ((. 2./29. In his late wo k Kuat e lett es su 6eCiFue (#.0.), , asseu came to the conclusion that a stu(endous catast o(he occu ed in ;me ica and that mig ating t ibes ca ied the echo o3 this catast o(he to many (eo(les o3 the wo ld ## IV ?5 a #2>2. #2 Pi kei 9abbi ?liese .H !eket 6id ashim 2aH )in5be g> !egends, VI, 22. #1 ?Codus #2>2. #2 , easted> ; =isto y o3 ?gy(t, (. #2. #$ :he table o3 the dynasties in ?gy(t and thei ch onological o de a e the sub<ect o3 the 3o thcoming ;ges in 'haos.

#0 +ee ,issing> )eschichte dgy(tens (#902), ((. 1#, 11H 8eill> 'h onologie Ugy(tienne, (. 12. ,ut c3. also E:he ,ook o3 +othisE o3 Pseudo/6anetho in 6anetho (t ansl. 8addell), !oeb 'lassical !ib a yH the e the int oduction o3 the e3o m o3 adding 3ive days to a yea o3 100 days is asc ibed to the =yksos 4ing ;seth, who also int oduced the wo shi( o3 the bull cal3 ;(is. #- +ee Pa t II, 'ha(te ., E:he *ea o3 100 %aysE. #. ;n unknown 6id ash Fuoted in +hita 6ekubet5et, Neda im 1#bH see )in5be g> !egends, V, 220. #9 6id ash 9abbah> ,e eshit (ed. G eedman and +imon), iC, #2. #9 Ibid., (. -1, 3ootnote o3 the edito s. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he +hadow o3 %eath

'ha(te 0

;N ?N:I9? *?;9 a3te the e u(tion o3 4 akatoa in the ?ast/Indies in #..1, sunset and sun ise in both hemis(he es we e ve y colo 3ul. !ava dust sus(ended in the ai and ca ied a ound the globe accounted 3o this (henomenon. # In #-.1, a3te the e u(tion o3 +ka(ta /Aokull in Iceland, the wo ld was da kened 3o monthsH eco ds o3 this (henomenon a e 3ound in many contem(o a y autho s. "ne )e man contem(o a y com(a ed the gloomy wo ld o3 the yea #-.1 with the ?gy(tian (lague o3 da kness. 2 :he wo ld was gloomy in the yea o3 'aesa Bs death, /22. E;3te the mu de o3 'aesa the dictato and du ing the ;ntonine wa ,E the e was Ealmost a whole yea Bs continuous gloom,E w ote Pliny. 1 Vi gil desc ibed this yea in these wo ds> E:he sun ... veiled his shining 3ace in dusky gloom, and godless age 3ea ed eve lasting night ... )e many hea d the clash o3 a ms th ough all the skyH the ;l(s ocked with unwonted te o s ... and s(ect es, (ale in wond ous wise, we e seen at evening twilight.E 2 "n +e(tembe 21, /22, a sho t while a3te the death o3 'aesa , on the ve y day when "ctavian (e 3o med the ites in hono o3 the deceased, a comet became visible at daytimeH it was ve y b ight and moved 3 om no th to west. It was seen 3o only a 3ew days and vanished while still in the no th. $ It a((ea s that the gloom which envelo(ed the wo ld the yea a3te 'aesa Bs death was caused by the dust o3 the comet dis(e sed in the atmos(he e. :he Eclash o3 a msE hea d Eth ough all the skyE was ( obably the sound that accom(anied the ent ance o3 the gases and dust into the ea thBs atmos(he e. I3 the e u(tion o3 a single volcano can da ken the atmos(he e ove the enti e globe, a simultaneous and ( olonged e u(tion o3 thousands o3 volcanoes would blacken the sky. ;nd i3 the dust o3 the comet o3 /22 had a da kening e33ect, contact o3 the ea th with a g eat cinde /t ailing comet o3 the 3i3teenth centu y be3o e this e a could likewise cause the blackening o3 the sky. ;s this comet activated all the volcanoes and c eated new ones, the cumulative action o3 the e u(tions and o3 the cometBs dust must have satu ated the atmos(he e with 3loating (a ticles. Volcanoes vomit wate va(o as well as cinde s. :he heating e33ect o3 the contact o3 the globe with the comet must have caused a g eat eva(o ation 3 om the su 3ace o3 the seas and ive s. :wo kinds o3 clouds / wate va(o and dust / we e 3o med. :he clouds obscu ed the sky, and d i3ting ve y low, hung as a 3og. :he veil le3t by the gaseous t ail o3 the hostile sta and the smoke o3 the volcanoes caused da kness, not com(lete, but ( o3ound. :his condition ( evailed 3o decades, and only ve y g adually did the dust subside and the wate va(o s condense. E E; vast night eigned ove all the ;me ican land, o3 which t adition s(eaks unanimously> in a sense the sun no longe eCisted 3o this uined wo ld which was lighted u( at inte vals only by 3 ight3ul con3lag ations, evealing the 3ull ho o o3 thei situation to the small numbe o3 human beings that had esca(ed 3 om these calamities.E 0 EGollowing the cataclysm caused by the wate s, the autho o3 the 'odeC 'himal(o(oca, in his histo y o3 the suns, shows us te i3ying celestial (henomena, twice 3ollowed by da kness that cove ed the 3ace o3 the ea th, in one instance 3o a (e iod o3 twenty3ive yea s.E E:his 3act is mentioned in the 'odeC 'himal(o(oca and in most o3 the t aditions o3 6eCico.E )Zma a, the +(ania d who came to the 8este n =emis(he e in the middle o3 the siCteenth centu y, sho tly a3te the conFuest, w ote> . E;3te the dest uction o3 the 3ou th sun, the wo ld (lunged in da kness du ing the s(ace o3 twenty/3ive yea s. ;mid this ( o3ound

obscu ity, ten yea s be3o e the a((ea ance o3 the 3i3th sun, mankind was egene ated.E In the yea s o3 this gloom, when the wo ld was cove ed with clouds and sh ouded in mist, the KuichU t ibe mig ated to 6eCico, c ossing a sea envelo(ed in a sombe 3og. 9 In the so/ called 6anusc i(t KuichU it is also na ated that the e was Blittle light on the su 3ace o3 the ea th ... the 3aces o3 the sun and o3 the moon we e cove ed with clouds.E #0 In the ? mitage Pa(y us in !ening ad ( eviously mentioned the e a e lamentations about a te ible catast o(he, when heaven and ea th tu ned u(side down (EI show thee the land u(side downH it ha((ened that which neve had ha((enedE). ;3te this catast o(he, da kness cove ed the ea th> E:he sun is veiled and shines not in the sight o3 men. None can live when the sun is veiled by clouds ... None knoweth that midday is the eH the shadow is not disce ned ... Not da55led is the sight when he Ithe sunJ is beheldH he is in the sky like the moon.E ## In this desc i(tion the light o3 the sun is com(a ed to the light o3 the moonH but even in the light o3 the moon ob<ects cast a shadow. I3 the midday could not be disce ned, the disc o3 the sun was not clea ly visible, and only its di33used light made the day di33e ent 3 om the night. :he gloom g adually li3ted with the (assing yea s as the clouds became less thickH little by little the sky and the sun a((ea ed less and less veiled. :he yea s o3 da kness in ?gy(t a e desc ibed in a numbe o3 othe documents. :he Pa(y us I(uwe , which contains the sto y o3 the (lagues o3 ?gy(t, says that the land is without light Ida kJ. #2 In the Pa(y us ;nastasi IV the yea s o3 mise y a e desc ibed, and it is said> E:he sun, it hath come to (ass that it iseth not.E #1 It was the time o3 the wande ing o3 the Is aelites in the dese t. #2 Is the e any indication that the dese t was da kM Ae emiah says (2>0)> ENeithe said they, 8he e is the !o d that b ought us u( out o3 the land o3 ?gy(t, that led us th ough the wilde ness, th ough a land o3 dese ts and o3 (its, th ough a land o3 d ought, and o3 the shadow o3 death, th ough a land that no man (assed th ough, and whe e no man dweltME :he Eshadow o3 deathE is elated to the time o3 the wande ings in the dese t a3te the ?Codus 3 om ?gy(t. :he siniste meaning o3 the wo ds Eshadow o3 deathE co es(onds with the desc i(tion o3 the ? mitage Pa(y us> ENone can live when the sun is veiled by clouds.E ;t inte vals the ea th was lighted by con3lag ations in the dese t. #$ :he (henomenon o3 gloom endu ing 3o yea s im( essed itsel3 on the memo y o3 the :welve : ibes and is mentioned in many (assages o3 the ,ible> E:hou hast ... cove ed us with the shadow o3 deathE (Psalms 22>#9)H E:he (eo(le that walked in da kness ... in the land o3 the shadow o3 deathE (Isaiah 9>2). :he Is aelites Ewande ed in the wilde ness in a solita y way ... hung y and thi sty, thei soul 3ainted in them,E and the !o d Eb ought them out o3 da kness and the shadow o3 deathE (Psalms #0-)H E:he te o s o3 the shadow o3 deathE (Aob 22>#-). In Aob 1. the !o d s(eaks> E8ho shut u( the sea with doo s Iba ie sJ, when it b ake 3o th ... 8hen I made the cloud the ga ment the eo3, and thick da kness a swaddling band 3o it ... and caused the days( ing to know his (laceH that it might take hold o3 the ends o3 the ea th, that the wicked might be shaken out o3 itME #0 :he low and slowly d i3ting clouds ensh ouded the wande e s in the dese t. :hese clouds dimly glowed at nightH thei u((e (o tion e3lected the sunlight. :he glow being (ale du ing the day and ed a3te sunset, the Is aelites we e able to distinguish between day and night. #- :hey we e ( otected by the clouds 3 om the sun du ing the wande ing in the dese t, and acco ding to the 6id ashic lite atu e, they saw sun and moon 3o the 3i st time only at the end o3 the wande ing. #. :he clouds that cove ed the dese t du ing the wande ing o3 the :welve : ibes we e called a Ecelestial ga mentE o Eclouds o3 glo y.E E=e s( ead a cloud 3o a cove ingH and 3i e to give light in the night.E E;nd the cloud o3 the !o d was u(on them by day.E #9 Go days o months the cloud ta ied in one (lace, and the Is aelites E<ou neyed notEH but when the

cloud moved, the wande e s 3ollowed it, and eve ed it because o3 its celestial o igin. 20 In ; abic sou ces, too, we ead that the ;malekites, who le3t =ed<a5 because o3 (lagues, 3ollowed the cloud in thei wande ing th ough the dese t. 2# "n thei way to Palestine and ?gy(t they met the Is aelites, and in the battles between them the sc een o3 clouds (layed an im(o tant (a t. 22 Nihongi, a ch onicle o3 Aa(an 3 om the ea liest (e iod, e3e s to a time when the e was Econtinuous da knessE and Eno di33e ence o3 day and night.E It desc ibes in the name o3 the ?m(e o 4ami *amato an ancient time when Ethe wo ld was given ove to wides( ead desolationH it was an age o3 da kness and diso de . In this gloom =iko/ho/no/ninigi/no/ 6ikoto 3oste ed <ustice, and so gove ned this weste n bo de .E 21 In 'hina the annals telling o3 the time o3 the ?m(e o *ahou e3e to the Valley o3 "bscu ity and to the +omb e 9esidence as (laces o3 ast onomical obse vations. 22 :he name Eshadow o3 deathE eC( esses the in3luence o3 the sunless gloom u(on the li3e ( ocesses. :he 'hinese annals o3 8ong/shi/+hing, in the cha(te dealing with the :en +tems (the ten stages o3 the ea thBs ( imeval histo y), elate that Eat 8u, the siCth stem ... da kness dest oys the g owth o3 all things.E 2$ ,uddhist schola s decla e that with the beginning o3 the siCth wo ld age o Esun,E Ethe whole wo ld becomes 3illed with smoke and satu ated with g easiness o3 that smoke.E :he e is Eno distinction o3 day and night.E :he gloom is caused by a Ecycle/dest oying g eat cloudE o3 cosmic o igin and dimensions. 20 "n the +amoan islands the abo igines na ate> E:hen a ose smell ... the smell became smoke, which again became clouds ... :he sea too a ose, and in a stu(endous catast o(he o3 natu e the land sank into the sea ... :he new ea th (the +amoan islands) a ose out o3 the womb o3 the last ea th.E 2- In the da kness that envelo(ed the wo ld, the islands o3 :onga, +amoa, 9otuma, Gi<i, and @vea (8allis Island), and Gotuna ose 3 om the bottom o3 the ocean. 2. ;ncient hymes o3 the inhabitants o3 =awaii e3e to a ( olonged da kness> :he ea th is dancing ... let da kness cease ... :he heavens a e enclosing ... Ginished is the wo ld o3 =awaii. 29 :he KuichU t ibe mig ated to 6eCico, the Is aelites oamed in the dese t, the ;malekites mig ated towa d Palestine and ?gy(t / an uneasy movement took (lace in all co ne s o3 the uined wo ld. :he mig ation in 'ent al Polynesia, sh ouded in gloom, is na ated in the t aditions o3 the abo igines o3 this (a t o3 the wo ld about a chie3 named :e/e ui who Elived long in utte da kness in ;vaiki,E who mig ated in a canoe named E8ea y o3 %a knessE to 3ind a land o3 light, and who, a3te many yea s o3 wande ing, saw the sky clea ing little by little and a ived at a egion Ewhe e they could see each othe clea ly.E 10 In the 4alevala, the Ginnish e(os which Edates back to an eno mous antiFuity,E 1# the time when the sun and moon disa((ea ed 3 om the sky, and d eaded shadows cove ed it, is desc ibed in these wo ds> ?ven bi ds g ew sick and (e ished, men and maidens, 3aint and 3amished, (e ished in the cold and da kness, 3 om the absence o3 the sunshine, 3 om the absence o3 the moonlight ... ,ut the wise men o3 the No thland could not know the dawn o3 mo ning, 3o the moon shines not in season no a((ea s the sun at midday,

3 om thei stations in the sky/vault. 12 ;n eC(lanation which would ationali5e this (ictu e as the desc i(tion o3 a seasonal long night in no the n egions will stumble ove the second (a t o3 the (assage> the seasons did not etu n in thei wonted o de . :he d eaded shadow cove ed the ea th when @kko, the highest o3 the Ginnish deities, elinFuished the su((o t o3 the heavens. =ailstones o3 i on ained down 3u iously, and then the wo ld became sh ouded in a gene ation/long da kness. :his Etwilight o3 the godsE o3 the No dic aces is but the Eshadow o3 deathE o3 the +c i(tu es. :he enti e gene ation o3 those who le3t ?gy(t (e ished in the lightless dese t. Vegetation died in the catast o(he. :he I anian book o3 ,undahis says> E,light was di33used ove the vegetation, and it withe ed away immediately.E 11 8hen the sky was shatte ed, the day became da k, and the ea th teemed with noCious c eatu es. Go a long time the e was no g een thing seenH seeds would not ge minate in a sunless wo ld. It took many yea s be3o e the ea th again b ought 3o th vegetationH this is told in the w itten and o al t aditions o3 many (eo(les. ;cco ding to ;me ican sou ces, the egene ation o3 the wo ld and o3 humankind took (lace unde the veil o3 the gloomy shadows, and the time is indicated as the end o3 the 3i3teenth yea o3 the da kness, ten yea s be3o e the end o3 the gloom. 12 In the sc i(tu al na ation it was ( obably the day when ;a onBs d ied twig budded 3o the 3i st time. 1$ :he ee ie wo ld, da k and g oaning, was un(leasant to all the senses save the sense o3 smell> the wo ld was 3 ag ant. 8hen the b ee5e blew, the clouds conveyed a sweet odo . In the Pa(y us ;nastasi IV, w itten Ein the yea o3 mise y,E in which it is said that the months a e eve sed, the (lanet/god is desc ibed as a iving Ewith the sweet wind be3o e him.E 10 In a simila teCt o3 the =eb ews we ead that the times and seasons we e con3used, and Ea 3 ag ance (e 3umed all the wo ld,E and the (e 3ume was b ought by the (illa o3 smoke. :he 3 ag ance was like that o3 my h and 3 ankincense. EIs ael was su ounded by clouds,E and as soon as the clouds we e set in motion, the winds Eb eathed my h and 3 ankincense.E 1:he Vedas contain hymns to ;gni which Eglows 3 om the sky.E Its 3 ag ance became the 3 ag ance o3 the ea th. :hat 3 ag ance o3 thine... which the immo tals o3 yo e gathe ed u(. 1. :he gene ation o3 those days, when the sta conveyed its 3 ag ance to men on the ea th, is immo tali5ed in the t adition o3 the =indus. :he Vedic hymn com(a es the 3 ag ance o3 the sta ;gni to the scent o3 the lotus.
777777777777777777777777777777 # :he ? u(tion o3 4 akatoa> 9e(o t, ed. by ). A. +ymons, ((. 20 3. 2 Ibid., (. 191H 8. A. Phythian/;dams> :he 'all o3 Is ael (#912), (. #0$. 1 Natu al =isto y, ,k. ii, 10. 2 Vi gil> )eo gics (t ansl. =. 9. Gai clough, #920), i, 200. $ %io 'assius> 9oman =isto y, Clv. -H Pliny ii. -#. 91H +uetonius> 'aesa ..H Pluta ch> 'aesa 09. 1. It is ema kable that a new wo ld age was ( oclaimed by an ?t uscan divine named Voclanius as having begun with the a(( oach o3 the comet o3 /22. '3. E4omet.E by +tegemann in =andwW te buch des deutschen ;be glaubens (#92-). 0 , asseu > +ou ces de lBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue, (. 2-. - Ibid., ((. 2./29. . )Zma a> 'onFuista de 6eCico, II, 20#. +ee =umboldt> 9esea ches, II, #0. 9 , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue, I, ##. #0 Ibid., (. ##1. ## Pa(y us ###0b ecto, (ublished by )a dine > Aou nal o3 ?gy(tian ; chaeology, I (#9#2). #2 Pa(y us I(uwe 9>.. #1 ? man> ?gy(tian !ite atu e, (. 109. #2 +ee the +ection, E:he 9ed 8o ld,E note 2.

#$ Numbe s ##>1H #0>1$. #0 '3. also Aob 2.>1 and 10>12. #- ,a aita dB6elekhet ha/6ishkan #2H )in5be g> !egends, V, 219. '3. also Aob 1->#$. #. )in5be g> !egends, VI, ##2. #9 Psalms #0$>19H Numbe s #0>12. 20 Numbe s 9>#-/22H #0>##33. :he names E,e5alelE and E9a3aelE mean Ein the shadow o3 )odE and Ethe shade o3 )od.E 2# E4itab/;laghaniyyE (G ench t ansl. G. G esnel)> Aou nal asiatiFue, #.1.. '3. ?l/6aaoudi (6asBudi)> !es P ai ies dBo , III, 'ha(. 19. In ;ges in 'haos these events will be synch oni5ed with the ?Codus. 22 +ou ces in )in5be g> !egends, VI, 22, n. #2#. 21 Nihongi (t ansl. 8. ). ;ston), ((. 20 and ##0. 22 !es 6emoi es histo iFues de +e/ma :sBien (t ansl. 'havannes, #.9$), I, 2-. 2$ %onnelly> 9agna ok, (. 2##. 20 8a en> ,uddhism in : anslations, ((. 122/12-. 2- 8illiamson> 9eligious and 'osmic ,elie3s o3 'ent al Polynesia , I, .. 2. Ibid., I, 1-. 29 Ibid., I, 10. 10 Ibid., I, 2./29. 1# ' aw3o d, in the P e3ace to the ?nglish t anslation o3 the 4alevala, e3e s the (oem to a time when =unga ians and Ginns we e still united as one (eo(le, Ein othe wo ds, to a time at least th ee thousand yea s ago.E 12 :he 4alevala, 9une 29. 11 :he ,undahis, 'ha(. 1, +ec. #0. 12 )Zma a> 'onFuista, cCiC. 1$ Numbe s #->.. :he cove o3 clouds emained ove the dese t until a3te the death o3 ;a on. '3. )in5be g> !egends, VI, ##2. 10 ? man> ?gy(tian !ite atu e, (. 109. 1- )in5be g> !egends, III, #$. and 21$H VI, -#. ;cco ding to :a gum *e ushalmi, ?Codus 1$>2.> E:he clouds b ought the (e 3umes 3 om (a adise and (laced them in the wilde ness 3o Is ael.E 1. =ymns o3 the ;tha va/Veda (t ansl. 6. ,loom3ield, #.9-), 20#/202. 777777777777777777777777777777

;mb osia
In what way did this veil o3 gloom dissolve itsel3M 8hen the ai is ove cha ged with va(o , dew, ain, hail, o snow 3alls. 6ost ( obably the atmos(he e discha ged its com(ounds, ( esumably o3 ca bon and hyd ogen, in a simila way. =as any testimony been ( ese ved that du ing the many yea s o3 gloom ca bohyd ates ( eci(itatedM E8hen the dew 3ell u(on the cam( in the night, the manna 3ell u(on it.E It was like Ethe hoa 3 ost on the g ound.E It had the sha(e o3 co iande seed, the yellowish colo o3 bdellium, and an oily taste like honeycomb. It was called Eco n o3 heavenE and it was g ound between stones and baked in (ans. # :he manna 3ell 3 om the clouds. 2 ;3te the nightly cooling, the ca bohyd ates ( eci(itated and 3ell with the mo ning dew. :he g ains dissolved in the heat and eva(o atedH but in a closed vessel the substance could be ( ese ved 3o a long time. 1 :he eCegetes have endeavo ed to eC(lain the (henomenon o3 manna and we e hel(ed by the natu alists who discove ed that a tama isk in the dese t o3 +inai sheds its seeds du ing ce tain months o3 the yea . 2 ,ut why should this seed be called Eco n o3 heaven,E Eb ead o3 heaven,E $ o why should it be said it Ewill ain b ead 3 om heavenME 0 It is also not easy to eC(lain how a multitude o3 men and animals could have eCisted 3o many yea s in a wilde ness on the sca ce and seasonal seeds o3 some dese t (lant. 8e e such a thing (ossible, the dese t would be ( e3e able to tillable land that yields b ead to the labo e only in the sweat o3 his b ow.

:he clouds b ought the heavenly b ead, it is also said in the :almud. - ,ut i3 the manna 3ell 3 om clouds that envelo(ed the enti e wo ld, it must have 3allen not only in the %ese t o3 8ande ings, but eve ywhe eH and not only the Is aelites, but othe (eo(les, too, must have tasted it and s(oken o3 it in thei t aditions. :he e was a wo ld 3i e, says the Icelandic t adition, 3ollowed by the Gimbul/winte , and only one human (ai emained alive in the no th. E:his human (ai lie hidden in the holt du ing the 3i e o3 +u t.E :hen came Ethe te ible Gimbul/winte at the end o3 the wo ld IageJH meanwhile they 3eed on mo ning dew, and 3 om them come the 3olk who (eo(le the enewed ea th.E . :h ee elements a e connected in the Icelandic t adition which a e the same th ee we met in the Is aelite t adition> the wo ld 3i e, the da k winte that endu ed many yea s, and the mo ning dew that se ved as 3ood du ing these yea s o3 gloom when nothing budded. :he 6ao is o3 New Dealand tell o3 3ie y winds and 3ie ce clouds that lashed the wate s into tidal waves that touched the sky and we e accom(anied by 3u ious hailsto ms. :he ocean 3led. :he ( ogeny o3 the sto m and hail we e E6ist, and =eavy/dew and !ight/dew.E ;3te the catast o(he Ebut little o3 the d y land was le3t standing above the sea. :hen clea light inc eased in the wo ld, and the beings who had been hidden between Isky and ea thJ be3o e they we e (a ted, now multi(lied u(on the ea th.E 9 :his t adition o3 the 6ao is has substantially the same elements as the Is aelite t adition. :he dest uction o3 the wo ld was accom(anied by hu icanes, hail (meteo ites), and sky/ high billowsH the land subme gedH a mist cove ed the ea th 3o a long timeH heavy dew 3ell to the g ound togethe with light dew, as in the (assage Fuoted 3 om Numbe s ##>9. :he w itings o3 ,uddhism elate that when a wo ld cycle comes to an end with the wo ld dest oyed and the ocean d ied u(, the e is no distinction o3 day and night and heavenly amb osia se ves as 3ood. #0 In the hymns o3 9ig/Veda, ## it is said that honey (madhu) comes 3 om the clouds. :hese clouds o iginated 3 om the (illa o3 cloud. ;mong the hymns o3 the ;tha va/Veda the e is one to the honey/lash> EG om heaven, 3 om ea th, 3 om the atmos(he e, 3 om the sea, 3 om the 3i e, and 3 om the wind, the honey/lash hath ve ily s( ung. :his, clothed in am ite (amb osia), all the c eatu es eve ing, acclaim in thei hea ts.E #2 :he ?gy(tian ,ook o3 the %ead s(eaks o3 Ethe divine clouds and the g eat dewE that b ing the ea th into contact with the heavens. #1 :he ) eeks called the heavenly b ead amb osia. It is desc ibed by the ) eek (oets in identical te ms with manna> it had the taste o3 honey and a 3 ag ance. :his heavenly b ead has given classical schola s many headaches. ) eek autho s 3 om =ome and =esiod down th ough the ages continually e3e ed to amb osia as the heavenly 3ood which in its 3luid state is called necta . #2 ,ut it was used also as ointment #$ (it had the 3 ag ance o3 a lily), and as 3ood 3o the ho ses o3 =e a when she visited Deus in the sky. #0 =e a (?a th) was veiled in it when she hu ied 3 om he b othe ; es (6a s) to Deus (Au(ite ). 8hat could it be, this heavenly b ead, which se ved also as a veil 3o a goddess/(lanet, and was used as an ointment, tooM It was honey, said some schola s. ,ut honey is a egula 3ood 3o mo tals, whe eas amb osia was given only to the gene ation o3 he oes. :hen what was this substance that se ved as 3odde on the g ound 3o ho ses, as a veil 3o (lanets, b ead 3 om the sky 3o he oes, and that also tu ned 3luid 3o thei d ink, and was oil and (e 3ume 3o ointmentsM It was the manna that was baked into b ead, had an oily taste and also a honey taste, was 3ound on the g ound by man and beast, w a((ed the ea th and the heavenly bodies in a veil, was called Eco n o3 heavenE and Eb ead o3 the mighty,E #- had a 3 ag ant odo , and se ved the women in the wilde ness as ointment. #. 6anna, like amb osia, was com(a ed with honey and with mo ning dew.

:he belie3 o3 ; istotle and othe w ite s #9 that honey 3alls 3 om the atmos(he e with the dew was based on the eC(e ience o3 those days when the wo ld was veiled in the ca bon clouds that ( eci(itated honey/3 ost. :hese clouds a e desc ibed as Ed eaded shadesE in the 4alevala. G om these Ed eaded shades,E says the e(os, honey d o((ed. E;nd the clouds thei 3 ag ance si3ted, si3ted honey ... 3 om thei home within the heavens.E 20 :he 6ao is in the Paci3ic, the Aews on the bo de o3 ;sia and ;3 ica, the =indus, the Ginns, the Icelande s, all desc ibe the honey/3ood being d o((ed 3 om the clouds, d ea y shades o3 the shadow o3 death, that envelo(ed the ea th a3te a cosmic catast o(he. ;ll t aditions ag ee also that the sou ce o3 the heavenly b ead 3alling 3 om the clouds with the mo ning dew was a celestial body. :he +ibyl says that the sweet heavenly b ead came 3 om the sta y heavens. 2# :he (lanet/god @kko, o Au(ite , is said to have been the sou ce o3 the honey that d o((ed 3 om the clouds. 22 ;thena cove ed othe (lanet/goddesses with a E obe amb osial,E and ( ovided necta and amb osia to the he oes. 21 "the t aditions, too, see the o igin o3 the honey/dew in a celestial body that envelo(ed the ea th in clouds. Go this eason amb osia o manna is called Eheavenly b ead.E
777777777777777777777777777777 # ?Codus #0>#2/12H Numbe s ##>-/9. 2 Psalms -.>21/22. 1 ?Codus #0>2#, 11/12. 2 +ee ;. P. +tanley> !ectu es on the =isto y o3 the Aewish 'hu ch (#.01), Pt. I, (. #2-> E:he manna ... acco ding to the Aewish t adition o3 Aose(hus, and the belie3 o3 the ; ab t ibes, and o3 the ) eek chu ch at the ( esent day, is still 3ound in the d o((ing 3 om the tama isk bushes.E =oweve , Aose(hus, in his ;ntiFuities, III, 2033.> does not s(eak o3 tama isks but o3 dew which looked like snow and still 3alls in the dese t, being a Emainstay to dwelle s in these (a ts.E ;n eC(edition o3 Ae usalem @nive sity in #92- investigated the tama isk in the +inai %ese t. +ee G. +. ,odenheime and ". :heodo > ? gebnisse de +inai ?C(edition (#929), Pt. III. ; )e man ( o3esso suggested also ,lattl^use. E,lattl^use wie ,lattsauge schwit5en 5uweilen auch aus dem ;3te einen honiga tigen +a3t in solche 6enge aus, dass die P3lan5en, besonde s im Auli, damit gleichsam Ybe 3i nisst sind E (8. =. 9osche > Nekta und ;mb osia I#..1J, (. #2). ,ut whe e a e 3o ests in a dese t whe e lice would ( e(a e on the leaves o3 the t ees th ee meals a day 3o a my iad o3 mig antsM $ Psalms -.>22 and #0$>20. 0 ?Codus #0>2. - : actate *oma -$a. . A. ;. 6ac'ulloch> ?ddic 6ythology (#910), (. #0.. 9 :ylo > P imitive 'ultu e, I, 122. #0 8a en> ,uddhism in : anslations, (. 122. ## '3. 9osche > Nekta und ;mb osia, (. #9. #2 =ymns o3 the ;tha va/Veda, (. 229, 9igveda I, ##2. #1 ?. 8. ,udge> :he ,ook o3 the %ead (2nd ed., #92.), 'ha(. 9.H c3. ). ;. 8ainw ight> Aou nal o3 ?gy(tian ; chaeology, LVIII (#912), #0-. #2 9osche > Nekta und ;mb osia. #$ Iliad Civ. #-033. #0 Iliad v. 10.33.H see also Ibid., v. --$33.H Ciii. 1233., and "vid> 6etamo (hoses ii. ##933. #- : actate *oma -$a. #. )in5be g> !egends, III, 29. #9 ; istotle> =isto ia ;nimalium (E)ene ation o3 ;nimalsE), v. 22. 12H )alen (ed. by '. ). 4Yhn, #.2#/#.21), VI, -19H Pliny> Natu al =isto y, Ci. 10H %iodo us> :he !ib a y o3 =isto y, Cvii. -$. 20 :he 4alevala (t ansl. ' aw3o d), (. Cvi and 9une 9. 2# )in5be g> !egends, VI, #-. 22 :he 4alevala, 9une #$. 21 Iliad Civ. #-033. '3. Pluta ch> "n the Gace (%e 3acie Fuae in o be lunae a((a et). 777777777777777777777777777777

9ive s o3 6ilk and =oney

:he honey/3 ost 3ell in eno mous Fuantities. :he haggadic lite atu e says that the Fuantity which 3ell eve y day would have su33iced to nou ish the (eo(le 3o two thousand yea s. # ;ll the (eo(les o3 the ?ast and the 8est could see it. 2 ; 3ew hou s a3te the b eak o3 day, the heat unde the cloud cove liFue3ied the g ains and volatili5ed them. 1 :he g ound abso bed some o3 the liFue3ied mass, as it abso bs dew. :he g ains also 3ell u(on the wate , and the ive s became milky in a((ea ance. :he ?gy(tians elate that the Nile 3lowed 3o a time blended with honey. 2 :he st ange a((ea ance o3 the ive s o3 Palestine / in the dese t the Is aelites saw no ive / caused the scouts who etu ned 3 om a su vey o3 the land to call it the land that E3loweth with milk and honeyE (Numbe s #1>2-). E:he heavens ain oil, the wadis un with honey,E says a teCt 3ound in 9as/+ham a (@ga it) in +y ia. $ In the abbinical lite atu e it is said that Emelting o3 manna 3o med st eams that 3u nished d ink to many dee and othe animals.E 0 :he ;tha va/Veda hymns say that honey/lash came down 3 om 3i e and windH amb osia 3ell, and st eams o3 honey 3lowed u(on the ea th. E:he b oad ea th shall milk 3o us ( ecious honey ... shall (ou out milk 3o us in ich st eams.E - :he Ginnish t adition na ates that land and wate we e cove ed successively by black, ed, and white milk. :he 3i st and second we e the colo s o3 the substances, ashes and Eblood,E that constituted the (lagues (?Codus - and 9)H the last one was the colo o3 amb osia that tu ned into necta on land and wate . ; memo y o3 a time when Est eams o3 milk and st eams o3 sweet necta 3lowedE is also ( ese ved in "vid. .
777777777777777777777777777777 # 6id ash :ehillim to Psalm 21H :ose3ta +ota 2, 1. 2 : actate *oma -0a. 1 ?Codus #0>2#. 2 6anetho e3e s this (henomenon to the time o3 Pha aoh Ne(he che es. +ee the volume o3 6anetho in the !oeb 'lassical !ib a y, ((. 1$, 1-, 19. $ '. =. )o don> :he !oves and 8a s o3 ,aal and ;nat (#921), (. #0. 0 6id ash :annaim, #9#H :a gum *e ushalmi on ?Codus #0>2#H :anhuma, ,eshalla 2#, and othe sou ces. - E=ymn to )oddess ?a th,E =ymns o3 the ;tha va/Veda (t ansl. ,loom3ield), ((. #99 3. . 6etamo (hoses (t ansl. G. A. 6ille , #9#0), i. ###/##2. 777777777777777777777777777777

Ae icho
:he ea thBs c ust t embled and c acked again and again as its st ata settled a3te the ma<o dis(lacement. 'hasms o(ened u(, s( ings disa((ea ed, and new s( ings a((ea ed. # 8hen the Is aelites a(( oached the ive Ao dan, a slice o3 one bank 3ell, blocking the st eam long enough 3o the t ibes to c oss ove . E:he wate s which came down 3 om above stood and ose u( u(on a hea( ve y 3a 3 om the city ;dam, that is beside Da etan> and those that came down towa d the sea o3 the (lain, even the salt sea, 3ailed, and we e cut o33> and the (eo(le (assed ove ight against Ae icho.E 2 ; simila occu ence took (lace on the eighth o3 %ecembe , #20-, when the Ao dan was dammed 3o siCteen hou s, and again 3ollowing the ea thFuake o3 #92-, when a slice o3 one bank 3ell into the ive not 3a 3 om ;dam and blocked the wate 3o ove twenty/one hou sH at %amieh (;dam) the (eo(le c ossed the ive on its d y bed. 1 :he 3all o3 the walls o3 Ae icho at the blast o3 the t um(ets is a well/known e(isode, but it is not well inte ( eted. :he ho ns blown by the ( iests 3o seven days (layed no g eate natu al ole than 6osesB od with which, in the legend, he o(ened a (assage in the sea. E8hen the (eo(le hea d the sound o3 the t um(et,E it ha((ened that Ethe wall 3ell down 3lat.E

:he g eat sound o3 the t um(et was ( oduced by the ea thH the Is aelite t ibes, believing in magic, thought that the sound o3 the ea th came in es(onse to the blowing o3 the amsB ho ns 3o seven days. :he g eat walls o3 Ae icho / they we e twelve 3eet wide / have been eCcavated. $ :hey we e 3ound to have been dest oyed by an ea thFuake. :he a chaeological evidences also ( ove that these walls colla(sed at the beginning o3 the =yksos (e iod, o sho tly a3te the close o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom. 0 :he ea th had not yet ecove ed 3 om the ( evious wo ld catast o(he, and eacted with continuous t emo s when the hou o3 a new cosmic disaste a(( oached> the event we desc ibed at the beginning o3 this book only to go back to the cataclysm o3 the ?Codus / the u(heaval o3 the days o3 Aoshua, when the ea th stood still on the day o3 the battle at ,eth/ho on.
777777777777777777777777777777 # Numbe s #0>1#/1$H 20>##H Psalms -.>#0H #0->11/1$. 2 Aoshua 1>#0. ; co ect t anslation eFui es> Eve y 3a at the city ;dam.E 1 A. )a stang> :he Goundations o3 ,ible =isto y (#91#), (. #1-. 2 Aoshua 0>20. $ ?. +ellin and '. 8at5inge > Ae icho, %ie ? gebnisse de ;usg abungen (#9#1). 0 A. )a stang and ). ,. ?. )a stang> :he +to y o3 Ae icho (#920). 777777777777777777777777777777

+tones +us(ended in the ;i

'ha(te -

E:=? =": =;I!+:"N?+ which, at 6osesB inte cession, had emained sus(ended in the ai when they we e about to 3all u(on the ?gy(tians, we e now cast down u(on the 'anaanites.E # :hese wo ds mean that a (a t o3 the meteo ites o3 the cometa y t ain o3 the days o3 ?Codus emained in the celestial s(he e 3o about 3i3ty yea s, 3alling in the days o3 Aoshua, in the valley o3 ,eth/ho on, on the same 3o enoon when the sun and the moon stood still 3o the length o3 a 3ull day. :he language o3 the :almud and 6id ash suggests that the same comet etu ned a3te some 3i3ty yea s. "nce mo e it (assed ve y close to the ea th. :his time it did not eve se the (oles o3 the ea th, but ke(t the te est ial aCis tilted 3o a conside able length o3 time. ;gain the wo ld was, in the language o3 the abbis, Econsumed in the whi lwind,E Eand all the kingdoms totte ed,E Ethe ea th Fuaked and t embled 3 om the noise o3 thunde EH te i3ied mankind was decimated once mo e, and ca casses we e like ubbish in this %ay o3 ;nge . 2 "n the day when this took (lace on the ea th, the sky was in con3usion. +tones 3ell 3 om the heavens, sun and moon sto((ed in thei (aths, and a comet must also have been seen. =abakkuk desc ibes the (o tent in the sky on that memo able day when, in his wo ds, Ethe sun and moon stood still in thei habitationE> it had the 3o m o3 a man on a cha iot d awn by ho ses and was ega ded as )odBs angel. In the 4ing Aames ve sion the (assages ead> B=is glo y cove ed the heavens ... and his b ightness was as the lightH he had ho ns coming out o3 his hand ... bu ning coals went 3o th at his 3eet ... IheJ d ove asunde the nationsH and the eve lasting mountains we e scatte ed ... 8as thine ange against the ive sM 8as thy w ath against the sea, that thou didst ide u(on thine ho ses and thy cha iots o3 salvation ... M :hou didst cleave the ea th with ive s. :he mountains saw thee, and they t embled> the ove 3lowing o3 the wate (assed by> the dee( utte ed his voice ... :he sun and moon stood still in thei habitation> at the light o3 thy a ows they went, and at the shining o3 thy glitte ing s(ea . :hou didst ma ch th ough the land in indignation, thou didst th esh the heathen in ange ... :hou didst walk th ough the sea with thine ho ses, th ough the hea( o3 g eat wate s.E 1 +ince the teCts o3 the +c i(tu es have, 3o some (sychological eason ooted in the eade s, the Fuality o3 being easily mis ead, misunde stood, o misinte ( eted, I give also some o3 the (assages o3 the thi d cha(te o3 =abakkuk in anothe , mode ni5ed eading> =is s(lendou ove all the sky, his glo y 3illing all the ea th, his adiance is a lightning bla5e, on eithe side 3lash ays ... ;t his ste( the ea th is shaken, at his look nations a e scatte ed, the ancient hills a e shatte ed, mountains o3 old sink low ... ; t thou w ath3ul at the sea, that thou a t sto ming on the steeds, u(on the cha iots in t ium(h ... M :he hills w ithe at thy sight ... the sun 3o gets to ise, the moon to move, be3o e the 3lashes o3 thy da ting a ows,

be3o e the sheen o3 thy lightning, thy lance. :hou t am(est ea th in 3u y, thou a t th eshing the (eo(les in thine ange . 2 8ith the ea th distu bed in its s(inning on its aCis, the mechanical 3 iction o3 dis(laced st ata and magma must have set the wo ld on 3i e. :he wo ld bu ned. :he ) eek sto y o3 PhaPthon will be int oduced he e because o3 the inte ( etation hea d by +olon du ing his visit to ?gy(t.
777777777777777777777777777777 # )in5be g> !egends, IV, #0H the ,abylonian :almud, : actate ,e akhot $2b. +ee also 6id ash o3 9abbi ?liese o o3 12 6idot. 2 +ee the +ection, E:he 6ost Inc edible +to y.E 1 =abakkuk 1>1/#$. 2 :he "ld :estament> ; New : anslation (t ansl. Aames 6o33att, #922/#92$). 777777777777777777777777777777

:he ) eeks as well as the 'a ians and othe (eo(les on the sho es o3 the ;egean +ea told o3 a time when the sun was d iven o33 its cou se and disa((ea ed 3o an enti e day, and the ea th was bu ned and d owned. :he ) eek legend says that the young PhaPthon, who claimed (a entage o3 the sun, on that 3atal day t ied to d ive the cha iot o3 the sun. PhaPthon was unable to make his way Eagainst the whi ling (oles,E and Ethei swi3t aCisE swe(t him away. PhaPthon in ) eek means Ethe bla5ing one.E 6any autho s have dealt with the sto y o3 PhaPthonH the best known ve sion is a c eation o3 the !atin (oet "vid. :he cha iot o3 the sun, d iven by PhaPthon, moved Eno longe in the same cou se as be3o e.E :he ho ses Eb eak loose 3 om thei cou seE and E ush aimlessly, knocking against the sta s set dee( in the sky and snatching the cha iot along th ough uncha ted ways.E :he constellations o3 the cold ,ea s t ied to (lunge into the 3o bidden sea, and the sunBs cha iot oamed th ough unknown egions o3 the ai . It was Ebo ne along <ust as a shi( d iven be3o e the headlong blast, whose (ilot has let the useless udde go and abandoned the shi( to the gods and ( aye s.E # E:he ea th bu sts into 3lame, the highest (a ts 3i st, and s(lits into dee( c acks, and its moistu e is all d ied u(. :he meadows a e bu ned to white ashesH the t ees a e consumed, g een leaves and all, and the i(e g ain 3u nishes 3uel 3o its own dest uction ... ) eat cities (e ish with thei walls, and the vast con3lag ation educes whole nations to ashes.E E:he woods a e abla5e with the mountains ... ;etna is bla5ing boundlessly ... and twin/ (eaked Pa nassus ... No does its chilling clime save +cythiaH 'aucasus bu ns ... and the heaven/(ie cing ;l(s and cloud/ca((ed ;(ennines.E :he sco ched clouds belched 3o th smoke. PhaPthon sees the ea th a3lame. E=e can no longe bea the ashes and whi ling s(a ks, and is com(letely sh ouded in the dense, hot smoke. In this (itchy da kness he cannot tell whe e he is o whithe he is going.E EIt was then, as men think, that the (eo(les o3 ;ethio(ia became black/skinned, since the blood was d awn to the su 3ace o3 thei bodies by the heat.E E:hen also !ibya became a dese t, 3o the heat d ied u( he moistu e ... :he %onBs wate s steamH ,abylonian ?u(h ates bu nsH the )anges, Phasis, %anube, ;l(heus boilH +(e cheosB banks a e a3lame. :he golden sands o3 :agus melt in the intense heat, and the swans ... a e sco ched ... :he Nile 3led in te o to the ends o3 the ea th ... the seven mouths lie em(ty, 3illed with dustH seven b oad channels, all without a st eam. :he same mischance d ies u( the :h acian ive s, =eb us and +t ymonH also the ive s o3 the west, the 9hine, 9hone, Po and the :ibe ... ) eat c acks yawn eve ywhe e ... ?ven the sea sh inks u(, and what was

but now a g eat wate y eC(anse is a d y (lain o3 sand. :he mountains, which the dee( sea had cove ed be3o e, s( ing 3o th, and inc ease the numbe s o3 the scatte ed 'yclades.E =ow could the (oets have known that a change in the movement o3 the sun ac oss the 3i mament must cause a wo ld con3lag ation, bla5ing o3 volcanoes, boiling o3 ive s, disa((ea ance o3 seas, bi th o3 dese ts, eme gence o3 islands, i3 the sun neve changed its ha monious <ou ney 3 om sun ise to sunsetM :he distu bance in the movement o3 the sun was 3ollowed by a (e iod as long as a day, when the sun did not a((ea at all. "vid continues> EI3 we a e to believe e(o t, one whole day went without the sun. 2 ,ut the bu ning wo ld gave light.E ; ( olonged night in one (a t o3 the wo ld must be accom(anied by a ( olonged day in anothe (a tH in "vid we see the (henomenon elated in the ,ook o3 Aoshua, but 3 om anothe longitude. :his may stimulate su mise as to the geog a(hical o igin o3 the Indo/ I anian o 'a ian mig ants to ) eece. :he globe changed the inclination o3 its aCisH latitudes changed, too. "vid ends the desc i(tion o3 the wo ld catast o(he contained in the sto y o3 PhaPthon> E'ausing all things to shake with he mighty t embling, she Ithe ea thJ sank back a little lowe than he wonted (lace.E Plato eco ded the sto y hea d two gene ations be3o e 3 om +olon, the wise ule o3 ;thens. 1 +olon, on his visit to ?gy(t, Fuestioned the ( iests, ve sed in the lo e o3 antiFuity, on ea ly histo y. =e discove ed that Eneithe he himsel3 no any othe ) eek knew any thing at all, one might say, about such matte s.E +olon un3olded be3o e the ( iests the tale o3 the deluge, the only ancient t adition he was awa e o3. "ne o3 the ( iests, an old man, 2 said> E:he e have been and the e will be many and dive s dest uctions o3 mankind, o3 which the g eatest a e by 3i e and wate , and lesse ones by countless othe means. Go in t uth the sto y that is told in you count y as well as ou s, how once u(on a time PhaPthon, son o3 =elios, yoked his 3athe Bs cha iot, and, because he was unable to d ive it along the cou se taken by his 3athe , bu nt u( all that was u(on the ea th and himsel3 (e ished by a thunde bolt / that sto y, as it is told, has the 3ashion o3 a legend, but the t uth o3 it lies in the occu ence o3 a shi3ting o3 the bodies in the heavens which move a ound the ea th, and a dest uction o3 the things on the ea th by 3ie ce 3i e, which ecu s at long inte vals.E $ :he ?gy(tian ( iest eC(lained to +olon that in these catast o(hes the lite a y wo ks o3 many (eo(les and thei lea ned men (e ishedH 3o that eason the ) eeks we e still childish, as they no longe knew the t ue ho o s o3 the (ast. :hese wo ds o3 the ( iest we e only an int oduction to a evelation o3 his knowledge about lands that we e e ased when ) eece also and the enti e wo ld we e visited with heavenly w ath. =e told the sto y o3 a mighty kingdom on a g eat island in the middle o3 the ;tlantic "cean that subme ged and sank 3o eve into its wate s.
777777777777777777777777777777 # "vid> 6etamo (hoses (t ansl. G. A. 6ille ), ,ook II. 2 E+i modo c edimus. i num isse diem sine sole 3e unt.E 1 Plato> :imaeus (t ansl. 9. ). ,u y, #929). 2 ;cco ding to Pluta ch (Isis and "si is) the name o3 the ( iest was +onchis o3 +ais. $ Plato> :imaeus 22 '/%. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he sto y na ated by Plato o3 the island o3 ;tlantis that uled ;3 ica as 3a as the bo de o3 ?gy(t and ?u o(e as 3a as :uscany on the ;(ennine (eninsula and that in one 3atal night was shatte ed by ea thFuakes and sank, neve ceased to occu(y the imagination o3 the

lite ati. +t abo and Pliny thought that the sto y o3 ;tlantis was an illusion o3 the elde ly Plato. ,ut to this day the t adition, as evived by Plato, has not died. Poets and novelists have eC(loited the sto y 3 eelyH scientists have done so with caution. ;n incom(lete catalogue o3 the lite atu e on ;tlantis in #920 included #,-00 titles. # ;lthough Plato said clea ly that ;tlantis was situated behind the Pilla s o3 =e cules ()ib alta ), in the ;tlantic "cean, as is also indicated by the name o3 the island, t avele s and othe guesse s have (laced ;tlantis in all (a ts o3 the wo ld, even on d y land, as, 3o eCam(le, in :unisia, 2 Palestine, 1 and +outh ;me ica. 'eylon, New3oundland, and +(it5be gen have also been conside ed. :his was due to the 3act that t aditions o3 inundations and subme sion o3 islands eCist in all (a ts o3 the wo ld. Plato set down what +olon had hea d in ?gy(t 3 om the lea ned ( iest. E:he I;tlanticJ ocean the e was at that time navigableH 3o in 3 ont o3 the mouth which you ) eeks call, as you say, Bthe Pilla s o3 =e aclesB I=e culesJ, the e lay an island which was la ge than !ibya and ;sia I;sia 6ino J togethe H and it was (ossible 3o the t avelle s o3 that time to c oss 3 om it to the othe islands, and 3 om the islands to the whole o3 the continent ove against them which encom(asses that ve itable ocean ... *onde is a eal ocean, and the land su ounding it may most ightly be called, in the 3ullest and t uest sense, a continent. Now in this island o3 ;tlantis the e eCisted a con3ede ation o3 kings, a g eat and ma velous (owe , which held sway ove all the island, and ove many othe islands also and (a ts o3 the continentH and, mo eove , o3 the lands he e within the +t aits they uled ove !ibya as 3a as ?gy(t, and ove ?u o(e as 3a as :uscany.E 2 In the nineteenth centu y shi(s sailed the ;tlantic "cean to eC(lo e its bed in sea ch o3 ;tlantis, and be3o e the +econd 8o ld 8a scienti3ic societies eCisted 3o the sole (u (ose o3 eC(lo ing the ( oblem o3 the sunken island. 6uch s(eculation was o33e ed, not only on the whe eabouts o3 ;tlantis, but also on the cultu al achievements o3 its inhabitants. Plato, in anothe wo k o3 his (' itias), w ote a (olitical t eatise, and, as no eal (lace in the wo ld could have been the scene o3 his uto(ia, he chose 3o that (u (ose the sunken island. 6ode n schola s, 3inding some a33inity between ;me ican, ?gy(tian, and Phoenician cultu es, think that ;tlantis may have been the inte media y link. :he e is much ( obability in these s(eculationsH i3 they a e <usti3ied, ' ete, a ma itime base o3 'a ian navigato s, may disclose some in3o mation about ;tlantis as soon as the ' etan sc i(ts a e satis3acto ily deci(he ed. "ne (oint in PlatoBs sto y about the subme sion o3 ;tlantis eFui es co ection. Plato said that +olon told the sto y to ' itias the elde , and that the young ' itias, PlatoBs 3 iend, hea d it 3 om his g and3athe when he was a ten/yea /old boy. ' itias the younge emembe ed having been told that the catast o(he which be3ell ;tlantis ha((ened 9,000 yea s be3o e. :he e is one 5e o too many he e. 8e do not know o3 any vestiges o3 human cultu e, aside 3 om that o3 the Neolithic age, no o3 any navigating nation, 9,000 yea s be3o e +olon. Numbe s we hea in childhood easily g ow in ou memo y, as do dimensions. 8hen evisiting ou childhood home, we a e su ( ised at the smallness o3 the ooms / we had emembe ed them as much la ge . 8hateve the sou ce o3 the e o , the most ( obable date o3 the sinking o3 ;tlantis would be in the middle o3 the second millennium, 900 yea s be3o e +olon, when the ea th twice su33e ed g eat catast o(hes as a esult o3 Ethe shi3ting o3 the heavenly bodies.E :hese wo ds o3 Plato eceived the least attention, though they dese ved the g eatest. :he dest uction o3 ;tlantis is desc ibed by Plato as he hea d it 3 om his sou ce> E;t a late time the e occu ed (o tentous ea thFuakes and 3loods, and one g ievous day and night be3ell them, when the whole body o3 you I) eekJ wa io s was swallowed u( by the ea th, and the island o3 ;tlantis in like manne was swallowed u( by the sea and vanishedH whe e3o e also the ocean at that s(ot has now become im(assable and unsea chable, being

blocked u( by the shoal mud which the island c eated as it settled down.E $ ;t the time when ;tlantis (e ished in the ocean, the (eo(le o3 ) eece we e dest oyed> the catast o(he was ubiFuitous. ;s i3 ecalling what had ha((ened, the Psalmist w ote> E%est uctions a e come to a (e (etual end> and thou hast dest oyed cities, thei memo ial is (e ished with them.E 0 =e ( ayed also> E)od is ou e3uge and st ength ... the e3o e will not we 3ea , though the ea th be emoved and though the mountains be ca ied into the midst o3 the seaH though the wate s the eo3 oa and be t oubled.E 777777777777777777777777777777 # A. )atte3osse and '. 9ouC> ,ibliog a(hie de lB;tlantide et des Fuestions conneCes (#920). 2 ;. =e mann> @nse e ;hnen und ;tlantis (#912). 1 G. '. ,ae > !B;tlantiFue des anciens (#.1$). 2 Plato> :imaeus 22 ?/2$ ,. $ Plato> :imaeus 2$ '/%. 0 Psalms 9>0. - Psalms 20>#/1. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he Gloods o3 %eucalion and "gyges

:he histo y o3 ) eece knows two g eat natu al catast o(hes> the 3loods o3 %eucalion and o3 "gyges. "ne o3 them, usually that o3 %eucalion, is desc ibed by ) eek autho s as having been simultaneous with the con3lag ation o3 PhaPthon. :he 3loods o3 %eucalion and "gyges b ought ove whelming dest uction to the mainland o3 ) eece and to the islands a ound and caused changes in the geog a(hical ( o3ile o3 the a ea. :hat o3 %eucalion was most devastating> wate cove ed the land and annihilated the (o(ulation. ;cco ding to the legend, only two (e sons / %eucalion and his wi3e / emained alive. :his last detail must not be taken mo e lite ally than simila statements 3ound in desc i(tions o3 g eat catast o(hes all a ound the wo ldH 3o eCam(le, two daughte s o3 !ot, who hid with him in a cave a3te the catast o(he o3 +odom and )omo ah, believed that they and thei 3athe we e the only su vivo s in the land. # :he ch onologists among the Gathe s o3 the 'hu ch 3ound mate ial 3o assuming that one o3 the two catast o(hes, the 3lood o3 %eucalion o that o3 "gyges, had been contem(o aneous with the ?Codus. Aulius ;3 icanus w ote> E8e a33i m that "gygus I"gygesJ 3 om whom the 3i st 3lood Iin ;tticaJ de ived its name, and who was saved when many (e ished, lived at the time o3 the ?Codus o3 the (eo(le 3 om ?gy(t along with 6oses.E 2 =e 3u the eC( essed his belie3 in the coincidence o3 the catast o(he o3 "gyges and the one that occu ed in ?gy(t in the days o3 the ?Codus in the 3ollowing wo ds> E:he Passove and the ?Codus o3 the =eb ews 3 om ?gy(t took (lace, and also in ;ttica the 3lood o3 "gygus. ;nd that is acco ding to eason. Go when the ?gy(tians we e being smitten in the ange o3 )od with hail and sto ms, it was only to be eC(ected that ce tain (a ts o3 the ea th should su33e with them.E 1 ?usebius (laced the Glood o3 %eucalion and the con3lag ation o3 PhaPthon in the 3i3ty/ second yea o3 6osesB li3e. 2 ;ugustine also synch oni5ed the Glood o3 %eucalion with the time o3 6osesH $ he assumed that the Glood o3 "gyges took (lace ea lie . ; ch onologist o3 the seventh centu y (Isido e, bisho( o3 +eville) 0 dated the Glood o3 %eucalion in the time o3 6osesH ch onologists o3 the seventeenth centu y likewise calculated that the Glood o3 %eucalion took (lace in the time o3 6oses, close to but not simultaneous with the ?Codus. It would seem to be mo e ( obable that, i3 the catast o(hes occu ed one sho tly a3te the

othe , the catast o(he o3 "gyges took (lace a3te that o3 %eucalion which ( actically dest oyed the land, de(o(ulated it, and e ased eve y memo y o3 what had ha((ened u( to that time. In the wo ds o3 Plato, who Fuoted the ?gy(tian ( iest s(eaking to +olon, the catast o(hes must have esca(ed the notice o3 the 3utu e gene ations because, as a esult o3 the devastation, E3o many gene ations the su vivo s died with no (owe to eC( ess themselves in w iting.E :he memo y o3 the catast o(he o3 "gyges would have vanished in the catast o(he o3 %eucalion i3 "gyges had ( eceded %eucalion.. ;((a ently, the t uth is with those who (laced the catast o(he o3 %eucalion in the days o3 ?CodusH but those who eckoned that "gyges was a contem(o a y o3 6oses we e also co ect, eCce(t that 6oses did not live until the Glood o3 "gyges / it took (lace in the days o3 Aoshua. In commemo ation o3 the %eucalion 3lood, the (eo(le o3 ;thens obse ved a 3east in the month o3 ;ntheste ion, which is a s( ing monthH the 3east was called ;ntheste ia. "n the thi teenth o3 the month, the main day o3 the 3east, honey and 3lou we e (ou ed into a 3issu e in the ea th as a sac i3ice. 9 :he date o3 this ce emony / the thi teenth day o3 ;ntheste ion in the s( ing / is evealing i3 we emembe what was said in the section entitled E#1.E It was on the thi teenth day o3 the s( ing month (;viv) that the g eat (laneta y contact occu ed which ( eceded by a 3ew hou s the ?Codus o3 the Is aelites 3 om ?gy(t. :he o33e ing o3 honey and 3lou as the main ce emony o3 the 3east is also evealing i3 we ecollect that manna, o heavenly co n, tasting like honey, 3ell on the ea th a3te the contact o3 the ea th with a celestial body. ;s to the ( ovenance o3 the name %eucalion, schola s admit that it is not known. #0 Go the name and the (e son o3 "gyges we have some conc ete in3o mation. ;lthough "gyges was a king, the ) eek annalists who w ote o3 the E3lood o3 "gygesE as one o3 the outstanding events o3 the (ast o3 thei count y, at the same time did not know anything about a king o3 that name in ) eece. ## 8ho was "gygesM 8e can solve this ( oblem. 8hen the Is aelites unde 6oses a(( oached the bo de o3 6oab, ,alaam in his blessing o3 Is ael used these wo ds> E=is king shall be highe than ;gag I;gogJ.E #2 ;gog must have been the most im(o tant king o3 that time in the a ea a ound the easte n 6edite anean. In my econst uction o3 ancient histo y, I shall (ut 3o wa d ( oo3s that the ;malekite king, ;gog I, was identical with the =yksos king whose name the ?gy(tologists tentatively ead ;(o( I, and who, a 3ew decades a3te the invasion o3 ?gy(t by the ;mu (=yksos), laid the 3oundation o3 :hebes, the 3utu e ca(ital o3 the New 4ingdom in ?gy(t. In con3o mity with this asse tion, I can (oint to the 3act that ) eek t adition, which does not know o3 any activities o3 4ing "gyges in ;ttica, occasionally (laces the domicile o3 "gyges in ?gy(tian :hebes, and ;eschylus calls :hebes o3 ?gy(t Ethe "gygian :hebes,E to di33e entiate it 3 om the ) eek :hebes in ,oeotia. "gyges is also c edited with 3ounding :hebes in ?gy(t.

;gog was a contem(o a y o3 the aging 6osesH he was a ule who, in his time, had no eFual in the egion bo de ing the easte n 6edite aneanH #2 the catast o(he in the time o3 Aoshua, successo to 6oses, was called by his, ;gogBs, name. :he asse tion o3 +olinus, the autho o3 Polyhisto , that the 3lood o3 "gyges was 3ollowed by a night o3 nine monthsB du ation does not necessa ily signi3y a con3usion with the da kness that ensued a3te the cataclysm o3 the ?CodusH as the causes we e simila , simila esults must have 3ollowed. :he e u(tion o3 thousands o3 volcanoes would su33ice to ( oduce this da kness, o3 a sho te du ation than that which 3ollowed the cataclysm o3 the ?Codus. #$ :hus, the ) eek t aditions o3 the 3loods o3 "gyges and %eucalion contain elements which, though inte changed, can be t aced to two g eat u(heavals in the middle o3 the second

millennium be3o e the ( esent e a. #0

777777777777777777777777777777 # )enesis #9>1#. 2 Aulius ;3 icanus in :he ;nte/Nicene Gathe s, ed. ;. 9obe ts and A. %onaldson (#.90), VI, #12. 1 Ibid., (. #12. 2 ?usebius> 8e ke, Vol. V, %ie 'h onik, E'h onikon/4anon.E $ :he 'ity o3 )od, ,k. LVIII, 'ha(s. #0, ##. 0 +ee A. ). G a5e > Golklo e in the "ld :estament (#9#.), I. #$9. - +eth 'alvisius, in "(us ch onologicum (#029), assigns the yea 2229 anno mundi o #$#9 be3o e the ( esent e a to PhaPthonBs con3lag ation, and 2212 (/#$#0) to the Glood o3 %eucalion, and 22$1 (/#29$) to the ?Codus. 'h isto(he =elvicus (#$.#/#0#-), in :heat um histo icum (#002), assigns 221- anno mundi to the Glood o3 %eucalion and PhaPthonBs con3lag ation, and 22$1 (o -9- a %iluvio unive sali) to the ?Codus 3 om ?gy(t. . ,ut c3. G a5e > E;ncient +to ies o3 a ) eat Glood,E Aou nal o3 the 9oyal ;nth o(ological Institute, L!VI (#9#0). =oweve , ?usebius (laced %eucalion be3o e "gyges. 9 '3. Pausanias> %esc i(tion o3 ) eece, I, Cviii, -. Pauly/8issowa> 9eal/?ncyclo(^die, s. v. E;ntheste ionEH also ;nd ee> %ie Glutsagen, (. 2#. #0 E8hile the meaning o3 the legend is clea , the meaning o3 the name %eucalion is enigmatic.E 9osche > E%eukalion,E !eCikon d. g iech. und Wmisch. 6ythologie. ;cco ding to =ome , %eucalion was a son o3 6inos, king o3 ' ete, and a g andson o3 Deus and ?u o(a (:he Iliad, Civ, 12# 33H Ciii, 2$0 3.). ;cco ding to ;(ollodo us (:he !ib a y, I, vii), %eucalion was a son o3 P ometheus. ## Aulius ;3 icanus w ote> E;3te "gygus I"gygesJ, by eason o3 the vast dest uction caused by the 3lood, the ( esent land o3 ;ttica emained without a king u( to 'ec o(s, a (e iod o3 #.9 yea s.E G agment o3 the 'h onog a(hy in :he ;nte/Nicene Gathe s, VI. #2 Numbe s 22>-. '3. the vowels in the name in the =eb ew teCt o3 I +amuel #$. #1 ;eschylus> :he Pe sians, #. 1-. +ee also +cholium to ; istides. '3. 9osche , E"gyges, als 4onig des agy(tischen :hebes,E !eCikon d. g iech. und Wmisch. 6ythologie, Vol. 1#, 'ol. 0.9. #2 :he abbinical sou ces say that ;malek went to conFue Ethe enti e wo ld.E +eals o3 the =yksos kings we e 3ound on ' ete, in Palestine, in 6eso(otamia, and in othe (laces outside ?gy(t. #$ '3. Polyhisto , t anslated by ;. )olding (!ondon, #$.-), 'ha(, Cvi, and the t anslation by ;gnant (Pa is, #.2-), 'ha(. Ci. #0 It seems that the legend o3 %eucalion contains also elements o3 the sto y o3 the unive sal %eluge (o3 Noah). 777777777777777777777777777777

:he Gi3ty/two *ea Pe iod

'ha(te .

:=? 8"94+ "G Ge nando de ;lva ICtlilCochitl, the ea ly 6eCican schola (ci ca #$0./#02.) who was able to ead old 6eCican teCts, ( ese ve the ancient t adition acco ding to which the multi(le o3 3i3ty/two/yea (e iods (layed an im(o tant ole in the ecu ence o3 wo ld catast o(hes. # =e asse ts also that only 3i3ty/two yea s ela(sed between two g eat catast o(hes, each o3 which te minated a wo ld age. ;s I have al eady (ointed out, the Is aelite t adition counts 3o ty yea s o3 wande ing in the dese tH between the time when the Is aelites le3t the dese t and sta ted the di33icult task o3 the conFuest, and the time o3 the battle at ,eth/ho on twelve yea s may well have (assed. :he conFuest o3 'anaan took 3ou teen yea s, and the enti e du ation o3 AoshuaBs leade shi( amounted to twenty/eight yea s. 2 Now the e eCists a ema kable 3act> the natives o3 ( e/'olumbian 6eCico eC(ected a new catast o(he at the end o3 eve y (e iod o3 3i3ty/two yea s and cong egated to await the event. E8hen the night o3 this ce emony a ived, all the (eo(le we e sei5ed with 3ea and waited in anCiety 3o what might take (lace.E :hey we e a3 aid that Eit will be the end o3 the human ace and that the da kness o3 the night may become (e manent> the sun may not ise anymo e.E 1 :hey watched 3o the a((ea ance o3 the (lanet Venus, and when, on the 3ea ed day, no catast o(he occu ed, the (eo(le o3 6aya e<oiced. :hey b ought human sac i3ices and o33e ed the hea ts o3 ( isone s whose chests they o(ened with knives o3 3lint. "n that night, when the 3i3ty/two/yea (e iod ended, a g eat bon3i e announced to the 3ea 3ul c owds that a new (e iod o3 g ace had been g anted and a new Venus cycle sta ted. 2 :he (e iod o3 3i3ty/two yea s, ega ded by the ancient 6eCicans as the inte val between two wo ld catast o(hes, was de3initely elated by them to the (lanet VenusH and this (e iod o3 Venus was obse ved by both the 6ayas and the ;5tecs. $ :he old 6eCican custom o3 sac i3icing to the 6o ning +ta su vived in human sac i3ices by the +kidi Pawnee o3 Neb aska in yea s when the 6o ning +ta Ea((ea ed es(ecially b ight, o in yea s when the e was a comet in the sky.E 0 8hat had Venus to do with the catast o(hes that b ought the wo ld to the b ink o3 dest uctionM =e e is a Fuestion that will ca y us ve y 3a , indeed.

777777777777777777777777777777 # ICtlilCochitl> "b as histZ icas (ed. #.9#/#.92 in 2 vols.). G ench t anslation o3 his annals is =istoi e des 'hichimTFues (#.20). In the 'odeC Vaticanus the wo ld ages a e eckoned in multi(les o3 3i3ty/two yea s with a changing numbe o3 yea s as an addition to these 3igu es. ;. =umboldt ( 9esea ches, II, 2.) cont a(osed the lengths o3 the wo ld ages in the Vatican manusc i(t (No. 1-1.) and thei lengths in the system o3 the t adition ( ese ved by ICtlilCochid. Gou ages o3 #0$ yea s a e e3e ed to by 'enso inus ( !ibe de die natali) as having taken (lace, acco ding to the belie3 o3 the ?t uscans, between wo ld catast o(hes ( esaged by celestial (o tents. 2 +ede "lam #2. ;ugustine s(eaks o3 2- yea s o3 AoshuaBs leade shi( ( :he 'ity o3 )od, ,k. LVIII, 'ha(. ##). 1 ,. de +ahagun> =isto ia gene al de la cosas de Nueva ?s(a[a (G ench t ansl. by %. Aou danet and 9. +imeon, #..0), ,k. VII, 'ha(s. L/LIII. 2 '3. +ele > )esammelte ;bhandlungen, I, 0#.33. $ 8. )ates in %e !anda> *ucatan, note to (. 00. 0 :his ce emony was desc ibed by ). ;. %o sey. +ee in3 a, the +ection, EVenus in the Golklo e o3 the Indians.E 777777777777777777777777777777

I shall (ost(one only a little giving the answe to the Fuestion <ust (osed. Gi st, I should like to 3ind an eC(lanation 3o the institution o3 the <ubilee yea o3 the Is aelites.

?ve y seventh yea , acco ding to the law, was a sabbatical yea du ing which the land had to be le3t 3allow and Aewish slaves set 3 ee. :he 3i3tieth yea was a <ubilee yea , when the land not only had to be le3t 3allow, but had to be etu ned to its o iginal ( o( ieto s. ;cco ding to the law, one could not convey his land 3o eve H the deed o3 sale was but a lease 3o whateve numbe o3 yea s emained until the <ubilee yea . :he yea was ( oclaimed by the blowing o3 ho ns on the %ay o3 ;tonement. EIn the %ay o3 ;tonement shall ye make the t um(et sound th oughout all you land. ;nd ye shall hallow the 3i3tieth yea , and ( oclaim libe ty th oughout all the land unto all the inhabitants the eo3> it shall be a <ubilee unto you, and ye shall etu n eve y man unto his (ossession, and ye shall etu n eve y man unto his 3amily.E # ?ve since, eCegetes have labo ed ove the biblical statement that the <ubilee yea was to be obse ved eve y 3i3tieth yea . :he seventh sabbatical yea is the 3o ty/ninth yea > E;nd the s(ace o3 the seven sabbaths o3 yea s shall be unto thee 3o ty and nine yea s ... ;nd ye shall hallow the 3i3tieth yea .E 2 :o leave the land 3allow 3o two consecutive yea s was too g eat a demand and cannot be eC(lained by the need o3 the soil unde cultivation 3o est. :he 3estival o3 the <ubilee, with the etu n o3 land to its o iginal owne s and the elease o3 slaves, bea s the cha acte o3 an atonement, and its ( oclamation on the %ay o3 ;tonement em(hasi5es this still 3u the . 8as the e any s(ecial eason why 3ea etu ned eve y 3i3ty yea sM :he <ubilee o3 the 6ayas must have had a genesis simila to that o3 the <ubilee o3 the Is aelites. :he di33e ence lies in the human cha acte o3 the 3estival o3 the Aews and its inhuman cha acte among the 6ayasH but with both (eo(les it was a yea o3 atonement, e(eating itsel3 eve y 3i3tieth yea in the one case and eve y 3i3ty/second yea in the othe . 'omets do not etu n at eCact (e iods because o3 (e tu bations caused by la ge (lanets. 1 :he 6ayas eC(ected the etu n o3 a catast o(he eve y 3i3ty/second yea because that was the inte val between two cataclysms that had taken (lace. It may be that the comet was actually seen again at such inte vals. :he Aews 3asted and ( e(a ed themselves 3o the %ay o3 Audgment on the ea liest (ossible date o3 its etu nH the 6ayas had thei 3estival when the d eaded time had (assed without ha m. "n the %ay o3 ;tonement the Is aelites used to send a sca(egoat to E;5a5elE in the dese t. 2 It was a ce emony o3 ( o(itiation o3 +atan. In ?gy(t the goat was an animal dedicated to +eth:y(hon. $ ;5a5el was a 3allen sta o !uci3e . It was also called ;55ael, ;55a, o @55a. 0 ;cco ding to the abbinical legend, @55a was the sta angel o3 ?gy(t> it was th own into the 9ed +ea when the Is aelites made thei (assage. - :he ; ab name o3 the (lanet Venus is al/ @55a. . ; abs used to b ing human sac i3ices to al/@55aH 6ohammed, too, in his ea ly days, wo shi(ed it, and even today the ; abs seek its hel(. 9 "n the day on which the <ubilee yea was ( oclaimed, the Is aelites dis(atched a (lacating o33e ing o3 a sca(egoat to !uci3e . ,ut what had Venus to do with the <ubilee and the atonementM
777777777777777777777777777777 # !eviticus 2$>933. 2 !eviticus 2$>./#0. 1 =alleyBs comet has an ave age (e iod o3 -- yea s, with single (e iods as sho t as -2S yea s o as long as -9S yea s. 2 !eviticus #0>./20. :he ( iests used to cast lots 3o two goats> one goat 3o the !o d and the othe as the sca(egoat 3o ;5a5el. $ Pluta ch> Isis and "si is, -1H c3. =e odotus ii. 20, %iodo us i. .2.2, and +t abo Cvii. #.#9. 0 )in5be g> !egends, V, #$2, #-0. - Ibid., VI, 291. ;cco ding to anothe legend, the 3allen angel @55a is chained to the 6ountains o3 %a kness (Ibid., V, l-0), the 'aucasus. . +ee Eal/@55a,E ?ncylo(aedia o3 Islam (#9#1/#912), Vol. IV. 9 A. 8ellhausen> 9este a abischen =eidentums (2nd ed., #.9-), ((. 20/22H '. 6. %oughty> : avels in ; abia %ese ta (new ed., #92#), II, $#0H P. 4. =itti> =isto y o3 the ; abs (#91-), ((. 9.33. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he ,i th o3 Venus
; (lanet tu ns and evolves on a Fuite ci cula o bit a ound a g eate body, the sunH it makes contact with anothe body, a comet, that t avels on a st etched out elli(se. :he (lanet sli(s 3 om its aCis, uns in diso de o33 its o bit, wande s athe e atically, and in the end is 3 eed 3 om the emb ace o3 the comet. :he body on the long elli(se eC(e iences simila distu bances. % awn o33 its (ath, it glides to some new o bitH its long t ain o3 gaseous substances and stones is to n away by the sun o by the (lanet, o uns away and evolves as a smalle comet along its own elli(seH a (a t o3 the tail is etained by the (a ent comet on its new o bit. ;ncient 6eCican eco ds give the o de o3 the occu ences. :he sun was attacked by Kuet5alcohuatlH a3te the disa((ea ance o3 this se (ent/sha(ed heavenly body, the sun e3used to shine, and du ing 3ou days the wo ld was de( ived o3 its lightH a g eat many (eo(le died at that time. :he ea3te , the snakelike body t ans3o med itsel3 into a g eat sta . :he sta etained the name o3 Kuet5al/cohuatl IKuet5al/coatlJ. :his g eat and b illiant sta a((ea ed 3o the 3i st time in the east. # Kuet5al/cohuatl is the well/known name o3 the (lanet Venus. 2 :hus we ead that Ethe sun e3used to show itsel3 and du ing 3ou days the wo ld was de( ived o3 light. :hen a g eat sta ... a((ea edH it was given the name Kuet5al/cohuatl ... the sky, to show its ange ... caused to (e ish a g eat numbe o3 (eo(le who died o3 3amine and (estilence.E 1 :he seFuence o3 seasons and the du ation o3 days and nights became disa anged. EIt was then ... that the (eo(le Io3 6eCicoJ egulated anew the eckoning o3 days, nights, and hou s, acco ding to the di33e ence in time.E 2 EIt is a ema kable thing, mo eove , that time is measu ed 3 om the moment o3 its I6o ning +ta BsJ a((ea ance ... :lahui5cal(anteuctli o the 6o ning +ta a((ea ed 3o the 3i st time 3ollowing the convulsions o3 the ea th ove whelmed by a deluge.E It looked like a monst ous se (ent. E:his se (ent is ado ned with 3eathe s> that is why it is called Kuet5al/cohuatl , )ukumat5 o 4ukulcan. Aust as the wo ld is about to eme ge 3 om the chaos o3 the g eat catast o(he, it is seen to a((ea .E $ :he 3eathe a angement o3 Kuet5al/cohuatl E e( esented 3lames o3 3i e.E 0 ;gain, the old teCts s(eak Eo3 the change that took (lace, at the moment o3 the g eat catast o(he o3 the deluge, in the condition o3 many constellations, ( inci(al among them being ( ecisely :lahui5/cal(anteuctli o the sta o3 Venus.E :he cataclysm, accom(anied by a ( olonged da kness, a((ea s to have been that o3 the days o3 the ?Codus, when a tem(est o3 cinde s da kened the wo ld distu bed in its otation. +ome o3 the e3e ences may allude to the subseFuent catast o(he o3 the time o3 the conFuest by Aoshua, when the sun emained 3o mo e than a day in the sky o3 the old wo ld. +ince it was the same comet that on both occasions made contact with the ea th, and at each o3 the contacts the comet changed its own o bit, the elevant Fuestion is not, E"n which occasion did the comet change its o bitME but 3i st o3 all, E8hich comet changed to a (lanetME o E8hich (lanet was a comet in histo ical timesME :he t ans3o mation o3 the comet into a (lanet began on contact with the ea th in the middle o3 the second millennium be3o e the ( esent e a and was ca ied a ste( 3u the one <ubilee (e iod late . ;3te the d amatic events o3 the time o3 ?Codus, the ea th was sh ouded in dense clouds 3o decades, and obse vation o3 sta s was not (ossibleH a3te the second contact, Venus, the new and s(lendid membe o3 the sola 3amily, was seen moving along its o bit. It was in the days o3 Aoshua, a time designation meaning3ul to the eade o3 the siCth book o3 the +c i(tu esH but 3o the ancients it was Ethe time o3 ;gog.E ;s I eC(lained above, he was the

king by whose name the cataclysm (the %eluge o3 "gyges) was known, and who, acco ding to ) eek t adition, laid the 3oundations o3 :hebes in ?gy(t. In :he 'ity o3 )od by ;ugustine it is w itten> EG om the book o3 6a cus Va o, entitled "3 the 9ace o3 the 9oman Peo(le, I cite wo d 3o wo d the 3ollowing instance> B:he e occu ed a ema kable celestial (o tentH 3o 'asto eco ds that in the b illiant sta Venus, called Ves(e ugo by Plautus, and the lovely =es(e us by =ome , the e occu ed so st ange a ( odigy, that it changed its colo , si5e, 3o m, cou se, which neve ha((ened be3o e no since. ;d astus o3 'y5icus, and %ion o3 Na(les, 3amous mathematicians, said that this occu ed in the eign o3 "gyges.BE . :he Gathe s o3 the 'hu ch conside ed "gyges a contem(o a y o3 6oses. ;gog, mentioned in the blessing o3 ,alaam, was the king "gyges. :he u(heaval that took (lace in the days o3 Aoshua and ;gog, the deluge that occu ed in the days o3 "gyges, the metamo (hosis o3 Venus in the days o3 "gyges, the sta Venus which a((ea ed in the sky o3 6eCico a3te a ( ot acted night and a g eat catast o(he / all these occu ences a e elated. ;ugustine went on to make a cu ious comment on the t ans3o mation o3 Venus> E'e tainly that (henomenon distu bed the canons o3 the ast onome s ... so as to take u(on them to a33i m that this which ha((ened to the 6o ning +ta (Venus) neve ha((ened be3o e no since. ,ut we ead in the divine books that even the sun itsel3 stood still when a holy man, Aoshua the son o3 Nun, had begged this 3 om )od.E ;ugustine had no inkling that 'asto , as Fuoted by Va o, and the ,ook o3 Aashe , as Fuoted in the ,ook o3 Aoshua, e3e to the same occu ence. ; e =eb ew sou ces silent on the bi th o3 a new sta in the days o3 AoshuaM :hey a e not. It is w itten in a +ama itan ch onicle that du ing the invasion o3 Palestine by the Is aelites unde Aoshua, a new sta was bo n in the east> E; sta a ose out o3 the east against which all magic is vain.E 9 'hinese ch onicles eco d that Ea b illiant sta a((ea ed in the days o3 *ahu I*ahouJ.E #0
777777777777777777777777777777 # , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue, I, #.#. 2 +ele > )esammelte ;bhandlungen, I, 02$. 1 , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue, I, 1##. 2 Ibid., I, #20. $ , asseu > +ou ces de IBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue , (. .2. 0 +ahagun> ; =isto y o3 ;ncient 6eCico (t ansl. G. 9. ,andelie , #912), (. 20. - , asseu > +ou ces de lBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue, (. 2.. . ,k. LLI, 'ha(. . (t ansl. 6. %ods). 9 )in5be g> !egends, VI, #-9. #0 !egge> :he 'hinese 'lassics (=ong 4ong ed., #.0$), III, Pt. #, ##2, note. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he ,la5ing +ta

Plato, citing the ?gy(tian ( iest, said that the wo ld con3lag ation associated with PhaPthon was caused by a shi3ting o3 bodies in the sky which move a ound the ea th. ;s we have eason to assume that it was the comet Venus that, a3te two contacts with the ea th, eventually became a (lanet, we shall do well to inFui e> %id PhaPthon tu n into the 6o ning +ta M PhaPthon, which means Ethe bla5ing sta ,E # became the 6o ning +ta . :he ea liest w ite who e3e s to the t ans3o mation o3 PhaPthon into a (lanet is =esiod. 2 :his t ans3o mation is elated by =yginus in his ;st onomy, whe e he tells how PhaPthon, that caused the con3lag ation o3 the wo ld, was st uck by a thunde bolt o3 Au(ite and was (laced by the sun among the sta s ((lanets). 1 It was the gene al belie3 that PhaPthon changed into the 6o ning +ta . 2

"n the island o3 ' ete, ;tymnios was the name o3 the unlucky d ive o3 the sunBs cha iotH he was wo shi(ed as the ?vening +ta , which is the same as the 6o ning +ta . $ :he bi th o3 the 6o ning +ta , o the t ans3o mation o3 a legenda y (e son (Isteha , PhaPthon, Kuet5al/cohuatl ) into the 6o ning +ta was a wides( ead moti3 in the 3olklo e o3 the o iental 0 and occidental - (eo(les. :he :ahitian t adition o3 the bi th o3 the 6o ning +ta is na ated on the +ociety Island in the Paci3icH . the 6angaian legend says that with the bi th o3 a new sta , the ea th was batte ed by countless 3 agments. 9 :he ,u iats, 4i ghi5, and *akuts o3 +ibe ia, and the ?skimos o3 No th ;me ica also tell o3 the bi th o3 the (lanet Venus. #0 ; bla5ing sta dis u(ted the visible movement o3 the sun, caused a wo ld con3lag ation, and became the 6o ning/?vening +ta . :his may be 3ound not only in the legends and t aditions, but also in ast onomical books o3 the ancient (eo(les o3 both hemis(he es.
777777777777777777777777777777 # '3. 'ice o> %e natu a deo um (t ansl. =. 9ackham), ii. $2. 2 :heogony, ##. 9.933. 1 =yginus> ;st onomy, ii. 22. 2 +ee 9osche > EPhaPthonE in 9osche Bs !eCikon d. g iech. und Wm. 6ythologie , 'ol. 2#.2. $ Nonnos> %ionysiaca Ci. #10 3.H Cii. 2#-H CiC. #.2H +olinus> Polyhisto Ci. 0 )in5be g> !egends, V, #-0. - , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue, I, 1##/1#2. . 8illiamson> 9eligious and 'osmic ,elie3s o3 'ent al Polynesia , I, #20. 9 Ibid., (. 21. #0 =olmbe g> +ibe ian 6ythology, (. 212H ;leCande > No th ;me ican 6ythology, (. 9. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he Gou /Planet +ystem

,y asse ting that the (lanet Venus was bo n in the 3i st hal3 o3 the second millennium, I assume also that in the thi d millennium only 3ou (lanets could have been seen, and that in ast onomical cha ts o3 this ea ly (e iod the (lanet Venus cannot be 3ound. In an ancient =indu table o3 (lanets, att ibuted to the yea /1#02, Venus alone among the visible (lanets is absent. # :he , ahmans o3 the ea ly (e iod did not know the 3ive/(lanet system, 2 and only in a late (EmiddleE) (e iod did the , ahmans s(eak o3 3ive (lanets. ,abylonian ast onomy, too, had a 3ou /(lanet system. In ancient ( aye s the (lanets +atu n, Au(ite , 6a s, and 6e cu y a e invokedH the (lanet Venus is missingH and one s(eaks o3 Ethe 3ou /(lanet system o3 the ancient ast onome s o3 ,abylonia.E 1 :hese 3ou / (lanet systems and the inability o3 the ancient =indus and ,abylonians to see Venus in the sky, even though it is mo e cons(icuous than the othe (lanets, a e (u55ling unless Venus was not among the (lanets. "n a late date Ethe (lanet Venus eceives the a((ellative> B:he g eat sta that <oins the g eat sta s.B :he g eat sta s a e, o3 cou se, the 3ou (lanets 6e cu y, 6a s, Au(ite and +atu n ... and Venus <oins them as the 3i3th (lanet.E 2 ;(ollonius ,hodius e3e s to a time Ewhen not all the o bs we e yet in the heavens.E $
777777777777777777777777777777 # A. ,. A. %elamb e> =istoi e de lBast onomie ancienne (#.#-), I, 20-> EVenus alone is not 3ound the e.E 2 EIt is o3ten denied that the Veda/=indus knew o3 the eCistence o3 the 3ive (lanets.E E:he st iking 3act that the , ahmans ... neve mention 3ive (lanets.E ). :hibaut> E;st onomie, ;st ologie und 6athematikE in ) und iss de indoa ischen Philol. und ;lte tumskunde, III (#.99). 1 ?. G. 8eidne > =andbuch de ,abylonischen ;st onomie (#9#$), (. 0#, w ites o3 a sta list 3ound in ,ogha5 4eui in ;sia 6ino > E:hat the (lanet Venus is missing will not sta tle anybody who knows the eminent im(o tance o3 the 3ou /(lanet system in the ,abylonian ast onomy.E 8eidne su((oses that Venus is missing in the list o3 (lanets because Eshe belongs to a t iad with the moon and the sun.E "n Ishta in ea ly insc i(tions c3. in3 a, (. #-$.

2 Ibid., (. .1. $ ;(ollonius 9hodius> :he ; gonautica, ,k. iv, ##. 2$-33. 777777777777777777777777777777

"ne o3 the Planets Is a 'omet

%emoc itus (ci ca /200 to ci ca /1-0), a contem(o a y o3 Plato and one o3 the g eat schola s o3 antiFuity, is accused by the mode ns o3 not having unde stood the (laneta y cha acte o3 Venus. # Pluta ch Fuotes him as s(eaking o3 Venus as i3 it we e not one o3 the (lanets. ,ut a((a ently the autho o3 the t eatises on geomet y, o(tics, and ast onomy, no longe eCtant, knew mo e about Venus than his c itics think. G om Fuotations which have su vived in othe autho s, we know that %emoc itus built a theo y o3 the c eation and dest uction o3 wo lds which sounds like the mode n (lanetesimal theo y without its sho tcomings. =e w ote> E:he wo lds a e uneFually dist ibuted in s(aceH he e the e a e mo e, the e 3ewe H some a e waCing, some a e in thei ( ime, some waning> coming into being in one (a t o3 the unive se, ceasing in anothe (a t. :he cause o3 thei (e ishing is collision with one anothe .E 2 =e knew that Ethe (lanets a e at uneFual distances 3 om usE and that the e a e mo e (lanets than we a e able to discove with ou eyes. 1 ; istotle Fuoted the o(inion o3 %emoc itus> E+ta s have been seen when comets dissolve.E 2 ;mong the ea ly ) eek schola s, Pythago as o3 the siCth centu y is gene ally c edited with having had access to some sec et science. =is (u(ils, and thei (u(ils, the so/called Pythago eans, we e cautious not to disclose thei science to anyone who did not belong to thei ci cle. ; istotle w ote o3 thei inte ( etation o3 the natu e o3 comets> E+ome o3 the Italians called Pythago eans say that the comet is one o3 the (lanets, but that it a((ea s at g eat inte vals o3 time and only ises a little above the ho i5on. :his is the case with 6e cu y tooH because it only ises a little above the ho i5on it o3ten 3ails to be seen and conseFuently a((ea s at g eat inte vals o3 time.E $ :his is a con3used ( esentation o3 a theo yH but it is (ossible to t ace the t uth in the Pythago ean teaching, which was not unde stood by ; istotle. ; comet is a (lanet which etu ns at long inte vals. "ne o3 the (lanets, which ises only a little above the ho i5on, was still ega ded by the Pythago eans o3 the 3ou th centu y as a comet. 8ith the knowledge obtained 3 om othe sou ces, it is easy to guess that by Eone o3 the (lanetsE is meant VenusH only 6e cu y and Venus ise a little above the ho i5on. ; istotle disag eed with the Pythago ean schola s who conside ed one o3 the 3ive (lanets to be a comet. E:hese views involve im(ossibilities ... :his is the case, 3i st, with those who say that the comet is one o3 the (lanets ... mo e comets than one have o3ten a((ea ed simultaneously ... as a matte o3 3act, no (lanet has been obse ved besides the 3ive. ;nd all o3 them a e o3ten visible above the ho i5on togethe at the same time. Gu the , comets a e o3ten 3ound to a((ea , as well when all the (lanets a e visible as when some a e not.E 0 8ith these wo ds, ; istotle, who did not lea n the sec ets o3 the Pythago eans di ectly, t ied to e3ute thei teaching by a guing that all 3ive (lanets a e in thei (laces when a comet a((ea s, as i3 the Pythago eans thought that all comets we e one and the same (lanet leaving its usual (ath at ce tain times. ,ut the Pythago eans did not think that one (lanet e( esents all comets. ;cco ding to Pluta ch, - they taught that each o3 the comets has its own o bit and (e iod o3 evolution. =ence the Pythago eans a((a ently knew that the comet which is Eone o3 the (lanetsE is Venus.
777777777777777777777777777777 # E%emoc itus IsaysJ that the 3iCed sta s a e in the highest (laceH a3te those the (lanetsH a3te which the sun, Venus, and the moon, in thei o de .E Pluta ch> 6o als (t ansl. Eby seve al hands,E evised by 8. 8. )oodwin), Vol. Ill, 'ha(. LV. c3. 9osche Bs !eCikon d. g iech. und Wm. 6yth., col. 2#.2.

2 =i((olytus> :he 9e3utation o3 ;ll =e esies, I, 'ha(. LI. Plato, who was a contem(o a y o3 %emoc itus, simila ly desc ibed the dest uction o3 the ea th and its 3utu e ebi th in a 3a /away egion o3 the unive se ( :imaeus $0 %). 1 +eneca> Natu ales Fuaestiones vii. iii. 2. 2 ; istotle> 6eteo ologica i. 0. $ Ibid. 0 Ibid. - Pluta ch> E!es "(inions des (hiloso(he ,E in euv es de Pluta Fue (t ansl. ;myot), Vol. LLI, 'ha(. Ill, +ec. 2. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 'omet Venus

%u ing the centu ies when Venus was a comet, it had a tail. :he ea ly t aditions o3 the (eo(les o3 6eCico, w itten down in ( e/'olumbian days, elate that Venus smoked. E:he sta that smoked / la est ella Fue humeava / was +itlae choloha, which the +(ania ds call Venus.E # ENow, I ask,E says ;leCande =umboldt, Ewhat o(tical illusion could give Venus the a((ea ance o3 a sta th owing out smokeME 2 +ahagun, the siCteenth centu y +(anish autho ity on 6eCico, w ote that the 6eCicans called a comet Ea sta that smoked.E 1 It may thus be concluded that since the 6eCicans called Venus Ea sta that smoked,E they conside ed it a comet. It is also said in the Vedas that the sta Venus looks like 3i e with smoke. 2 ;((a ently, the sta had a tail, da k in the daytime and luminous at night. In ve y conc ete 3o m this luminous tail, which Venus had in ea lie centu ies, is mentioned in the :almud, in the : actate +habbat> EGi e is hanging down 3 om the (lanet Venus.E $ :his (henomenon was desc ibed by the 'haldeans. :he (lanet Venus Ewas said to have a bea d.E 0 :his same technical eC( ession (Ebea dE) is used in mode n ast onomy in the desc i(tion o3 comets. :hese (a allels in obse vations made in the valley o3 the )anges, on the sho es o3 the ?u(h ates, and on the coast o3 the 6eCican )ul3 ( ove thei ob<ectivity. :he Fuestion must then be (ut, not in the 3o m, 8hat was the illusion o3 the ancient :oltecs and 6ayasM ,ut> 8hat was the (henomenon and what was its causeM ; t ain, la ge enough to be visible 3 om the ea th and giving the im( ession o3 smoke and 3i e, hung 3 om the (lanet Venus. Venus, with its glowing t ain, was a ve y b illiant bodyH it is the e3o e not st ange that the 'haldeans desc ibed it as a Eb ight to ch o3 heaven,E - also as a Ediamond that illuminates like the sun,E and com(a ed its light with the light o3 the ising sun. . ;t ( esent, the light o3 Venus is less than one millionth o3 the light o3 the sun. E; stu(endous ( odigy in the sky,E the 'haldeans called it. 9 :he =eb ews simila ly desc ibed the (lanet> E:he b illiant light o3 Venus bla5es 3 om one end o3 the cosmos to the othe end.E #0 :he 'hinese ast onomical teCt 3 om +oochow e3e s to the (ast when EVenus was visible in 3ull daylight and, while moving ac oss the sky, ivaled the sun in b ightness.E ## ;s late as the seventh centu y, ;ssu bani(al w ote about Venus (Ishta ) Ewho is clothed with 3i e and bea s alo3t a c own o3 aw3ul s(lendo .E #2 :he ?gy(tians unde +eti thus desc ibed Venus (+ekhmet)> E; ci cling sta which scatte s its 3lame in 3i e ... a 3lame o3 3i e in he tem(est.E #1 Possessing a tail and moving on a not yet ci cula o bit, Venus was mo e o3 a comet than a (lanet, and was called a Esmoking sta E o a comet by the 6eCicans. :hey also called it by the name o3 E:5onte/mocFueE, o Ethe mane.E #2 :he ; abs called Ishta (Venus) by the name EDebba<E o Eone with hai ,E as did the ,abylonians. #$ E+ometimes the e a e hai s attached to the (lanets,E w ote PlinyH #0 an old desc i(tion o3

Venus must have se ved as a basis 3o his asse tion. ,ut hai o EcomaE is a cha acte istic o3 comets, and in 3act EcometE is de ived 3 om the ) eek wo d 3o Ehai .E :he Pe uvian name E'haskaE (Ewavyhai edE) # is still the name 3o Venus, though at ( esent the 6o ning +ta is de3initely a (lanet and has no tail attached to it. :he coma o3 Venus changed its 3o m with the (osition o3 the (lanet. 8hen the (lanet Venus a(( oaches the ea th now, it is only (a tly illuminated, a (o tion o3 the disc being in shadowH it has (hases like the moon. ;t this time, being close to the ea th, it is most b illiant. 8hen Venus had a coma, the ho ns o3 its c escent must have been eCtended by the illuminated (o tions o3 the coma. It thus had two long a((endages and looked like a bullBs head. +anchoniathon says that ;sta te (Venus) had a bullBs head. #. :he (lanet was even called E;shte oth/4a naimE, o E;sta te o3 the =o nsE, a name given to a city in 'anaan in hono o3 this deity. #9 :he golden cal3 wo shi(ed by ;a on and the (eo(le at the 3oot o3 +inai was the image o3 the sta . 9abbinical autho ities say that Ethe devotion o3 Is ael to this wo shi( o3 the bull is in (a t eC(lained by the ci cumstance that, while (assing th ough the 9ed +ea, they beheld the celestial :h one, and most distinctly o3 the 3ou c eatu es about the :h one, they saw the oC.E 20 :he likeness o3 a cal3 was (laced by Ae oboam in %an, the g eat tem(le o3 the No the n 4ingdom. 2# :ist ya o3 the Dend/;vesta, the sta that attacks the (lanets, Ethe b ight and glo ious :ist ya mingles his sha(e with light moving in the sha(e o3 a golden/ho ned bull.E 22 :he ?gy(tians simila ly (ictu ed the (lanet and wo shi(ed it in the e33igy o3 a bull. 21 :he cult o3 a bull s( ang u( also in 6ycenaean ) eece. ; golden cow head with a sta on its b ow was 3ound in 6ycenae, on the ) eek mainland. 22 :he (eo(le o3 3a away +amoa, ( imitive t ibes that de(end on o al t adition as they have no a t o3 w iting, e(eat to this day> E:he (lanet Venus became wild and ho ns g ew out o3 he head.E 2$ ?Cam(les and e3e ences could be multi(lied ad libitum. :he ast onomical teCts o3 the ,abylonians desc ibe the ho ns o3 the (lanet Venus. +ometimes one o3 the two ho ns became mo e ( ominent. ,ecause the ast onomical wo ks o3 antiFuity have so much to say about the ho ns o3 Venus, mode n schola s have asked themselves whethe the ,abylonians could have seen the (hases o3 Venus, which cannot now be distinguished with the naked eyeH 20 )alileo saw them 3o the 3i st time in mode n histo y when he used his telesco(e. :he long ho ns o3 Venus could have been seen without the aid o3 a telesco(ic lens. :he ho ns we e the illuminated (o tions o3 the coma o3 Venus, which st etched towa d the ea th. :hese ho ns could also have eCtended towa d the sun as Venus a(( oached the sola o b, since comets we e e(eatedly obse ved with ( o<ections in the di ection o3 the sun, while the tails o3 the comets a e egula ly di ected away 3 om the sun. 8hen Venus a(( oached close to one o3 the (lanets, its ho ns g ew longe > this is the (henomenon the ast ologe s o3 ,abylon obse ved and desc ibed when Venus nea ed 6a s.
2777777777777777777777777777777 # =umboldt> 9esea ches, II, #-2H see ?. :. =ammy> 'odeC :elle iano/9emensis (#.99). 2 =umboldt> 9esea ches, II, #-2. 1 +ahagun> =isto ia gene al de las cosas de Nueva ?s(a[a, ,k. VII, 'ha(. 2. 2 A. +che3telowit5> %ie Deit als +chicksalsgottheit in de i anischen 9eligion (#929), (. 2H Venus Eaussieht wie ein mit 9auch ve sehenes Geue E (Elooks like a 3i e accom(anied by smokeE). '3. ;tha va/Veda vi. 1, #$. $ ,abylonian :almud, : actate +habbat #$0a. 0 6. Aast ow> 9eligious 9elie3 in 9abylonia and ;ssy ia (#9##), (. 22#H c3. A. +chaumbe ge > E%e ,a t de

VenusB in G. L. 4ugle > +te nkunde und +te ndienst in ,abel (1 d su((., #91$), (. 101. - E; P aye o3 the 9aising o3 the =and to Ishta ,E in +even :ablets o3 ' eation, ed. !. 8. 4ing. . +chaumbe ge in 4ugle > +te nkunde und +temdienst in ,abel, 1 d su((., (. 29#. 9 Ibid. #0 6id ash 9abba, Nume i 2#. 22$a> ENoga she5ivo mavhik meBso3 haolam ad so3o.E '3. E6a5alE and ENogaE in A. !evy> 8W te buch Ybe die :almudim und 6id ashim (2nd ed., #922). ## 8. '. 9u3us and =sing/chih/tien> :he +oochow ;st onomical 'ha t (#92$). #2 %. %. !uckenbill> ;ncient 9eco ds o3 ;ssy ia (#920/#92-), II, +ec. .29. #1 , easted> 9eco ds o3 ?gy(t, III, +ec. ##-. #2 , asseu > +ou ces de lBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue, (. 2., note. #$ =. 8inckle > =immels/ und 8eltenbild de ,abylonie (#90#), (. 21. #0 Pliny> Natu al =isto y, ii. 21. #- E:he Pe uvians call the (lanet Venus by the name 'haska, the wavy/hai ed.E =. 4unike, E+te nmythologie au3 ethnologische ) undlageE in 8elt und 6ensch, IL/L. ?. No denskiWld, :he +ec et o3 the Pe uvian Kui(us (#92$), ((. $1133. #. '3. !. :ho ndike> ; =isto y o3 6agic and ?C(e imental +cience (#921/#92#), I, 'ha(. L. #9 )enesis #2>$. +ee also I 6accabee v. 20, 21, and II 6accabee Cii. 2#/20H ). 9awlinson> :he =isto y o3 =e odotus (#.$.), II, $21. 20 )in5be g> !egends, III, #21. 2# # 4ings #2>2.. 22 :he Dend/;vesta (t ansl. Aames %a mestete , #..1), Pt. II, (. 91. 21 '3. ?. "tto> ,eit ^ge 5u )eschichte de +tie kulte in dgy(ten (#91.). 22 =. +chliemann> 6ycenae (#.-0), (. 2#-. 2$ 8illiamson> 9eligious and 'osmic ,elie3s o3 'ent al Polynesia , I, #2.. 20 EIt is well known that not a 3ew (assages in the cunei3o m teCts on ast ology s(eak o3 the ight o the le3t ho n o3 Venus. It was deduced that the (hases o3 Venus we e obse ved al eady by the ,abylonians and that )alileo, in the siCteenth centu y, was not the 3i st to see them.E +chaumbe ge , E%ie =ome de VenusE in 4ugle > +te nkunde, 1 d +u((., ((. 10233. 2- Ibid. 777777777777777777777777777777

Pallas ;thene

'ha(te 9

IN ?V?9* '"@N:9* o3 the ancient wo ld we can t ace cosmological myths o3 the bi th o3 the (lanet Venus. I3 we look 3o the god o goddess who e( esents the (lanet Venus, we must inFui e which among the gods o goddesses did not eCist 3 om the beginning, but was bo n into the 3amily. :he mythologies o3 all (eo(les conce n themselves with the bi th only o3 Venus, not with that o3 Au(ite , 6a s, o +atu n. Au(ite is desc ibed as hei to +atu n, but his bi th is not a mythological sub<ect. =o us o3 the ?gy(tians and Vishnu, bo n o3 +hiva, o3 the =indus, we e such newbo n deities. =o us battled in the sky with the monste / se (ent +ethH so did Vishnu. In ) eece the goddess who suddenly a((ea ed in the sky was Pallas ;thene. +he s( ang 3 om the head o3 Deus/Au(ite . In anothe legend she was the daughte o3 a monste , Pallas/:y(hon, who attacked he and whom she battled and killed. :he slaying o3 the monste by a (lanet/god is the way in which the (eo(les (e ceived the convulsion o3 the (illa o3 smoke when the ea th and the comet Venus distu bed each othe in thei o bits, and the head o3 the comet and its tail lea(ed against each othe in violent elect ical discha ges. :he bi th o3 the (lanet ;thene is sung in the =ome ic hymn dedicated to he , Ethe glo ious goddess, vi gin, : itogeneia.E 8hen she was bo n, the vault o3 the sky / the g eat "lym(us / Ebegan to eel ho ibly,E Eea th ound about c ied 3ea 3ully,E Ethe sea was moved and tossed with da k waves, while 3oam bu st 3o th suddenly,E and the sun sto((ed 3o Ea long while.E # :he ) eek teCt s(eaks o3 E(u (le wavesE 2 and o3 Ethe sea IthatJ ises u( like a wall,E and the sun sto((ing in its cou se. 1 ; istocles said that Deus hid the unbo n ;thene in a cloud and then s(lit it o(en with lightning, 2 which is the mythological way to desc ibe the a((ea ance o3 a celestial body 3 om the (illa o3 cloud. ;thene, o !atin 6ine va, is called : itogeneia (o : itonia) a3te the lake : iton. $ :his lake disa((ea ed in a catast o(he in ;3 ica when it b oke into the ocean, leaving the dese t o3 +aha a behind it, a catast o(he connected with the bi th o3 ;thene. %iodo us, 0 e3e ing to undisclosed olde autho ities, says that !ake : iton in ;3 ica Edisa((ea ed 3 om sight in the cou se o3 an ea thFuake, when those (a ts o3 it which lay towa d the ocean we e to n asunde .E :his account im(lies that a g eat lake o ma sh in ;3 ica, se(a ated 3 om the ;tlantic "cean by a mountainous ba ie , disa((ea ed when the ba ie was b oken o lowe ed in a catast o(he. "vid says that !ibya became a dese t in conseFuence o3 PhaPthonBs con3lag ation. In the Iliad it is said that Pallas ;thene Eda ted down to ea th a gleaming sta E with s(a ks s( inging 3 om itH it da ted as a sta Esent by Au(ite to be a (o tent 3o seamen o 3o a wide host o3 wa io s, a gleaming sta .E - ;theneBs counte (a t in the ;ssy o/,abylonian (antheon is ;sta te (Ishta ) who shatte s mountains, Eb ight to ch o3 heavenE at whose a((ea ance Eheaven and ea th Fuake,E who causes da kness and a((ea s in a hu icane. . !ike ;sta te (;shte oth/4a naim), ;thene was (ictu ed with ho ns. E;thena, daughte o3 Deus ... u(on he head she set the helmet with two ho ns,E said =ome . 9 Pallas ;thene is identi3ied with ;sta te (Ishta ) o the (lanet Venus o3 the ,abylonians. #0 ;naitis o3 the I anians, too, is identi3ied as Pallas ;thene and as the (lanet Venus. ## Pluta ch identi3ied 6ine va o3 the 9omans o ;thene o3 the ) eeks with Isis o3 the ?gy(tians, and Pliny identi3ied the (lanet Venus with Isis. #2 It is necessa y to ecall this he e because it is gene ally su((osed that the ) eeks had no deity o3 im(o tance who (e soni3ied the (lanet Venus #1 and that, on the othe hand, they

Edid not 3ind even a sta in which to (laceE ;thene. #2 6ode n books on the mythology o3 the ) eeks e(eat today what 'ice o w ote> EVenus, called in ) eek BPhos(ho usB and in !atin B!uci3e B when it ( eceded the sun, but when it 3ollows it B=es(e osB.E #$ Phos(ho us does not (lay any ole on "lym(us. ,ut 3ollowing 'ice o in his desc i(tion o3 the (lanets, we ead also o3 Ethe (lanet called +atu nBs, the ) eek name o3 which is BPhaenonB,E though we know a mo e common name, B' onusB, by which the ) eeks called the (lanet +atu n. 'ice o gives the ) eek names o3 othe (lanets which a e not the common ones. It is the e3o e enti ely w ong to think that Phos(ho us and =es(e os a e the chie3 o only names o3 the (lanet Venus in ) eek. ;thene, in whose hono the city o3 ;thens was named, was the (lanet Venus. NeCt to Deus she was the most hono ed deity o3 the ) eeks. :he name E;theneE in ) eek, acco ding to 6anetho, Eis indication o3 sel3/o iginated movement.E =e w ote o3 the name ;thene as meaning, EI came 3 om mysel3.E #0 'ice o, s(eaking o3 Venus, eC(lained the o igin o3 the name thus> EVenus was so named by ou count ymen as the goddess who BcomesB Iveni eJ to all things.E #- :he name Vishnu signi3ies E(e vade ,E 3 om the +ansk it EvishE, to Eente E o E(e vade.E :he bi th o3 ;thene was assigned to the middle o3 the second millennium. ;ugustine w ote> E6ine va I;theneJ is e(o ted to have a((ea ed ... in the times o3 "gyges.E :his statement is 3ound in :he 'ity o3 )od, #. the book containing the Fuotation 3 om Va o that the (lanet Venus changed its cou se and 3o m in the time o3 "gyges. ;ugustine also synch oni5ed Aoshua with the time o3 6ine vaBs activities. #9 :he cove o3 ca bonigenous clouds in which the ea th was envelo(ed by the comet is the E obe amb osialE w ought by ;thene 3o =e a (?a th). 20 :he sou ce o3 amb osia was closely connected with ;thene. 2# :he o igin o3 ;thene as a comet is im(lied in he e(ithet Pallas which, as is commonly known, is synonymous with :y(honH :y(hon, as Pliny said, was a comet. :he bull and the cow, the goat and the se (ent, we e animals dedicated to ;thene. E:he goat being usually tabooed but chosen as an eCce(tional victim 3o he ,E the animal was annually sac i3iced on the ;c o(olis o3 ;thens. 22 8ith the Is aelites the goat was the victim 3o ;5a5el, o !uci3e . In the ,abylonian calenda Ethe nineteenth day o3 all months is ma ked Bday o3 w athB o3 goddess )ula (Ishta ). No wo k was done. 8ee(ing and lamentation 3illed the land ... ;ny eC(lanation o3 dies i ae o3 ,abylonia must be sought in some myth conce ning the nineteenth o3 the 3i st month. 8hy should the nineteenth day a3te the moon o3 the s( ing eFuinoC be a day o3 w athM ... It co es(onds to the FuinFuat us o3 the ,oman 3a me Bs calenda , the nineteenth o3 6a ch, 3ive days a3te the 3ull moon. "vid says that 6ine va was bo n on that day, she being the Pallas ;thene o3 the ) eeks.E 21 :he nineteenth o3 6a ch was 6ine vaBs day. :he 3i st a((ea ance o3 ;thene/6ine va took (lace on the day the Is aelites c ossed the 9ed +ea. :he night between the thi teenth and the 3ou teenth days o3 the 3i st month a3te the ve nal eFuinoC was the night o3 the g eat ea thshockH siC days late , on the last day o3 Passove week, acco ding to the =eb ew t adition, the wate s we e hea(ed u( like mountains and the 3ugitives c ossed on the d y bed o3 the sea. :he bi th o3 Pallas ;thene o he 3i st visit to ea th was the cause o3 a cosmic distu bance, and the memo y o3 that catast o(he was Ea day o3 w ath in all the calenda s o3 ancient 'haldea.E
777777777777777777777777777777 # E:he =ome ic =ymns to ;thenaE (t ansl. ?velyn/8hite) in =esiodBs volume in the !oeb 'lassical !ib a y. 2 :he co ect t anslation eFui es E(u (le wavesEH see E:he =ome ic =ymn to 6ine vaE (t ansl. ;. ,uckley) in :he "dyssey o3 =ome with the =ymns (#.-.). 1 !. 9. Ga nell> :he 'ults o3 the ) eek +tates (#.90), I, 2.#.

2 Ibid. $ E6ine va ... is e(o ted to have a((ea ed in vi gin age in the times o3 "gyges at the lake called : iton, 3 om which she is also styled : itonia.E ;ugustine> :he 'ity o3 )od, ,k. LVIII, 'ha(. .. 0 %iodo us o3 +icily iii. $$ (t ansl. '. =. "ld3athe ). - Iliad iv. -$ 3. . E; P aye ... to Ishta E in +even :ablets o3 ' eation (t ansl. 4ing)H Ga nell> :he 'ults o3 the ) eek +tates, I, 2$.33. 9 Iliad v. -1$. #0 !angdon> :ammu5 and Ishta (#9#2), (. 9-. ## G. 'umont> !es 6ystT es de 6ith a (1 d ed., #9#1), (. ###. #2 Pluta ch> Isis and "si is, 'ha(. 02> E:hey o3ten call Isis by the name o3 ;thena.E +ee ). 9awlinson> :he =isto y o3 =e odotus, II, $22H Pliny> Natu al =isto y, ii, 1-. #1 :he name Venus o ;(h odite belonged to the moon. #2 ;ugustine> :he 'ity o3 )od, ,k. VII, 'ha(. #0. Ga nell> :he 'ults o3 the ) eek +tates, I, 201, discusses the va ious hy(otheses o3 the (hysical natu e o3 ;thene and, unable to ag ee with any, asks> EIs the e any ( oo3 that ;thene, as a goddess o3 the =ellenic eligion, eve was a (e soni3ication o3 some (a t o3 the (hysical wo ldME 'ice o> %e natu a deo um i. 2#, e3e ed to a t eatise by the +toic %iogenes ,abylonius, %e 6ine va, in which its autho gave a natu al eC(lanation o3 the bi th o3 ;thene. :he wo k is not eCtant. #$ 'ice o> %e natu a deo um ii. $1. #0 E:he usage o3 the ?gy(tians is also simila > they o3ten call Isis by the name o3 ;thena, which eC( esses some such meaning as BI came 3 om mysel3,B and is indication o3 sel3/o iginated movement.E 6anetho, cited by Pluta ch> Isis and "si is (t ansl. 8addell), 'ha(. 02. ,ut c3. Ga nell> :he 'ults o3 the ) eek +tates, I, 2$.> E:he meaning o3 the name emains unknown.E #- 'ice o> %e natu a deo um ii. 09. #. :he 'ity o3 )od, ,k. LVIII, 'ha(. .. #9 Ibid., ,k. LVIII, 'ha(. #2. 20 Iliad Civ. #-033. In the ,abylonian mythology 6a duk cuts :iamat in two and makes 3 om one (a t a cove o veil 3o the sky. 2# :. ,e gk> E%ie )ebu t de ;theneE in GleckeisenBs A ah bYche 3Y classische Philologie (#.00), 'ha(. VI, e3e s to the elation o3 ;thene to the EKuellen de ;mb osiaE (Ethe sou ces o3 amb osiaE). ;(ollodo us ( :he !ib a y) says that ;thene Eslayed Pallas and used his skin,E which a((ea s to e3e to the envelo(e o3 Venus that ( eviously 3o med the tail o3 the comet. 22 Ga nell> :he 'ults o3 the ) eek +tates, I, 290. 21 !angdon> ,abylonian 6enologies and the +emitic 'alenda s (#91$), ((. .0/.-.


Deus and ;thene

I3 the e was a ( oblem in this esea ch which caused ( olonged delibe ation on the (a t o3 the autho , it was the Fuestion> 8as it the (lanet Au(ite o Venus that caused the catast o(he o3 the time o3 ?CodusM +ome ancient mythological sou ces (oint to Venus, othe sou ces (oint to Au(ite . In one g ou( o3 legends Au(ite (Deus) is the ( otagonist o3 the d ama> he leaves his (lace in the sky, ushes to battle :y(hon, and st ikes him with thunde bolts. ,ut othe legends and histo ical sou ces, too, which I have Fuoted on ( evious (ages indicate that it was the (lanet Venus, o Pallas ;thene o3 the ) eeks. ;thene killed he 3athe , :y(hon/Pallas, the celestial monste , and the desc i(tion o3 this battle is not di33e ent 3 om that o3 the battle in which Deus killed :y(hon. @nde the weight o3 many a guments, I came to the conclusion / about which I no longe have any doubt / that it was the (lanet Venus, at the time still a comet, that caused the catast o(he o3 the days o3 ?Codus. :hen why do a (a t o3 the legends tie u( this event with Au(ite M :he cause o3 this duality in the mythological handling o3 an histo ical event lies in the 3act that the ancients themselves did not know 3o ce tain which o3 the (lanets had caused the dest uction. +ome saw the (illa o3 cloud / :y(hon de3eated by Au(ite , the ball o3 3i e that eme ged 3 om the (illa and battled with it. "the s inte ( eted the globe as a body di33e ent 3 om Au(ite .

:he ) eek autho s desc ibed the bi th o3 ;thene ((lanet Venus), saying she s( ang 3 om the head o3 Au(ite . E;nd mighty "lym(us t embled 3ea 3ully ... and the ea th a ound sh ieked 3ea 3ully, and the sea was sti ed, t oubled with its (u (le waves.E # "ne o two autho s thought that ;thene was bo n o3 ' onus. ,ut the consensus o3 ancient autho s makes ;thene/Venus the o33s( ing o3 Au(ite > she s( ang 3 om his head, and this bi th was accom(anied by g eat distu bances in the celestial and te est ial s(he es. :he comet ushed towa d the ea th, and it could not be ve y well distinguished whethe the (lanet Au(ite o its o33s( ing was a(( oaching. I may divulge he e something that belongs to the second book o3 this wo kH namely, that at an ea lie time, Au(ite had al eady caused havoc in the (laneta y 3amily, the ea th included, and it was the e3o e only natu al to see in the a(( oaching body the (lanet Au(ite . I e3e ed in the int oducto y (a t o3 this wo k to the mode n theo y which asc ibes the bi th o3 the te est ial (lanets to the ( ocess o3 eC(ulsion by la ge ones. :his a((ea s to be t ue in the case o3 Venus. :he othe mode n theo y, which asc ibes the o igin o3 comets o3 sho t (e iod to eC(ulsion by la ge (lanets, is also co ect> Venus was eC(elled as a comet and then changed to a (lanet a3te contact with a numbe o3 membe s o3 the sola system. Venus, being an o33s( ing o3 Au(ite , bo e all the cha acte istics known to men 3 om ea ly cataclysmic encounte s. 8hen a ball o3 3i e to e the (illa o3 cloud and (elted the (illa with thunde bolts, the imagination o3 the (eo(le saw in this the (lanet/god Au(ite /6a duk ushing to save the ea th by killing the se (ent/monste :y(hon/:iamat. It is not st ange, the e3o e, that, in (laces as emote 3 om ) eece as the islands o3 Polynesia, it is elated that Ethe (lanet Au(ite su(( essed the tail o3 the g eat sto m.E 2 ,ut we a e told that in the same (laces, notably on the =a vey Islands, EAu(ite was o3ten mistaken 3o the 6o ning +ta .E 1 "n othe islands o3 Polynesia, Ethe (lanets Venus and Au(ite seem to have been con3used with each othe .E ?C(lo e s 3ound Ethat the name EGaumaE o EPau(itiE was given to Venus ... and that the same names we e given to Au(ite .E 2 ?a ly ast onomy sha ed PtolemyBs o(inion that EVenus has the same (owe sE and also the natu e o3 Au(ite , $ an o(inion e3lected also in the ast ological belie3 that EVenus, when she becomes sole ule o3 the event, in gene al b ings about esults simila to those o3 Au(ite .E

In one local cult in ?gy(t the name o3 EIsisE, as I shall show in the neCt volume, o iginally belonged to Au(ite , E"si isE being +atu n. In anothe local cult E;monE was the name 3o Au(ite . E=o usE o iginally was also Au(ite . - ,ut when a new (lanet was bo n o3 Au(ite and became su( eme in the sky, the onlooke s could not eadily ecogni5e the eCact natu e o3 this change. :hey gave the name o3 EIsisE to the (lanet Venus, and sometimes the name o3 E=o usE. :his must have caused con3usion. E"ne is con3used by the va ious elations which eCist between mothe and son (Isis and =o us). Now he is he conso t, now he b othe H now a youth ... now an in3ant 3ed at he b east.E . E; notewo thy e( esentation shows he IIsisJ in association with =o us as the 6o ning +ta , and thus in a st ange elation ... which we cannot yet eC(lain 3 om the teCts.E 9 ;lso EIshta E o3 ;ssy ia/,abylonia was in ea ly times the name o3 the (lanet Au(ite H late it was t ans3e ed to Venus, Au(ite etaining the name o3 E6a dukE. E,aalE, still anothe name 3o Au(ite , was an ea lie name 3o +atu n, and late on became the name o3 Venus, sometimes the 3eminine 3o m E,aalathE o E,elithE being used. #0 Ishta , also, was at 3i st a male (lanet, subseFuently becoming a 3emale (lanet. ##

777777777777777777777777777777 # E:he =ome ic =ymn to 6ine vaE (t ansl. ,uckley) in :he "dyssey o3 =ome with the =ymns. '3. the t anslation on (. #0.. 2 8illiamson> 9eligious and 'osmic ,elie3s o3 'ent al Polynesia , I, #21. 1 Ibid., (. #12. +ee also 8. 8. )ill> 6yths and +ongs 3 om the +outh Paci3ic (#.-0), (. 22, and his =isto ical +ketches o3 +avage !i3e in Polynesia (#..0).

(. 1.. 2 8illiamson, I, #22. +ee also A. ;. 6oe enhut> Voyages auC isles du ) and "cUan (#.1-), II, (. #.#. $ Ptolemy> :et abyblos (t ansl. G. ?. 9obbins, #920), I, 2. 0 Ibid., II, .. - +. ;. ,. 6e ce > =o us, 9oyal )od o3 ?gy(t (#922). . !angdon> :ammu5 and Ishta , (. 22. 9 8. 6. 6Ylle > ?gy(tian 6ythology, (. $0. #0 ,ide5 and G. 'umont> !es 6ages hellUnisUs (#91.), II, ##0. ## '. ,e5old in G. ,all> +te nglaube und +te ndeutung (#920), (. 9. 777777777777777777777777777777

8o shi( o3 the 6o ning +ta

Now that it has been shown it was Venus which, at an inte val o3 3i3ty/two yea s, caused two cosmic catast o(hes in the 3i3teenth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, we unde stand also the di33e ent histo ical connections between Venus and these catast o(hes. In nume ous biblical and abbinical (assages it is said that when the Is aelites went 3 om 6ount +inai into the dese t, they we e cove ed by clouds. :hese clouds we e illuminated by the (illa o3 3i e, so that they gave a (ale light. # 8ith this should be connected a statement o3 Isaiah> E:he (eo(le that walked in da kness have seen a g eat lightH they that dwell in the land o3 the shadow o3 death, the light o3 Noga was u(on them.E 2 ENogaE is VenusH it is, in 3act, the usual name o3 this (lanet in =eb ew, 1 and it is the e3o e an omission not to t anslate it so. ;mos says that du ing the 3o ty yea s in the wilde ness the Is aelites did not sac i3ice to the !o d, but ca ied Ethe sta o3 you god, which you made to you selves.E 2 +t. Ae ome inte ( ets this Esta o3 you godE as !uci3e (the 6o ning +ta ). $ 8hat image o3 the sta was ca ied in the wilde nessM 8as it the bull (cal3) o3 ;a on o the b a5en se (ent o3 6osesM E;nd 6oses made a se (ent o3 b ass, and (ut it u(on a (ole.E 0 "3 this se (ent it is said that it was made with the (u (ose o3 ( oviding a cu e 3o those bitten by snakes. - +even and a hal3 centu ies late this b a5en se (ent o3 6oses was b oken by 4ing =e5ekiah, guided in his monotheistic 5eal by the ( o(het Isaiah, E3o unto those days the child en o3 Is ael did bu n incense to it.E . :he b a5en se (ent was most ( obably the image o3 the (illa o3 cloud and 3i e which a((ea ed as a moving se (ent to all (eo(les o3 the wo ld. +t. Ae ome a((a ently had this image in view when he inte ( eted the sta mentioned by ;mos as !uci3e . " was it the Esta o3 %avid,E the siC/(ointed sta M :he ?gy(tian Venus/Isis, the ,abylonian Venus/Ishta , the ) eek Venus/;thene we e goddesses (ictu ed with se (ents, and sometimes e( esented as d agons. EIshta , the 3ea 3ul d agon,E w ote ;ssu bani(al. 9 :he 6o ning +ta o3 the :oltecs, Kuet5al/cohuatl (Kuet5al/coatl), also is e( esented as a g eat d agon o se (ent> EcohuatlE in Nahuatl is Ese (ent,E and the name means Ea 3eathe ed se (ent.E #0 :he 6o ning +ta o3 the Indians o3 the 'hichimec t ibe in 6eCico is called E+e (ent cloud,E ## a ema kable name because o3 its elation to the (illa o3 cloud and the clouds that cove ed the globe a3te the contact o3 the ea th with Venus. 8hen Kuet5al/cohuatl , the lawgive o3 the :oltecs, disa((ea ed on the a(( oach o3 a g eat catast o(he and the 6o ning +ta that bo e the same name ose 3o the 3i st time in the sky, the :oltecs E egulated the eckoning o3 the days, the nights, and the hou s acco ding to the di33e ence in the time.E #2 :he (eo(le o3 @ga it (9as/+ham a) in +y ia add essed ;nat, thei (lanet Venus> E*ou eve se the (osition o3 the dawn in the sky.E #1 In the 6eCican 'odeC ,o gia, the ?vening +ta is e( esented with the sola disc on its back. #2

In the ,abylonian (salms Ishta says> #$ ,y causing the heavens to t emble and the ea th to Fuake, ,y the gleam which lightens in the sky, ,y the bla5ing 3i e which ains u(on the hostile land, I am Ishta . Ishta am I by the light that a ises in heaven, Ishta the Fueen o3 heaven am I by the light that a ises in heaven I am Ishta H on high I <ou ney ... :he heavens I cause to Fuake, the ea th I cause to shake, :hat is my 3ame ... +he that lightens in the ho i5on o3 heaven, 8hose name is hono ed in the habitations o3 men, :hat is my 3ame. EKueen o3 heaven above and beneathE let be s(oken, :hat is my 3ame. :he mountains I ove whelm altogethe , :hat is my 3ame. :he 6o ning/?vening +ta Ishta was called also Ethe sta o3 lamentation.E #0 :he Pe sian 6ith a, the same as :ist ya, descended 3 om the heavens and Elet a st eam o3 3i e 3low towa d the ea th,E Esigni3ying that a bla5ing sta , becoming in some way ( esent he e below, 3illed ou wo ld with its devou ing heat.E #In ;(haca in +y ia 3i e 3ell 3 om the sky, and it was asse ted that it 3ell 3 om Venus> Eby which one would think o3 3i e that had 3allen 3 om the (lanet Venus.E #. :he (lace became holy and was visited each yea by (ilg ims. :he 3estivals o3 the (lanet Venus we e held in the s( ing. E"u ancesto s dedicated the month o3 ;( il to Venus,E w ote 6ac obius. #9 ,aal o3 the 'anaanites and o3 the No the n 4ingdom o3 Is ael was wo shi(ed in %an, the city o3 the cult o3 the cal3, and th ongs visited the e du ing the week o3 Passove . :he cult o3 Venus s( ead to Audea also. ;cco ding to II 4ings (21>$), 4ing Aosiah in the seventh centu y E(ut down the idolat ous ( iests, whom the kings o3 Audah had o dained to bu n incense in the high (laces in the cities o3 Audah, and in the (laces ound about Ae usalemH them also that bu ned incense unto ,aal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the (lanets, and to all the host o3 heaven.E ,aal, the sun, the moon, and the (lanets, is the division used also by %emoc itus> Venus, the sun, the moon, and the (lanets. In ,abylonia the (lanet Venus was distinguished 3 om othe (lanets and wo shi(ed as a membe o3 a t inity> Venus, 6oon, and +un. 20 :his t iad became the ,abylonian holy t inity in the 3ou teenth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a. 2# In the Vedas the (lanet Venus is com(a ed to a bull> E;s a bull thou hu lest thy 3i e u(on ea th and heaven.E 22 :he 6o ning +ta o3 the Phoenicians and +y ians was ;shte oth/ 4a naim, ;sta te o3 the =o ns. ,elith o3 +idon was likewise Venus, and I5ebel, wi3e o3 ;hab, made he the chie3 deity o3 the No the n 4ingdom. 21 :he EFueen o3 heaven,E e3e ed to e(eatedly by Ae emiah, was Venus. :he women o3 Ae usalem made cakes 3o the Fueen o3 heaven and wo shi(ed he 3 om the oo3s o3 thei houses. 22 "n 'y( us it was neithe Au(ite no any othe god but E4y( is Kueen whom they with holy gi3ts we e wont to a((ease ... (ou ing libations out u(on the g ound o3 yellow honey.E 2$ +uch libation, as al eady mentioned, was made in ;thens in commemo ation o3 the Glood o3 %eucalion. Not long ago, in Polynesia, human sac i3ices we e o33e ed to the 6o ning +ta , Venus. 20 :o the ; abian 6o ning +ta , Fueen o3 the heaven / al/@55a / boys and gi ls we e sac i3iced

down to mode n times. 2- !ikewise, human sac i3ices we e b ought to the 6o ning +ta in 6eCicoH this was desc ibed by ea ly +(anish autho s, 2. and was still ( acticed by Indians only a gene ation ago. 29 Kuet5al/cohuatl Ewas called the god o3 windsE and o3 E3lames o3 3i eEH 10 the ) eek ;thene, too, was not only the (lanet, but also the goddess o3 sto m and 3i e. :he (lanet Venus was !uC %ivina, the %ivine !ight, in the wo shi( o3 the 9oman im(e ial colonies. 1# In ,abylonia, Venus was (ictu ed as a siC/(ointed sta / which is also the sha(e o3 %avidBs shield / o as a (entag am / a 3ive/(ointed sta (seal o3 +olomon) / and sometimes as a c ossH as a c oss it was (ictu ed in 6eCico, too. :he att ibutes and deeds o3 the 6o ning +ta we e not invented by the (eo(les o3 the wo ld> this sta shatte ed mountains, shook the globe with such a violence that it looked as i3 the heavens we e shaking, was a sto m, a cloud, a 3i e, a heavenly d agon, a to ch, and a bla5ing sta , and it ained na(htha on the ea th. ;ssu bani(al s(eaks o3 Ishta /Venus, Ewho is clothed with 3i e and bea s alo3t a c own o3 aw3ul s(lendo , Iand whoJ ained 3i e ove ; abia.E 12 It has been shown ( eviously that the comet o3 the days o3 the ?Codus ained na(htha ove ; abia. In the att ibutes and in the deeds asc ibed to the (lanet Venus / Isis, Ishta , ;thene / we ecogni5e the att ibutes and deeds o3 the comet desc ibed in the ea lie sections o3 this book.
777777777777777777777777777777 # +ee the +ection, E:he +hadow o3 %eath.E 2 Isaiah 9>2. 1 : actate +habbat #$0aH 6id ash 9abba, Numbe s 2#,22$aH A. !evy> 8W te buch Ybe die :almudim und 6id aschim (2nd ed. #922), s.v. In the =indu (antheon Naga o snake gods a e a((a ently the comets. '3. A. =ewitt> ENotes on the ?a ly =isto y o3 No the n India,E Aou nal o3 the 9oyal ;siatic +ociety (#.2-), (. 12$. 2 ;mos $>20. $ '3. Vulgate (!atin) ve sion o3 the P o(het ;mos and Ae omeBs 'ommenta y on the P o(hets. 0 Numbe s 2#>9. - :hose who we e bitten by se (ents looked at the b a5en se (ent 3o cu e. 'an a (sychosomatic elationshi( go such a long wayM :he ( actices o3 the snake wo shi(e s lend some c edence to the (hysiological backg ound o3 Numbe s 2#>9. ,ut it is outside the sco(e o3 the ( esent esea ch to go into these details. :he 3act that 6oses made an image / in violation o3 the second commandment o3 the %ecalogue / is not necessa ily inconsistent with his being monotheist> the e a e many chu ches today whe e symbolic and even human 3igu es a e dei3ied by (eo(le who ( o3ess to be monotheists. ,ut as time (assed, the ( esence o3 the se (ent o3 6oses in the :em(le o3 Ae usalem became so ob<ectionable to the s(i it o3 the ( o(hets that in the days o3 Isaiah the se (ent was b oken into (ieces. ?ven though its o iginal (u (ose may have been cu ative, it being the image o3 the angel who was sent in the (illa o3 3i e and cloud to save the (eo(le o3 Is ael 3 om slave y, the b a5en se (ent with the la(se o3 time became an ob<ect o3 wo shi(. . II 4ings #.>2. ;n ast ological o(inion is 3ound in the abbinical lite atu e that the b a5en se (ent was a magic image, which obtained its (owe 3 om the sta unde the ( otection o3 which 6oses made it. 9 !angdon> :ammu5 and Ishta , (. 0-. #0 , asseu > +ou ces de lBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue, ((. .#, .-. ## ;leCande > !atin ;me ican 6ythology, (. .-. #2 , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue, I, #20. #1 Vi olleaud> E!a dUesse ;nat,E 6ission de 9as +ham a, IV. #2 +ele > 8andmale eien von 6itla (#.9$), (. 2$. #$ !angdon> +ume ian and ,abylonian Psalms (#909), ((. #.., #92. #0 !angdon> :ammu5 and Ishta , (. .0. #- G. 'umont> E!a Gin du monde selon les mages occidentauC,E 9evue de lBhistoi e des eligions (#91#), (. 2#. #. G. 4. 6ove s> %ie PhWni5ie (#.2#/#.$0), I, 020. +ou ces> +o5omen> :he ?cclesiastical =isto y ii. $H Dosimus i. $.. #9 6ac obe> eeuv es (ed. Panckoncke, #.2$), I, 2$1. 20 =. 8inckle > %ie babylonische )eisteskultu (#9#9). (. -#. 2# '. ,e5old in G. ,oll> +te nglaube und +te ndeutung (#920), (. #2. 22 =ymns o3 the ;tha va/Veda (t ansl. ,loom3ield), =ymn iC. 21 # 4ings #.H Aose(hus> Aewish ;ntiFuities, VIII, Ciii, #H Philo o3 ,yblos> G agment 2. 2$H %. 'hwolson> %ie +sabie und de +sabismus (#.$0), II, 000.

22 Ae emiah ->#.H 22>#-/2$. 8ellhausen> 9este a abischen =eidentums, (. 2#. 2$ :he G agments o3 ?m(edocles (t ansl. 8. ?. !eona d, #90.), G agment #2., (. $9. 20 8illiamson> 9eligious and 'osmic 9elie3s o3 'ent al Polynesia, II, 222, 2- 8ellhausen> 9este a abischen =eidentums, ((. 20/22, ##$. 2. 6anusc it 9amf e5. 29 ). ;. %o sey> :he +ac i3ice to the 6o ning +ta by the +kidi Pawnee. :his ce emony is desc ibed late in the ( esent book. 10 %e +ahagun> =isto ia gene al de las cosas de Nueva ?s(a[a , I, 'ha(. V. 1# 6ove s> %ie PhWni5ie , II, 0$2. 12 !uckenbill> 9eco ds o3 ;ssy ia, II, +ec. .29. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he +ac ed 'ow

:he comet Venus, o3 which it is said that Eho ns g ew out o3 he head,E o ;sta te o3 the ho ns, Venus co nuta, looked like the head o3 a ho ned animalH and since it moved the ea th out o3 its (lace, like a bull with its ho ns, the (lanet Venus was (ictu ed as a bull. :he wo shi( o3 a bullock was int oduced by ;a on at the 3oot o3 6ount +inai. :he cult o3 ;(is o iginated in ?gy(t in the days o3 the =yksos, a3te the end o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom, # sho tly a3te the ?Codus. ;(is, o the sac ed bull, was ve y much vene ated in ?gy(tH when a sac ed bull died, its body was mummi3ied and (laced in a sa co(hagus with oyal hono s, and memo ial se vices we e held. E;ll the co33ins and eve ything eCcellent and ( o3itable 3o this august god (the bull ;(is)E we e ( e(a ed by the Pha aoh, 2 when Ethis god was conducted in (eace to the nec o(olis, to let him assume his (lace in his tem(le.E :he wo shi( o3 a cow o bull was wides( ead in 6inoan ' ete and in 6ycenaean ) eece, 3o golden images o3 this animal with la ge ho ns we e 3ound in eCcavations. Isis, the (lanet Venus, 1 was e( esented as a human 3igu e with two ho ns, like ;sta te (Ishta ) o3 the ho nsH and sometimes it was 3ashioned in the likeness o3 a cow. In time, Ishta changed 3 om male to 3emale, and in many (laces wo shi( o3 the bull changed to wo shi( o3 the cow. :he main eason 3o this seems to have been the 3all o3 manna which tu ned the ive s into st eams o3 honey and milk. ; ho ned (lanet that ( oduced milk most closely esembled a cow. In the =ymns o3 the ;tha va/Veda, in which the amb osia that 3alls 3 om the sky is glo i3ied, the god is eCalted as the Eg eat cowE which Ed i(s with st eams o3 milkE and as Ea bullE that Ehu lest thy 3i e u(on ea th and heaven.E 2 ; (assage o3 the 9amayana about the Ecelestial cowE says> E=oney she gave, and oasted g ain ... and cu led milk, and sou( in lakes with suga ed milk,E $ which is the =indu ve sion o3 E ive s o3 milk and honey.E :he Ecelestial cowE o Ethe heavenly +u abhiE (Ethe 3 ag antE) was the daughte o3 the ' eato > she Es( ung 3 om his mouthEH at the same time necta and EeCcellent (e 3umeE we e s( ead, acco ding to the Indian e(ic. 0 :his desc i(tion o3 the bi th o3 the daughte 3 om the mouth o3 the ' eato is a =indu (a allel o3 ;thene s( inging 3 om the head o3 Deus. G ag ance and necta a e mentioned in connection with the bi th o3 the celestial cow, a combination that can be unde stood i3 we ecall what we lea ned in the +ections E;mb osiaE and E,i th o3 the Planet Venus.E %own to the ( esent day, the , ahmans wo shi( the cow. 'ows a e ega ded as daughte s o3 the Eheavenly cow.E In India, as in othe (laces, the wo shi( o3 cows began in some (e iod o3 eco ded histo y. E8e 3ind in ea ly =indu lite atu e su33icient in3o mation to establish the thesis that cows we e once victimised at sac i3ices and used at times as a ticles o3 3ood.E :hen came the change. 'ows became sac ed animals, and eve since the eligious law has 3o bidden the use o3 thei meat 3o 3ood. :he ;tha va/Veda e(eatedly de( ecates cow/killing

as Ethe most heinous o3 c imes.E E;ll that kill, eat o (e mit the slaughte o3 cows ot in hell 3o as many yea s as the e a e hai s on the body o3 the cow slain.E . 'a(ital (unishment was ( esc ibed 3o those who eithe stole, hu t, o killed a cow. E8hoeve hu ts o causes anothe to hu t, o steals o causes anothe to steal, a cow, should be slain.E ?ven cowsB u ine and dung a e sac ed to the , ahmans. E;ll its eCc eta a e hallowed. Not a (a ticle ought to be th own away as im(u e. "n the cont a y, the wate it e<ects ought to be ( ese ved as the best o3 holy wate s ... ;ny s(ot which a cow has condescended to honou with the sac ed de(osit o3 he eCc ement is 3o eve a3te wa ds consec ated g ound.E 9 +( inkled on a sinne , it Econve ts him into a saint.E :he bull is sac ed to +hiva, Ethe god o3 dest uction in the =indu : inity.E E:he consec ation o3 the bulls and letting them loose as ( ivileged beings to oam at thei will and d aw es(ect 3 om all (eo(le is to be noted with (a ticula inte est R :he 3 eedom and ( ivileges o3 the , ahman bull a e inviolate.E ?ven when it is dest uctive, the bull must not be est ained. #0 :hese Fuotations show the ;(is cult ( ese ved until ou times. :he Ecelestial cowE that go ed the ea th with its ho ns and tu ned ive s and lakes into honey and milk is still eve ed in the common cow and bull by hund eds o3 millions o3 the (eo(le o3 India.
777777777777777777777777777777 # E:he ,ook o3 +othisE in 6anetho (t ansl. 8. ). 8addell> !oeb 'lassical !ib a y, #920) says that in the days o3 the =yksos king ;seth, Ethe bull/cal3 was dei3ied and called ;(is.E 2 :he ;(is insc i(tion o3 Necho/8ahib e in , easted> 9eco ds o3 ?gy(t, :V, 9-033. 1 Pliny> Natu al =isto y, ii. 1-. 2 =ymn to the honey/lash in =ymns o3 the ;tha va/Veda, IL. $ !. !. +unda a 9am> 'ow/P otection in India (#92-), (. $0. 0 6ahabha ata, LIII. - 9am> 'ow/P otection in India, (. 21. . Visistha %ha masast a. +ee 9am> 'ow/P otection in India, (. 20. 9 6. 6onie /8illiams> , ahmanism and =induism (#.9#), ((. 1#-/1#9. #0 9am> 'ow/P otection in India, (. $.. 777777777777777777777777777777

,aal Devuv ,eel5ebub

:he beauti3ul 6o ning +ta was elated to ;h iman, +eth, !uci3e , name eFuivalents o3 +atan. It was also ,aal o3 the 'anaanites and o3 the No the n 4ingdom o3 the :en : ibes, the god hated by the biblical ( o(hets, also ,eel5ebub o ,aal Devuv, o ,aal o3 the 3ly. In the Pahlavi teCt o3 the I anian book, the ,undahis, desc ibing the catast o(hes caused by celestial bodies, it is w itten that at the close o3 one o3 the wo ld ages Ethe evil s(i it I;h imanJ went towa d the lumina ies.E E=e stood u(on one/thi d o3 the inside o3 the sky, and he s( ang, like a snake, out o3 the sky down to the ea th.E It was the day o3 the ve nal eFuinoC. E=e ushed in at noon,E and Ethe sky was shatte ed and 3 ightened.E E!ike a 3ly, he ushed out u(on the whole c eation, and he in<u ed the wo ld and made it da k at midday as though it we e in da k night. ;nd noCious c eatu es we e di33used by him ove the ea th, biting and venomous, such as the snake, sco (ion, 3 og, and li5a d, so that not so much as the (oint o3 a needle emained 3 ee 3 om noCious c eatu es.E # :hen the ,undahis ( oceeds> E:he (lanets, with many demons IcometsJ, dashed against the celestial s(he e, and they miCed the constellationsH and the whole c eation was as dis3igu ed as though 3i e dis3igu ed eve y (lace and smoke a ose ove it.E ; simila (lague o3 ve min is desc ibed in the +c i(tu es, in ?Codus, 'ha(te s . to #0, and also in Psalm -. whe e it is told that the e we e sent Edive s so ts o3 3lies among them Ithe (eo(le o3 ?gy(tJ, which devou ed themH and 3 ogs, which dest oyed them.E :hei labo was given to the cate (illa and the locust. E:he dust o3 the land became lice th oughout all the

land o3 ?gy(t.E 2 E;nd the e came a g ievous swa m o3 3lies ... into all the land o3 ?gy(t.E 1 :he second, thi d, 3ou th, and eighth (lagues we e caused by ve min. :he (lague o3 e uv, Eswa ms o3 3liesE o3 the 4ing Aames Ve sion, is t anslated in the +e(tuagint, Ea stinging 3ly,E and Philo calls it Ethe dog3ly,E a 3e ocious insectH 2 it is also called EgnatE by the abbis. Psalm #0$ na ates that da kness was sent u(on the count y and Elocusts came, and cate (illa s, and that without numbe , and did eat u( all the he bs.E E:hei land b ought 3o th 3 ogs in abundance, in the chambe s o3 thei kings,E and Ethe e came dive s so ts o3 3lies, and lice in all thei coasts.E :he ;malekites le3t ; abia because o3 Eants o3 the smallest kindE and wande ed towa d 'anaan and ?gy(t at the same time that the Is aelites went 3 om ?gy(t towa d the dese t and 'anaan. In the 'hinese annals desc ibing the time o3 *ahou, 3 om which I Fuoted ( eviously, it is said that when the sun did not set 3o ten days and the 3o ests o3 'hina we e dest oyed by 3i e, multitudes o3 loathsome ve min we e b ed in the enti e land. %u ing thei wande ings in the dese t, the Is aelites we e (lagued by se (ents. $ ; gene ation late , ho nets ( eceded the Is aelites unde Aoshua, (laguing the land o3 'anaan and d iving enti e nations 3 om thei domiciles. 0 :he inhabitants o3 the islands in the +outh +eas elate that when the clouds lay only a 3ew 3eet 3 om the g ound and Ethe sky was so close to the ea th that men could not walk,E Emy iads o3 d agon3lies with thei wings seve ed the clouds con3ining the heavens to the ea th.E ;3te the close o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom, the ?gy(tian standa d bo e the emblem o3 a 3ly. 8hen Venus s( ang out o3 Au(ite as a comet and 3lew ve y close to the ea th, it became entangled in the emb ace o3 the ea th. :he inte nal heat develo(ed by the ea th and the sco ching gases o3 the comet we e in themselves su33icient to make the ve min o3 the ea th ( o(agate at a ve y 3eve ish ate. +ome o3 the (lagues, like the (lague o3 the 3 ogs (Ethe land b ought 3o th 3 ogsE) o o3 the locusts, must be asc ibed to such causes. ;nyone who has eC(e ienced a khamsin (si occo), an elect ically cha ged wind blowing 3 om the dese t, knows how, du ing the 3ew days that the wind blows, the g ound a ound the villages begins to teem with ve min. . :he Fuestion a ises he e whethe o not the comet Venus in3ested the ea th with ve min which it may have ca ied in its t ailing atmos(he e in the 3o m o3 la vae togethe with stones and gases. It is signi3icant that all a ound the wo ld (eo(les have associated the (lanet Venus with 3lies. In ?k on, in the land o3 the Philistines, the e was e ected a magni3icent tem(le to ,aal Devuv, the god o3 the 3ly. In the ninth centu y 4ing ;ha5iah o3 Ae5 eel, a3te he was in<u ed in an accident, sent his emissa ies to ask advice o3 this god at ?k on and not o3 the o acle at Ae usalem. 9 :his ,aal Devuv is ,eel5ebub o3 the )os(els. #0 ;h iman, the god o3 da kness who battled with " mu5d, the god o3 light, is com(a ed in the ,undahis to a 3ly. "3 the 3lies that 3illed the ea th bu ied in gloom it is said> E=is multitudes o3 3lies scatte themselves ove the wo ld that is (oisoned th ough and th ough.E ## ; es (6a s) in the Iliad calls ;thene Edog/3ly.E E:he gods clashed with a mighty din, and the wide ea th ang, and ound about g eat heaven (ealed as with a t um(et.E ;nd ; es s(oke to ;thene> E8he e3o e now again, thou dog/3ly, a t making gods to clash with gods in st i3eME

:he (eo(le o3 ,o o o in cent al , a5il call the (lanet Venus Ethe sand 3ly,E #1 an a((ellation simila to that which =ome used 3o ;thene. :he ,antu t ibes o3 cent al ;3 ica elate that the Esand 3ly b ought 3i e 3 om the sky,E #2 which a((ea s to be a e3e ence to the P omethean ole o3 ,eel5ebub, the (lanet Venus.

:he Dend/;vesta, desc ibing the battle o3 :ist ya, Ethe leade o3 the sta s against the (lanetsE (%a mestete ), e3e s to wo m/sta s that E3ly between the ea th and heaven,E and that su((osedly signi3y the meteo ites. #$ Possibly it is a e3e ence to thei in3esting ( o(e ty. :his idea o3 contaminating comets is 3ound in a belie3 o3 the 6eCicans desc ibed by +ahagun> E:he 6eCicans called the comet citlalin (o(oca which means a smoking sta ... :hese natives called the tail o3 such a sta citlalin tlamina, eChalation o3 the cometH o , lite ally, Bthe sta shoots a da t.B :hey believed that when such a da t 3ell on a living o ganism, a ha e, a abbit, o any othe animal, wo ms suddenly 3o med in the wound and made the animal un3it to se ve as 3ood. It was 3o this eason that they took g eat ca e to cove themselves du ing the night so as to ( otect themselves 3 om this in3laming emanation.E #0 :he 6eCicans thus thought that la vae 3 om the emanation o3 the comet 3ell on all living things. ;s I have al eady mentioned, they called Venus a Esmoking sta .E +ahagun says also that at the ising o3 the 6o ning +ta , the 6eCicans used to shut the chimneys and othe a(e tu es in o de to ( event misha( 3 om (enet ating into the house togethe with the light o3 the sta . #:he (e sistence with which the (lanet Venus is associated with a 3ly in the t aditions o3 the (eo(les o3 both hemis(he es, also the emblems ca ied by the ?gy(tian ( iests and the tem(le se vices conducted in hono o3 the (lanet/god Eo3 the 3ly,E c eate the im( ession that the 3lies in the tail o3 Venus we e not me ely the ea thly b ood, swa ming in heat like othe ve min, but guests 3 om anothe (lanet. :he old Fuestion, whethe the e is li3e on othe (lanets, has been debated time and again without much ( og ess. #. ;tmos(he ic and the mal conditions a e so di33e ent on othe (lanets that it seems inc edible that the same 3o ms o3 li3e eCist the e as on the ea thH on the othe hand, it is w ong to conclude that the e is no li3e on them at all. 6ode n biologists toy with the idea that mic oo ganisms a ive on the ea th 3 om inte stella s(aces, ca ied by the ( essu e o3 light. =ence, the idea o3 the a ival o3 living o ganisms 3 om inte (laneta y s(aces is not new. 8hethe the e is t uth in this su((osition o3 la val contamination o3 the ea th is anyoneBs guess. :he ability o3 many small insects and thei la vae to endu e g eat cold and heat and to live in an atmos(he e devoid o3 oCygen ende s not enti ely im( obable the hy(othesis that Venus (and also Au(ite , 3 om which Venus s( ang) may be (o(ulated by ve min.
777777777777777777777777777777 # ,undahis (in the Pahlavi :eCts, t ansl. 8est), 'ha(. III. 2 ?Codus .>#-. 1 ?Codus .>22. 2 Philo> Vita 6osis i. 21. $ Numbe s 2#>0, -H %eute onomy .>#$. 0 ?Codus 21>2.H %eute onomy ->20. - 8illiamson> 9eligious and 'osmic ,elie3s o3 'ent al Polynesia , I, 2$. . ; change in atmos(he ic conditions can cause gallo(ing ge mination among insects. 9 II 4ings #>233. #0 6atthew #0>2$H #2>22, 2-H 6a k ->22H !uke ##>#$33. ## ,undahis, 'ha(. Ill, +ec. #2. '3. =. +. Nybe g> E%ie 9eligionen des alten I an,E 6itteil. d. Vo de asiat. /^gy(t. )es., Vol. 21 (#91.), ((. 2.33. #2 Iliad CCi. 1.$33. In ) eek mythology, 6etis, ( egnant with Pallas, took the sha(e o3 a 3ly. #1 +ee 4unike> E+te nmythologie,E 8elt und 6ensch, IL/L. #2 ;. 8e ne > ;3 ican 6ythology (#92$), (. #1$. #$ Dend/;vesta, Pt. II, (. 9$. #0 +ahagun> =isto ia gene al de las cosas de la Nueva ?s(a[a, ,k. VIII, 'ha(. 1. #- Ibid. #. +ee =. +(ence Aones> !i3e on "the 8o lds (#920) and +i Aames Aeans> EIs :he e !i3e on "the 8o ldsME +cience, Aune #2, #922.


Venus in the Golklo e o3 the Indians

P imitive (eo(les o3ten a e bound by in3leCible customs and belie3s that date back hund eds o3 gene ations. :he t aditions o3 many ( imitive aces s(eak o3 a Elowe skyE in the (ast, a Ela ge sun,E a swi3te movement o3 the sun ac oss the 3i mament, a sho te day that became longe a3te the sun was a ested on its (ath. 8o ld con3lag ation is a 3 eFuent moti3 in 3olklo e. ;cco ding to the Indians o3 the Paci3ic coast o3 No th ;me ica the Eshooting sta E and the E3i e d illE set the wo ld a3lame. In the bu ning wo ld one Ecould see nothing but waves o3 3lamesH ocks we e bu ning, the g ound was bu ning, eve ything was bu ning. ) eat olls and (iles o3 smoke we e isingH 3i e 3lew u( towa d the sky in 3lames, in g eat s(a ks and b ands ... :he g eat 3i e was bla5ing, oa ing all ove the ea th, bu ning ocks, ea th, t ees, (eo(le, bu ning eve ything ... 8ate ushed in ... it ushed in like a c owd o3 ive s, cove ed the ea th, and (ut out the 3i e as it olled on towa d the south ... 8ate ose mountain high.E ; celestial monste 3lew with Ea whistle in his mouthH as he moved 3o wa d he blew it with all his might, and made a te ible noise ... =e came 3lowing and blowingH he looked like an eno mous bat with wings s( ead ... IhisJ 3eathe s waved u( and down, IandJ g ew till they could touch the sky on both sides.E # :he shooting sta that made the ea th into a sea o3 3lames, the te ible noise, the wate that ose mountain high, and the a((ea ance o3 a monste in the sky, like :y(hon o a d agon, all these elements we e not b ought togethe in this Indian na ative by shee inventionH they belong togethe . :he 8ichita, an Indian t ibe o3 "klahoma, tell the 3ollowing sto y o3 E:he %eluge and the 9e(eo(ling o3 the ?a thE> 2 E:he e came to the (eo(le some signs, which showed that the e was something in the no th that looked like cloudsH and the 3owl o3 the ai came, and the animals o3 the (lains and woods we e seen. ;ll o3 this indicated that something was to ha((en. :he clouds that we e seen in the no th we e a deluge. :he deluge was all ove the 3ace o3 the ea th.E :he wate monste s succumbed. "nly 3ou giants emained, but they 3ell, too, each on his 3ace. E:he one in the south as he was 3alling said that the di ection he 3ell should be called south.E :he othe giant said that Ethe di ection in which he was 3alling should be called west / 8he eXthe/sun/goes.E :he thi d 3ell and named the di ection o3 his 3all no thH the last called his di ection Eeast / 8he e/the/sun/ ises.E "nly a 3ew men su vived. :he wind also su vived on the 3ace o3 the ea thH eve ything else was dest oyed. ; child was bo n to a woman (3 om the wind), a % eam/gi l. :he gi l g ew a(idly. ; boy child was bo n to he . E=e told his (eo(le that he would go in the di ection o3 the east, and he was to become the 6o ning +ta .E :his tale sounds like an incohe ent sto y, but let us note its va ious elements> Esomething in the no th that looked like cloudsE which made (eo(le and animals huddle togethe in a(( ehension o3 an a(( oaching catast o(heH wild beasts eme ging 3 om the 3o ests and coming to human abodesH an engul3ing tide that dest oyed eve ything, even the monste animalsH the dete mination o3 the new 3ou Fua te s o3 the ho i5onH a gene ation late the bi th o3 the 6o ning +ta . :his combination o3 elements cannot be accidentalH all these events, and in the same seFuence, we e 3ound to have occu ed in the middle o3 the second millennium be3o e the ( esent e a. :he Indians o3 the 'hewkee t ibe on the )ul3 'oast tell> EIt was too hot. :he sun was (ut Ba handb eadthB highe in the ai , but it was still too hot. +even times the sun was li3ted highe

and highe unde the sky a ch, until it became coole .E 1 In easte n ;3 ica we can t ace the same t adition. EIn ve y old times the sky was ve y close to the ea th.E 2 :he 4aska t ibe in the inte io o3 , itish 'olumbia elate> E"nce a long time ago the sky was ve y close to the ea th.E $ :he sky was (ushed u( and the weathe changed. :he sun, a3te being sto((ed on its way ac oss the 3i mament, Ebecame small, and small it has emained since then.E 0 =e e is a sto y, told to +helton by the +nohomish t ibe on Puget +ound, about the o igin o3 the eCclamation E*ahu,E - to which I have al eady e3e ed b ie3ly. E; long time ago, when all the animals we e still human beings, the sky was ve y low. It was so low that the (eo(le could not stand e ect ... :hey called a meeting togethe and discussed how they could aise the sky. ,ut they we e at a loss to know how to do so. No one was st ong enough to li3t the sky. Ginally the idea occu ed to them that (ossibly the sky might be moved by the combined e33o ts o3 the (eo(le, i3 all o3 them (ushed against it at the same time. ,ut then the Fuestion a ose o3 how it would be (ossible to make all the (eo(le eCe t thei e33o ts at eCactly the same moment. Go the di33e ent (eo(les would be 3a away 3 om one anothe , some would be in this (a t o3 the wo ld, othe s in anothe (a t. 8hat signal could be given that all (eo(le would li3t at ( ecisely the same timeM Ginally, the wo d B*ahuNB was invented 3o this (u (ose. It was decided that all the (eo(le should shout *ahuNB togethe , and then eCe t thei whole st ength in li3ting the sky. In acco dance with this, the (eo(le eFui((ed themselves with (oles, b aced them against the sky, and then all shouted B*ahuNB in unison. @nde thei combined e33o ts the sky ose a little. ;gain the (eo(le shouted B*ahuNB and li3ted the heavy weight. :hey e(eated this until the sky was su33iciently high.E +helton says that the wo d E*ahuE is used today when some heavy ob<ect like a la ge canoe is being li3ted. It is easy to ecogni5e the o igin o3 this legend. 'louds o3 dust and gases envelo(ed the ea th 3o a long timeH it seemed that the sky had descended low. :he ea th g oaned e(eatedly because o3 the seve e twisting and dislocation it had eC(e ienced. "nly slowly and g adually did the clouds li3t themselves 3 om the g ound. :he clouds that envelo(ed the Is aelites in the dese t, the t um(etlike sounds that they hea d at 6ount +inai, and the g adual li3ting o3 the clouds in the yea s o3 the +hadow o3 %eath a e the same elements that we 3ind in this Indian legend. ,ecause the same elements can be ecogni5ed in ve y di33e ent settings, we can a33i m that the e was no bo owing 3 om one (eo(le by anothe . ; common eC(e ience c eated the sto ies, so dissimila at 3i st, and so much alike on second thought. :he sto y o3 the end o3 the wo ld, as elated by the Pawnee Indians, has an im(o tant content. It was w itten down . 3 om the mouth o3 an old Indian> E8e a e told by the old (eo(le that the 6o ning +ta uled ove all the mino gods in the heavens ... :he old (eo(le told us that the 6o ning +ta said that when the time came 3o the wo ld to end, the 6oon would tu n ed ... that when the 6oon should tu n ed, the (eo(le would know that the wo ld was coming to an end. E:he 6o ning +ta said 3u the that in the beginning o3 all things they (laced the No th +ta in the no th, so that it should not move ... :he 6o ning +ta also said that in the beginning o3 all things they gave (owe to the +outh +ta 3o it to move u( close, once in a while, to look at the No th +ta to see i3 it we e still standing in the no th. I3 it we e still standing the e, it was to move back to its (lace ... 8hen the time a(( oached 3o the wo ld to end, the +outh +ta would come highe ... :he No th +ta would then disa((ea and move away and the +outh +ta would take (ossession o3 the ea th and o3 the (eo(le ... :he old (eo(le knew also that when the wo ld was to come to an end, the e we e to be many signs. ;mong

the sta s would be many signs. 6eteo s would 3ly th ough the sky. :he 6oon would change its colo once in a while. :he +un would also show di33e ent colo s. E6y g andchild, some o3 the signs have come to (ass. :he sta s have 3allen among the (eo(le, but the 6o ning +ta is still good to us, 3o we continue to live ... :he command 3o the ending o3 all things will be given by the No th +ta , and the +outh +ta will ca y out the command ... 8hen the time comes 3o the ending o3 the wo ld, the sta s will again 3all to the ea th.E In this na ative o3 the Pawnee Indians, elements a e b ought togethe which, as we know now, actually belong togethe . :he (lanet Venus established the ( esent o de on the ea th and (laced the no th and south (ola sta s in thei (laces. :he Pawnees believe that the 3utu e dest uction o3 the wo ld de(ends on the (lanet Venus. 8hen the end o3 the wo ld will come, the No th and +outh (oles will change (laces. In the (ast the +outh +ta le3t its (lace a 3ew times and came u( highe , b inging about a shi3ting o3 the (oles, but on these occasions the (ola sta s did not eve se thei (ositions. :he change in the colo o3 the sun and the moon was conditioned by the ( esence o3 cometa y gases between the ea th and these bodiesH it is e3e ed to in the P o(hets o3 the +c i(tu es. +tones 3alling 3 om the sky belong to the same com(leC o3 (henomena. :he Pawnee Indians a e not ve sed in ast onomy. Go one hund ed and twenty gene ations 3athe has t ansmitted to son and g and3athe to g andchild the sto y o3 the (ast and the signs o3 3utu e dest uction. :he belie3 that the wo ld is endange ed by the (lanet Venus (lays an im(o tant ole in the itual o3 the +kidi Pawnee Indians o3 Neb aska. NeCt in ank to :i awa (Au(ite ) stands the 6o ning +ta . E:i awa gave most o3 his (owe to the 6o ning +ta .E 9 E:h ough he 3ou assistants, 8ind, 'loud, !ightning, and :hunde , she t ansmitted the mandates o3 :i awa to the (eo(le u(on ea th.E NeCt in ank to the 6o ning +ta Ewe e the gods o3 3ou wo ld/Fua te s, who stood in the no theast, southeast, southwest, and no thwest and su((o ted the heavens. NeCt in ank was the No th +ta . ,elow these in tu n we e the +un and 6oon.E E:he g eate (a t o3 the heavenly gods we e identi3ied with sta s. :he sac ed bundle o3 each village was believed to have been given to its ancesto s by one o3 these heavenly beings.E :he ce emony o3 sac i3ice to the 6o ning +ta is the main itual o3 the Pawnee Indians. It is a Ed amati5ation o3 the acts (e 3o med by the 6o ning +ta .E ; human o33e ing was sac i3iced when Venus Ea((ea ed es(ecially b ight o in yea s when the e was a comet in the sky.E :he act o3 a((easing Venus when a comet was seen in the sky takes on clea e meaning in the light o3 the ( esent esea ch. #0 :he sac i3icial ( ocedu e took the 3ollowing 3o m. ; ca(tive gi l was tu ned ove by he ca(to to a man who would howl like a wol3. +he was ke(t by the gua dian until the day o3 the sac i3ice. E=e gua dian then (ainted he whole body ed and d essed he in a black ski t and obe. =is 3ace and hai we e (ainted ed, and a 3an/sha(ed headd ess o3 twelve eagle 3eathe s was attached to his hai .E E:his was the costume in which the 6o ning +ta usually a((ea ed in visions.E :he sca33old was e ected between 3ou (oles that (ointed to the 3ou Fua te s (no theast, southeast, southwest, no thwest). ; 3ew wo ds we e ( onounced about the da kness that th eatened to endu e 3o eve , and in the name o3 the 6o ning +ta a command was add essed to the (oles to kee( u( ight Eso that you will always hold u( the heavens.E :he chie3 ( iest then E(ainted the ight hal3 o3 he body ed and the le3t hal3 black. ; headd ess o3 twelve black/ti((ed eagle 3eathe s, a anged like a 3an, was 3astened on he head.E E;t the moment the 6o ning +ta a((ea ed, two men came 3o wa d bea ing 3i eb ands.E :he b east o3 the gi l was cut o(en and the hea t taken out, and Ethe gua dian th ust his hand

into the tho acic cavity and (ainted his 3ace with the blood.E :he (eo(le a ound shot a ows into the body o3 the victim. E,oys too young to d aw a bow we e hel(ed by thei 3athe s o mothe s.E Gou bundles we e laid no theast, no thwest, southeast, and southwest o3 the sca33old and we e ignited. E:he e seem to have been ast onomical belie3s connected with the sac i3ices.E :hese human sac i3ices, as desc ibed by %o sey, we e eCecuted by the Indians only a 3ew decades ago. :hey ecall the 6eCican sac i3ices to the 6o ning +ta desc ibed by the autho s o3 the siCteenth centu y. :he meaning o3 these ce emonies and thei elation to the (lanet Venus, es(ecially in the yea s o3 a comet, the e3e ences to the ca dinal (oints and to ( olonged da kness, the anCiety that the sky should not 3all, and even such details as the black and ed colo s so im(o tant in the ce emonies, become unde standable now that we know the ole Venus (layed in wo ld u(heavals.
777777777777777777777777777777 # ;leCande > No th ;me ican 6ythology, (. 221. 2 ). ;. %o sey> :he 6ythology o3 the 8ichita (#902). 1 ;leCande > No th ;me ican 6ythology, (. 00. 2 !. G obenius> %ichten und %enken in +udan (#92$). $ A. ;. :eit> E4aska :ales,E Aou nal o3 ;me ican Golk/!o e, LLL (#9#-). 0 G obenius> %as Deitalte des +onnengottes , ((. 20$33. - +helton> E6ythology o3 Puget +ound,E Aou nal o3 ;me ican Golk/!o e, LLLVII (#922). . %o sey, ed.> :he Pawnee 6ythology (#900), Pt. I, (. 1$. 9 :his and the 3ollowing Fuotations a e 3 om :he :hunde 'e emony o3 the Pawnee and :he +ac i3ice to the 6o ning +ta , com(iled by 9. !inton 3 om un(ublished notes o3 ). ;. %o sey, Gield 6useum o3 Natu al =isto y, %e(a tment o3 ;nth o(ology, 'hicago (#922). #0 +ee the +ection, E:he Gi3ty/two *ea Pe iod.E 777777777777777777777777777777

:he +ynodical *ea o3 Venus

'ha(te #0

:=? P!;N?: V?N@+, at the ( esent time, evolves a ound the sun in 2.. days, which is the side ial yea o3 the (lanet. =oweve , seen 3 om the ea th, which evolves a ound the sun on a la ge o bit and at a lowe s(eed, Venus etu ns to the same (osition with es(ect to the ea th a3te $.2 days, which is its synodical yea . It ises be3o e the sun, ea lie eve y day 3o seventy/one days, until it eaches the weste n elongation o its weste nmost (oint away 3 om the ising sun. ?ach mo ning the ea3te the 6o ning +ta ises lowe and lowe and 3o 22# days a(( oaches the su(e io con<unction. ;bout a month be3o e the end o3 this (e iod, it is ecli(sed by the ays o3 the sun, and 3o ove siCty days it is not seen because o3 the sunBs ays> it is behind the sun o in su(e io con<unction. :hen it a((ea s 3o a moment a3te the setting sun, being now the ?vening +ta and east o3 the weste n sun. Go 22# nights it et eats 3 om the middle (oint o3 the su(e io con<unction, and beginning with the evening on which it 3i st a((ea s as an ?vening +ta , each night it a((ea s 3a the 3 om the setting sun until it eaches the easte n elongation. :hen 3o seventy/one nights it a(( oaches the sun. Ginally it ente s the in3e io con<unction, when it is between the ea th and the sun. It is usually invisible 3o one o two days, and the ea3te a((ea s west o3 the ising sun and is again the 6o ning +ta . :hese movements o3 Venus and thei eCact du ation have been known to the (eo(le o3 the " ient and the "ccident 3o ove two thousand yea s. ;ctually a EVenus yea ,E which 3ollows the synodical evolution o3 Venus, was em(loyed in calenda s o3 the "ld and New 8o ld alike. Give synodical yea s o3 Venus eFual 29#9.0 days, whe eas eight yea s o3 10$ days eFual 2920 days, and eight Aulian yea s o3 10$b days eFual 2922 days. In othe wo ds, in 3ou yea s the e is a di33e ence o3 a(( oCimately one day between the Venus and the Aulian calenda s. ;s I shall show in mo e detail in my econst uction o3 ancient histo y, the ?gy(tians o3 the second (a t o3 the 3i st ( e/'h istian millennium obse ved the Venus yea . ; dec ee (ublished in ?gy(tian and in ) eek by the conclave o3 ( iests which took (lace in 'ano(us in the eign o3 Ptolemy III (?ue getes) in /219 was intended to e3o m the calenda Eacco ding to the ( esent a angement o3 the wo ldE and Ean amendment o3 the 3aults o3 the heaven,E e(lacing the yea egulated by the ising o3 the sta Isis / and Pliny says that Isis is the (lanet Venus # / with a yea egulated by the ising o3 the 3iCed sta +othis (+i ius)H this would make a di33e ence o3 one day in 3ou yea s, so that, as the dec ee says, Ethe 3estivals o3 the winte should not a ive in the summe because o3 the change o3 a day eve y 3ou yea s in the ising o3 the sta Isis.E 2 :he e3o m intended by the 'ano(us %ec ee did not take oot because the (eo(le and the conse vatives among the ( iests ke(t 3aith with Venus and obse ved the New *ea and othe 3estivals on the days egulated by it. ;s a matte o3 3act, we know that the Ptolemaic (ha aohs we e obliged to swea in the tem(le o3 Isis (Venus) that they would not e3o m the calenda , no add a day eve y 3ou yea s. Aulius 'aesa actually 3ollowed the 'ano(us %ec ee by 3iCing a calenda o3 10$b days. In /20 ;ugustus int oduced the Aulian yea in ;leCand ia, but the ?gy(tians outside ;leCand ia still continued to obse ve the Venus yea o3 10$ days, and 'laudius Ptolemy, the ;leCand ian ast onome o3 the second 'h istian centu y, w ote in his ;lmagest> E?ight ?gy(tian yea s without a sensible e o eFual 3ive ci clings o3 Venus.E 1 ;s this (e iod o3 eight yea s can be divided in two, each (a t being eFual to two and a hal3 synodical (e iods, the dividing (oint being alte nately at a heliacal (simultaneous with the sun) ising o setting o3 Venus, the ?gy(tians o3 the second hal3 o3 the last millennium

be3o e the ( esent e a obse ved a 3ou /yea cycle. :his is the meaning o3 =o a(olloBs in3o mation that the ?gy(tian yea is eFual to 3ou yea s. 2 In like manne the ) eeks counted by 3ou /yea cycles dedicated to ;thene> the "lym(ic games took (lace eve y 3ou th yea (in the beginning, eve y eighth yea $), and time was eckoned by the "lym(iads. :he "lym(ic games we e sta ted in the eighth centu y. ;t the Pa thenon in ;thens eve y 3ou th yea was celeb ated by the Panathenaic ( ocessions in hono o3 ;thene. :he Incas o3 Pe u in +outh ;me ica and the 6ayas and :oltecs in 'ent al ;me ica obse ved the synodical evolution o3 Venus and the Venus yea in addition to the sola yea . 0 :hey also calculated by g ou(s o3 3ive Venus yea s eFual to eight yea s o3 10$ days. !ike the ?gy(tians and the ) eeks, the 6ayas obse ved the 3ou /yea cycles, - 3 om the in3e io to the su(e io and 3 om the su(e io to the in3e io con<unctions o3 Venus. :he Incas co ectly ma ked the Venus calenda by tying knots in thei Fui(us, . and the 6ayas, in the % esden 'odeC, co ectly gave the length o3 the Venus synodical cycle as $.2 days. 9 :he ast onomical obse vations o3 the 6ayas we e so ( ecise that in com(uting the sola yea , they a ived at 3igu es not only mo e accu ate than the Aulian yea , but also mo e accu ate than the ) ego ian yea , int oduced in ?u o(e in #$.2, ninety yea s a3te the discove y o3 ;me ica, which is ou calenda yea today. #0 ;ll this ( oves that the Venus calenda ( ese ved its eligious signi3icance 3o a long time, down to the end o3 the 6iddle ;ges and the discove y o3 ;me ica, and even the ea3te , but that al eady in the eighth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a an eight o double 3ou /yea cycle o3 Venus was obse ved in time eckoning and the e3o e must have been established in the celestial s(he e. ; 3ew decades a3te the discove y o3 ;me ica, the ;ugustinian 3 ia 9amon y Damo a w ote that the 6eCican t ibes held the 6o ning +ta in g eat vene ation and ke(t a ( ecise eco d o3 its a((ea ance> E+o eCact was the book/ eco d o3 the day when it a((ea ed and when it concealed itsel3, that they neve made mistakes.E ## :his was a ve y old custom o iginating in a (ast when Venus moved on an elongated o bit. :he movements o3 Venus we e ca e3ully watched by the ancient ast onome s o3 6eCico, India, I an, and ,abylonia. :em(le obse vato ies 3o the cult o3 the (lanets we e built in both hemis(he es. :he EbamotE o Ehigh (lacesE so o3ten mentioned in the +c i(tu es we e obse vato ies as well as (laces 3o o33e ings to the (lanet/gods, chie3ly Venus (,aal). "n these high (laces idolat ous ( iests, o dained by the e ing kings o3 Audah, bu ned incense to ,aal, to the sun, and the moon, and to the (lanets. #2 In the second hal3 o3 the second millennium and in the beginning o3 the 3i st millennium, Venus was still a cometH and though a comet can have a ci cula o bit / the e is such a comet in the sola system #1 / Venus was not then moving on a ci cula o bit as it does nowH its o bit c ossed the o bit o3 the ea th and endange ed it eve y 3i3ty yea s. +ince, by the second hal3 o3 the eighth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, VenusB cycle was simila to what it is today, it 3ollows that some time be3o e then Venus must have changed its o bit and achieved its ( esent ci cula (ath between 6e cu y and the ea th and become the 6o ning and ?vening +ta . :he i egula ities in the movements o3 Venus must have been obse ved by the ancientsH the data in the ancient eco ds must di33e ve y much 3 om the 3igu es on VenusB movements given at the head o3 this section.
777777777777777777777777777777 # Pliny> Natu al =isto y, ii. 1-. 2 +. +cha (e> :he %ec ee o3 'ano(us in =ie ogly(hics and ) eek (#.-0). 1 ,k. L. 'han. iv. 2 ;. :. 'o y> :he =ie ogly(hics o3 =o a(ollo Nilous (#.20), II, ICCCiC. +ee also 8ilkinson in ). 9awlinson> :he =isto y o3 =e odotus, II, 2.$.

$ ?. N. )a dine > "lym(ia (#92$), (. -#H Ga nell> :he 'ults o3 the ) eek +tates, IV, 291H G a5e > :he %ying )od (#9##), (. -.. 0 , asseu > +ou ces de lBhistoi e ( imitive du 6eCiFue, (. 2-. - A. ?. :hom(son> E; 'o elation o3 the 6ayan and ?u o(ean 'alenda s,E Gield 6useum o3 Natu al =isto y ;nth o(ological +e ies, Vol. LVII. . No denskiold> :he +ec et o3 the Pe uvian Kui(us, II, 1$. 9 8. )ates> :he % esden 'odeC, 6aya +ociety Publication No. 2 (#912). #0 )ates in %e !anda> *ucatan, (. 00. ## +ele > )esammelte ;bhandlungen, I, 022. #2 II 4ings 21>$. #1 :he +chwassmann/8achmann comet, the o bit o3 which is between the o bits o3 Au(ite and +atu n. 777777777777777777777777777777

Venus 6oves I egula ly

In the lib a y o3 ;ssu bani(al in Nineveh we e sto ed ast onomical books o3 his and o3 ( evious agesH in the uins o3 this lib a y +i =en y !aya d 3ound the Venus tablets. # :he e a ose the Fuestion> G om what (e iod do the obse vations o3 these tablets dateM +chia(a elli investigated this ( oblem and Eas an eCam(le o3 method his wo k is eCcellent.E 2 =e decided that Ethe inFui y could be limited to the seventh and eighth centu ies.E :he yea /3o mula o3 an ea ly king, ;mmi5aduga, was discove ed on one o3 the tablets, and since then the tablets a e usually asc ibed to the 3i st ,abylonian dynastyH howeve , a schola has o33e ed evidence to the e33ect that the yea /3o mula o3 ;mmi5aduga was inse ted by a sc ibe in the seventh centu y. 1 (I3 the tablets o iginated in the beginning o3 the second millennium, they would ( ove only that Venus was even then an e ant comet.) Gollowing a e a 3ew eCce (ts 3 om the Venus tablets> E"n the ##th o3 +ivan, Venus disa((ea ed in the west, emaining absent in the sky 3o 9 months and 2 days, and on the #$th o3 ;da she was seen in the east.E :he neCt yea , Eon the #0th o3 ; ahsamna, Venus disa((ea ed in the east, emaining absent 2 months and 0 days in the sky, and was seen on the #0th o3 :ebit in the west.E :he 3ollowing yea Venus disa((ea ed in the west on the 20th o3 @lul (?lul), emaining absent 3 om the sky 3o eleven days, and was seen on the -th o3 inte cala y @lul in the east. :he yea the ea3te Venus disa((ea ed in the east on the 9th o3 Nisan, emaining absent 3o $ months and #0 days, and was seen on the 2$th o3 @lul in the west. In the 3i3th yea o3 the obse vations, Venus disa((ea ed in the west on the $th o3 ;ya (I<a ), emaining absent 3 om the sky 3o seven days, and ea((ea ed in the east on the #2th o3 ;ya H the same yea it disa((ea ed on the 20th o3 :ebit in the east, emaining absent 3 om the sky one month, and on the 2#st day o3 +abat (+hevat) it a((ea ed in the west, and so on. =ow eC(lain these obse vations o3 the ancient ast onome s, mode n ast onome s and histo ians have asked. 8e e they w itten in a conditional 3o m (EI3 Venus disa((ea ed on the ##th o3 +ivan ... E)M No, they we e eC( essed catego ically. :he obse vations we e Einaccu atelyE egiste ed, decided some autho s. =oweve , inaccu acy may account 3o a 3ew daysB di33e ence but not 3o a di33e ence o3 months. E:he invisibility o3 Venus at su(e io con<unction is given as $ months #0 days instead o3 the co ect di33e ence o3 2 months 0 days,E noted the t anslato s o3 the teCt, wonde ingly. 2 E:he (e iod between the heliacal setting o3 Venus and its ise is -2 days. ,ut in the ,abylonian/;ssy ian ast ological teCts, the (e iod va ies 3 om one month to 3ive months / too long and too sho t> the obse vations we e de3ective,E w ote anothe schola . $ E:he im(ossible inte val shows that the data a e not t ustwo thy.E E"bviously, the days o3 the month have been miCed u(. ;s the im(ossible inte vals show, the months a e also w ong,E w ote still anothe autho . 0

It is di33icult to imagine how such obvious e o s could have been committed. :he dates a e w itten in a contem(o a y documentH they a e not a (oetical com(osition but a d y eco d, and each item in the eco d is stated in dates as well as in the numbe o3 days between the dates. +imila di33iculties a e encounte ed by the schola s who t y to unde stand the =indu tables o3 the movements o3 the (lanets. :he only eC(lanation ( o(osed is> E;ll the manusc i(ts a e com(letely co u(ted ... :he details e3e ing to Venus ... a e ve y di33icult to un iddle.E - ENo attention at all was (aid to the actual movements in the sky.E . :he ,abylonians did not note these i egula movements me ely as matte s o3 3actual inte estH they we e dismayed by them. In thei ( aye s they eC( essed this dismay. " Ishta , Fueen o3 all (eo(les ... :hou a t the light o3 heaven and ea th ... ;t the thought o3 thy name the heaven and the ea th Fuake ... ;nd the s(i its o3 the ea th 3alte . 6ankind (ayeth homage unto thy mighty name, 3o thou a t g eat, and thou a t eCalted. ;ll mankind, the whole human ace, boweth down be3o e thy (owe ... =ow long wilt thou ta y, " lady o3 heaven and ea th ... M =ow long wilt thou ta y, " lady o3 all 3ights and o3 the battleM " thou glo ious one, that ... a t aised on high, that a t 3i mly established, " valiant Ishta , g eat in thy mightN , ight to ch o3 heaven and ea th, light o3 all dwellings, :e ible in the 3ight, one who cannot be o((osed, st ong in the battleN " whi lwind, that oa est against the 3oe and cuttest o33 the mightyN " 3u ious Ishta , summone o3 a miesN 9 ;s long as Venus etu ned at egula inte vals, 3ea o3 the (lanet was ke(t in boundsH when the sta (assed without causing ha m, as it had al eady done 3o a 3ew centu ies, the (eo(les we e calmed and 3elt themselves out o3 dange 3o anothe (e iod. ,ut when Venus, 3o some eason, began to move i egula ly, 3ea g ew intense. :he ( iests o3 I an ( ayed> #0 8e sac i3ice to :ist ya, the b ight and glo ious sta , 3o whom long 3locks and he ds and men, looking 3o wa d 3o him and deceived in thei ho(e> 8hen shall we see him ise u(, the b ight and glo ious sta :ist yaM :he Dend/;vesta answe ed 3o the sta > I3 men would wo shi( me with a sac i3ice in which I we e invoked by my own name ... then I should come to the 3aith3ul at the a((ointed time. :he ( iests es(onded> :he neCt ten nights, " +(itama Da athust aN the b ight and glo ious :ist ya mingles his sha(e with light, moving in the sha(e o3 a golden/ho ned bull. :hey glo i3ied the sta that made Eall the sho es o3 the ocean boiling ove , all the middle o3 it boiling ove .E :hey hea(ed u( sac i3ices to the sta , im(lo ing it not to change its cou se. 8e sac i3ice unto :ist ya, the b ight and glo ious sta who 3 om the shining east moves along his long winding cou se, along the (ath made by the gods...

8e sac i3ice unto :ist ya the b ight and glo ious sta , whose ising is watched by the chie3s o3 dee( unde standing. :he sta o3 Venus did not a((ea in the ( esc ibed seasons. In the ,ook o3 Aob the !o d asks him> E'anst thou b ing 3o th 6a55a oth in his season ... M 4nowest thou the changes o3 heavenME ## :he e eCists an eCtensive eCegetic lite atu e on this 6a55a oth, #2 3 om which it can be concluded only that Ethe meaning o3 6a55a oth is unce tain.E #1 ,ut the Vulgate (!atin) t anslation o3 the ,ible has !uci3e 3o 6a55a oth. :he () eek) t anslation o3 the +eventy (+e(tuagint) eads> E'anst thou b ing 3o th 6a55a oth in his season and guide the ?vening +ta by his long hai ME :hese wo ds o3 the +e(tuagint seem ve y st ange. I have al eady mentioned that the ) eek wo d EkometE means Ethe long/hai ed one,E o a sta with hai , a comet. In !atin, EcomaE is Ehai .E 6a55a oth means a comet, w ote an eCegete, and the e3o e, he a gued, it cannot mean Venus. #2 ,ut in any case it is said that the ?vening +ta has hai . ;ctually, 6a55a oth means Venus and a hai y sta . Venus ceased to a((ea in its seasons. 8hat had ha((enedM
777777777777777777777777777777 # Published by =. '. 9awlinson and ). +mith> :able o3 the 6ovements o3 the Planet Venus and :hei In3luences . +ayceBs t anslation was ( inted in the : ansactions o3 the +ociety o3 ,iblical ; chaeology, #.-2H a mo e ecent t anslation by +. !angdon and A. 4. Gothe ingham was (ublished as :he Venus tablets o3 ;mmi5aduga (#92.). 2 Gothe ingham in !angdon and Gothe ingham> :he Venus tablets o3 ;mmi5aduga, (. 12. +ee +chia(a elli> EVenusbeobachtungen und ,e echnungen de ,abylonie ,E %as 8eltall, Vols. VI, VII. 1 4ugle asc ibed the Venus tablets to the 3i st ,abylonian %ynasty, because he ead a yea /3o mula o3 ;mmi5aduga in one o3 them. In #920, G. =ommel (;ssy iologische ,ibliothek, LLV, #9-/#99) decla ed that the yea /3o mula o3 ;mmi5aduga was inse ted into the Venus tablets by a sc ibe in the eign o3 ;ssu bani(al, in the seventh centu y. 2 !angdon/Gothe ingham> :he Venus tablets, (. #00. $ 6. Aast ow> 9eligious 9elie3 in ,abylonia and ;ssy ia, (. 220. 0 ;. @ngnad> E%ie Venusta3eln und das neunte Aah +amsuilunas,E 6itteilungen de alto ientalischen )esellscha3t (#920), (. #2. - :hibaut> E;st onomie, ;st ologie und 6athematik,E Vol. 1, Pt. 9 (#.99) o3 ) und iss de indo/a isch. Philol. und ;lte tumskunde, (. 2-. . Ibid., (. #$. 9 ; EP aye o3 the 9aising o3 the =andE to Ishta (t ansl. !. 8. 4ing) in :he +even :ablets o3 ' eation. #0 Dend/;vesta (t ansl. %a mestete ), Pt. II, ((. 9233. :he belie3 sometimes eC( essed, that :ist ya is +i ius, is an obvious e o > +i ius does not t avel in a winding cou se. :he sta in the sha(e o3 a golden/ho ned bull was Venus. ;lso, inaccu ate movements o3 +i ius could not occu without simila i egula ity on the (a t o3 all the sta s. ## Aob 1.>12/11. :he 4ing Aames t anslation has, E4nowest thou the o dinances o3 heavenME :he +e(tuagint has Ethe changes o3 heaven.E #2 +ee +chia(a elli> ;st onomy in the "ld :estament, (. -2. #1 'amb idge ,ible, ,ook o3 Aob, by ;. ,. %avidson and =. '. !ancheste . #2 A. +. +uschken> @nvo g ei3liche 4ometen/)edanken> "b de 4ometen in de heiligen +ch i3t gedacht we deM (#-22). 777777777777777777777777777777

Venus ,ecomes the 6o ning +ta

+ince the latte (a t o3 the eighth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, Venus has 3ollowed an o bit between 6e cu y and ea th, which it has maintained eve since. It became the 6o ning and ?vening +ta . +een 3 om the ea th, it is neve emoved mo e than 2. deg ees (when at its easte n and weste n elongation) o th ee hou s and a 3ew minutes east o west o3 the sun. :he d eaded comet became a tame (lanet. It has the most nea ly ci cula o bit among the (lanets. :he end o3 the te o which Venus ke(t alive 3o eight centu ies a3te the days o3 the ?Codus

was the ins(i ation 3o Isaiah when he said> # E=ow a t thou 3allen 3 om heaven, " !uci3e , son o3 the mo ningN how a t thou cut down to the g ound, which didst weaken the nationsN Go thou hast said in thine hea t, I will ascend into heaven, I will eCalt my th one above the sta s o3 )od.E +e(tuagint and Vulgate both t anslate E6o ning +ta E o E!uci3e E. 8hat does it mean, that the 6o ning +ta was assailing the heavens and ising high, and that it was cut down low to the ho i5on, and would weaken no mo e the nationsM 6o e than a hund ed gene ations o3 commentato s have occu(ied themselves with this (assage, but have met with 3ailu e.8hy, it is also asked, should the beauti3ul 6o ning +ta , called !uci3e , the !ight ,ea e , live in the imagination o3 (eo(les as an evil (owe , a 3allen sta M 8hat is in this lovely (lanet that makes he name an eFuivalent o3 +atan, o +eth o3 the ?gy(tians, the da k (owe M In his con3usion, " igen w ote this Fuestion to the Fuoted ve ses o3 Isaiah> E6ost evidently by these wo ds is he shown to have 3allen 3 om heaven, who 3o me ly was !uci3e , and who used to a ise in the mo ning. Go i3, as some think, he was a natu e o3 da kness, how is !uci3e said to have eCisted be3o eM " how could he a ise in the mo ning, who had in himsel3 nothing o3 the lightME 2 !uci3e was a 3ea ed ( odigy in the sky, and its o igin, as illuminated in this book, eC(lains how it came to be ega ded as a da k (owe and a 3allen sta . ;3te a g eat st uggle, Venus achieved a ci cula o bit and a (e manent (lace in the 3amily o3 (lanets. %u ing the (e tu bations which b ought about this metamo (hosis, Venus also lost its cometa y tail. In the valley o3 the ?u(h ates, EVenus then gives u( he (osition as a g eat stella divinity, eFual with sun and moon, and <oins the anks o3 the othe (lanets.E 1 ; comet became a (lanet. Venus was bo n as a comet in the second millennium be3o e the ( esent e a. In the middle o3 that millennium it twice made contact with the ea th and changed its cometa y o bit. In the tenth to eighth centu ies o3 the 3i st millennium, it was still a comet. 8hat caused such 3u the changes in the motion o3 Venus in the 3i st millennium that it became a (lanet on a ci cula o bitM
777777777777777777777777777777 # Isaiah #2>#2/#1. +ee also in3 a, (. 2$9. 2 :he 8 itings o3 " igen, E%e ( inci(iisE (t ansl. G. ' ombie, #.09), (. $#. 1 ;. Ae emias> :he "ld :estament in the !ight o3 the ;ncient ?ast (#9##), I, #.. 777777777777777777777777777777

Pa t II 6a s
'ha(te #

;,"@: +?V?N =@N%9?% 3i3ty yea s (assed a3te the g eat catast o(he o3 the days o3 the ?Codus, o seven centu ies a3te the cosmic distu bance in the days o3 Aoshua. %u ing all this time the wo ld was a3 aid o3 the ecu ence o3 the catast o(he at the end o3 eve y <ubilee (e iod. :hen, sta ting about the middle o3 the eighth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, a new se ies o3 cosmic u(heavals took (lace at inte vals o3 sho t du ation. It was the time o3 the =eb ew ( o(hets whose books a e ( ese ved in w iting, o3 ;ssy ian kings whose annals a e eCcavated and deci(he ed, and o3 ?gy(tian (ha aohs o3 the !ibyan and ?thio(ian dynastiesH in sho t, the catast o(hes which we a e now about to desc ibe did not take (lace in a mist/sh ouded (ast> the (e iod is (a t o3 the well authenticated histo y o3 the lands o3 the easte n 6edite anean. :he eighth centu y also saw the beginning o3 the nations o3 ) eece and 9ome. :he see s who ( o(hesied in Audea we e ve sed in the lo e o3 heavenly motionH they obse ved the ways o3 the (laneta y and cometa y bodies and, like the sta ga5e s o3 ;ssy ia and ,abylonia, they we e awa e o3 3utu e changes. In the eighth centu y, in the days o3 @55iah, king o3 Ae usalem, the e occu ed a devastating catast o(he called E aashE o Ecommotion.E # ;mos, who lived at the time o3 @55iah, began to ( edict a cosmic u(heaval be3o e the E aashE took (lace, and a3te the catast o(he, Isaiah, Aoel, =osea, and 6icah insisted unanimously and with g eat em(hasis on the inevitability o3 anothe encounte o3 the ea th with some cosmic body. :he ( o(hecy o3 ;mos was made two yea s be3o e the E aashE (#>#). =e decla ed that 3i e sent by the !o d would devou +y ia, ?dom, 6oab, ;mmon, and Philistia, as well as the 3a / o33 count ies, Ewith a tem(est in the day o3 the whi lwindE (#>#2). :he land o3 Is ael would not be eCem(tedH Eg eat tumultE would be on its mountains, and Eg eat houses shall have an endE (1>#$). E=e will smite the g eat house with b eaches, and the little house with cle3tsE (0>ll). 2 ;mos wa ned those who invited the day o3 the !o d and waited 3o it> E8oe unto you that desi e the day o3 the !o dN :o what end is it 3o youM :he day o3 the !o d is da kness, and not light ... even ve y da k, and no b ightness in itE ($>#./20). ;mos, the ea liest among the ( o(hets o3 Audah and Is ael whose s(eeches a e ( ese ved in w iting, 1 eveals the conce(t o3 *ahweh in that emote (e iod o3 histo y. *ahweh o de s the (lanets. E=e who maketh Io dainsJ 4hima and 4hesil, 2 and tu neth the shadow o3 death into the mo ning, and maketh the day da k with night, and calleth 3o the wate s o3 the sea, and (ou eth them out u(on the 3ace o3 the ea th, the !o d I*ahwehJ is his name> =e st engtheneth the s(oiled against the st ongE ($>./9). ;mos ( o(hesied> :he land Eshall ise u( wholly as a 3loodH and it shall be cast out and d owned, as by the 3lood o3 ?gy(t. ;nd it shall come to (ass in that day, saith the !o d )od, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will da ken the ea th in the clea dayE (.>./9). :he E3lood o3 ?gy(tE mentioned by ;mos may be a e3e ence to the catast o(he o3 the day o3 the Passage o3 the +eaH but mo e ( obably it e3e s to an event within the memo y o3 the gene ation to which ;mos s(oke. In the eign o3 "so kon II o3 the !ibyan %ynasty in ?gy(t, in the thi d yea , the 3i st month

o3 the second season, on the twel3th day, acco ding to a damaged insc i(tion,E the 3lood came on, in this whole land ... this land was in its (owe like the seaH the e was no dyke o3 the (eo(le to withstand its 3u y. ;ll the (eo(le we e like bi ds u(on it ... the tem(est ... sus(ended ... like the heavens. ;ll the tem(les o3 :hebes we e like ma shes.E $ :hat it was not a seasonal inundation o3 the Nile is clea 3 om the date. E:his calenda date 3o the high level o3 inundation does not at all co es(ond to the (lace o3 the calenda in the seasons.E 0 "n the day o3 the a(( oaching catast o(he, ;mos says, the e will be no (lace o3 esca(e, not even on 6ount 'a mel, ich in caves. E:hough they climb u( to heaven, thence will I b ing them down. ;nd though they hide themselves in the to( o3 'a mel, I will sea ch and take them out thenceE (9>2/1). ?a th will melt and the sea will be hea(ed u( and th own u(on inhabited land. E;nd the !o d )od o3 hosts is he that toucheth the land, and it shall melt ... =e that calleth 3o the wate s o3 the sea, and (ou eth them out u(on the 3ace o3 the ea thE (9>$/0). ;mos was (e secuted and killed. :he catast o(he did not 3ail to come at the a((ointed time. In antici(ation and in 3ea o3 it, 4ing @55iah went to the :em(le to bu n incense. - :he ( iests o((osed his a(( o( iating thei 3unctions. E+uddenly the ea th sta ted to Fuake so violently that a g eat b each was to n in the :em(le. "n the west side o3 Ae usalem, hal3 o3 a mountain was s(lit o33 and hu led to the east.E . Glaming se a(him lea(ed in the ai . 9 ?a thFuakes act suddenly, and the (o(ulation has no means o3 knowing about them in advance in o de to 3lee. ,ut be3o e the E aashE o3 @55iah the (o(ulation esca(ed 3 om the cities and 3led into caves and cle3ts between the ocks. 6any gene ations late , in the (ost/ ?Cilic (e iod, it was emembe ed how the (o(ulation E3led 3 om be3o e the aash in the days o3 @55iah king o3 Audah.E #0
777777777777777777777777777777 # E9aashE is t anslated Eea thFuake,E which is inco ect he eH c3. Ae emiah #0>22> Ea g eat commotion I aashJ out o3 the no th.E E?a thFuakeE is ende ed in the +c i(tu es by wo ds de ived 3 om the oots E oadE, EhulE, E ego5E, Eha edE, E(ale5E, E u3E, and E aashE (EcommotionE). 2 E9sisimE, t anslated as Eb eaches,E is not st ong enoughH it would be bette to say, Esmite g eat houses into (ieces.E =eb ew wo ds t anslated as Eb eachE in the 4ing Aames Ve sion a e EbedekE, EbkiaE, E(e et5E, Esheve .E 1 +ome abbinical autho ities ega d =osea as the oldest among the ( o(hets o3 that time (=osea, ;mos, Isaiah). 2 :he mate ial 3o the identi3ication o3 4hima as +atu n and 4hesil as 6a s will be ( esented in a subseFuent (a t o3 this wo k. $ , easted> 9eco ds o3 ?gy(t, IV, +ec. -21. '3. A. Vandie > !a Gamine dans IB?gy(te ancienne (#910), (. #21. E:he wate educed the land to the same state as when it was still cove ed with the ( imeval wate o3 c eation.E 0 , easted> 9eco ds o3 ?gy(t, IV, +ees. -22/-21. - II 'h onicles 20>#033. . )in5be g> !egends, IV, 202. 9 Ibid., VI, 1$.. #0 Decha iah #2>$. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he *ea /-2I3 the commotion o3 the days o3 @55iah was o3 global cha acte and was b ought about by an eCt ate est ial agent, it must have caused some distu bance in the motion o3 the ea th on its aCis and along its o bit. +uch a distu bance would have made the old calenda obsolete and would have eFui ed the int oduction o3 a new calenda . In /-2- a new calenda was int oduced in the 6iddle ?ast, and that yea is known as Ethe beginning o3 the e a o3 Nabonassa .E It is asse ted that some ast onomical event gave bi th to this new calenda , but the natu e o3 the event is not known. :he beginning o3 the e a o3 Nabonassa , othe wise an obscu e ,abylonian king, was an ast onomical date used as late

as the second 'h istian centu y by the g eat mathematician and ast onome o3 the ;leCand ian school, Ptolemy, and also by othe schola s. It was em(loyed as a (oint o3 de(a tu e o3 ancient ast onomical tables. E:his was not a (olitical o eligious e a ... Ga the back the e was no ce tainty in ega d to the calculation o3 time. It is 3 om that moment that the eco ds o3 ecli(ses begin which Ptolemy used.E # 8hat was the ast onomical event that closed the ( evious e a and gave bi th to a new e aM ;cco ding to et os(ective calculations, the e was no ecli(se o3 the sun in the egion o3 ;ssy o/,abylonia between the yea s /-02 and /-0#, 2 i3 the ea th has evolved and otated uni3o mly since then, which is taken 3o g anted. @55iah eigned 3 om about /-.9 to about /-20. 1 :he last 3ew yea s o3 his eign, beginning with the day o3 the Ecommotion,E he s(ent in seclusion, having been ( onounced a le(e . It was a((a ently the u(heaval in the days o3 @55iah that se(a ated the two ages. :ime was counted E3 om the commotion in the days o3 @55iah.E 2 I3 this conclusion is co ect, the u(heaval took (lace in /-2-. :he com(utation, acco ding to which the e a sta ted on the twenty/siCth day o3 Geb ua y, must be e/eCamined in the light o3 the 3act that 3u the cosmic distu bances occu ed du ing the decades that 3ollowed /-2-. It is wo th noting, howeve , that the ancient inhabitants o3 6eCico celeb ated thei New *ea on the day which co es(onds, in the Aulian calenda , to the same date> E:he 3i st day o3 thei yee e was the siCe and twentie day o3 Geb ua y.E $ :he ch onog a(he and ,y5antine monk, )eo gius +yncellus, one o3 the chie3 sou ces o3 ancient ch onology, synch oni5ed the 3o ty/eighth yea o3 @55iah and the 3i st yea o3 the 3i st "lym(iad. 0 ,ut acco ding to mode n calculations, the 3i st yea o3 the 3i st "lym(iad was /--0. - :he "lym(iads most ( obably we e inaugu ated by some cosmic event. :he teCt o3 the ancient 'hinese book o3 +hiking e3e s to some celestial (henomenon in the days o3 the king *en/*ang, in /--0> the sun was obscu ed. . I3 the occu ence o3 /--0 was o3 the same natu e as that o3 /-2-, then ;mosB ( o(hecy was a ( ognostication based on an ea lie eC(e ience.
777777777777777777777777777777 # G. 'umont> ;st ology and 9eligion among the ) eeks and 9omans (#9#2), ((. ./9. :o be co ect, the ea liest ecli(se Ptolemy calculated is dated 6a ch 2#, /-2#. 2 :. von "((ol5e > 'anon de Ginste nisse (#..-). 1 4. 6a ti> E'h onology,E ?ncyclo(aedia ,iblica, ed. by 'heyne and ,lack. 2 '3. ;mos #>#H Decha iah #2>$. $ A. de ;costa> :he Natu al and 6o al =isto y o3 the Indies (t ansl. ?. ) imston, #002H e/edited, #..0). 0 )eo gius +yncellus (ed. ). %indo 3, #.29), II, 201. - +. Newcomb> :he ;me ican Nautical ;lmanac, #.9# (#.90). . ;. )aubil> E: aitU de IBast onomie chinoiseE, Vol. Ill o3 "bse vations mathUmatiFues, ast onomiFues, gUog a(hiFues, ch onologiFues, et (hysiFues ... auC Indes et \ la 'hine , ed. ?. +ouciet (#-29/#-12)H A. ,. du =alde> ; %esc i(tion o3 the ?m(i e o3 'hina (#-2#), II, #2./#29. 777777777777777777777777777777

;cco ding to =eb ew sou ces, # Isaiah began to ( o(hesy immediately a3te the EcommotionE o3 the days o3 @55iah, even on the same day. :he dest uction in the land was ve y g eat. E*ou count y is desolate, you cities a e bu ned with 3i e ... ?Cce(t the !o d o3 hosts had le3t unto us a ve y small emnant, we should have been as +odom, and we should have been like unto )omo ahE (#>-33.). :he ve y ho i5on o3 Ae usalem was dis3igu ed by the s(litting o3 the mountain on the westH and the cities we e 3illed with deb is and mutilated bodies. E:he hills did t emble, and ... ca casses we e to n in the midst o3 the st eetsE ($>2$). :his was the event that kindled in Isaiah the ( o(hetic s(i it. %u ing his long li3e / he

( o(hesied in Ethe days o3 @55iah, Aotham, ;ha5, and =e5ekiah, kings o3 AudahE / he did not cease to 3o etell the etu n o3 the catast o(hes. Isaiah was skilled in the obse vation o3 the sta s, and he a((a ently knew that at (e iodic inte vals / eve y 3i3teen yea s / a catast o(he occu ed, caused, he believed, by the messenge o3 )od. E=is ange is not tu ned away, but his hand Isign 2J is st etched out still. ;nd he will li3t u( an ensign to the nations 3 om a3a E ($>2$/20). Isaiah d ew an a(ocaly(tic (ictu e o3 swi3tly moving hostile t oo(s. 8as he ( o(hesying a c uel and mighty (eo(le o3 wa io s, o a host o3 missiles hu led 3 om a3a when he s(oke o3 the a my that would come swi3tly 3 om the end o3 the wo ld, called by the !o dM :hei ho sesB hoo3s would be like 3lint, and thei wheels like a whi lwind. EI3 one look unto the land, behold da kness and so owH and the light is da kened in the heavens the eo3E ($>10). It is not the ;ssy ians on ho ses and in cha iots that a e com(a ed to the 3lint and the whi lwind, but the 3lint and the whi lwind that a e likened to wa io s. 1 :he da kness at the end o3 the (ictu e discloses that which is the ob<ect o3 com(a ison and that to which it is com(a ed. :he catast o(he o3 the days o3 @55iah was only a ( elude> the day o3 w ath will etu n and will dest oy the (o(ulation Euntil the cities be wasted without inhabitantE (0>##). E?nte into the ock, and hide thee in the dustE (2>#0) / all ove the wo ld caves in the ocks we e ega ded as the best (laces o3 e3uge. E;nd they shall go into the holes o3 the ocks, and into the caves o3 the ea th, 3o 3ea o3 the !o d, and 3o the glo y o3 his ma<esty, when he a iseth to shake te ibly the ea thE (2>#9). Isaiah a((ea ed be3o e 4ing ;ha5 and o33e ed him a sign, on the ea th o Ein the height above.E ;ha5 e3used> EI will not ask, neithe will I tem(t the !o dE (->#2). :hen Isaiah 3aced the (eo(le. E;nd they shall look unto the ea thH and behold t ouble and da kness, dimness o3 anguishE (.>22). Neve theless, he said, the dimness will not be as g eat as on two 3o me occasions when Eat the 3i st he lightly a33licted the land o3 Debulun and the land o3 Na(htali, and a3te wa d did mo e g ievously a33lict he by the way o3 the sea, beyond Ao dan, in )alilee o3 the nationsE (9>#). =e calculated that the neCt catast o(he would cause less ha m than had been caused on ( evious occasions. ,ut soon the ea3te he changed his ( ognostication and became utte ly (essimistic. E:h ough the w ath o3 the !o d o3 hosts is the land da kened, and the (eo(le shall be as the 3uel o3 the 3i eE (9>#9). =is od will li3t the sea u( Ea3te the manne o3 ?gy(t,E as on the day o3 the c ossing o3 the 9ed +ea (#0>20). E;nd the !o d shall utte ly dest oy the tongue o3 the ?gy(tian seaH and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand IsignJ ove the ive , and shall smite it in the seven st eamsE (##>#$). No will Palestine be s(a ed. E=e shall shake his hand IsignJ against ... the hill o3 Ae usalemE (#0>12). :hus, a wa o3 the heavenly host, commanded by the !o d, was ( oclaimed against the nations o3 the ea th. ;nd the nations o3 the ea th we e a oused by the eC(ectation o3 %oomsday. E:he noise o3 a multitude in the mountains, like as o3 a g eat (eo(leH a tumultuous noise o3 the kingdoms o3 nations gathe ed togethe > the !o d o3 hosts muste eth the host o3 the battleE (#1>2). :his multitude comes E3 om the end o3 heaven, even the !o d, and the wea(ons o3 his indignation, to dest oy the whole landE (#1>$). :he wo ld will be da kened. E:he sta s o3 heaven and the constellations the eo3 shall not give thei light> the sun shall be da kened in his going 3o th Iin the 3o enoonJ, and the moon shall not cause he light to shineE (#1>#0). :he wo ld will be th own o33 its aCis> the heavenly host Ewill shake the heavens, and the ea th shall emove out o3 he (lace, in the w ath o3 the !o d o3 hosts, and in the day o3 his 3ie ce ange E (#1>#1). :he nations Eshall 3lee 3a o33, and shall be chased as the cha33 o3 the mountains be3o e the wind, and like a olling thing be3o e the whi lwindE (#->#1).

Isaiah, on his vigils, watched the 3i mament, and in Ea((ointed timesE eC(ected E3 om the no th a smokeE (#2>1#). E;ll ye inhabitants o3 the wo ld ... see ye, when he li3teth u( an ensign on the mountainsH and when he bloweth a t um(et, hea yeE (#.>1). :he eyes o3 all Edwelle s o3 the ea thE we e di ected towa d the sky, and they listened to the bowels o3 the ea th. InFui ies we e sent to Ae usalem 3 om +ei in ; abia> E8atchman, what o3 the nightME G om his watchtowe (EP e(a e the table, watch in the watchtowe E) Isaiah gave his 3o ecasts to inFui e s (2#>$H 2#>##). Ne vous tension g ew with the a(( oach o3 the Ea((ointed time,E and a umo su33iced to d ive the (o(ulation o3 the cities to the houseto(s. E8hat aileth thee now, that thou a t wholly gone u( to the houseto(sME (22>#). 6uch o3 the city o3 %avid was damaged and many st uctu es had 3issu es 3 om almost continuous ea th t emo s (22>9). :he see 3 ightened the (o(ulation with his constant wa nings o3 Ea day o3 t ouble ... and o3 (e (leCity by the !o d )od o3 hosts,E with Eb eaking down the walls, and o3 c ying to the mountainsE (22>$). ,ut many among the (o(ulation took the attitude o3 those who be3o e %oomsday say> E!et us eat and d inkH 3o tomo ow we shall dieE (22> #1). Aoel, who ( o(hesied at the same time, also s(oke o3 Ewonde s in the heavens and in the ea th, blood, and 3i e, and (illa s o3 smoke. :he sun shall be tu ned into da kness, and the moon into blood, be3o e the g eat and the te ible day o3 the !o d comeE (Aoel 2>10/1#). 6icah, anothe see Ein the days o3 Aotham, ;ha5, and =e5ekiah, kings o3 Audah,E wa ned that the day was close when Ethe mountains shall be molten ... and the valleys shall be cle3t, as waC be3o e the 3i eE (6icah #>2). E6a velous thingsE will be shown, as in the days when Is ael le3t ?gy(t> E:he nations shall see and be con3ounded at all thei might ... thei ea s shall be dea3 ... they shall move out o3 thei holes like wo ms o3 the ea thE (->#$/#-). Aoel, 6icah, and ;mos wa ned in simila te ms o3 Ea day o3 thick da knessE and Ethe day da k with night.E ;st onome s, who thought that all this e3e s to a common ecli(se o3 the sun, wonde ed> EG om /-01 down to the dest uction o3 the Gi st :em(le in /$.0 no total ecli(se o3 the sun was visible in Palestine.E 2 :hey took it 3o g anted that the ea th evolves along eCactly the same o bit and on a slowly otating aCis, and so they Fuestioned> 8hy did the ( o(hets s(eak o3 ecli(ses when the e we e noneM =oweve , othe desc i(tions o3 the wo ld catast o(he in these ( o(hets do not acco d with the e33ects o3 an o dina y ecli(se, eithe . :he wo d EshaogE, used by ;mos and Aoel, is eC(lained by the :almud $ as an ea thshock, the 3ield o3 action o3 which is the enti e wo ld, whe eas a egula ea thFuake is o3 local cha acte . +uch a shaking o3 the ea th, distu bed in its otation, is visuali5ed also as a Eshaking o3 the sky,E an eC( ession 3ound in the P o(hets, in ,abylonian teCts, and in othe lite a y sou ces. :hen the ( o(hecy was 3ul3illed. ;mid the catast o(he Isaiah aised his voice> EGea , and the (it, and the sna e I(itch 0J a e u(on thee, " inhabitant o3 the ea th ... 3o the windows 3 om on high a e o(en, and the 3oundations o3 the ea th do shake. :he ea th is utte ly b oken down, the ea th is clean dissolved, the ea th is moved eCceedinglyE (22>#-/#9). :he catast o(he came on the day on which 4ing ;ha5 was bu ied. :he e was a EcommotionE> the te est ial aCis shi3ted o was tilted, and the sunset was hastened by seve al hou s. :his cosmic distu bance is desc ibed in the :almud, in the 6id ashim, and e3e ed to by the Gathe s o3 the 'hu ch. - It is elated also in the eco ds and told in the t aditions o3 many (eo(les. It a((ea s that a heavenly body (assed ve y close to the ea th, moving, as it seems, in the same di ection as the ea th on its noctu nal side. E,ehold, the !o d maketh the ea th em(ty, and maketh it waste, and tu neth it u(side

down ... :he inhabitants o3 the ea th a e bu ned, and 3ew men le3tE (Isaiah 22>#, 0).

777777777777777777777777777777 # +ede "lam 20. 2 *ad is EhandE as well as Esign.E 1 +ee in3 a the +ection, E:he :e ible "nes.E 2 +chia(a elli> ;st onomy in the "ld :estament, (. 21. "((ol5e and )in5el a anged canons o3 the sola ecli(ses in antiFuity on the ( emise that the e was no change in the movement o3 the ea th o the moon. $ :he Ae usalem :almud, : actate ,e akhot #1b. 0 EPahE in =eb ew o iginally meant EbitumenE o E(itch,E as can be in3e ed 3 om Psalms ##> 0. - : actate +anhed in 90aH Pi kei 9abbi ?liese $2H =i((olytus on Isaiah. '3. )in5be g> !egends, VI, 10-, n. .#. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he ; give :y ants

In ;ges in 'haos I shall ( esent ( oo3 that the la ge, aw stone st uctu es o3 6ycenae and :i yns on the ; give (lain in ) eece a e the uins o3 the (alaces o3 the ; give ty ants, well emembe ed by the ) eeks o3 subseFuent centu ies, and date 3 om the eighth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a. I3 the mate ial emains o3 the (alaces o3 6ycenae and :i yns a e asc ibed to the second millennium, then nothing has been 3ound on the ; give (lain that can be asc ibed to the ; give ty ants, although they a e known to have built s(acious (alaces. :hyestes and his b othe ;t eus we e o3 these ; give ty ants. !iving in the eighth centu y, they must have witnessed the cosmic catast o(hes o3 the days o3 Isaiah. ) eek t adition (e sists that a cosmic catast o(he occu ed in the time o3 these ty ants> the sun changed its cou se and the night a ived be3o e its ( o(e time. 6en should be ( e(a ed 3o eve ything and not wonde at anything, w ote ; chilochus, since the day that Deus Etu ned midday into night, hiding the light o3 the da55ling sunH and so e 3ea came u(on men. # 6any classical autho s e3e ed to the occu ence. I give he e +enecaBs desc i(tion. In his d ama, :hyestes, the cho us asks the sun> E8hithe , " 3athe o3 the lands and skies, be3o e whose ising thick night with all he glo ies 3lees, whithe dost tu n thy cou se and why dost blot out the day in mid/"lym(us ImiddayJM Not yet does Ves(e , twilightBs messenge , summon the 3i es o3 nightH not yet does thy wheel, tu ning its weste n goal, bid 3 ee thy steeds 3 om thei com(leted taskH not yet as day 3ades into night has the thi d t um( soundedH the (loughman with oCen yet unwea ied stands ama5ed at his su((e hou Bs Fuick coming. 8hat has d iven thee 3 om thy heavenly cou seM ... =as :y(hoeus I:y(honJ th own o33 the mountainous mass and set his body 3 eeME 2 :his (ictu e eminds us o3 the desc i(tion o3 the day o3 ;ha5B bu ial. +eneca elates the 3ea o3 wo ld dest uction eC(e ienced by those who lived at the time o3 ;t eus and :hyestes, the ty ants o3 the ; give (lain. :he hea ts o3 men we e o(( essed with te o at the sight o3 the untimely sunset. E:he shadows a ise, though the night is not yet eady. No sta s come outH the heavens gleam not with any 3i es> no moon dis(els the da knessB heavy (all ... : embling, t embling a e ou hea ts, so e smit with 3ea , lest all things 3all shatte ed in 3atal uin and once mo e gods and men be ove whelmed by 3o mless chaosH lest the lands, the enci cling sea, and the sta s that wande in the s(angled sky, natu e blot out once mo e.E 8ill the seasons be ended and the moon ca ied awayM ENo mo eE shall the sta s Ema k o33 the summe and the winte timesH no mo e shall !una, e3lecting PhoebusB ays, dis(el nightBs te o s.E ;3te the catast o(he o3 the days o3 ;t eus and :hyestes, the lumina ies c ossed thei 3o me (aths obliFuelyH the (oles we e shi3tedH the yea lengthened / the o bit o3 the ea th became wide . E:he Dodiac, which, making (assage th ough the sac ed sta s, c osses the

5ones obliFuely, guide and sign/bea e 3o the slow moving yea s, 3alling itsel3, shall see the 3allen constellations.E +eneca desc ibes the change in (osition o3 each constellation / the 9am, the ,ull, the :wins, the !ion, the Vi gin, the +cales, the +co (ion, the )oat, and the 8ain (the ) eat ,ea ). E;nd the 8ain, which was neve bathed in the sea, shall be (lunged beneath the all/ engul3ing waves.E ; commentato who wonde ed about this desc i(tion o3 the (osition o3 the ) eat ,ea w ote> E:he e was no mythological eason why the 8ain / othe wise known as the ) eat ,ea / should not be bathed in the "cean.E 1 ,ut +eneca said ( ecisely this st ange thing> the ) eat ,ea / o one o3 its sta s / neve set beneath the ho i5on, and thus the (ola sta was among its sta s du ing the age that came to its end in the time o3 the ; give ty ants. +eneca also says eC(licitly that the (oles we e to n u( in this cataclysm. :he (ola aCis now is tu ned towa d one o3 the sta s, the No th +ta , o3 the !ittle ,ea . In the 3ace o3 the cataclysm, when humanity was ove whelmed with awe, the hea tb oken :hyestes, longing 3o death, called u(on the unive se to go down in utte con3usion. :he (ictu e was not invented by +eneca> it was 3amilia because o3 what had ha((ened in ea lie ages. E" thou, eCalted ule o3 the sky, who sittest in ma<esty u(on the th one o3 heaven, enw a( the whole unive se in aw3ul clouds, set the winds wa ing on eve y hand, and 3 om eve y Fua te o3 the sky let the loud thunde ollH not with what hand thou seekest houses and undese ving homes, using thy lesse bolts, but with that hand by which the th ee3old mass o3 mountains 3ell ... these a ms let loose and hu l thy 3i es.E
777777777777777777777777777777 # ; chilochus> G agment -2. 2 : anslated by G. A. 6ille (#9#-). 1 ; note by G. A. 6ille to his t anslation o3 :hyestes. 777777777777777777777777777777

;gain Isaiah
:ime (assed a3te the death o3 ;ha5, and the 3ou teenth yea o3 4ing =e5ekiah a(( oached. ;gain the 3 ightened wo ld anCiously antici(ated a catast o(he. "n its two ( evious a(( oaches, the celestial missile had come ve y close, indeed. :his time the end o3 the wo ld was 3ea ed. ;3te the cataclysms o3 the days o3 @55iah and o3 the 3une al day o3 ;ha5, one did not have to be a ( o(het to 3o etell a new cosmic catast o(he. :he ea th will move out o3 its (lace, a sco ching 3lame will devou the ai , hot stones will 3all 3 om the sky, and the wate s o3 the sea will mount and descend u(on the continents. E,ehold, the !o d hath a mighty and st ong one, which as a tem(est Icata actJ o3 hail and a dest oying sto m, as a 3lood o3 mighty wate s ove 3lowing, shall cast down to the ea th with the handE (Isaiah 2.>2). E:he mighty and st ong oneE was a heavenly body, a missile o3 the !o d. "nce mo e it was destined to scou ge the ea th. E:he ove 3lowing scou ge shall (ass th oughE (2.>#.), was IsaiahBs new ( ognostication. ;lthough the (eo(le o3 Ae usalem ho(ed that Ewhen the ove 3lowing scou ge shall (ass th ough, it shall not come unto usE (2.>#$), Ae usalem had no covenant with death. # :he e will be no sa3e (lace o3 e3uge. E:he wate s shall ove 3low the hiding (laceE (2.>#-). E; consum(tion even dete mined u(on the whole ea thE (2.>22). EGo the !o d.., shall be w oth as in the valley o3 )ibeon, that he may do his wo k, his st ange wo kH and b ing to (ass his act, his st ange actE (2.>2#). 8hat was the Est ange actE in the valley o3 )ibeonM In that valley the host o3 Aoshua witnessed a ain o3 bolides and saw the sun and the moon distu bed in thei movement

ac oss the 3i mament. E;t an instant suddenlyE the land will be invaded with Esmall dustE and with Ethe multitude o3 te ible ones,E and it will be visited Ewith thunde , and with ea thFuake, and g eat noise, with sto m and tem(est, and the 3lame o3 devou ing 3i eE (29>$/0). E; devou ing 3i eE and Ean ove 3lowing st eamE shall Esi3t the nationsE with Etem(est and hailstonesE (10>2-/10). :he ( o(het, eading the signs o3 the sky, took u(on himsel3 the ole o3 sentinel o3 the unive se, and 3 om his watchtowe in Ae usalem he s( ead the ala m> E!et the ea th hea ... Go the indignation o3 the !o d is u(on all nations ... =e hath delive ed them to the slaughte E (12>#33.). :hen 3ollows the desolate (ictu e o3 the dest oyed ea th and dissolved sky (12>233)> ;nd all the host o3 heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be olled togethe as a sc oll> and all thei host shall 3all down ... Go my swo d shall be bathed in heaven... ;nd the st eams ... shall be tu ned into (itch, and the dust into b imstone, and the land shall become bu ning (itch. It shall not be Fuenched night no dayH the smoke shall go u( 3o eve . Isaiah e3e ed his eade s to the E,ook o3 the !o dE> E+eek ye out o3 the book o3 the !o d, and ead> no one o3 these shall 3ailE (12>#0). :his book ( obably belonged to the same se ies as the ,ook o3 Aashe , in which the eco ds o3 the days o3 Aoshua at )ibeon we e ( ese vedH old t aditions and ast onomical obse vations must have been w itten down in the ,ook o3 the !o d, no longe eCtant.
777777777777777777777777777777 # '3. Psalms 20>$> E)od is in the midst o3 he IAe usalemJH she shall not be moved> )od shall hel( he .E 777777777777777777777777777777

6aimonides and +(ino5a, the ?Cegetes

?go sum %ominus, 3aciens om nia, eCtendens caelos solus, stabiliens te ain, et nullus mecum. I ita 3aciens signa divino um, et a iolos in 3u o em ve tens. 'onve tens sa(ientes et o sum> et scientiam eo um stultam 3aciens. / P o(hetiae Isaiae 22>22/2$ (Vulgate)

=e e, be3o e I go on to the desc i(tion o3 the day on which the ( o(hecies o3 Isaiah, ( onounced a3te the death o3 ;ha5, we e 3ul3illed, I should like to ( esent the common view o3 gene ations o3 commentato s. :he books o3 the 6ayas have come into the hands o3 only a 3ew schola sH likewise the (a(y i o3 ?gy(t and the clay tablets o3 the ;ssy ians. ,ut the ,ook o3 Isaiah and othe books o3 the +c i(tu es have been ead by millions du ing many centu ies in hund eds o3 languages. Is the way in which Isaiah eC( essed himsel3 obscu eM It is a kind o3 collective (sychological blind s(ot which ( events the unde standing o3 the clea ly evealed and sco es/o3/times/ e(eated desc i(tion o3 ast onomical, geological, and meteo ological (henomena. :he desc i(tion was thought to be a (eculia kind o3 (oetic meta(ho , a 3lowe y manne o3 eC( ession. ?ven a modest attem(t to eview the va ious commenta ies on Isaiah would bu st the 3 ame o3 a book la ge than this one. :he e3o e it should satis3y the o thodoC and the libe al eade alike i3 the o(inions ( esented by two g eat autho ities in the wo ld o3 thought a e given he e, and the thousands o3 commentato s not Fuoted at all.

6oses ben 6aimon, called 9ambam, also 6aimonides (##1$/#202), in his :he )uide 3o the Pe (leCed, # eC( essed the o(inion that a belie3 in the ' eation is a 3undamental ( inci(le o3 Aewish eligion, Ebut we do not conside it a ( inci(le o3 ou 3aith that the @nive se will again be educed to nothingEH Eit de(ends on =is will,E and Eit is the e3o e (ossible that =e will ( ese ve the @nive se 3o eve EH Ethe belie3 in the dest uction is not necessa ily im(lied in the belie3 in the ' eation.E E8e ag ee with ; istotle in one hal3 o3 his theo y ... :he o(inion o3 ; istotle is that the @nive se being (e manent and indest uctible, is also ete nal and without beginning.E 8ith this theo(hiloso(hic a(( oach to the ( oblem at la ge, 6aimonides was ave se to 3inding any wo d o sentence in the P o(hets o elsewhe e in the ,ible that would suggest a dest uction o3 the wo ld o even a change in its o de . 2 ?ach and eve y such eC( ession he eC(lained as a (oetical substitute 3o an eC(osition o3 (olitical ideas and acts. 6aimonides says> E B:he sta s have 3allen,B B:he heavens a e ove th own,B B:he sun is da kened,B B:he ea th is waste and t embles,B and simila meta(ho sE a e E3 eFuently em(loyed by Isaiah, and less 3 eFuently by othe ( o(hets, when they desc ibe the uin o3 a kingdom.E In these (h ases the te m EmankindE is used occasionallyH this is also a meta(ho , says 6aimonides. E+ometimes the ( o(hets use the te m BmankindB instead o3 Bthe (eo(le o3 a ce tain (lace,B whose dest uction they ( edictH e.g., Isaiah, s(eaking o3 the dest uction o3 Is ael, says> B;nd the !o d will emove man 3a awayB (0>#2). +o also De(haniah (#>1/2), B;nd I will cut o33 man 3 om o33 the ea th.BE =e maintains that Isaiah and othe see s o3 Is ael, when eCamined by the ealistic method o3 ; istotelianism, we e (e sons inclined to eCagge ated 3o ms o3 s(eech, and instead o3 saying, E,abylon will 3all,E o E3ell,E they s(oke in te ms o3 some 3antastic (e tu bation in the cosmos above and beneath. E8hen Isaiah eceived the divine mission to ( o(hesy the dest uction o3 the ,abylonian em(i e, the death o3 +ennache ib and that o3 Nebuchadne55a , who ose a3te the ove th ow o3 +ennache ib, 1 he commences in the 3ollowing manne to desc ibe thei 3all ... > BGo the sta s o3 heaven and the constellations the eo3, shall not give thei lightB (#1>#0)H again, B:he e3o e I will shake the heavens, and the ea th shall emove out o3 he (lace, in the w ath o3 the !o d o3 hosts, and in the day o3 his 3ie ce ange B (#1>#1). I do not think that any (e son is so 3oolish and blind, and so much in 3avou o3 the lite al sense o3 3igu ative and o ato ical (h ases, as to assume that at the 3all o3 the ,abylonian kingdom a change took (lace in the natu e o3 the sta s o3 heaven, o in the light o3 the sun and moon, o that the ea th moved away 3 om its cente . Go all this is me ely the desc i(tion o3 a count y that has been de3eatedH the inhabitants undoubtedly 3ind all light da k, and all sweet things bitte > the whole ea th a((ea s too na ow 3o them, and the heavens a e changed in thei eyes.E E=e s(eaks in a simila manne when he desc ibes ... the loss o3 the enti e land o3 Is ael when it came into the (ossession o3 +ennache ib. =e says (22>#./20)> B ... 3o the windows 3 om on high a e o(en, and the 3oundations o3 the ea th do shake. :he ea th is utte ly b oken down, the ea th is clean dissolved, the ea th is moved eCceedingly. :he ea th shall eel to and 3 o like a d unka d.BE :he sub<ugation o3 Audah by ;ssy ia was <oyless, but what was so bad, 3 om IsaiahBs (oint o3 view, in the dest uction o3 ,abylon that the sta s should not give thei lightM ; eading o3 the lite atu e indicates that no eCegete has eve been Eso 3oolish and blindE as to ead sky 3o sky, sta s 3o sta s, b imstone 3o b imstone, 3i e 3o 3i e, blast 3o blast. 2 9e3e ing to the Fuoted ve ses / Isaiah 12>2/$ / 6aimonides w ites> E8ill any (e son who has eyes to see 3ind in these ve ses any eC( ession that is obscu e, o that might lead him to think that they contain an account o3 what will be3all the heavensM ... :he ( o(het means to say that the individuals, who we e like sta s as ega ds thei (e manent, high, and undistu bed (osition, will Fuickly come down.E

6aimonides Fuotes ?5ekiel, Aoel, ;mos, 6icah, =aggai, =abakkuk, and Psalms, and in ve ses simila to those cited 3 om Isaiah, he 3inds incidentally a desc i(tion o3 Ea multitude o3 locusts,E o a s(eech a(( o( iate 3o the dest uction o3 +ama ia o the Edest uction o3 6edes and Pe sians,E s(oken Ein meta(ho s which a e intelligible to those who unde stand the conteCt.E In a settled wo ld nothing alte s the given o de . :o sustain this doct ine, the ( o(hecies we e t anslated into meta(ho s, 3o , in the o(inion o3 6aimonides, i3 the wo ld does not change its egimented ha mony, t ue ( o(hets would not decla e that it does. E"u o(inion, in su((o t o3 which we have Fuoted these (assages,E w ites 6aimonides, Eis clea ly established, namely, that no ( o(het o sage has eve announced the dest uction o3 the @nive se, o a change o3 its ( esent condition, o a (e manent change o3 any o3 its ( o(e ties.E :his stand(oint o3 6aimonides, as 3a as a change o3 conditions in the @nive se is conce ned, is a deduction, not 3 om the teCts he inte ( ets, but 3 om a (hiloso(hical a ( io i a(( oach. P o(hets might e in thei ( o(hecies, but it could ha dly be that in saying Esta sE they meant E(e sons.E :he eading o3 subseFuent cha(te s in Isaiah (10/19) and (a allel cha(te s in 4ings and 'h onicles, as well as the :almudic and 6id ashic 3 agments (conce ning the time o3 +ennache ibBs invasion), makes it a((a ent that this time the ( o(hets did not e , and that a change in ha monious conditions did occu in the li3etime o3 these ve y ( o(hets, in the days o3 =e5ekiah. 6aimonides asse ts that AoelBs ( o(hecies e3e ed to +ennache ib, but he is (u55led> E*ou may (e ha(s ob<ect / how can the day o3 the 3all o3 +ennache ib, acco ding to ou eC(lanation, be called Bthe g eat and the te ible day o3 the !o dBME In the 3ollowing (ages it will be shown that on the ve y day which ( eceded the night when +ennache ibBs a my was dest oyed, the o de o3 natu e was u(set. :he s(eeches o3 the see s must be inte ( eted not a(a t 3 om, but in the light o3, the desc i(tion o3 these changes as they a e ( ese ved in the +c i(tu es and in the :almud. :he e was keene insight du ing the times ( io to 6aimonides, and to these mo e ancient inte ( ete s he e3e ed when he w ote> E:he @nive se Ieve J since continues its egula cou se. :his is my o(inionH this should be ou belie3. "u +ages, howeve , said ve y st ange things as ega ds mi aclesH they a e 3ound in ,e eshith 9abba, and in 6id ash 4oheleth, namely, that the mi acles a e to some eCtent also natu al.E ,a uch +(ino5a ( oceeds 3 om the ( emise that ENatu e always obse ves laws and ules ... although they may not all be known to us, and the e3o e she kee(s a 3iCed and immutable o de .E E6i aclesE me ely mean events o3 which the natu al cause cannot be eC(lained. EIn so 3a as a mi acle is su((osed to dest oy o inte u(t the o de o3 Natu e o he laws, it not only gives us no knowledge o3 )od, but, cont a iwise ... makes us doubt o3 )od and eve ything else.E E8hat is meant in +c i(tu e by a mi acle can only be a wo k o3 Natu e.E $ ;ll these ( emises a e (hiloso(hically t ue and no ob<ection can be aised against them. "3 cou se, they a e t ue only as long as the (hiloso(he does not insist that the laws o3 natu e as known to him a e the eal and only laws. %iscussing instances in the +c i(tu es to which the Fuoted ( inci(les should be a((lied, +(ino5a insists that the sub<ective a((e ce(tion and the (eculia manne o3 eC( ession o3 the ancient =eb ews a e the only easons 3o the accounts o3 unnatu al events. EI will content mysel3 with one instance 3 om +c i(tu e, and leave the eade to <udge o3 the est. In the time o3 Aoshua the =eb ews held the o dina y o(inion that the sun moves with a daily motion, and that the ea th emains at estH to this ( econceived o(inion they ada(ted the mi acle which occu ed du ing thei battle with the 3ive kings. :hey did not sim(ly elate that the day was longe than usual, but asse ted that the sun and moon stood still, o

ceased 3 om thei motion.E :he deduction made is> EPa tly th ough eligious motives, (a tly th ough ( econceived o(inions, they conceived o3 and elated the occu ence as something Fuite di33e ent 3 om what eally ha((ened.E EIt is necessa y to know the o(inions o3 those who 3i st elated them ... and to distinguish such o(inions 3 om the actual im( ession made u(on ou senses, othe wise we shall con3ound o(inions and <udgments with the actual mi acle as it eally occu edH nay, 3u the , we shall con3ound actual events with symbolical and imagina y ones.E :he ,ook o3 Isaiah is o33e ed by +(ino5a as anothe eCam(le, and the cha(te on ,abylonBs doomed dest uction is Fuoted> E:he sta s o3 heaven ... shall not give thei lightH the sun shall be da kened in his going 3o th, and the moon shall not cause he light to shine.E :he (hiloso(he w ites> ENow I su((ose no one imagines that at the dest uction o3 ,abylon these (henomena actually occu ed any mo e than that which the ( o(het adds> BGo I will make the heavens to t emble, and emove the ea th out o3 he (lace.BE E6any occu ences in the ,ible a e to be ega ded as Aewish eC( essions.E E:he +c i(tu e na ates in o de and style which has most (owe to move men and es(ecially uneducated men ... and the e3o e it s(eaks inaccu ately o3 )od and o3 events.E ;sse ting a sub<ective a((e ce(tion on the (a t o3 the witnesses, a delibe ate intention to im( ess the eade o listene with eCciting desc i(tions, a (eculia ity in the mode o3 eC( ession o3 =eb ew (enmen, +(ino5a neve theless a ives at a non seFuitu > ENow all these teCts teach most distinctly that Natu e ( ese ves a 3iCed and unchangeable o de ... Nowhe e does +c i(tu e asse t that anything ha((ens which cont adicts, o cannot 3ollow 3 om the laws o3 Natu e,E and he su((o ts his view with a theological a gument> in the ,ook o3 ?cclesiastes it is w itten> EI know what )od does, it shall be 3o eve .E :he events we e called mi acles and we e eC(lained as sub<ective a((e ce(tions o as symbolic desc i(tions because they could not be othe wise accounted 3o . ,ut a(a t 3 om the events themselves, which this study endeavo s to establish as histo ical, the wo ds o3 Isaiah and o3 othe see s and (enmen o3 the "ld :estament do not leave any oom 3o doubt that by Estones 3alling 3 om the skyE we e meant meteo itesH by b imstone and (itch we e meant b imstone and (itchH by sco ching blast o3 3i e was meant sco ching blast o3 3i eH by sto m and tem(est, sto m and tem(estH by a da kened sun, by the ea th emoved 3 om its (lace, by change o3 time and seasons, we e meant <ust these changes in the egula ( ocesses o3 natu e. 8he e is the basis 3o the Esu e knowledgeE that the ea th must move without (e tu bation at a time when eve y body in the sola system mo e o less (e tu bs eve y othe oneM @ntil the 3all o3 meteo ites in #.01, science was su e that stones 3alling 3 om the sky occu ed only in legends. :he Eno one imaginesE o3 +(ino5a is no longe t ue. :he autho o3 this book does so imagine.
777777777777777777777777777777 # ?nglish t anslation by 6. G iedlande (#92.). 2 6aimonides a((a ently 3ollows Philo, the ) eek/w iting Aewish (hiloso(he o3 the 3i st centu y, who in his :he ?te nity o3 the 8o ld was o3 the o(inion that the wo ld was c eated but that it is indest uctibleH howeve , Philo admitted changes in natu e caused by (e iodic 3loods and con3lag ations on a la ge scale and o3 cosmic o igin. 1 Nebuchadne55a lived a centu y a3te +ennache ib. 2 ,ut 3o what they we e taken may be illust ated by the eCegesis o3 ;ugustine. =e w ites> E=ail and coals o3 3i e (Psalm #.)> 9e( oo3s a e 3igu ed, whe eby as by hail, the ha d hea ts a e b uised.E :o the wo ds, E;nd =e sent out =is a ows, and scatte ed them (Psalm #$),E ;ugustine w ites> E;nd =e sent out ?vangelists t ave sing st aight (aths on the wines o3 st ength.E +t. ;ugustine> ?C(ositions on the ,ook o3 Psalms, ed. Ph. +cha33 (#90$). $ : actatus :heologico/Politicus (#0-0), 'ha(. VII. :he Fuoted sentences a e t anslated by A. 9atne in his :he Philoso(hy o3 +(ino5a. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he *ea /0.-

'ha(te 2

IN ;,"@: /-22, a3te th ee yea s o3 siege, +ama ia, the ca(ital o3 the :en : ibes, was ca(tu ed by +a gon II, and the (o(ulation o3 the No the n 4ingdom, o Is ael, was emoved into ca(tivity 3 om which it neve etu ned. In about /-0#, +ennache ib, son o3 +a gon, unde took the thi d cam(aign o3 his eignH he di ected it to the south, into Palestine. :he eco d o3 this and othe cam(aigns o3 his is w itten and ( ese ved in cunei3o m signs wo ked on the sides o3 ( isms o3 baked clay. :he so/called E:aylo ( ismE contains the na ative o3 eight cam(aigns o3 +ennache ib. =e w ote about his oad to victo y> E:he wheels o3 my wa cha iot we e bes(atte ed with 3ilth and blood.E :he eco d o3 the thi d cam(aign on the ( ism co es(onds to the eco d ( ese ved in II 4ings #.>#1/#0. ;cco ding to both sou ces, +ennache ib took many citiesH Ethe ( oud =e5ekiah, the Audean,E was Eclosed like a bi d in a cageE in his ca(ital, Ae usalem, but +ennache ib did not ca(tu e Ae usalemH he satis3ied himsel3 with a t ibute o3 gold and silve # sent to him at !achish in southe n Palestine. ;3te that he de(a ted with his booty. =e5ekiah had no choice but to submitH the de3enses o3 the land we e inadeFuate. Now he used the time, which he ecogni5ed as only a es(ite, to build walled st ongholds and to ga ison them, and to ( e(a e the b ooks and the wells o3 the land to be sto((ed and dest oyed at the 3i st signal. :his is desc ibed in II 'h onicles (12>#/0). +ennache ib, ala med by the evolt o3 =e5ekiah, who aligned himsel3 with the king o3 ?thio(ia and ?gy(t, :i hakah, came again with his a my and once mo e set u( his headFua te s nea !achish. "ne o3 +ennache ibBs gene als, 9ab/sha/keh, came to Ae usalem and s(oke with the emissa ies o3 =e5ekiah, loudly and in =eb ew, so that the wa io s on the wall could hea him, too (Isaiah 10>#.33.)> E,ewa e lest =e5ekiah (e suade you, saying, :he !o d will delive us. =ath any o3 the gods o3 the nations delive ed his land out o3 the hand o3 the king o3 ;ssy iaME =e also told them to conside the 3ate o3 +ama ia, whose gods did not save it when it was sto med by the ;ssy ians. =e in3o med them that +ennache ib eFui ed (ledges o3 submission and ( omised that they would be eCiled to a land as good as thei own. =e5ekiahBs emissa ies we e o de ed not to ente into any dis(ute. 9eceiving no e(ly, 9ab/sha/keh de(a ted 3o !ibna whe e 4ing +ennache ib had gone 3 om !achish. :he ?thio(ian king :i hakah came against +ennache ib out o3 the bo de s o3 ?gy(t and ( e(a ed to meet him in battle. 9ab/sha/keh sent again a demand to =e5ekiah to submit> E!et not thy )od deceive thee, saying, Ae usalem shall not be given into the hand o3 the king o3 ;ssy ia.E It was the ( o(hecy o3 Isaiah that Ae usalem would not 3all into the hands o3 the king o3 ;ssy ia and that the king who blas(hemed the !o d would be dest oyed by Ea blastE sent by the !o d. :he sto y is desc ibed in detail th ee times in the +c i(tu es / in II 4ings #./20, II 'h onicles 12, and Isaiah, 'ha(te s 10/1.. :he 3i st ve sion alone contains the 3i st (a t o3 the sto y about +ennache ib, who conFue ed all the 3enced cities o3 Audah, and =e5ekiah, king o3 Audah, who submitted to the ;ssy ian king and (aid t ibute to him. ;ll th ee sc i(tu al sou ces tell about =e5ekiahBs ebelling against +ennache ib and e3using to submit o to (ay t ibute. It is obvious that, des(ite the e(eated mention o3 !achish, the e must have been two di33e ent cam(aigns> in the 3i st, =e5ekiah submitted and ag eed to (ay t ibuteH the second cam(aign was a numbe o3 yea s late . In the meantime, =e5ekiah had built u( Eall the wall that was b oken, and aised it u( to the towe s, and anothe wall without, and e(ai ed 6ilo in the city o3 %avid, and made da ts and shields in abundance. ;nd he set ca(tains o3 wa ove the (eo(le. ;nd when +ennache ib came and ente ed

Audah, =e5ekiah o de ed to sto( all the 3ountains without Ae usalem, and s(oke to the (eo(le in the city to be st ong and cou ageous.E ;nd then came the mi aculous dest uction o3 the ;ssy ian host. :he ;nnals o3 +ennache ib tell only the 3i st (a t o3 the sto y> the ca(tu e o3 the cities o3 the land, the submission o3 =e5ekiah, and the t ibute he (aid. :he siege o3 !achish is not mentioned on the ( ism, but an ;ssy ian elie3 o3 this siege is ( ese ved. Nothing is told in the ;ssy ian sou ces about de3eat in Audea, and only the e(ilogue, the killing o3 +ennache ib by his own sons, is desc ibed identically in the +c i(tu es and in a cunei3o m insc i(tion o3 ?sa haddon, son o3 +ennache ib. :he dest uction o3 +ennache ibBs a my having taken (lace in a late / evidently the last / cam(aign o3 +ennache ib be3o e his assassination, it was not inse ted on the eight/ cam(aign ( ismH this must have been his ninth, o (ossibly his tenth, cam(aign. Its disast ous outcome would not have ins(i ed the king to o de a new ( ism which should include this cam(aign, too. In the last centu y it was eali5ed that the 3i st (a t o3 the sto y in the ,ook o3 4ings is the counte (a t o3 the eco d on the ( ism, and that the second (a t o3 the sto y in the ,ook o3 4ings, as well as the whole sto y in 'h onicles and in the ,ook o3 Isaiah, is a se(a ate eco d o3 a se(a ate cam(aign in Palestine. 2 :he 3i st cam(aign against Audah took (lace in /-02 o /-0#. :he date o3 the second cam(aign is established as /0.-, o less ( obably, /0.0. E"3 the emaining eight yea s o3 his eign Ia3te the conclusion o3 the ( ism eco dsJ we have no in3o mation 3 om his own annals, which now cease. +ennache ib once mo e a ived in the 8est (/0.- o /0.0M).E 1
777777777777777777777777777777 l :hi ty talents o3 gold in both sou cesH 100 talents o3 silve acco ding to the ,ook o3 4ingsH .00 talents o3 silve acco ding to the ( ism. 2 =. 9awlinson was the 3i st to assume two cam(aigns o3 +ennache ib against Palestine. ). 9awlinson was o3 the same o(inion. :he :aylo 'ylinde cove s the time down to the 20th o3 ;da /09#. =. 8inckle su((o ted this view with the a gument that :i hakah the ?thio(ian became king o3 ?thio(ia and ?gy(t a3te /09#> EIt can signi3y only a new cam(aign o3 +ennache ib which must have taken (lace a3te the dest uction o3 ,abylon (0.9 ,. '.) and o3 which we have no eco d by +ennache ib himsel3.E :he e3e ence, Ein the 3ou teenth yea o3 =e5ekiah,E in the beginning o3 the eco d in the ,ook o3 4ings, eC(lains why the obvious 3act that the e we e two cam(aigns esca(ed ea lie commentato s. ;lso, the mention o3 !achish in both cam(aigns was a stumbling block. In this connection 4. Gulle ton ema ked (E:he Invasion o3 +ennache ibE in ,iblioteca +ac a, #900) that 9icha d 'ceu de !ion also made !achish a base o3 o(e ations on two di33e ent c usades. 6ode n histo ians su((o t the view that :i hakah did not become king be3o e /0.9. +ee also A. V. P ghek> E+anhe ibs Geld5Yge gegen Auda,E 6itt. d. Vo de asiat. )es. (#901), and 9. 9oge s> 'unei3o m Pa allels to the "ld :estament (#920), (. 2$9. 1 =. 9. =all> ;ncient =isto y o3 the Nea ?ast (#9#1), (. 290. E:he Aewish account seems to be con3used, as it stands, with that o3 the ea lie invasion o3 /-0# ,. '. In the sto y o3 II 4ings, :i hakah is s(oken o3 as king, which he was not till /0.9 ,.'. at the ea liest.E (Ibid.) +ee also %. %. !uckenbill> :he ;nnals o3 +ennache ib (#922), (. #2. 777777777777777777777777777777

Ignis e 'oelo
:he dest uction o3 the a my o3 +ennache ib is desc ibed laconically in the ,ook o3 4ings> E;nd it came to (ass that night, that the angel o3 the !o d went out, and smote in the cam( o3 the ;ssy ians a hund ed 3ou sco e and 3ive thousandH and when the (eo(le a ose ea ly in the mo ning, behold, they we e all dead co (ses. +o +ennache ib king o3 ;ssy ia de(a ted, and went and etu ned, and dwelt in Nineveh.E It is simila ly desc ibed in the ,ook o3 'h onicles> E;nd the ( o(het Isaiah, the son o3 ;mo5, ( ayed and c ied to heaven. ;nd the !o d sent an angel which cut o33 all the mighty men o3 valo , and the leade s and ca(tains

in the cam( o3 the king o3 ;ssy ia. +o he I+ennache ibJ etu ned with shame o3 3ace to his own land.E 8hat kind o3 dest uction was thisM 6alach, t anslated as Eangel,E means in =eb ew Eone who is sent to eCecute an o de ,E su((osed to be an o de o3 the !o d. It is eC(lained in the teCts o3 the ,ooks o3 4ings and Isaiah that it was a EblastE sent u(on the a my o3 +ennache ib. # EI will send a blast u(on him ... and IheJ shall etu n to his own land,E was the ( o(hecy immediately ( eceding the catast o(he. :he simultaneous death o3 tens o3 thousands o3 wa io s could not be due to a (lague, as it is usually su((osed, because a (lague does not st ike so suddenlyH it develo(s th ough contagion, i3 a(idly, in a 3ew days, and may in3ect a la ge cam(, but it does not a33ect g eat multitudes without showing a cu ve o3 cases mounting 3 om day to day. :he :almud and 6id ash sou ces, which a e nume ous, all ag ee on the manne in which the ;ssy ian host was dest oyed> a blast 3ell 3 om the sky on the cam( o3 +ennache ib. It was not a 3lame, but a consuming blast> E:hei souls we e bu nt, though thei ga ments emained intact.E :he (henomenon was accom(anied by a te i3ic noise. 2 E; ad gibilE is the ,abylonian designation o3 Eignis e coeloE (E3i e 3 om the skyE). 1 ;nothe ve sion o3 the dest uction o3 the a my o3 +ennache ib is given by =e odotus. %u ing his visit in ?gy(t, he hea d 3 om the ?gy(tian ( iests o guides to the antiFuities that the a my o3 +ennache ib, while th eatening the bo de s o3 ?gy(t, was dest oyed in a single night. ;cco ding to this sto y, an image o3 a deity holding in his (alm the 3igu e o3 a mouse was e ected in an ?gy(tian tem(le to commemo ate the mi aculous event. In eC(lanation o3 the symbolic 3igu e, =e odotus was told that my iads o3 mice descended u(on the ;ssy ian cam( and gnawed away the co ds o3 thei bows and othe wea(onsH de( ived o3 thei a ms, the t oo(s 3led in (anic. Aose(hus Glavius e(eated the ve sion o3 =e odotus, and added that the e is anothe ve sion by the 'haldeo/=ellenistic histo ian ,e osus. Aose(hus w ote int oducto y wo ds to a Fuotation o3 ,e osus, but the Fuotation itsel3 is missing in the ( esent teCt o3 the Aewish ;ntiFuities. "bviously, it was an eC(lanation di33e ent 3 om that o3 =e odotus. Aose(husB own account, somewhat ationalistic as usual, says a (bubonic) (lague was the cause o3 the sudden death o3 one hund ed and eighty/3ive thousand wa io s in the cam( o3 the ;ssy ians be3o e the walls o3 Ae usalem on the ve y 3i st night o3 the siege. =e odotus ecounts that he saw the statue o3 the god with a mouse in the (alm o3 his hand, which was e ected in memo y o3 the event. :wo cities in ?gy(t claimed the same sac ed animal, the sh ew/mouse> Pano(olis (;khmim) in the south and !eto(olis in the no th. =e odotus did not t avel to the south o3 ?gy(tH thus, he must have seen the statue in !eto(olis. ?ven today many b on5e mice, sometimes insc ibed with the ( aye s o3 (ilg ims, a e 3ound in the g ound o3 !eto(olis. ,oth cities with the cult o3 the sac ed mouse we e Esac ed cities o3 thunde bolt and meteo ites.E 2 :he ?gy(tian name 3o !eto(olis is indicated by the same hie ogly(hic as Ethunde bolt.E In a teCt dating 3 om the New 4ingdom and o iginating in !eto(olis, it is said that a 3estival was established in this city in memo y o3 Ethe night o3 3i e 3o the adve sa ies.E :his 3i e was like Ethe 3lame be3o e the wind to the end o3 heaven and the end o3 ea th.E $ EI come 3o th and go in the devou ing 3i e on the day o3 the e(elling o3 the adve sa ies,E says the teCt in the name o3 the god. :hus the god with the sac ed mouse was a god o3 devou ing 3i e. =oweve , inte ( eting the mouse as a symbol o3 bubonic (lague, 0 the commentato s ag eed with Aose(hus that +ennache ibBs a my must have been dest oyed by a (lague. It is (eculia that the nume ous commentato s o3 =e odotus and the no less nume ous commentato s o3 the ,ible did not d aw attention to a ce tain coincidence in these desc i(tions o3 the calamity. =e5ekiah became g avely ill o3 some bubonic a33ection and was

nea death. Isaiah was called. =e told the king that he would die, but soon he etu ned and o33e ed a emedy / a lum( o3 3igs 3o the boil / and told the king that the !o d would delive him 3 om immediate death and would also delive Ethis city out o3 the hand o3 the king o3 ;ssy ia.E E;nd this shall be a sign unto thee 3 om the !o d ... ,ehold, I will b ing again the shadow o3 the deg ees, which is gone down in the sun dial o3 ;ha5, ten deg ees backwa d. +o the sun etu ned ten deg ees, by which deg ees it was gone down.E ;n o(tical illusion is the common eC(lanation o3 the meaning o3 this (assage. . :he sundial mentioned togethe with the name o3 ;ha5 is su((osed to have been a dial built by ;ha5, 3athe o3 =e5ekiah. ,ut the :almudic t adition eC(lains that the day was sho tened by ten deg ees on the day when ;ha5 was bu ied, and the day was ( olonged by ten deg ees when =e5ekiah was ill and ecove ed, and this is the meaning o3 the Eshadow o3 the deg ees which is gone down in the sun dial o3 ;ha5.E 9 :he abbinical sou ces state in a de3inite manne that the distu bance in the movement o3 the sun ha((ened on the evening o3 the dest uction o3 +ennache ibBs a my by a devou ing blast. #0 9etu ning to =e odotus, we shall give ou attention to the 3ollowing im(o tant 3act neglected by the commentato s. :he 3amous (a ag a(h o3 =e odotus which eco ds, in the name o3 the ?gy(tian ( iests, that since ?gy(t became a kingdom, the sun had e(eatedly changed its di ection, is inse ted in no othe (lace o3 =e odotusB histo y, but di ectly 3ollowing the sto y o3 the dest uction o3 +ennache ibBs a my. :he dest uction o3 +ennache ibBs a my and the distu bance in the movement o3 the sun a e also desc ibed in two subseFuent (assages o3 the +c i(tu es. Now the two eco ds seem to be in bette acco d.
777777777777777777777777777777 # #II 4ings #9>-H Isaiah 1->-. 2 : actate +habbat ##1bH +anhed in 92aH Ae ome on Isaiah #0> #0H )in5be g> !egends, VI, 101. 1 '3. 8inckle > ,abylonische 4ultu (#902), (. $1H ?isle > 8eltmantel und =immels5elt, II, 2$#33. 2 ). ;. 8ainw ight> E!eto(olis,E Aou nal o3 ?gy(tian ; chaeology, LVIII (#912). $ E:he devou ing 3i e o3 !eto(olis is eminiscent o3 Bthe 3lame be3o e the wind to the end o3 heaven and the end o3 ea thB which is connected with , the ( imitive 3o m o3 the thunde bolt sign such as that o3 !eto(olis.E Ibid. 0 '3. I +amuel 0>2. - Isaiah 1.>0/.H simila ly in II 4ings 20>933. . +chia(a elli in ;st onomy in the "ld :estament, (. 99, (oints to a whole lite atu e o3 Ecu ious and eccent ic ideasE w itten on the sub<ect o3 the Este(s o3 ;ha5E and e3e s to 8ine Bs ,ibl. 9ealwW te buch, I, 29./299, whe e Emost ema kable gnomics a e eviewed.E ENone o3 the eC(lanations can be ega ded as well/3ounded,E w ote 8ine , Eand it will neve be (ossible to establish the 3actual element that is the basis o3 this na ative.E 9 +ee the ,abylonian :almud, +anhed in 90aH Pi kei 9abbi ?liese $2. "the sou ces a e mentioned by )in5be g> !egends, VI, 10-. 6. )aste > :he ?Cem(la o3 the 9abbis (#922), in the 'ha(te , E6e odach and the +un,E lists :almudic e3e ences to the desc ibed (henomenon. #0 +ede "lam 21. '3. ?usebius and Ae ome on Isaiah 12>#. +ee )in5be g> !egends, VI, 100. 777777777777777777777777777777

6a ch 21 d
It was a((a ently some cosmic cause that was es(onsible 3o the sudden dest uction o3 the a my o3 +ennache ib and b ought about the (e tu bation in the otating movement o3 the ea th. )aseous masses eaching the atmos(he e could as(hyCiate all b eath in ce tain a eas. :his eC(lanation eFui es su((o ting statements 3 om othe sou cesH distu bances in the movement o3 the sun could not be con3ined to the sun ove Palestine and ?gy(t. ;lso, othe

ci cumstances o3 this catast o(he, like the gaseous masses cove ing the sky, should have been noticed in othe egions o3 the ea th, too. Gi st, a mo e eCact date 3o the night o3 the annihilation o3 +ennache ibBs a my should be established. G om mode n esea ch we know that it was in the yea /0.- (less ( obably in the yea /0.0). :he :almud and 6id ash give anothe valuable clue> the dest uction occu ed du ing the 3i st night o3 Passove . :he giant host was dest oyed when the (eo(le began to sing the =allel ( aye o3 the Passove se vice. # Passove was obse ved about the time o3 the ve nal eFuinoC. 2 In the book o3 ?doua d ,iot, 'atalogue gUnU al des Utoiles 3ilantes et des aut es mUtUo es obse vUs en 'hine a( Ts le VIIe siTcle avant A.'., 1 the egiste begins with this statement> E:he yea 0.- ,.'., in the summe , in the 3ou th moon, in the day sin mao (21 d o3 6a ch) du ing the night, the 3iCed sta s did not a((ea , though the night was clea IcloudlessJ. In the middle o3 the night sta s 3ell like a ain.E :he date, 21 d o3 6a ch, is ,iotBs calculation. :he statement is based on old 'hinese sou ces asc ibed to 'on3ucius. In anothe t anslation o3 the teCt, by 9emusat, 2 the last (a t o3 the (assage is ende ed as 3ollows> E:hough the night was clea , a sta 3ell in the 3o m o3 ainE (Eil tomba une Utoile en 3o me de (luieE). :he annals o3 the ,amboo ,ooks obviously e3e to the same event when they in3o m us that in the tenth yea o3 the ?m(e o 4wei (the seventeenth em(e o o3 the %ynasty *u, o the eighteenth mona ch since *ahou) Ethe 3ive (lanets went out o3 thei cou ses. In the night, sta s 3ell like ain. :he ea th shook.E $ :he wo ds in the annals, Ein the night, sta s 3ell like ain,E a e the same as in the eco d o3 'on3ucius dealing with the cosmic event on the 21 d o3 6a ch, /0.-. :he annals su((ly the in3o mation that the cause o3 this (henomenon was a distu bance among the (lanets. :he eco d o3 'on3ucius is a ( ecious ent y, because the time o3 the (henomenon / the day, the month, and the yea / is given. :he sky was cloudless, so that the sta s should have been visible / but they we e not, and this eminds us o3 the wo ds o3 the ( o(hets. 0 :he ,iot 'atalogue, which begins with this desc i(tion o3 the yea /0.-, subseFuently notes only solita y meteo s 3alling 3 om the sky du ing all the 3ollowing centu ies u( to the beginning o3 this e aH the ( odigy o3 the yea /0.- was not a (ageant such as we may 3ind again in the 'hinese annals o3 late centu ies. :he a e (henomenon occu ed in that yea and in that (a t o3 the yea / 21 d o3 6a ch, /0.- / when, as eC(lained above, acco ding to mode n calculations and the :almudic data, the dest uction o3 +ennache ibBs a my took (lace. In the 'hinese eco d we have a sho t but ( ecise account o3 the night, which we have ecogni5ed as the night o3 annihilation. 8e also eC(ect to 3ind in 'hinese sou ces a eco d o3 the distu bance in the movement o3 the sun. 'hina is 3o ty/3ive to ninety deg ees longitude east o3 Palestine, the di33e ence in time being th ee to siC hou s. =uai/nan/tse, - who lived in the second centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, tells us that Ewhen the %uke o3 !u/yang was at wa against =an, du ing the battle the sun went down. :he %uke, swinging his s(ea , beckoned to the sun, whe eu(on the sun, 3o his sake, came back and (assed th ough th ee sola mansions.E :he sub<ective/mythological (a t eminds us o3 the ( imitive/sub<ective a(( oach o3 the autho o3 the ,ook o3 Aoshua, and ( obably also o3 the contem(o a ies o3 AoshuaH it is the ( imitive way o3 inte ( eting natu al (henomena. =oweve , it di33e s 3 om what is desc ibed in the ,ook o3 Aoshua in that it was not a (henomenon o3 a long (ause by the sun, but o3 a sho t et og ade motionH in this the 'hinese desc i(tion co es(onds with the twentieth cha(te o3 II 4ings. :he eCact date o3 the eign o3 =an is not knownH it is sometimes su((osed, on the basis o3

ast onomical com(utation, to have been in the 3i3th centu y be3o e this e a, o even late . . I3 this is t ue, then the event desc ibed e3e s to a (e iod be3o e the dynasty o3 =an became dominant in 'hina. :he land o3 'hina is la geH it was divided into many ( incedoms. P obably the sto y o3 P ince :au o3 *in is anothe desc i(tion o3 the same event in a di33e ent (a t o3 'hina. !u/ =eng 9 eco ds that P ince :au o3 *in was an involunta y guest o3 the king o3 'hina when the sun etu ned to the me idianH it was inte ( eted as a sign to allow the ( ince to etu n home. :he sto y o3 the ; give ty ants tells o3 the sun going s(eedily to its setting and the evening coming be3o e its ( o(e timeH and we ecogni5ed in this the (henomenon desc ibed in the abbinical sou ces as having occu ed on the day o3 the bu ial o3 ;ha5, 3athe o3 =e5ekiah. :he ( odigy o3 the day o3 =e5ekiah o o3 the %uke o3 !u/yang and P ince :au o3 *in took (lace at the time o3 the same ty ants, o was so asc ibed. E;t eus,E says ;(ollodo us, #0 Esti(ulated with :hyestes that ;t eus should be king i3 the sun should go backwa dH and when :hyestes ag eed, the sun set in the east.E "vid desc ibes this (henomenon o3 the days o3 the ; give ty ants> Phoebus b oke o33 Ein midca ee , and w esting his ca about tu ned ound his steeds to 3ace the dawn.E ## ;lso in : istia "vid e3e s to this lite a y t adition #2 about Ethe ho ses o3 the sun tu ning aside.E #1 ; 6ayan insc i(tion says that a (lanet b ushed close to the ea th. #2 :h ee sola mansions o3 the 'hinese must have been eFual to ten deg ees on the dial at the (alace in Ae usalem. ;cco ding to :almudic sou ces, #$ an eFual (e tu bation, but in the o((osite di ection, occu ed on the day ;ha5 was ca ied to his g ave> at that time the day was Fuickened. ; case o3 two consecutive (e tu bations o3 a celestial body, whe e the second (e tu bation co ected the e33ect o3 the 3i st, is eco ded in the annals o3 mode n obse vations. In #.-$ 8ol3s comet (assed nea the la ge (lanet Au(ite and was distu bed on its way. In #922, when it again (assed nea Au(ite , it was once mo e distu bed, but with an e33ect which co ected that o3 the 3i st distu bance. No (e tu bation was noticed in the evolution o3 Au(ite H its otation ( obably ( oceeded no mally, too / the e was a g eat di33e ence in the masses o3 these two bodies.
777777777777777777777777777777 # :he Ae usalem :almud, : actate PesahimH +ede "lam 21H :ose3ta :a gum II 4ings #9>1$/1-H 6id ash 9abba, III, 22# (?nglish ed. by =. G eedman and 6. +imon). 2 In the last two thousand yea s o so, the Geast o3 Passove , bound to the luna calenda , has been obse ved between the middle o3 6a ch and the latte (a t o3 ;( il. 1 Pa is, #.20. 2 ;bel 9Umusat> 'atalogue des bolides et des aU olithes obse vUs \ la 'hine, et dans les (ays voisins (#.#9)> E"n a beaucou( discutU su ce teCte de 'on3uciusE ((. -). $ :he 'hinese 'lassics (t ansl. and annot. by A. !egge, =ong 4ong ed.), III, Pt. #, #2$. 0 Aoel 2>#0H 1>#$. - =uai/nan/tse VI. iv. +ee Go ke> :he 8o ld 'once(tion o3 the 'hinese, (. .0. . 6oy iac de 6ailla (#0-9/#-2.), =istoi e gUne alU de la 'hine> :Bong/4ien/4ang/6ou (#.--), Vol. I, has the =an %ynasty coming to (owe in the last Fua te o3 the 3i3th centu yH Go ke> :he 8o ld 'once(tion o3 the 'hinese, thinks that the wa o3 the %uke o3 !u/yang against =an took (lace in the 3i3th centu y. ,ut these calculations a e based u(on an ast onomical com(utation which may be e oneous. 9 !u/=eng II, #-0. +ee Go ke> :he 8o ld 'once(tion o3 the 'hinese, (. .-. #0 ;(ollodo us> :he !ib a y, ?(itome II. ## "vid> :he ; t o3 !ove (t ansl. A. =. 6osley, #929), i. 12.33. #2 "vid> : istia (t ansl. ;. !. 8heele , #922), ii. 19#33. #1 6o e about the movement o3 the sun towa d the east instead o3 the west in the time o3 the ; give ty ants was said in the +ection E?ast and 8est,E and seve al ) eek autho s we e Fuoted. 6o e will be said when we eCamine o al t aditions o3 ( imitive (eo(les in a late section on 3olklo e. #2 Published by 9onald +t ath. I could not locate the (ublication. It is e3e ed to in ,ellamyBs 6oons, 6yths and 6an (#91.), (. 2$.. :he only othe e3e ence to the wo k by +t ath I 3ound in Aean )atte3ossU and 'laudius 9ouC> ,ibliog a(hie de IB;tlantide et des Fuestions conneCes (!yon, #920), unde No. ##.2, but these autho s also we e unable to t ace the (ublication. '3. P. Aensen> 4osmologie, III, 9$0#, $a> E; g eat sta 3ell.E Au(ite was

known to the ,abylonians as the Eg eat sta .E =ow la ge was the sta M Aensen asked. #$ : actate +anhed in 90a. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 8o shi( o3 6a s
:he body which (e iodically / once in 3ou teen to siCteen yea s / a(( oached the o bit o3 the ea th must have been o3 conside able mass, 3o it was able to in3luence the otation o3 the ea th. ;((a ently, howeve , it was much smalle than Venus, o it did not a(( oach so closely, because the catast o(hes o3 the days o3 the ?Codus and the 'onFuest we e g eate than those o3 the time o3 @55iah, ;ha5, and =e5ekiah. Neve theless, 3o the (eo(les who lived at that time, they must have been im( essive eC(e iences and must have been inco (o ated in thei cosmogonic mythologies. +hall we be able, when inFui ing into this matte , to 3ind guiding hints to hel( us obtain some data about the body which (e iodically a(( oached the ea thM It would ( obably be the !atin (eo(le, at that time ve y young, <ust a((ea ing on the histo ical scene and not loaded down with science, who would give the ( odigy a ( ominent (lace in thei mythology. 9oman mythology was a(( o( iated 3 om the ) eeks. "nly one god o3 9oman mythology (lays a ole not com(a able to that att ibuted to him on the ) eek "lym(us. It is the god 6a s, whose counte (a t is ; es o3 the ) eeks. # 6a s, the lo d o3 wa , was second to Au(ite /Deus. =e (e soni3ied the (lanet 6a s, to him was dedicated the month o3 6a ch (6a s), and as a god he was su((osed to be the 3athe o3 9omulus, the 3ounde o3 9ome. =e was the national god o3 the 9omans. !ivy w ote in the ( e3ace to his histo y o3 9ome, Ethe mightiest o3 em(i es, neCt a3te that o3 =eavenE> E:he 9oman (eo(le ... ( o3ess that thei Gathe and the Gathe o3 thei ?m(i e was none othe than 6a s.E Placing the time o3 6a sB activity as late as the 3oundation o3 9ome indicates that the 9omans had a t adition that the city on the :ibe came into eCistence du ing a gene ation which witnessed some g eat eC(loit o3 thei god/(lanet. :he 3ounding o3 9ome took (lace close in time to the g eat (e tu bations o3 natu e in the days o3 ;mos and Isaiah. ;cco ding to the calculation o3 Gabius Picto , 9ome was 3ounded in the latte hal3 o3 the 3i st yea o3 the eighth "lym(iad, o the yea /-2-H othe 9oman autho ities di33e by a 3ew yea s only. 2 :he yea /-2- is the beginning o3 an ast onomical e a in the 6iddle ?astH and the Ecommotion o3 @55iahE took (lace, a((a ently, in the same yea . ;cco ding to a (e sistent 9oman t adition, the conce(tion o3 9omulus by his mothe , the 3oundation o3 9ome, and the death o3 9omulus occu ed in yea s o3 g eat commotions accom(anied by celestial (henomena and distu bances in sola movement. :hese changes we e connected in some way with the (lanet 6a s. Pluta ch w ote> E:o the su name o3 Kui inus bestowed on 9omulus some give the meaning o3 6a s.E 1 :he legend says that 9omulus was conceived in the 3i st yea o3 the second "lym(iad (/--2) when the sun was totally ecli(sed. ;cco ding to !atin histo ians, on the ve y day o3 9omeBs 3oundation, the sun was dis u(ted in its movement and the wo ld was da kened. 2 In 9omulusB time Ea (lague 3ell u(on the land, b inging sudden death without ( evious sickness,E and Ea ain o3 bloodE and othe calamities. ?a thFuakes convulsed the ea th 3o a long (e iod. Aewish t adition knows that Ethe 3i st settle s o3 9ome 3ound that the huts colla(sed as soon as built.E $ :he death o3 9omulus occu ed when, acco ding to Pluta ch, Esuddenly st ange and unaccountable diso de s with inc edible changes 3illed the ai H the light o3 the sun 3ailed, and night came down u(on them, not with (eace and Fuiet, but with aw3ul (eals o3 thunde and 3u ious blasts,E and amidst this sto m 9omulus disa((ea ed. 0

"vidBs desc i(tion o3 the (henomena on the day o3 9omulusB death is this> E,oth the (oles shook, and ;tlas shi3ted the bu den o3 the sky ... :he sun vanished and ising clouds obscu ed the heaven ... the sky was iven by shooting 3lames. :he (eo(le 3led and the king I9omulusJ u(on his 3athe Bs I6a sBJ steeds soa ed to the sta s.E =e5ekiah was a contem(o a y o3 9omulus and NumaH this was known to ;ugustine> ENow these days eCtend ... down to 9omulus king o3 9omans, o even to the beginning o3 the eign o3 his successo Numa Pom(ilius. =e5ekiah king o3 Audah ce tainly eigned till then.E . I3 6a s eally was the dei3ied cosmic visito o3 the days o3 =e5ekiah and +ennache ib, then one might eC(ect not only that the activities o3 6a s would have been asc ibed to the gene ation o3 9omulus and the 3oundation o3 9ome, but that the ve y date o3 the (e tu bation would have been a celeb ated date in the cult o3 6a s. :he yea o3 the second cam(aign o3 +ennache ib against Palestine is established by mode n esea ch as /0.-. :he :almud hel(s to set the time o3 the yea > it was the night o3 the 3east o3 s( ing, Passove . 'hinese sou ces give the eCact date, midnight o3 the 21 d o3 6a ch, /0.-, as the date o3 a g eat cosmic activity. :he main 3estival in the cult o3 6a s took (lace in the month dedicated to this god/(lanet. E:he ancilia, o sac ed shields ... we e ca ied in ( ocession by the +alii, o dancing wa io / ( iests o3 6an on seve al occasions du ing the month o3 6a ch u( to the 21 d (tubilust ium), when the milita y t um(ets (tubae) we e lust atedH and again in "ctobe to the #9th (a milust ium), when both the ancilia and the a ms o3 the eCe citus we e (u i3ied and (ut away 3o the winte ... It is only at the end o3 Geb ua y that we 3ind indications o3 the coming 6a s/cult.E 9 E:he most im(o tant ole in the cult o3 6a s a((ea s to be (layed by the 3estival o3 tubilust ium on the twenty/thi d day o3 6a ch.E #0 :he date, the 21 d o3 6a ch, taken with all the othe ci cumstances mentioned above, must im( ess us. :he 3act that 6a s had 3estivals on two dates (the othe date, the #9th o3 "ctobe , is almost a month a3te the autumnal eFuinoC) is easily unde standable i3 one emembe s that the e was mo e than one (e tu bation connected with the same cosmic cause. :he distu bance in the movement o3 the sun a 3ew hou s be3o e the ;ssy ian host (e ished occu ed on the 3i st day o3 Passove . :he cataclysm o3 the days o3 the ?Codus was caused by the (lanet Venus. :he e3o e, about the time o3 the ve nal eFuinoC the e we e two 3estivals, one 3o the (lanet 6a s, the othe 3o the (lanet Venus, which coincided in time. :he 3estival o3 6ine va lasted 3 om the nineteenth to the twenty/thi d o3 6a ch, and on 6a ch 21 d, 6a s, and also 6ine va/;thene, we e the hono ed deities. ##
777777777777777777777777777777 # ,esides ; es, =e cules also e( esents the (lanet 6a s. ? atosthenes ( ? atosthenis cataste ismo um eliFuiae, ed. '. 9obe t, #.-.)> E:e tia est +tella 6a tis Fuam alii =e culis diCe untE (6a s is the thi d sta , which othe s say is =e cules). +imila ly, 6ac obius (+atu nalia iii. #2, $/0), whose autho ity is Va o. 2 Polybius dated the 3oundation o3 9ome in the second yea o3 the seventh "lym(iad (/-$0)H Po cius 'ato, in the 3i st yea o3 the seventh "lym(iad (/-$#)H Ve ius Glaccus, in the 3ou th yea o3 the siCth "lym(iad (/-$2)H :e entius Va o, in the thi d yea o3 the siCth "lym(iad (/-$1)H 'enso inus 3ollowed Va o. 1 Pluta ch> !ives, E:he !i3e o3 9omulusE (t ansl. ,. Pe in, #9#2). 2 '3. G. 4. )in5el> +(e5ielle 4anon de +onnen/ und 6ond3inste nisse (#.99), and :. von "((ol5e > 4anon de Ginste nisse (#..-). $ !ite atu e in )in5be g> !egends, VI, 2.0. 0 Pluta ch> !ives, E:he !i3e o3 9omulus.E - "vid> Gasti (t ansl. G a5e , #91#), II ##. 2.933. . ;ugustine> :he 'ity o3 )od, ,k. LVIII, 'ha(. 2-. 9 Kuoted 3 om 8. 8. Gowle > E6a s,E ?ncyclo(aedia , itannica, #2th ed. #0 9osche > E6a s,E in 9osche Bs !eCikon de g iech. und Wm. 6ythologie . ## Ibid., 'ol. 2202. 777777777777777777777777777777

6a s 6oves the ?a th 3 om Its Pivot

Venus was a comet, and in histo ical times it became a (lanet. 8as 6a s a comet in the eighth centu y be3o e this e aM :he e is evidence that long be3o e the eighth centu y 6a s was a (lanet in the sola system. ; 3ou /(lanet system was known to 'haldean ast onomy, in which Venus was absent but 6a s was ( esent. :he e does not eCist, at least in the eCtant mate ial, any mention o3 the 3i st a((ea ance o3 6a s, whe eas eC( essions e3e ing to the bi th o3 the (lanet Venus have been 3ound in lite a y sou ces o3 the (eo(les o3 both hemis(he es. :he ,abylonian name o3 the (lanet 6a s is Ne gal. # :his name is e3e ed to in ea ly times, many centu ies ( io to the eighth centu y. ,ut it was in that latte centu y that this (lanet became a most im(o tant deity. 6any ( aye s to it we e com(osed. E9adiant abode, that beams ove the land ... who is thy eFualME :em(les we e built to this (lanet and statues e ected. 8hen +ama ia was conFue ed by +a gon, 3athe o3 +ennache ib, and new settle s we e b ought to live the e, they e ected in +ama ia a sh ine to the (lanet 6a s. 2 :he (lanet 6a s was 3ea ed 3o its violence. ENe gal, the almighty among the gods, 3ea , te o , awe/ins(i ing s(lendo ,E 1 w ote ?sa haddon, son o3 +ennache ib. +hamash/shum/ ukin, king o3 ,abylonia and g andson o3 +ennache ib, w ote> ENe gal, the most violent among the gods.E It is cha acte istic that Ne gal was ega ded by the (eo(le o3 ;ssy ia as a god who b ought de3eat. ;nothe g andson o3 +ennache ib, ;ssu bani(al, king o3 ;ssy ia, w ote> ENe gal, the (e 3ect wa io , the most (owe 3ul one among the gods, the ( e/eminent he o, the mighty lo d, king o3 battle, lo d o3 (owe and might, lo d o3 the sto m, who b ings de3eat.E 2 It is also a cons(icuous 3act that the name o3 Ne gal became ve y common as a com(onent o3 (e sonal names in the seventh and siCth centu ies. :wo gene als, both by the name o3 Ne galsha e5e , we e among Nebuchadne55a Bs ma shalsH $ a king by the name o3 Ne gilissa uled in ,abylon. 0 P iests, wa io s, t ade s in cattle, c iminals bea ing the name o3 Ne galsha e5e , a e 3amilia 3igu es in the documents o3 the seventh centu y. In the eighth centu y in ,abylonia, the (lanet 6a s was called Ethe un( edictable (lanet.E =isto ical insc i(tions o3 the eighth centu y s(eak o3 the o((ositions o3 the sta 6a s (Ne gal). :hese togethe with con<unctions we e ca e3ully watched. E:he movements o3 6a s we e eCt emely im(o tant in ,abylonian ast ology / its ise and setting, its disa((ea ance and etu n ... its (osition in elation to the eFuato , the change in its illuminating (owe , its elation to Venus, Au(ite and 6e cu y.E . In India, also, Ethe va ious (hases o3 the et og ade motion o3 the (lanets and es(ecially o3 6a s seem to have been ob<ects o3 g eat attention.E 9 P aye s we e add essed to Ne gal with the li3ting o3 hands towa d the sta 6a s. #0 E:hou who walkest in the sky ... with s(lendo and te o ... king o3 battle, the aging 3i e/god, god Ne gal.E Ne gal/6a s was called by the ,abylonians the E3i e/sta .E ## Ne gal, the 3i e/sta , comes like a aging sto m. =e is also called E+ha a((uE, Ethe bu ne ,E and Elight that 3lames 3 om heaven,E and Elo d o3 dest uction.E #2 6a s was gene ally ega ded by othe (eo(les, too, as a E3i e/sta .E #1 E*ing/=uoE, o Ethe 3i e (lanetE, is the name o3 6a s in 'hinese ast onomical cha ts. #2 +aigon (/-22 to /-0$), 3athe o3 +ennache ib, w ote on one occasion> EIn the month o3 ;bu, the month o3 descent o3 the 3i e/god.E #$ ,ut we ask 3o a di ect statement that the (lanet 6a s/Ne gal was the immediate cause o3 the cataclysms in the eighth and seventh centu ies, when the wo ld, in the language o3 Isaiah, was Emoved eCceedinglyE and Ebecame emoved 3 om its (lace.E :his ve y action is

asc ibed to the (lanet 6a s/Ne gal> E:he heaven he makes da k, he moves the ?a th o33 its hinges.E #0 ;nd again> ENe gal ... on high stills the heavens ... causes the ea th to shudde .E
#777777777777777777777777777777 # A. ,Wllen Yche > )ebete und =ymnen an Ne gal (#902), (. 1. 2 II 4ings #->10. 1 !uckenbill> 9eco ds o3 ;ssy ia, II, +ec. $0.. 2 Ibid., +ec. 922. $ Ae emiah 19>1. 0 :he o de o3 succession o3 the kings o3 the Neo/,abylonian ?m(i e will be discussed in ;ges in 'haos. - +chaumbe ge , in 4ugle > +te nkunde und +te ndienst in ,abel, 1 d su((., (. 10-. . ,e5old, in ,ollBs +te nglaube und +te ndeutung, (. 0. 9 :hibaut> E;st onomie, ;st ologie und 6athematik,E ) und iss de indoa ischen Philologie und ;lte thumskunde, =I (#.99). #0 ,Wllen Yche > )ebete und =ymnen an Ne gal, ((. 9, #9 (EDaube s( uch mit =ande hebung an den 6a s/ +te nE). ## +chaumbe ge in 4ugle Bs +te nkunde, (. 102H ,Wllen Yche > )ebete und =ymnen an Ne gal, ((. 2#33. #2 !angdon> +ume ian and ,abylonian Psalms (#909), (. .$. #1 ;(uleius> : actate o3 the 8o ldH lite atu e in 'hwolson> %ie +sabie und +sabismus, II, #... #2 9u3us and =sing/chih/tien> :he +oochow ;st onomical 'ha t. #$ !uckenbill> 9eco ds o3 ;ssy ia, II, +ec. #2#. #0 ,Wllen Yche > )ebete und =ymnen an Ne gal, (. 9. #- !angdon> +ume ian and ,abylonian Psalms, (. -9. 777777777777777777777777777777

8hat 'aused Venus and 6a s to +hi3t :hei " bitsM

'ha(te 1

8=?N V?N@+ became a new membe o3 the sola system, it moved on a st etched elli(se, and 3o centu ies im(e iled the othe (lanets. ,ecause o3 its dange ous ci cling, Venus was diligently obse ved in both hemis(he es, and eco ds we e ke(t o3 its movement. In the last centu ies be3o e this e a, the 22$/day yea o3 Venus, and a((a ently also its o bit, we e ( actically the same as in modem times. ;s ea ly as the second hal3 o3 the seventh centu y be3o e this e a, Venus, watched until then with anCiety, had al eady ceased to be a cause o3 d ead3ul eC(ectationH it ( obably eached then the o bital stage in which it was 3ound in the last centu ies be3o e this e a, and whe e we still 3ind it today. 8hat caused the change in the o bit o3 VenusM I shall (ose anothe ( oblem besides the 3i st. 6a s did not a ouse any 3ea s in the hea ts o3 the ancient ast ologe s, and its name was seldom mentioned in the second millennium. In ;ssy o/,abylonia, in insc i(tions made be3o e the ninth centu y, the name o3 Ne gal is 3ound only on a e occasions. "n the ast onomical ceiling o3 +enmut 6a s does not a((ea among the (lanets. It did not (lay any cons(icuous (a t in the ea ly mythology o3 the celestial gods. ,ut in the ninth o eighth centu y be3o e this e a, the situation changed adically. 6a s became the d eaded (lanet. ;cco dingly, 6a s/Ne gal ose to the (osition o3 the 3 ight3ul sto m and wa god. :he Fuestion must then ( esent itsel3> 8hy, ( evious to that time, did 6a s signi3y no dange to the ea th, and what caused 6a s to shi3t its o bit nea e to the ea thM :he (lanets o3 the sola system move in nea ly the same (lane, and i3 one (lanet we e to evolve along a st etched elli(se, it would endange the othe (lanets. :he two ( oblems / what caused Venus to change its o bit, and what caused 6a s to change its o bit / may have a common eC(lanation. :he common cause may have been some comet which changed the o bits o3 Venus and 6a sH but it is sim(le to su((ose that two (lanets, one o3 which had a g eatly elongated o bit, collided, and that no thi d agent was necessa y to b ing about that esult. ; con3lict between Venus and 6a s, i3 it occu ed, might well have been a s(ectacle obse vable 3 om the ea th. It is not im(ossible that the two (lanets came e(eatedly into contact, each time with di33e ent esults. I3 a contact between Venus and 6a s eally occu ed and was obse ved 3 om the ea th, it must have been commemo ated in t aditions o lite a y monuments.

8hen 8as the Iliad ' eatedM

; mighty st i3e had waCen g eat 8ithin the membe s o3 the s(he e. # / ?m(edocles

:o this day it has not been established at what date the Iliad and "dyssey we e com(osed. ?ven ancient autho s di33e ed g eatly in eckoning the time when =ome lived. It was estimated to be as late as /0.$ (the histo ian :heo(om(us) and as ea ly as /##$9 (ce tain autho ities Fuoted by Philist atus). =e odotus w ote that E=ome and =esiodE c eated the ) eek (antheon Enot mo e than 200 yea s be3o e me,E which would mean not ( io to /..2, /2.2 being ega ded as the yea o3 =e odotusB bi th. :he Fuestion is still debated. +ome

autho s a gue that the e was a long inte val between the time when the e(ic wo ks o3 =ome we e com(osed and the time when they we e (ut into w itingH othe s think that these wo ks must have been c eated not long be3o e the ) eeks acFui ed the a t o3 w iting, about /-00. 2 It is also a gued that the ) eeks must have known this a t long be3o e /-00 on the assum(tion that the =ome ic wo ks we e c eated much be3o e that date. It is gene ally assumed that the 3all o3 : oy antedated =ome by seve al gene ations, and also that the g eat e(ic wo ks we e the c eation o3 gene ations. :he 3all o3 : oy is sometimes thought to have taken (lace in the twel3th centu y. 1 "n the othe hand, it has been shown that the cultu al backg ound o3 the =ome ic e(os is that o3 the eighth o even the seventh centu yH the age o3 i on was well unde way, and many othe details would ( eclude an ea lie scene. 2 It is highly ( obable that the =ome ic wo ks we e c eated at that time o sho tly the ea3te . 8hethe these (oems we e 3i st sung by a ba d who lived centu ies a3te the dest uction o3 : oy de(ends on the time when : oy was dest oyed. :he t adition about ;eneas who, saved when : oy was ca(tu ed, went to 'a thage (a city built in the ninth centu y) and 3 om the e to Italy, whe e he 3ounded 9ome (a city 3i st built in the middle o3 the eighth centu y), im(lies that : oy was dest oyed in the eighth o late in the ninth centu y. ,ut 3o what (u (ose do I bu den my ( esent wo k with this FuestionM It may seem that the two ( oblems / how Venus changed its o bit to a ci cle, and how 6a s changed its o bit so as to come in contact with the ea th / a e weighted with a thi d ( oblem 3 om a 3a / emoved 3ield and in itsel3 com(licated. ;nd even i3 these matte s have something in common, how can a ( oblem with th ee unknowns be solvedM 8e shall come close to a solution o3 the ast onomical ( oblem with which we a e conce ned and the ( oblem o3 the e(ics o3 : oy i3 we ecogni5e the cosmic scene o3 these e(ics. ; sim(le test can be made. I3 ; es, the 6a s o3 the ) eeks, is not mentioned in the c eations o3 =ome , this would su((o t the view that the Iliad and "dyssey we e c eated in the tenth centu y o ea lie , o at least that the d ama they desc ibe had taken (lace not late than this time. ,ut i3 ; es is ( esented as a wa god in these e(ics, it would indicate that they we e com(osed in the eighth centu y o the ea3te . It was in the eighth centu y that 6a s/ Ne gal, an obscu e deity, became a ( ominent god. ?(ic (oems, ich in mythology, that o iginated in the eighth o seventh centu y, would not be silent about 6a s/; es, who became Eout ageousE at that time. 8ith this ya dstick at hand, the e(ic (oems o3 =ome must be e/eCamined. :he task will not be di33icultH the Iliad is 3ull o3 desc i(tions o3 the violent deeds o3 ; es. In this e(ic the sto y is told o3 the battles which the ) eeks, besieging : oy, waged against the (eo(le o3 P iam, king o3 : oy. %eities took a ( ominent (a t in these battles and ski mishes. :wo o3 them / ;thene and ; es / we e by 3a the most active. ;thene was the ( otect ess o3 the ) eeksH ; es was on the side o3 the : o<ans. :hey we e the chie3 antagonists th oughout the e(o(ee. ;t 3i st ;thene emoved ; es 3 om the battle3ield> E;nd 3lashing/eyed ;thene took 3u ious ; es by the hand and s(ake to him, saying> E; es, ; es, thou bane o3 mo tals, thou blood/stained sto me o3 walls, shall we not now leave the : o<ans and ;chaeans to 3ightME ... I+heJ led 3u ious ; es 3o th 3 om the battle.E $ ,ut they met togethe again in the 3ieldH E3u ious ; esE was Eabiding on the le3t o3 the battle.E ;(h odite, the goddess o3 the moon, wished to (a tici(ate in the wa also, but Deus, ( esiding in heavenly "lym(us, told he > ENot unto thee, my child, a e given wo ks o3 wa H nay, 3ollow thou a3te the lovely wo ks o3 ma iage, and all these things shall be the business o3 swi3t ; es and ;thene.E :hus the god o3 the (lanet Au(ite admonished the goddess o3 the moon to leave the combat that it might be 3ought out by the god o3 the (lanet 6a s and the goddess o3 the (lanet

Venus. Phoebus ;(ollo, the god o3 the sun, s(oke to the god o3 the (lanet 6a s> E:hen unto 3u ious ; es s(ake Phoebus ;(ollo> E; es, ; es, thou bane o3 mo tals, thou bloodstained sto me o3 walls, wilt thou not now ente into the battleME ... ;nd bane3ul ; es ente ed amid the : o<ansB anks ... =e called> ... E=ow long will ye still su33e you host to be slain by the ;chaeansME :he battle3ield was da kened by ; es> E;nd about the battle 3u ious ; es d ew a veil o3 night to aid the : o<ans ... he saw that Pallas ;thene was de(a ted, 3o she it was that ba e aid to the %anaans. E =e a, the goddess o3 the ea th, Este((ed u(on the 3laming ca E and Esel3/bidden g oaned u(on thei hinges the gates o3 heaven which the =ou s had in thei kee(ing, to whom a e ent usted g eat heaven and "lym(us.E +he s(oke to Deus> EDeus, hast thou no indignation with ; es 3o these violent deeds, that he hath dest oyed so g eat and so goodly a host o3 the ;chaeans ecklesslyM ... 8ilt thou in any wise be w oth with me i3 I smite ; esME ;nd Deus e(lied> ENay, come now, ouse against him ;thene ... who has eve been wont above othe s to b ing so e (ain u(on him.E +o came the hou o3 the battle. :hen Pallas ;thene g as(ed the lash and the eins, and against ; es 3i st she s(eedily d ave ... ;thene (ut on the ca( o3 =ades, to the end that mighty ; es should not see he . ; es, Ethe bane o3 mo tals,E was attacked by Pallas ;thene, who s(ed the s(ea Emightily against his nethe most belly.E E:hen b a5en ; es bellowed loud as nine thousand wa io s o ten thousand c y in battle, when they <oin in the st i3e o3 the 8a /)od.E E?ven as a black da kness a((ea eth 3 om the clouds when a3te heat a bluste ing wind a iseth, even in such wise ... did b a5en ; es a((ea , as he 3a ed amid the clouds unto b oad heaven.E In heaven he a((ealed to Deus with bitte wo ds o3 com(laint against ;thene> E8ith thee a e we all at st i3e, 3o thou a t 3athe to that mad and bane3ul maid, whose mind is eve set on deeds o3 lawlessness. Go all the othe gods that a e in "lym(us a e obedient unto thee ... but to he thou (ayest no heed ... 3o that this (estilent maiden is thine own child.E ;nd Deus answe ed> E6ost hate3ul to me a t thou o3 all gods that hold "lym(us, 3o eve is st i3e dea to thee and wa s and 3ightings.E :he 3i st ound was lost by ; es. E=e a and ;thene ... made ; es, the bane o3 mo tals, to cease 3 om his manslaying.E In this vein the (oem ( oceeds, its allego ical 3eatu es being only too eadily ove looked. In the 3i3th book o3 the Iliad ; es is called by name mo e than thi ty times, and th oughout the (oem he neve disa((ea s 3 om the scene, whethe in the sky o on the battleg ound. :he twentieth and twenty/3i st books desc ibe the climaC o3 the battle o3 the gods at the walls o3 : oy. EI;theneJ would utte he loud c y. ;nd ove against he s(outed ; es, d ead as a da k whi lwind, calling with sh ill tones to the : o<ans. :hus did the blessed gods u ge on the two hosts to clash in battle, and amid them made g ievous st i3e to bu st 3o th. :hen te ibly thunde ed the 3athe o3 gods and men 3 om on highH and 3 om beneath did Poseidon cause the vast ea th to Fuake, and the stee( c ests o3 the mountains. ;ll the oots o3 many/3ountained Ida we e shaken, and all he (eaks, and the city o3 the : o<ans, and the shi(s o3 the ;chaeans. ;nd sei5ed with 3ea in the wo ld

below was ;idoneus, lo d o3 the shades ... lest above him the ea th be cloven by Poseidon, the +hake o3 ?a th, and his abode be made (lain to view 3o mo tals and immo tals ... so g eat was the din that a ose when the gods clashed in st i3e.E In this battle o3 gods above and beneath, : o<ans and ;chaeans clashed togethe and the whole unive se oa ed and shive ed. :he battle was 3ought in gloomH =e a s( ead a thick mist. :he ive E ushed with su ging 3lood, and oused all his st eams tumultuously.E ?ven the ocean was ins(i ed with E3ea o3 the lightning o3 g eat Deus and his d ead thunde , whenso it c asheth 3 om heaven.E :hen ushed into the battle a Ewond ous bla5ing 3i e. Gi st on the (lain was the 3i e kindled, and bu ned the dead ... and all the (lain was (a ched.E :hen to the ive tu ned the gleaming 3lame. E:o mented we e the eels and the 3ish in the eddies, and in the 3ai st eams they (lunged this way and that ... :he 3ai st eams seethed and boiled.E No had the ive Eany mind to 3low onwa d, but was stayed,E unable to ( otect : oy. @(on the gods E3ell st i3e heavy and g ievous.E E:ogethe then they clashed with a mighty din, and the wide ea th ang, and ound about g eat heaven (ealed as with a t um(et ... Deus / the hea t within him laughed aloud in <oy as he beheld the gods <oining in st i3e.E E; es ... began the 3 ay, and 3i st lea(t u(on ;thene, b a5en s(ea in hand, and s(ake a wo d o3 eviling> E8he e3o e now again, thou dog/3ly, a t thou making gods to clash with gods in st i3e ... M 9emembe est thou not what time ... thysel3 in sight o3 all didst g as( the s(ea and let d ive st aight at me, and didst end my 3ai 3leshME :his second encounte between ; es and ;thene was also lost by ; es. E=e I; esJ smote u(on he tasselled aegis ... :he eon bloodstained ; es smote with his long s(ea . ,ut she gave g ound, and sei5ed with he stout hand a stone that lay u(on the (lain, black and <agged and g eat ... :he ewith she smote 3u ious ; es on the neck, and loosed his limbs... Pallas ;thene b oke into a laugh ... BGool, not even yet hast thou lea ned how much mightie than thou I avow me to be, that thou matchest thy st ength with mine.BE ;(h odite came to wounded ; es, Etook IhimJ by the hand, and sought to lead IhimJ away.E ,ut E;thene s(ed in (u suit ... +he smote ;(h odite on the b east with he stout hand ... and he hea t melted.E :hese eCce (ts 3 om the Iliad show that some cosmic d ama was ( o<ected u(on the 3ields o3 : oy. :he commentato s we e awa e that o iginally ; es was not me ely the god o3 wa , and that this Fuality is a deduced and seconda y one. :he ) eek ; es is the !atin (lanet 6a sH it is so stated in classic lite atu e a multitude o3 times. In the so/called =ome ic (oems, too, it is said that ; es is a (lanet. :he =ome ic hymn to ; es eads> E6ost mighty ; es ... chie3tain o3 valo , evolving thy 3ie y ci cle in ethe among the seven wande ing sta s I(lanetsJ, whe e thy 3laming steeds eve u(li3t thee above the thi d cha iot.E

,ut what might it mean, that the (lanet 6a s dest oys cities, o that the (lanet 6a s is ascending the sky in a da kened cloud, o that it engages ;thene (the (lanet Venus) in battleM ; es must have e( esented some element in natu e, guessed the commentato s. ; es must have been the (e soni3ication o3 the aging sto m, o the god o3 the sky, o the god o3 light, o a sun/god, and so on. - :hese eC(lanations a e 3utile. ; es/6a s is what his name says / the (lanet 6a s. I 3ind in !ucian a statement which co obo ates my inte ( etation o3 the cosmic d ama in the Iliad. :his autho o3 the second centu y o3 the ( esent e a w ites in his wo k "n ;st ology this most signi3icant and most neglected commenta y on the =ome ic e(ics> E;ll that he I=ome J hath said o3 Venus and o3 6a s his (assion, is also mani3estly

com(osed 3 om no othe sou ce than this science Iast ologyJ. Indeed, it is the con<unctu e o3 Venus and 6a s that c eates the (oet y o3 =ome .E . !ucian is unawa e that ;thene is the goddess o3 the (lanet Venus, 9 and yet he knows the eal meaning o3 the cosmic (lot o3 the =ome ic e(ic, which shows that the sou ces o3 his inst uction in ast ology we e cogni5ant o3 the 3acts o3 the celestial d ama. 6y inte ( etation o3 the =ome ic (oem, I 3ind, has been antici(ated by still othe s. 8ho they we e, it is im(ossible to say. =oweve , =e aclitus, a little known autho o3 the 3i st centu y, who should not be con3used with the (hiloso(he , =e aclitus o3 ?(hesus, w ote a wo k on =ome ic allego ies. #0 In his o(inion, =ome and Plato we e the two g eatest s(i its o3 ) eece, and he t ied to econcile the anth o(omo (hic and sati ic desc i(tion o3 gods by =ome with the idealistic and meta(hysical a(( oach o3 Plato. In Pa ag a(h $1 o3 his ;llego ies, =e aclitus con3utes those who think that the battles o3 the gods in the Iliad signi3y collisions o3 the (lanets. :hus I 3ind that some o3 the ancient (hiloso(he s must have held the same o(inion at which I a ived inde(endently a3te a se ies o3 deductions. :he ( oblem o3 the date when the =ome ic e(ics o iginated was aised he e, to be solved with the hel( o3 this c ite ion> I3 the cosmic battle between the (lanets Venus and 6a s is mentioned the e, then the e(ics could not have o iginated much be3o e the yea /.00. I3 the ea th and the moon a e involved in this st uggle, the time o3 the bi th o3 the Iliad must be lowe ed to /-2- at least and ( obably to an even late date. :he 3i st ea thshaking contact with ou (lanet had al eady taken (lace, and 3o this eason ; es is e(eatedly called Ebane o3 mo tals, blood/stained sto me o3 walls.E =ome was thus, at the ea liest, a contem(o a y o3 the ( o(hets ;mos and Isaiah, o mo e likely he lived sho tly a3te them. :he : o<an 8a and the cosmic con3lict we e synch onousH the time o3 =ome was not se(a ated 3 om the time o3 the : o<an wa by seve al centu ies, (ossibly not even by a single one. :he statement by !ucian ega ding the ins(i ing d ama o3 the =ome ic e(ics / the con<unction o3 the (lanets Venus and 6a s / can be e3ined. :he e was mo e than one 3ate3ul con<unction between Venus and 6a s / at least two a e desc ibed in the Iliad, in the 3i3th and the twenty/3i st books. :he con<unctions we e nea contactsH the me e (assage o3 one (lanet in 3 ont o3 anothe could not have ( ovided mate ial 3o a cosmic d ama.
777777777777777777777777777777 # :he G agments o3 ?m(edocles (t ansl. 8. ?. !eona d, #90.), (. 10. 2 +ee 9. 'a (ente > E:he ;ntiFuity o3 the ) eek ;l(habetE and ,. @llman> E=ow "ld Is the ) eek ;l(habetME in ;me ican Aou nal o3 ; chaeology, LLLVII (#911) and LLLVIII (#912), es(ectively. 1 8hen the ancient site was discove ed, +chliemann identi3ied the uins o3 the second city (3 om the bottom) as those o3 the Ilium o3 the IliadH but late eC(lo e s disag eed and ( onounced the uins o3 the siCth city as those o3 =ome ic : oy. 2 ). 4a o> E=ome E in ?be tBs 9ealleCikon de Vo geschichte, Vol. V. $ :he Iliad, ,k. V (t ansl. ;. :. 6u ayH !oeb 'lassical !ib a y, #922/#92$). 0 :he "dyssey o3 =ome with the =ymns (t ansl. ,uckley), (. 199. :he t anslation by =. ?velyn/8hite (=esiod volume in the !oeb 'lassical !ib a y) is> E8ho whi l you 3ie y s(he e among the (lanets in thei seven3old cou ses th ough the ethe whe ein you bla5ing steeds eve bea you above the thi d 3i mament o3 heaven.E ;llen, =olliday, and +ikes> :he =ome ic =ymns (#910), (. 1.$, ega d the hymn to ; es as (ost/=ome ic. - :hese dive gent views a e o33e ed by !. P elle ( ) iechische 6ythologie I#.92J), ). G. !aue (+ystem de g iechischen 6ythologie I#.$1J, (. 222), G. ). 8elcke () iechische )Wtte leh e, I I#.$-J, 2#$), and =. 8. +toll (%ie u s( Yngliche ,edeutung des ; es I#.$$J). . !ucian> ;st ology (t ansl. ;. 6. =a mon, #910), +ec. 22. 9 In the same sentence !ucian identi3ies Venus with ;(h odite o3 the Iliad. #0 =e acliti Fuestiones =ome icae (:eubne Bs ed. #9#0). '3. G. ,oll> +te nglaube und +te ndienst (ed. 8. )undel, #920), (. 20#. 777777777777777777777777777777


:he ) eeks chose ;thene, the goddess o3 the (lanet Venus, as thei (at on, but the (eo(le o3 : oy looked to ; es/6a s as thei ( otecto . ; simila situation eCisted in ancient 6eCico. Kuet5al/cohuatl , known as the (lanet Venus, was the (at on o3 the :oltecs. ,ut the ;5tecs, who late came to 6eCico and su((lanted the :oltecs, eve ed =uit5ilo(ochtli (Vitchilu(uchtli) as thei ( otecto /god. # +ahagun says that =uit5ilo(ochtli was Ea g eat dest oye o3 towns and kille o3 (eo(le.E :he e(ithet Eblood/stained sto me o3 wallsE is 3amilia to us 3 om the Iliad, whe e it is egula ly a((lied to 6a s. EIn wa 3a e he I=uit5ilo(ochtliJ was like live/3i e, g eatly 3ea ed by his enemies,E w ites +ahagun. 2 In his la ge wo k on the Indians o3 ;me ica, =. =. ,anc o3t w ites> E=uit5ilo(ochtli had, like 6a s and "din, the s(ea o a bow in his ight hand, and in the le3t, sometimes a bundle o3 a ows, sometimes a ound white shield ... "n these wea(ons de(ended the wel3a e o3 the state, <ust as on the ancile o3 the 9oman 6a s, which had 3allen 3 om the sky, o on the (alladium o3 the wa like Pallas ;thene. ,ynames also (oint out =uit5ilo(ochtli as wa godH so he is called the te ible god :et5ateotl, o the aging :et5ahuitl.E 1 ,anc o3t ( oceeds> E"ne might be led to com(a e the ca(ital o3 the ;5tecs with ancient 9ome, on account o3 its wa like s(i it, and the e3o e it was ight to make the national god o3 ;5tecs a wa god like the 9oman 6a s.E 2 ,ut =uit5ilo(ochtli was not like 6a s, he was 6a s. :he identity o3 thei a((ea ance, cha acte , and action is dictated by the 3act that 6a s and =uit5ilo(ochtli we e one and the same (lanet/god. :he con3lict between Venus and 6a s was also symboli5ed in eligious ce emonies o3 the ancient 6eCicans. In one o3 these ce emonies the ( iest o3 Kuet5al/cohuatl shot an a ow into an e33igy o3 =uit5ilo/(ochtli, which (enet ated the god, who was then conside ed dead. $ :his a((ea s to have been a symbolic e(etition o3 the elect ical discha ge that Venus e<ected towa d 6a s. ,ut the ;5tecs would not concede the death o3 6a s, the bellicose dest oye o3 towns, the god o3 swo d and (estilence, and ca ied on thei wa s against the :oltecs, the (eo(le who looked to the (lanet Venus. :hese wa s between the :oltecs and the ;5tecs must have taken (lace ea lie than is gene ally su((osedH they might have occu ed be3o e the ( esent e a, when the e was ival y between the (eo(les devoted to Venus and those devoted to 6a s, and when the memo y o3 the cosmic con3lict was still vivid.
777777777777777777777777777777 # A. ). 6Ylle > %e meCikanische Nationalgott =uit5ilo(ochtli (#.2-). 2 +ahagun> ; =isto y o3 ;ncient 6eCico (t ansl. G. 9. ,andelie , #912), (. 2$. 1 =. =. ,anc o3t> :he Native 9aces o3 the Paci3ic +tates (#.-2/#.-0), III, 102. 2 Ibid., (. 10#. $ +ahagun> =isto ia gene al de las cosas de la Nueva ?s(a[a, III, 'ha(. I, +ec. 2. 777777777777777777777777777777

8hat is it that we call the :aoM :he e is the :ao, o 8ay o3 =eavenH and the e is the :ao, o 8ay o3 6an. / 4wang/:5e

Planets o3 the sola system we e distu bed by the contacts o3 Venus, 6a s, and the ea th. 8e have al eady e3e ed to :he ;nnals o3 the ,amboo ,ooks, whe e it is w itten that in the tenth yea o3 the ?m(e o 4wei, the eighteenth mona ch since *ahou, Ethe 3ive (lanets went out o3 thei cou ses. In the night, sta s 3ell like ain. :he ea th shook.E # :he distu bances in

the 3amily o3 (lanets we e caused by collisions between Venus and 6a s. :he battles o3 two sta s a((ea ing as b ight as suns a e mentioned in anothe 'hinese ch onicle as having occu ed in the days o3 the same ?m(e o 4wei (4oei/4ie)> E;t this time the two suns we e seen to battle in the sky. :he 3ive (lanets we e agitated by unusual movements. ; (a t o3 6ount :ai/chan 3ell down.E 2 :he two battling sta s a e ecogni5ed by us as Venus and 6a s. In the language o3 ? atosthenes, the ;leCand ian lib a ian o3 the thi d centu y be3o e this e a> EIn the thi d (lace is the sta IstellaJ o3 6a s ... It was (u sued by the sta IsidusJ VenusH then Venus took hold o3 him and in3lamed him with an a dent (assion.E 1 In an ast onomical cha t dating 3 om the 6iddle ;ges (##91), used in the education o3 em(e o s and known as the E+oochow ;st onomical 'ha tE, 2 it is asse ted on the autho ity o3 the ancients that it ha((ened that (lanets went o33 thei cou ses. It is said that once Venus an 3a o33 the 5odiac and attacked the E8ol3/+ta .E ; change in the cou se o3 the (lanets was ega ded as a sign o3 heavenly w ath, since it occu ed when the em(e o o his ministe s sinned. In the old 'hinese cosmology E?a th is e( esented as a body sus(ended in ai , moving eastwa d,E $ and thus was unde stood as one o3 the (lanets. :he 3ollowing (assage 3 om the :aoist teCt o3 8en/:5e 0 contains a desc i(tion o3 calamities which, as we have 3ound, belong togethe > E8hen the sky, hostile to living beings, wishes to dest oy them, it bu ns themH the sun and the moon lose thei 3o m and a e ecli(sedH the 3ive (lanets leave thei (athsH the 3ou seasons enc oach one u(on anothe H daylight is obscu edH glowing mountains colla(seH ive s a e d ied u(H it thunde s then in winte , hoa 3 ost 3alls in summe H the atmos(he e is thick and human beings a e chokedH the state (e ishesH the as(ect and the o de o3 the sky a e alte edH the customs o3 the age a e distu bed Ith own into diso de J ... all living beings ha ass one anothe .E =oei/nan/t5e, a :aoist autho o3 the thi d centu y o3 this e a, s(eaks o3 the sun and the ea th leaving thei (athsH he t ansmits the t adition that Ei3 the 3ive (lanets e on thei outes,E the +tate and the ( ovinces a e ove come by a 3lood. :aoism is the dominant eligion o3 'hina. E:he te m :ao o iginally meant the evolution o3 the way o3 the heavens about the ea th. :his movement o3 the heavens was ega ded as the cause o3 the (henomena on ea th. :he :ao was located about the celestial (ole which was conside ed to be the seat o3 (owe because all evolves about it. In the cou se o3 time :ao was viewed as the unive sal cosmic ene gy behind the visible o de o3 natu e.E .
777777777777777777777777777777 # Aames !egge (ed)> :he 'hinese 'lassics, III, Pt. #, #2$. 2 !. 8iege > :eCtes histo iFues (2nd ed., #922/#921), I, $0. 1 ? atosthenes, ed. 9obe t, (. #9$. 2 :he +oochow ;st onomical 'ha t (t ansl. and ed. by 9u3us and =sing/chih/tien). $ A. '. Ge guson> 'hinese 6ythology (#92.), (. 29. 0 8en/:5e in :eCtes :ao_stes, t ansl. '. de =a le5 (#.9#). - =oei/nan/t5e in :eCtes :ao_stes. . !. =odous> E:aoism,E ?ncyclo(aedia , itannica, #2th ed. 777777777777777777777777777777

In an old teCtbook on =indu ast onomy, the +u ya/+iddhanta, the e is a cha(te , E"3 (laneta y con<unctions.E 6ode n ast onomy knows only one kind o3 con<unction between (lanets, when one (lanet (o sun) stands between the ea th and anothe (lanet (di33e entiated only as su(e io and in3e io con<unction and o((osition). ,ut ancient =indu

ast onomy distinguished between many di33e ent con<unctions, t anslated as 3ollows> EsamyogaE (con<unction), Esama/gamaE (coming togethe ), EyogaE (<unction), EmelakaE (uniting), EyutiE (union), EyuddhaE (encounte , in the meaning o3 con3lict, 3ight). # :he 3i st (a ag a(h o3 this cha(te , E"3 (laneta y con<unctions,E o3 the +u ya/+iddhanta tells us that between (lanets the e occu encounte s in battle (EyuddhaE) and sim(le con<unction (Esamyoga samagamaE). :he 3o ce o3 the (lanets, which mani3ests itsel3 in con<unctions, is called EhalaE. ; (lanet can be vanFuished (E<itaE) in an Ea(asvya encounte ,E st uck down (EvidhvastaE), utte ly vanFuished (Evi<itaE). ; (owe 3ul (lanet is called EbalinE, and the victo /(lanet in an encounte , E<ayinE. EVenus is gene ally victo .E :o the last sentence the t anslato o3 +u ya/+iddhanta w ote> EIn this (assage we Fuit the ( o(e domain o3 ast onomy, and t ench u(on that o3 ast ology.E ;side 3 om the int oducto y lines in which the wo k is ( esented as a evelation o3 the sun (a common int oduction in many ast onomical wo ks o3 the =indus), it is w itten in ve y sobe te ms. It makes use o3 sFua e oots and geomet ical 3igu es, and s(eaks in algeb aic te msH eve y sentence o3 the wo k is in scienti3ic language, ve y ( ecious, indeed. 2 :his manual o3 the +u ya contains also the co ect notion o3 the ea th as a Es(he eE o Eglobe in the ethe ,E showing that the =indus o3 ea ly times knew that the ea th is one o3 the (lanets, though they thought it to be situated in the cente o3 the unive se. 1 ; yabhatta held the o(inion that the ea th evolves on its aCis. 2 !ike the autho o3 the ,ook o3 Aob, who w ote that the ea th hangs Eu(on nothingE (20>-), the +u ya knew that EaboveE and EbeneathE a e only elative> E;nd eve ywhe e u(on the globe o3 the ea th, men think thei own (lace to be u((e most / but since it is a globe in the ethe , whe e should the e be an u((e , o whe e an unde side o3 itME $ :he st ange cha(te o3 +u ya/+iddhanta dealing with the con<unctions o3 (lanets and with thei con3licts when in close ( oCimity made mode n schola s think that this (o tion did not have the scienti3ic value o3 the est o3 the wo k, and was a ( oduct o3 ast ological invention, o even an inte (olation. 8e know now that this cha(te has eFual scienti3ic value with othe cha(te s o3 the wo k and that encounte s between (lanets actually took (lace a numbe o3 times in the sola system. In =indu ast onomy a <unction o3 the (lanets is called EyogaE IEyugaEJ. Ve y evealing is the 3act that the wo ld ages a e also called EyogasE, E(laneta y con<unctionsE 0 (o mo e ( ecisely, E <unctionsE).
777777777777777777777777777777 # +u ya/+iddhanta, 'ha(. VII (t ansl. ,u gess). 2 :he 3ollowing 3o mula may se ve as an eCam(le o3 the +u ya method> E6ulti(ly the ea thBs ci cum3e ence by the sunBs declination in deg ees, and divide by the numbe o3 deg ees in a ci cleH the esult, in yo<anas, is the distance 3 om the (lace o3 no latitude whe e the sun is (assing ove head.E ('ha(. Cii.) 1 :ycho , ahe, in (ost/'o(e nican times, still adhe ed to this view. 2 +u ya/+iddhanta, note to (. #1. $ Ibid., (. 22.. 0 ,entley> ; =isto ical View o3 the =indu ;st onomy (#.2$), (. -$> E:he (e iods themselves we e named *ugas, o con<unctions.E 777777777777777777777777777777

:he ,undahis
:heomachy, the battle o3 the gods, desc ibed in the =ome ic e(ics, in the ?dda, and in the =uit5ilo(ochtli e(os, is elated also in the Indo/I anian teCt o3 the ,undahis. # E:he (lanets an against the sky and c eated con3usionE in the enti e cosmos. 2 In the long battle o3 the celestial bodies, one o3 them made the wo ld enti ely da k, dis3igu ed c eation, and 3illed it with ve min. :his act o3 the cosmic d ama was ecogni5ed

by us as the 3i st contact o3 the ea th with the comet :y(hon, the same as Pallas ;thene. "the acts o3 the d ama 3ollowed. :he (laneta y distu bances lasted 3o a long time. E:he celestial s(he e was in evolution ... :he (lanets, with many demons, dashed against the celestial s(he e, and miCed the constellationsH and the whole c eation was as dis3igu ed as though 3i e dis3igu ed eve y (lace and smoke a ose ove it.E 1 :he (lanet named E)okiha E o E8ol3/( ogenyE and Es(ecial distu be o3 the moon,E 2 and a celestial body called E6ievish/6us(a E, E( ovided with tails,E o a comet, $ b ought con3usion to the sun, moon, and sta s. ,ut in the end Ethe sun has attached 6us(a to its own adiance by mutual ag eement, so that he may be less able to do ha m.E 0 In this desc i(tion o3 Ethe battle o3 the (lanets,E we ecogni5e the wol3/( ogeny and distu be o3 the moon, the (lanet )okiha , as 6a sH 6us(a with tails a((a ently is Venus, called also :ist ya, o Ethe leade o3 the sta s against the (lanets.E ;s the 3inal esult o3 these battles, the sun made Venus into an evening/mo ning sta o (ut !uci3e lowe down so that it could do no ha m. In the ,undahis the con3licting 3o ces a e called, not Egods,E but me ely E(lanets.E
777777777777777777777777777777 # :he ,undahis, Pahlavi :eCts (t ansl. 8est). 2 E%ie Planeten a mten, Ve vvi ung sti3tend, gegen den =immel an.E A. =e tel> E%e Planet Venus in ;vesta,E ,e ichte de +^chsischen ;kademie det 8issenscha3ten , Phil. hist. 4lasse, !LLLVII (#91$). 1 ,undahis, 'ha(. 1, +ees. #9 / 2$. 2 +ee in3 a the +ection EGen is/8ol3,E note $. $ "l ik> 9agna Wk, (. 119. 0 ,undahis, 'ha(. V, +ec. #. 777777777777777777777777777777

!uci3e 'ut %own

It can be said that the (lanet 6a s saved the te est ial globe 3 om a ma<o catast o(he by colliding with Venus. +ince the days o3 ?Codus and Aoshua, Venus was d eaded by the (eo(les o3 the ea th. Go about seven hund ed yea s this te o hung ove mankind like the swo d o3 %amocles. =uman sac i3ices we e made to Venus in both hemis(he es in o de to ( o(itiate he . ;3te centu ies o3 te o , one swo d o3 %amocles was emoved 3 om above the heads o3 mankind, only to be e(laced by anothe . 6a s became the d ead o3 the (eo(les, and its etu n was 3ea ed eve y 3i3teen yea s. ,e3o e this, 6a s had abso bed the blow, even the e(eated blows o3 Venus, and had saved the ea th. Venus, which collided with the ea th in the 3i3teenth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, collided with 6a s in the eighth centu y. ;t that time Venus was moving at a lowe elli(tical velocity than when it 3i st encounte ed the ea thH but 6a s, being only about one/eighth the mass o3 Venus, was no match 3o he . It was the e3o e a notable achievement that 6a s, though th own out o3 the ing, neve theless was inst umental in b inging Venus 3 om an elli(tical to a nea ly ci cula # o bit. !ooked at 3 om the ea th, Venus was emoved 3 om a (ath that an high to the 5enith and ove the 5enith to its ( esent (ath 2 in which it neve et eats 3 om the sun mo e than 2. deg ees, thus becoming a mo ning o an evening sta that ( ecedes the ising sun o 3ollows the setting sun. :he awe o3 the wo ld 3o many centu ies, Venus became a tame (lanet. Isaiah, e3e ing 3igu atively to the king o3 ,abylon who dest oyed cities and made the land into a wilde ness, utte ed his ema kable wo ds about !uci3e that 3ell 3 om heaven and was cut down to the g ound. :he commentato s ecogni5ed that behind these wo ds a((lied to the king o3 ,abylon must have been some legend about the 6o ning +ta . :he meta(ho ega ding the king o3 ,abylon im(lied that his 3ate and the 3ate o3 the 6o ning +ta we e not

dissimila H both o3 them 3ell 3 om on high. ,ut what could it mean that the 6o ning +ta 3ell 3 om the heightsM asked the commentato s. +igni3icant a e the wo ds o3 Isaiah about the 6o ning +ta , that it Eweakened the nationsE be3o e it was cut down to the g ound. It weakened the nations in two collisions with the ea th, and it weakened the nations by kee(ing them in constant 3ea 3o centu ies. :he ,ook o3 Isaiah, in eve y cha(te , ( ovides abundant evidence that with the emoval o3 Venus, so that it no longe c ossed the o bit o3 the ea th, dange was not eliminated, but became even mo e th eatening.
777777777777777777777777777777 # ?ccent icity o3 VenusB o bit is .00-. 2 Inclined 1Q 2B to the (lane o3 the ecli(tic (%uncan, #92$). 777777777777777777777777777777

+wo d/)od

'ha(te 2

IN ,;,*!"N "G the eighth centu y the (lanet 6a s became a g eat and 3ea ed god, to whom many ( aye s we e com(osed and hymns and invocations we e sung and magic 3o mulas we e whis(e ed. +uch 3o mulas a e e3e ed to as Emagic wo ds with aising the hand to the (lanet Ne gal I6a sJ.E :hese ( aye s we e add essed di ectly to the (lanet 6a s. # !ike the ) eek ; es, Ne gal is called Eking o3 battle, who b ings the de3eat, who b ings the victo y.E Ne gal could not be ega ded as 3avo ing the (eo(le o3 the %ouble +t eamsH on a most 3ate3ul night he in3licted a de3eat on +ennache ib. +hine o3 ho o , god Ne gal, ( ince o3 battle, :hy 3ace is gla e, thy mouth is 3i e, 9aging Glamegod, god Ne gal. :hou a t ;nguish and :e o , ) eat +wo d/god, !o d who wande est in the night, =o ible, aging Glame/god ... 8hose sto ming is a sto m 3lood. In one o3 its g eat con<unctions, 6a sB atmos(he e was st etched so that it a((ea ed like a swo d. "3ten be3o e and late , too, celestial ( odigies assumed the sha(e o3 swo ds. :hus, in the days o3 %avid a comet a((ea ed in the 3o m o3 a human being Ebetween the ea th and the heaven, having a d awn swo d in his hand st etched out ove Ae usalem.E 2 :he 9oman god 6a s was (ictu ed with a swo dH he became the god o3 wa . :he 'haldean Ne gal is called E+wo d/god.E "3 this swo d Isaiah s(oke when he ( edicted the e(etition o3 the catast o(he, a st eam o3 b imstone, 3lame, sto m, and eeling o3 the sky. E:hen shall the ;ssy ian 3all with the swo d, not o3 a mighty manH and the swo d, not o3 a mean man, shall devou him ... and his ( inces shall be a3 aid o3 the ensign.E 1 E;nd all the host o3 heaven shall be dissolved ... 3o my swo d shall be bathed in heaven.E 2 :he ancients classi3ied the comets acco ding to thei a((ea ance. In old ast ological teCts, as in the book o3 P o(hecies o3 %aniel, comets that took the 3o m o3 a swo d we e o iginally elated to the (lanet 6a s. $ ,esides the swo dlike a((ea ance o3 the atmos(he e o3 6a s, elongated on its a(( oach to the ea th, the e was also anothe eason to make o3 the (lanet 6a s the god o3 wa . ; bellicose o ma tial cha acte was asc ibed to the (lanet because o3 the g eat eCcitement it caused, eCcitement that b ought anCiety to (eo(les, that led to mig ations and to wa s. +ince ea ly times celestial ( odigies have been ega ded as (o tents that 3o ecast g eat commotions and g eat wa s. ; (lanet that collided with othe (lanets in the sky and ushed against the ea th as i3 with a 3i eswo d became the god o3 battle, w esting this title 3 om the hands o3 ;thene/Ishta . E:he gods o3 heaven (ut themselves in wa against thee,E the hymns to the (lanet Ne gal say, and this is the wa that was ecounted in the Iliad. Ne gal was named EFua adu abuE, Ethe g eat wa io EH he waged wa against gods and the ea th. :he most 3 eFuent ideog am 3o Ne gal in +emitic cunei3o m is ead Enamsa uE, which means Eswo dEH 0 the (lanet 6a s, in the ,abylonian insc i(tions o3 the seventh centu y, was called Ethe most violent among the gods.E =e odotus said that the +cythians wo shi(ed ; es (6a s), and that a scimita o3 i on was thei image o3 himH to him they made human sac i3ices and (ou ed the blood on the scimita . - +olinus w ote o3 the (eo(le o3 +cythia> E:he god o3 this (eo(le is 6a sH instead o3 images they wo shi( swo ds.E .

8a in heaven among the colliding (lanets, wa on ea th among the nations wande ing in un est, a (lanet unning towa d the ea th with an outst etched 3laming swo d, attacking land and sea, (a tici(ating in the wa s among the nations / all these made 6a s the god o3 wa . :he swo d o3 the god o3 battle was not like the swo d Eo3 a mighty manEH it was not th ust into the belly, and yet it caused sickness and death. :he god o3 wa scatte ed (estilence. In a ( aye to the (lanet 6a s (Ne gal) it is said> 9 9adiant abode, that beams ove the land ... 8ho is thy eFualM 8hen thou idest in the battle, 8hen thou th owest down, 8ho can esca(e thy lookM 8ho can un away 3 om thy sto mingM :hy wo d is a mighty catch net, +t etched ove +ky and ?a th ... =is wo d makes human beings sick, It en3eebles them. =is wo d / when he makes his way above / 6akes the count y sick. :he outb eak o3 (estilence that a((ea s to have accom(anied the 3i st contact with the (lanet 6a s was e(eated on each subseFuent contact. ;mos utte ed these wo ds> EI have smitten you with blasting and mildew ... I have sent among you the (estilence a3te the manne o3 ?gy(t.E :he (lanet Ne gal was ega ded by the ,abylonians as the god o3 wa and (estilenceH thus, too, did the ) eeks ega d the (lanet ; es and the 9omans the (lanet 6a s.
777777777777777777777777777777 # ,Wllen Yche > )ebete und =ymnen an Ne gal, (. #9. ,e5old in ,oll> +te nglaube und +te ndeutung, (. #1> E)ebete de =ande hebung> von denen eine ;n5ahl an PlanetengWtte ande e dagegen ausd Ycklich an die )esti ne selbst (6a s) ge ichtet sindE (( aye s with the li3ting o3 the hand> some o3 them a e di ected to the (laneta y gods and othe s eC( essly to the (lanets themselves). 2 I 'h onicles 2#>#0. 1 Isaiah 1#>./9. 2 Isaiah 12>2/$. $ )undel> E4ometen,E in Pauly/8issowa> 9eal/?ncyclo(^die, LI, 'ol. ##--, with e3e ence to 'at. cod. ast ., VIII, 1, (. #-$. 0 ,Wllen Yche > )ebete und =ymnen an Ne gal, (. .. - =e odotus iv. 02. . +olinus> Polyhisto (t ansl. ;. )olding, #$.-), 'ha(, CCiii. 9 ,Wllen Yche > )ebete und =ymnen an Ne gal, (. 10. 777777777777777777777777777777

Gen is/8ol3
In the ,abylonian ast ological teCts it is said that Ea sta takes the sha(e o3 dive s animals> lion, <ackal, dog, (ig, 3ish.E # :his, in ou o(inion, eC(lains the wo shi( o3 animals by ancient (eo(les, notably by the ?gy(tians. :he (lanet 6a s, its atmos(he e disto ted by its a(( oaches to othe celestial bodies / Venus, ea th, moon / took on di33e ent sha(es. :he 6eCicans na ated that =uit5ilo(ochtli, the bellicose dest oye o3 cities, took the 3o m o3 va ious bi ds and beasts. 2 "n one occasion 6a s ve y cha acte istically esembled a wol3 o a <ackal. In ,abylonia 6a s had seven names / Aackal was one o3 them. 1 ;lso, the god with the head o3 a <ackal o wol3 in the ?gy(tian (antheon was a((a ently 6a s. "3 him it is said that he is a E( owling wol3 ci cling this land.E 2

In the 'hinese 'ha t o3 +oochow, in which it is elated on the autho ity o3 mo e ancient sou ces that E"nce Venus suddenly an into the 8ol3/+ta ,E 8ol3/+ta a((a ently means 6a s. $ 8ol3 o !u(us 6a tius was the animal symbol 3o 6a s o3 the 9oman eligion. 0 It gave ise to the legend about 9omulus, son o3 6a s, who was 3ed by a she/wol3. ;cco ding to the t adition, the conce(tion o3 9omulus took (lace du ing a ( olonged ecli(se. :he +lavic Vukadlak, who 3ollowed the clouds and devou ed the sun o the moon, had the sha(e o3 a wol3. - :he No th/)e manic t ibes, too, s(oke o3 the wol3 +koll that (u sued the sun. . In the ?dda, the (laneta y god that da kened the sun is called Gen is/8ol3. E8hence comes the sun to the smooth sky back, when Gen is has swallowed it 3o thME :he battle o3 6a s and Venus is ( esented, in the Icelandic e(os, as a 3ight between the wol3 Gen is and the se (ent 6idga d. E:he b ight snake ga(ing in the heaven aboveE and Ethe 3oaming wol3E battle in the sky. +to ms come in summe . :hen comes the day, and Eda k g ows the sunEH in a g eat u(heaval Ethe heaven is cloven.E EIn ange smites the wa den o3 ea th, 3o th 3 om thei homes must all men 3lee ... :he sun tu ns black, ea th sinks in the sea, the hot sta s down 3 om the heaven a e whi led, 3ie ce g ows the st eam ... till 3i e lea(s high above heaven itsel3.E 9
777777777777777777777777777777 # 4ugle > ,abylonische Deito dnung, Vol. II o3 +te nkunde und +te ndienst in ,abel, 9#. 2 +ahagun> =isto ia gene al de las cosas de Nueva ?s(a[a, Vol. I. 1 ,e5old, in ,ollBs +te nglaube und +te ndeutung, (. 9. 2 , easted> 9eco ds o3 ?gy(t, III, +ec. #22. $ :he t anslato s o3 the cha t su mised that by 8ol3/+ta +i ius is meant. 0 '3. Vi gil> ;eneid iv. $00H !ivy> =isto y o3 9ome, ,k. LLII. i. #2. ; statue o3 6a s on the ;((ian 8ay stood between 3igu es o3 wolves. E;mong the animal symbols o3 6a s, the wol3 holds 3i st (lace ... :he wol3 belonged so de3initely to 6a s that !u(us 6a tius o 6a tialis became its usual name. ;s to the meaning o3 this symbol, it is di33icult to unde stand it.E 9osche in 9osche Bs !eCikon d. g iech. und Wm. 6yth., s. v. E6a s,E 'ol. 2210. - A. 6achal> +lavic 6ythology (#9#.), (. 229. . !. G obenius> %as Deitalte des +onnengottes (#902), I, #9.. 9 :he Poetic ?dda> VWlus(a (t ansl. ,ellows, #921). 777777777777777777777777777777

+wo d/:ime, 8ol3/:ime

Kuaking o3 (laces, tumult o3 (eo(les, scheming o3 nations, con3usion o3 leade s. / IV ?5 a 9>1

:he 3ea o3 the Audgment %ay not only did not (aci3y the nations, but on the cont a y, u( ooted them, im(elling them to mig ation and wa . :he +cythians came down 3 om the (lains o3 the %nie(e and Volga and moved southwa d. :he ) eeks le3t thei home in 6ycenae and on the islands o3 the ;egean and ca ied on the siege o3 : oy th ough yea s o3 cosmic distu bances. ;ssy ian kings waged wa in ?lam, Palestine, ?gy(t, and beyond the 'aucasus. 'ivil wa in the nations, t ibal st i3e, and st i3e between membe s o3 households became so wides( ead that the same com(laint was hea d in many (a ts o3 the wo ld. ;s I have al eady said, 6a s was named the wa god not only because o3 his swo dlike a((ea ance, but also because o3 these con3licts. E ... :he land IisJ da kened, and the (eo(le shall be as the 3uel o3 the 3i e> no man shall s(a e his b othe ,E said Isaiah (9>#9). In ?gy(t an insc i(tion o3 the eighth centu y that e3e s to the moon distu bed in its movement, mentions incessant 3ighting in the land> E8hile yea s (assed in hostility, each one sei5ing u(on his neighbo , not emembe ing his

son to ( otect.E # Isaiah, s(eaking o3 the %ay o3 8 ath, says> E;nd I will set the ?gy(tians against the ?gy(tians> and they shall 3ight eve y one against his b othe , and eve y one against his neighbo H city against city, and kingdom against kingdom.E 2 It was no di33e ent seven hund ed yea s ea lie , in the days o3 the catast o(hes caused by Venus. ;t that time an ?gy(tian sage com(lained> EI show thee the land u(side downH the sun is veiled and shines not in the sight o3 men. I show thee the son as enemy, the b othe as 3oe, a man slaying his 3athe .E 1 :he Icelandic VWlus(a says> E%a k g ows the sun ... , othe s shall 3ight and 3ell each othe ... ;Ce/time, swo d/time, shields a e sunde ed, wind/time, wol3/time, e e the wo ld 3allsH no eve shall men each othe s(a e.E 2 :he wa s o3 +halmanese IV, +a gon II, and +ennache ib we e ca ied on in the inte vals between the catast o(hes and at the ve y time o3 thei occu ence. :he cam(aigns we e e(eatedly inte u(ted by the 3o ces o3 natu e. "3 his second cam(aign +ennache ib w ote> E:he month o3 ain set in with eCt eme cold and the heavy sto ms sent down ain u(on ain and snow. I was a3 aid o3 the swollen mountain st eamsH the 3 ont o3 my yoke I tu ned and took the oad to Nineveh.E $ ,e3o e +ennache ib set out on his last cam(aign to Palestine, his ast ologe s told him that he had to hu y i3 he would esca(e calamityH 0 as we know, he did not esca(e it. ;t the same time Isaiah, who encou aged =e5ekiah to esist +ennache ib, eckoned with the (ossibility o3 a disaste in the yea o3 the o((osition o3 6a s, and thus built his ho(e on the inte vention o3 the 3o ces o3 natu e. :he ,abylonians called the yea o3 the close o((osition o3 6a s Ethe yea o3 the 3i e/god,E and the month Ethe month o3 descent o3 the 3i e/god,E as, 3o instance, in an insc i(tion o3 +a gon. In :he ,i th o3 the 8a /)od, the =indu (oet 4alidasa gives a vivid (ictu e o3 the wa s above and on the ea th, weaving them into one g eat battle. EGoul bi ds came, a ho id 3lock to see ... and dimmed the sun ... ;nd monst ous snakes, as black as (owde ed soot, s(itting hot (oison high into the ai , b ought te o to the a my unde 3oot ... :he sun a sickly halo ound him hadH coiling within it 3 ightened eyes could see g eat, w ithing se (ents ... and in the ve y ci cle o3 the sun we e (hantom <ackals.E :he e 3ell, with da ting 3lame and blinding 3lash !ighting the 3a thest heavens, 3 om on high ; thunde bolt whose agonising c ash , ought 3ea and shudde ing 3 om a cloudless sky. :he e came a (elting ain o3 bla5ing coals 8ith blood and bones o3 dead men mingled inH +moke and wei d 3lashes ho i3ied thei soulsH :he sky was dusty g ey like assesB skin. :he ele(hants stumbled and the ho ses 3ell, :he 3ootmen <ostled, leaving each his (ost, :he g ound beneath them t embled at the swell "3 ocean, when an ea thFuake shook the host. . !ightning is usually discha ged between two clouds o a cloud and the g ound. ,ut i3 3o some eason the cha ge o3 the ionos(he e, the elect i3ied laye o3 the u((e atmos(he e, should be su33iciently inc eased, a discha ge would occu between the u((e atmos(he e and the g ound, and a thunde bolt would c ash 3 om a cloudless sky. :he (lanet/god +hiva, 4alidasa says, Ede(osited his seed in 3i eE and gave bi th to 4uma a who battled the g eat demon named :a aka that Et oubled the wo ld.E :he ,abylonian ast ologe s asc ibed to thei (lanet/gods the ability to emit the sounds o3 di33e ent animals / lion, (ig, <ackal, ho se, ass / and o3 two s(ecies o3 bi ds. 9 :he ancient 'hinese likewise asse ted that (lanets emit animal sounds when they a(( oach the ea th

with a ain o3 stones. #0 It is 3ai ly ( obable that on some occasion the c ash o3 the discha ge E3 om the cloudless skyE sounded like E:a/ a/kaE, the name o3 the demon who battled the (lanets. :he ?thio(ian king who went u( against +ennache ib called himsel3 E:aha kaE o E:i hakahE. ## In many (laces in the Nea and 6iddle ?ast this o simila names suddenly became ve y (o(ula at the close o3 the eighth centu y be3o e the ( esent e aH be3o e that time it was unknown. :a aka t oubled the wo ld so that :he seasons have 3o gotten how to 3ollow one anothe nowH they simultaneously b ing 3lowe s o3 autumn, summe , s( ing. :he night when +ennache ibBs a my was dest oyed, he su vived, but acco ding to abbinical sou ces, was badly bu ned. +ome time a3te his inglo ious etu n 3 om Palestine without his a my, he was killed by two o3 his sons as he knelt in a tem(leH ?sa haddon (u sued his b othe /(at icides, killed them, and became king. "n one o3 his cam(aigns against ?gy(t, his a mies became so (anicky at some natu al (henomenon that they scatte ed and 3led 3 om Palestine whe e +ennache ib had lost his a my to the sto m/god Ne gal. :he laconic cunei3o m ch onicles, com(osed in the days o3 Nabonidus, the last ,abylonian king, who lived in the siCth centu y, eco d the main events o3 ?sa haddonBs wa > EIn the siCth yea the t oo(s o3 ;ssy ia went to ?gy(t. :hey 3led be3o e a g eat sto m.E #2 ;n a my as disci(lined as the ;ssy ian a my unde one o3 its 3amous kings would not have un away 3 om a cloudbu st. :he event mentioned in this insc i(tion suggested to its mode n (ublishe that the sc i(tu al sto y o3 a blast that dest oyed the ;ssy ian host e3e s, not to +ennache ibBs a my, but to that o3 his successo /sonH othe wise one must think that on two simila occasions a natu al cause subdued the ;ssy ian a my. =oweve , it is ( obable that a3te the a my o3 +ennache ib was annihilated, violent atmos(he ic discha ges and some (o tents in the sky, so nume ous in those yea s, th ew the ;ssy ian t oo(s into a (anic so that they 3led. :he t embling ea th, the dis(lacement o3 the (oles, the change in the climate, the 3 ightening ( odigies in the sky, caused g eat movements o3 (eo(les. :he ;5tecs changed thei homeland. E:hese 6eCicans ca ied with them an idol which they called =uit5ilo/ (ochtli ... :hey asse ted that this idol commanded them to leave thei count y, ( omising to make them lo ds and maste s o3 all the lands ... which abounded with gold, silve , 3eathe s ... and all the things necessa y 3o li3e. :he 6eCicans de(a ted like the child en o3 Is ael in thei sea ch o3 a ( omised land.E #1 In India the (at on o3 the invading ; yan ace was Ind a, the god o3 wa , the =indu 6a s. :he Ionians and %o ians s( ead to the islands, the !atins we e ( essed by newcome s to the ;(ennine Peninsula, the 'imme ians wande ed 3 om ?u o(e ac oss the ,os(o us into ;sia 6ino , the +cythians c ossed the 'aucasus into ;sia.
777777777777777777777777777777 # , easted> 9eco ds o3 ?gy(t, IV, +ec. -02. 2 Isaiah #9>2. 1 )a dine > ENew !ite a y 8o ks 3 om ;ncient ?gy(t,E Aou nal o3 ?gy(tian ; chaeology, I (#9#2). 2 :he Poetic ?dda> VWlus(a (t ansl. ,ellows). $ !uckenbill> 9eco ds o3 ;ssy ia, II, +ec. 2$0. 0 )in5be g> !egends, IV, 20-, n. $1. - !uckenbill> 9eco ds o3 ;ssy ia, II, +ec. #2#. . : anslated by ;. 8. 9yde (#9#2). 9 4ugle > ,abylonische Deito dnung, (. 9#. #0 G. ; ago> ;st onomie (o(ulai e, IV, 202. ## Isaiah 1->9. #2 +idney +mith> ,abylonian =isto ical :eCts (#922), (. $. #1 6anusc it 9amf e5 (o3 the #0th centu y) t anslated by %. 'ha nay> =istoi e de lBo igine des Indiens Fui

habitent la Nouvelle ?s(agne selon leu s t aditions (#901), (. 9. 777777777777777777777777777777

8e emembe that Aose(hus Glavius, a3te giving =e odotusB account o3 the dest uction o3 +ennache ibBs a my, intended to Fuote a dive gent account o3 ,e osus, and int oduced it with the wo ds, E=e e is what w ote ,e osus,E but the account is not ( ese ved. Now, i3 we know what ha((ened on the night o3 6a ch 21, /0.-, a e we not able to 3ind out what the missing account o3 ,e osus wasM 8e can assume that ,e osus knew that the catast o(he was caused by a (lanet in contact with the ea th. +eneca, in his wo k, Natu ales Fuaestiones, desc ibed the cataclysms o3 wate and 3i e that visited this wo ld and b ought it to the b ink o3 dest uction. =e also ( esented the o(inion o3 ,e osus, which is ema kable in that it e3lects ancient knowledge simila to that at which we a ived a3te a long se ies o3 deductions and conclusions. +eneca w ote> E,e osus, the t anslato o3 ,el, att ibuted to the (lanets the cause o3 these (e tu bations.E ;nd he added> E=is ce tainty in this matte was so g eat as to 3iC the dates o3 the unive sal con3lag ation and deluge. ?ve ything te est ial, he says, will be bu ned, when the sta s which now 3ollow di33e ent o bits will eunite in the sign o3 'ance , and will (lace themselves in one line, so that a st aight line would (ass th ough the cente s o3 all these globes. :he deluge will come when the same (lanets will have con<unction in 'a( ico n.E # %is ega ding the s(eci3ic details o3 this assum(tion, the e still emains a ke nel o3 t uth. :he catast o(hes o3 3lood and o3 con3lag ation we e asc ibed to the in3luence o3 (lanets, and the con<unction was called the 3atal moment. +uch being the o(inion o3 ,e osus on the cause o3 the wo ld catast o(hes, the catast o(he that be3ell +ennache ib was ( obably eC(lained by him in the same way. 8e a e thus able to econst uct ,e osusB eco d which was omitted in Aose(hus. 'haldean schola s we e awa e that the (laneta y system is not igid and that the (lanets unde go changes. 8e 3ind in %iodo us o3 +icily> E?ach o3 the (lanets, acco ding to them Ithe 'haldeansJ has its own (a ticula cou se, and its velocities and (e iods o3 time a e sub<ect to change and va iation.E 2 :hey counted the ea th among the (lanets, 3o %iodo us w ote that the 'haldeans stated Ethat the moonBs light is e3lected and he ecli(ses a e due to the shadow o3 the ea th.E 1 :his im(lies that they knew the ea th is a s(he e in s(ace, a 3act known also to a numbe o3 ) eek (hiloso(he s. 2 ; 3ew ) eek (hiloso(he s we e awa e that (lanets, on close contact, a e g eatly distu bed, and that out o3 thei agitated atmos(he es comets a e bo n. :he (e tu bations in such contacts may be so st ong that, when the ea th is involved, deluge o wo ld con3lag ation may take (lace. Deno, the 3ounde o3 the +toic school o3 thought, $ and likewise ;naCago as (/$00 to /22.) and %emoc itus (/200 to /120), decla ed that (lanets at con<unction may become coalescent, thus taking the 3o m o3 comets. ; istotle, who misunde stood thei teaching, decla ed> E8e have ou selves obse ved Au(ite coinciding with one o3 the sta s o3 the :wain and hiding it, and yet no comet was 3o med.E 0 %iogenes !aP tius eco ded that ;naCago as thought that comets a e Ea con<unction o3 (lanets which emit 3lamesE -H and +eneca, without naming ;naCago as and %emoc itus, w ote> E=e e is the eC(lanation which is given by some ancient autho s. 8hen a (lanet ente s in con<unction with anothe , they con3ound thei lights into one light, and they have the a((ea ance o3 an elongated sta ... :he inte val which se(a ates them is illuminated by both o3 them, in3lames and t ans3o ms into a t ail o3 3i e.E . +eneca, who ega ded this as an

eC(lanation o3 the natu e o3 comets, Fuestioned it, easoning that E(lanets cannot emain 3o a long time in con<unctions, because by necessity o3 the law o3 velocity they would se(a ate.E Plato, on the autho ity o3 the ?gy(tian sages, asc ibed the deluge and con3lag ation o3 the wo ld to the action o3 a celestial body that, changing its (ath, (assed close by the ea th, and he even (ointed to the (lanets as the cause o3 (e iodic wo ld catast o(hes. 9 :he ) eek te m 3o the collision o3 (lanets is synodos, which, in the wo ds o3 a mode n inte ( ete , eFui es a meeting in s(ace and also a collision o3 (lanets. #0 :he 9omans knew that the ea th is one o3 the (lanetsH Pliny, 3o instance, w ote> E=uman beings a e dist ibuted all a ound the ea th and stand with thei 3eet (ointing towa d each othe ... ;nothe ma vel, that the ea th he sel3 hangs sus(ended and does not 3all and ca y us with it.E ## :he ea th, one o3 the (lanets, had been sub<ect to con3licts with othe (lanets, and t aces o3 knowledge o3 these occu ences may be 3ound in the ea ly w ite s. " igen w iting against 'elsus stated> E8e do not e3e eithe the deluge o the con3lag ation to the cycles and (laneta y (e iodsH but the cause o3 them we decla e to be the eCtensive ( evalence o3 wickedness, and its (conseFuent) emoval by a deluge o a con3lag ation.E #2 'elsus and " igen we e 3amilia with the view that the deluge and the wo ld con3lag ation we e caused by (lanets, and that these wo ld catast o(hes could be calculated in advance. Pliny w ote> E6ost men a e not acFuainted with a t uth known to the 3ounde s o3 the science 3 om thei a duous study o3 the heavens,E namely, that thunde bolts Ea e the 3i es o3 the th ee u((e (lanets.E #1 =e di33e entiated them 3 om lightning caused by the dashing togethe o3 two clouds. +eneca, his contem(o a y, also distinguished lightnings that Eseek housesE o Elesse boltsE and the bolts o3 Au(ite Eby which the th ee3old mass o3 mountains 3ell.E #2 ; vivid (ictu e o3 an inte (laneta y discha ge is given by Pliny> E=eavenly 3i e is s(it 3o th by the (lanet as c ackling cha coal 3lies 3 om a bu ning log.E #$ I3 such a discha ge 3alls on the ea th, Eit is accom(anied by a ve y g eat distu bance o3 the ai ,E ( oduced Eby the bi th/ (angs, so to s(eak, o3 the (lanet in t avail.E #0 Pliny says also that a bolt 3 om 6a s 3ell on ,olsena, Ethe ichest town in :uscany,E and that the city was enti ely bu ned u( by this bolt. #- =e e3e s to :uscan w itings as the sou ce o3 his in3o mation. ,y :uscan w itings a e meant ?t uscan books. ,olsena, o the ancient Volsinium, was one o3 the chie3 cities o3 the ?t uscans, the (eo(le whose civili5ation ( eceded that o3 the !atin 9omans on the ;(ennine Peninsula. :he ?t uscan states occu(ied the a ea o3 what was late known as :uscany, between the :ibe and the ; no. Nea ,olsena, o Volsinium, is a lake o3 the same name. :his lake 3ills a basin nine miles long, seven miles wide, and 2.$ 3eet dee(. Go a long time this basin was ega ded as the wate /3illed c ate o3 a volcano. =oweve , its a ea o3 ##- sFua e kilomete s eCceeds by 3a that o3 the la gest known c ate s on the ea th / those in the ;ndes in +outh ;me ica and those in the =awaiian (+andwich) Islands in the Paci3ic. =ence, the idea that the lake is the c ate o3 an eCtinct volcano has ecently been Fuestioned. 6o eove , although the bottom o3 the lake is o3 lava, and the g ound a ound the lake abounds with ashes and lava and columns o3 basalt, the talus o3 a volcano is lacking. :aking what Pliny said o3 an inte (laneta y discha ge togethe with what has actually been 3ound at Volsinium, one may wonde whethe the cinde s and the lava and the columns o3 basalt could (ossibly be the emains o3 the contact Pliny mentions. ;gain, i3 the discha ge was caused by 6a s, it would ( obably have occu ed in the eighth ( e/'h istian centu y. :he catast o(hes o3 that centu y b ought the g eat ?t uscan civili5ation into sudden decline and launched the mig ation o3 newcome s to Italy leading to the 3ounding o3 9ome. :he

?t uscans, as cited by 'enso inus and Fuoted in the +ection on E:he 8o ld ;ges,E thought that celestial ( odigies augu ed the end o3 each age. E:he ?t uscans we e ve sed in the science o3 the sta s, and a3te having obse ved the ( odigies with attention, they eco ded these obse vations in thei books.E

777777777777777777777777777777 # :he same idea, but with va ying (ositions o3 the sta s as the cause o3 the catast o(hes, is 3ound in Nigidius, Fuoted by !ucan, and in "lvm(iodo > 'ommenta y to ; istotle. +ee ,oll> +te nglaube, (. 20#, and idem, +(hae a, (. 102H )ennadius ()eo ge +chola ius, (at ia ch at 'onstantino(le)> %ialogus 'h istiani cum Audaeo (#202). ; G ench edition o3 the wo ks o3 )ennadius was ( inted in #910. 2 %iodo us o3 +icily> :he !ib a y o3 =isto y ii. 1# (t ansl. "ld3athe ). 1 Ibid. 2 ; ista chus o3 +amos ecogni5ed that the ea th evolves togethe with othe (lanets a ound the sun. $ +eneca> %e 'ometis. 0 ; istotle> 6eteo ologica i, 0 (t ansl. ?. 8. 8ebste , #91#). - %iogenes !aP tius> !ives, E!i3e o3 ;naCago as.E . +eneca> %e cometis. 9 Plato> :imaeus 22', 19%. #0 ,oll> +te nglaube, ((. 91 and 20#. :he ) eek te m E eFui es a meeting in the same ho i5ontal and ve tical (lanes and a collision. :he (lanets th ust one anothe and cause the dest uction o3 the wo ldE (Eein Dusamment e33en und auch ein Dusammenstossen au3 de selben ?bene, also nach , eite und =Whe stossen die Planeten ineinande und lWsen dadu ch das 8eltende ausE). ## Pliny> Natu al =isto y, ii. 2$. #2 " igen> E;gainst 'elsusE, ,k. iv, 'ha(, Cii, in Vol. IV o3 :he ;nte/Nicene Gathe s (ed. ;. 9obe t and A. %onaldson, #.90). #1 Pliny> Natu al =isto y, ii. #.. #2 +eneca> :hyestes. #$ Pliny, ii. #.. #0 Ibid. #- Ibid., ii. $1. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he +to me o3 the 8alls

Gollowing the u(heavals in which, in the wo ds o3 the ,abylonians, 6a s/Ne gal Emoved the ea th o33 its hinges,E and, in the wo ds o3 Isaiah, Ethe ea th moved eCceedinglyE and was E emoved out o3 he (lace,E mighty and e(eated ea thFuakes devastated whole count ies, dest oyed cities, and shatte ed the walls o3 st ongholds. E,loodstained sto me o3 wallsE is the eve e(eated e(ithet o3 ; es in =ome . =esiod, too, calls ; es Esacke o3 towns.E # E,ehold,E said ;mos, Ethe !o d commandeth, and he will smite the g eat house with b eaches Iinto (iecesJ.E :hen came the EcommotionE o3 the days o3 @55iah, and o3 the days o3 ;ha5, and o3 the days o3 =e5ekiah, when Ethe b icks a e 3allen downE (Isaiah 9 >#0) and only Ea ve y small emnantE o3 the (eo(le emained (Isaiah #>9). :hose we e days o3 Et ouble, and o3 t eading down, and o3 (e (leCity by the !o d )od o3 =ostsE and Eb eaking down the wallsE (Isaiah 22>$). 9ecu ent dis(lacement o3 the te est ial globe, to sion o3 the lithos(he e, and mig ation o3 the inne (a ts o3 the globe must have caused a succession o3 ea thFuakes ove a ( olonged (e iod. ,ut in com(a ison with the g eat catast o(hes, when Eheaven eeled,E the local ea thFuakes eceived only slight attention. In the e(o ts o3 the ast ologe s o3 Nineveh and ,abylon, ea thFuakes a e o3ten mentioned in <ust a single line, as in the 3ollowing message> E!ast night the e was an ea thFuake.E :he 3 eFuent t embling o3 the ea th became a sou ce o3 omens 3o the magicians, which we e educed to 3o mulas> E8hen the ea th Fuakes in the month o3 +hevat,E o E8hen the ea th Fuakes in the month o3 Nisan,E then one o anothe event will take (lace. ;s in the 3ollowing sentence, the obse vation could be basically co ect> E8hen the ea th Fuakes th ough the whole day, the e will be a dest uction o3 the land. 8hen it Fuakes continually, the e will be

an invasion o3 the enemy.E 2 9e(o ts conce ning ea thFuakes in 6eso(otamia in the eighth and seventh centu ies a e ve y nume ous, and they a e dated. Nothing com(a able is known in mode n times. In some o3 these e(o ts, Ne gal (6a s) is mentioned as the cause o3 the calamity. E:he ea th shookH a colla(sing catast o(he was all ove the count yH Ne gal st angles the count y.E 2 :em(les const ucted with g eat ca e, so that the 3oundations might abso b shocks and esist them, we e o3ten dest oyed by the catast o(hes, and the cause was again the (lanet Ne gal. :hus Ne gal is e3e ed to in connection with the colla(se o3 the tem(le in Ni((u that was dest oyed in an ea thFuake. $ :he kings o3 ,abylon, the successo s to +ennache ib, eco d in many insc i(tions the e(ai ing o3 b eaches in the (alaces and tem(les o3 the land. +ometimes the same tem(les o (alaces we e e(ai ed by two kings in close succession, as in the case o3 Ne gilissa (Ne iglissa ) and Nebuchadne55a . 0 In the g eat catast o(hes o3 the eighth to the seventh centu ies, ( actically no st uctu e esca(ed damage, and new buildings we e e ected so as to abso b 3 eFuent shocks. ;t the close o3 the seventh centu y, Nebuchadne55a desc ibed the ( ecautions taken in (lacing the 3oundations o3 the (alaces Eon the b east o3 the nethe wo ldEH these 3oundations o3 la ge stones with <oints 3itting one into the othe have been unea thed in eCcavations. - :he ,abylonians also 3ound that walls o3 bu nt b icks we e o3 g eate elasticity than walls o3 stonesH they we e built on 3oundations o3 g eat blocks o3 stone. . :hese eve ecu ent ea thshocks in a count y as ich in oil as 6eso(otamia also caused e u(tions o3 ea th de(osits> E:he ea th th ew oil and as(halt,E obse ved the o33icial ast ologe s, as the e33ect o3 an ea thFuake. 9 :he +c i(tu es and the abbinical sou ces eco d e(eatedly the e(ai ing o3 b eaches in the =ouse o3 the !o d. "n the day o3 the EcommotionE o3 @55iah the tem(le su33e ed a g eat b each. #0 9e3e ences to b eaches in houses, la ge (alaces, and small dwellings a e ve y nume ous in the ( o(hets o3 the eighth centu y. Isaiah s(eaks o3 Eb eaches o3 the city o3 %avid that they a e many.E ## 9e(ai o3 b eaches in the :em(le was the (e manent conce n o3 the kings o3 Ae usalem, also Ethe wall that was b okenE o3 the cityBs oute bulwa k. #2 +ince in mode n times ea thFuakes occu only ve y seldom in Palestine, the 3 eFuent e3e ence o3 the ( o(hets and (salmists to them caused (e (leCity> E:he ea thFuake held a (lace in the eligious conce(tions o3 the Is aelites Fuite out o3 ( o(o tion to its slight and elatively a e occu ence in Palestine.E #1 : oy, the scene o3 the =ome ic e(os, was dest oyed by an ea thFuake. :he 3amous EsiCth cityE at =issa lik, ecogni5ed as the 3o t ess o3 P iam, king o3 the : o<ans, 3ell because o3 ea thshocks, a 3act established in the eCcavation by the a chaeological eC(edition o3 the @nive sity o3 'incinnati. #2 :he e a e a numbe o3 theo ies conce ning the cause o3 the ea thFuakes, but none o3 them is gene ally acce(ted. "ne connects the cause o3 ea thFuakes with the ( ocess o3 mountain building. 6ountains a e su((osed to have thei o igin in the cooling o3 the ea th and cont action o3 its c ust. #$ :his theo y is based on the assum(tion that o iginally the ea th was liFuid. :he 3olding o3 the c ust c eates mountains and causes ea thFuakes. ;nothe theo y sees the cause o3 ea thFuakes in the mig ation o3 land masses, even o3 enti e continents. :his theo y, too, is based on the conce(t o3 a thin c ust esting on a viscous subst atum. )eological and 3aunal simila ities o3 +outh ;me ica and 8est ;3 ica suggested thei se(a ation in ecent geological times, and thei mig ation in o((osite di ections. ;cco ding to this theo y, the mal convection is the mechanical cause o3 this mig ation, with magma su((lying the heat. +till anothe theo y su((oses that the e a e g eat mountains and dee( valleys on the inne

su 3ace o3 the c ust, 3acing the magma. :he sliding o3 huge ocks along these mountainous slo(es unde the (ull o3 g avity is ( esumed to be the cause o3 ea thFuakes. :he mountainous weste n coast o3 No th and +outh ;me ica, o the sho e o3 the 'o dille as, and the easte n coast o3 ;sia st etching into the ?ast Indies 3o m the a ea o3 g eatest ea thFuake activity, with .0 (e cent o3 the enti e mechanical 3o ce eleased in ea thFuakes concent ated the e. ;nothe a ea st etches 3 om the 6edite anean towa d the highland o3 ;sia. In an attem(t to 3ind the elation o3 ea thFuakes to othe natu al (henomena, a statistical investigation o3 the ea thFuakes o3 the middle o3 the nineteenth centu y was conducted, and the esults suggested that ea thFuakes a e mo e nume ous when the moon is new and again when it is 3ull, o when the (ull o3 the moon acts in the same di ection as the (ull o3 the sun o when it acts in the o((osite di ection. :he time when the moon is in (e igee, o closest to the ea th, was also 3ound to be 3avo able 3o ea thFuakes. #0 :hese obse vations we e challenged as to thei gene al validity. =oweve , mountain building is a ( ocess the causes o3 which have not been establishedH the mig ation o3 continents is but a hy(othesisH and the c umbling o3 the ea thBs c ust must have some additional cause besides the 3o ce o3 g avity, because this 3o ce was active when the c ust was built and made (ossible the 3o mation o3 the c ust in its ( esent sha(e. =ence, all these theo ies a e only hy(otheses about unknown causes o3 known (henomena. "n the basis o3 the mate ial o33e ed in the 3o egoing (ages, the assum(tion is made he e that ea thFuakes esult 3 om to sion o3 the c ust 3ollowing a change in the (osition o3 the eFuato and the dis(lacement o3 matte inside the globe caused by the di ect att action o3 a cosmic body when in a close contact. Pull, to sion, and dis(lacement we e es(onsible 3o mountain building, too. I3 this conce(tion o3 the causes o3 ea thFuakes is co ect, then the e must have been 3ewe and 3ewe ea thFuakes du ing the cou se o3 time since the last cosmic catast o(he. :he egions o3 the ;(ennine Peninsula, the easte n 6edite anean, and 6eso(otamia, 3o which we have eliable eco ds, can be com(a ed in this es(ect with the same egions o3 today. ?a thFuakes in ;sia 6ino , ) eece, and 9ome a e desc ibed o mentioned by many classic autho s. Go the (u (ose o3 com(a ison with the ea th/t emo activity o3 the ( esent day, it is enough to (oint to 3i3ty/seven ea thFuakes e(o ted in 9ome in a single yea #- du ing the Punic wa s (/2#-). I3 ou inte ( etation o3 the cause o3 ea thFuakes is co ect, then not only must mo e t emo s and st onge shocks have been eC(e ienced in olden times, but also thei cause must have been known to the ancients. Pliny w ote> B:he theo y o3 the ,abylonians deems that even ea thFuakes and 3issu es in the g ound a e caused by the 3o ce o3 the sta s that is the cause o3 all othe (henomena, but only by that o3 those th ee sta s ((lanets) to which they assign thunde bolts.E #.
777777777777777777777777777777 # =esiod> :heogony, ##. 91$ +. Pu anda a o Etown dest oyingE is the usual a((ellative o3 Ind a. 2 9. '. :hom(son (ed.)> :he 9e(o ts o3 the 6agicians and ;st ologe s o3 Nineveh and ,abylon in the , itish 6useum (#900), Vol. II, Nos. 201, 20$. 1 +ee 4ugle > ,abylonische Deito dnung, (. ##0. 2 Ibid. $ !angdon> +ume ian and ,abylonian Psalms, (. 99. 0 +ee the +ection E6a s 6oves the ?a th 3 om its Pivot,E note 0. - 9. 4oldeway> :he ?Ccavations at ,abylon (#9#2)H idem> %as wiede entstandene ,abylon (2th ed., #92$). . 4oldeway> %ie 4Wnigsbu gen von ,abylon (#91#/#919), Vols. I and II. '3. Pliny, ii. .2> E:he solidly built (o tion o3 the city being s(ecially liable to colla(ses o3 this natu e ... walls built o3 clay b icks su33e less damage 3 ont being shaken.E 9 4ugle > ,abylonische Deito dnung, (. ##-. #0 Aose(hus> ;ntiFuities, IL. C. 2. +ee )in5be g> !egends, VI, 1$.. ## Isaiah 22>9.

#2 II 4ings #2>$H 22>$H II 'h onicles 12>$H ;mos 0>##H 9>##. #1 ;. !ods> Is ael> G om Its ,eginnings to the 6iddle o3 the ?ighth 'entu y (t ansl. +. =. =ooke, #912), (. 1#. #2 '. 8. ,legen> E?Ccavation at : oy,E ;me ican Aoumal o3 ; chaeology, LLLIL (#91$), #-. #$ +ee the discussion o3 the ( oblem o3 mountain building in the +ection E:he Planet ?a th.E #0 '3. the scienti3ic (ublications o3 ;. Pe ey. 2-$ #- Pliny ii. .0. #. Pliny ii. .#. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he +teeds o3 6a s

'ha(te $

:=? ';+? "G ;b aham 9ockenbach and %avid =e licius, who w ote about the yea #000, and who we e in3o med on the matte o3 the comets o3 antiFuity, # shows that the contents o3 some old manusc i(ts we e known to the schola ly wo ld then, though not to modent schola s. ; schola and (am(hletee , Aonathan +wi3t, in his )ullive Bs : avels (#-20), w ote that the (lanet 6a s had two satellites, ve y small ones. E'e tain ast ologe s ... have likewise discove ed two lesse sta s, o satellites, which evolve about 6a s, whe eo3 the inne most is distant 3 om the cente o3 the ( ima y (lanet eCactly th ee o3 its diamete s, and the oute most 3iveH the 3o me evolves in the s(ace o3 ten hou s, and the latte in twenty/one and a hal3 ... which evidently shews them to be gove ned by the same law o3 g avitation, that in3luences the othe heavenly bodies.E 2 ;ctually 6a s has two satellites, me e ocks, one being as small as about ten (M) miles in diamete , the othe only 3ive(M) miles. 1 "ne t avels a ound 6a s in - hou s 19 minutes, the othe in 10 hou s #. minutes. :hei distance 3 om the cente o3 6a s is even less than +wi3t said it was. 2 :hey we e discove ed by ;sa(h =all in #.--. 8ith the o(tical inst uments o3 the days o3 +wi3t, they could not have been seen, and neithe Newton no =alley, the contem(o a ies o3 +wi3t, no 8illiam =e schel in the eighteenth o !eve ie in the nineteenth centu y sus(ected thei eCistence. $ It was bold o3 +wi3t to assume thei ve y sho t (e iods o3 evolution (months), measu ed only in hou sH it was a ve y a e coincidence, indeed, i3 +wi3t invented these satellites, guessing co ectly not only thei eCistence, but also thei numbe (two), and es(ecially thei ve y sho t evolutions. :his (assage o3 +wi3t a oused the lite a y c iticsB wonde . It is an even chance that +wi3t invented the two satellites o3 6a s and thus by a a e accident came close to the t uth. ,ut it may also have been that +wi3t had ead about the t abants in some teCt not known to us o to his contem(o a ies. :he 3act is that =ome knew about the Etwo steeds o3 6a sE that d ew his cha iotH Vi gil also w ote about them. 0 8hen 6a s was ve y close to the ea th, its two t abants we e visible. :hey ushed in 3 ont o3 and a ound 6a sH in the distu bances that took (lace, they ( obably snatched some o3 6a sB atmos(he e, dis(e sed as it was, and a((ea ed with gleaming manes. - :he steeds we e yoked when 6a s (; es) ( e(a ed to descend to the ea th on a (unitive eC(edition. 8hen ;sa(h =all discove ed the satellites, he gave them the names o3 EPhobosE (E:e o E) and E%eimosE (E9outE), the two steeds o3 6a sH . without 3ully eali5ing what he did, he gave the satellites the same names by which they we e known to the ancients. 8hethe o not +wi3t bo owed his knowledge o3 the eCistence o3 two t abants o3 6a s 3 om some ancient ast ological wo k, the ancient (oets knew o3 the eCistence o3 the satellites o3 6a s.
777777777777777777777777777777 # +ee the +ection, E:he 'omet o3 :y(hon.E 2 : avels into +eve al 9emote Nations o3 the 8o ld , by !emuel )ullive (!ondon, #-20), ##,21. 1 :he diamete s o3 these satellites a e not eCactly known (9ussell, %ugan and +tewa t, #92$). 2 Phobos is distant 3 om the (lanetBs su 3ace less than one diamete o3 the (lanet (3 om the (lanetBs cente less than one and a hal3 diamete s o3 the (lanet). $ !eve ie died one month a3te ;sa(h =all made his discove y. 0 Iliad Cv. ##9H )eo gics iii. 9#. =o ses we e sac i3iced to 6a s (Pluta ch, 9oman Kuestions, Ccvii) eithe because they a e animals em(loyed in wa , o because a3 the t abants o3 6a s which looked like ho ses d awing a cha iot. - ). ;. ;twate suggests that these might have been elect ical e33ects. . ;sa(h =all> :he +atellites o3 6a s (#.-.)> E"3 the va ious names that have been ( o(osed 3o these satellites, I

have chosen those suggested by 6 . 6adan o3 ?ton, ?ngland,E %eimos and Phobos. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he :e ible "nes

Venus had a tail, conside ably sho tened since the time it was a comet, but still long enough to give the im( ession o3 a hanging 3lame, o smoke, o attached hai . 8hen 6a s clashed with Venus, aste oids, # meteo ites, and gases we e to n 3 om this t ailing (a t, and began a semi/inde(endent eCistence, some 3ollowing the o bit o3 6a s, some othe (aths. :hese swa ms o3 meteo ites with thei gaseous a((endages we e newbo n cometsH 3lying in bands and taking va ious sha(es, they made an uncanny im( ession. :hose which 3ollowed 6a s closely looked like a t oo( 3ollowing thei leade . :hey also an along di33e ent o bits, g ew Fuickly 3 om small to giant si5e, and te o i5ed the (eo(les o3 the ea th. ;nd when, soon a3te the im(act o3 Venus and 6a s, 6a s began to th eaten the ea th, the new comets, unning ve y close to the ea th, added to the te o , continually ecalling the hou o3 (e il. ; es o3 =ome , going into battle, is accom(anied by neve esting ho ible c eatu es, :e o , 9out, and %isco d. :e o and 9out yoke the gleaming ho ses o3 ; es, themselves d ead3ul beasts, also known by these namesH %isco d, Esiste and com ade o3 man/slaying ; es, ageth incessantlyH she at the 3i st ea s he c est but little, yet the ea3te (lanteth he head in heaven, while he 3eet t ead on ea th.E +imila ly, the ,abylonians saw the (lanet 6a s/Ne gal in the com(any o3 demons, and w ote in thei hymns to Ne gal> 2 E) eat giants, aging demons, with awesome membe s, un at his ight and at his le3t.E :hese E aging demonsE a e (ictu ed also in the Ne gal/ ? iskigal (oemH 1 they b ing (estilence and cause ea thFuakes. It a((ea s that the mythological 3igu es o3 the Gu ies o3 the !atins o the ? inyes o3 the ) eeks, with se (ents winding about thei heads and a ms, 3lashing 3lame with thei eyes, swinging to ches a ound like wheels, g ew out o3 the same ( odigies which moved a(idly, changed thei 3o ms hou ly, and acted violently. :he ? inyes t aveled in a g ou(, like hunt esses o like a E(ack o3 savage hounds,E 2 but sometimes they a((ea ed to be s(lit into two g ou(s. $ :o these comets, t aveling in bands with 6a s o Ind a, a e dedicated many Vedic =ymns, indeed a g eat (a t o3 them. :hey a e called E6a utsE Eshining like snakes,E Ebla5ing in thei st ength,E Eb illiant like 3i es.E 0 " Ind a, " st ong he o, g ant thou glo y to us with the 6a uts, te ible with the te ible ones, st ong and give o3 victo y. ;nd it is said that thei Est ength is like the vigo o3 thei 3athe .E *ou ma ch, " 6a uts, a((ea s b illiant ... 8e invoke you, the g eat 6a uts, the constant wande e s ... !ike the dawn, they uncove the da k nights with ed ays, the st ong ones, with thei b illiant light, as with a sea o3 milk ... +t eaming down with ushing s(lendo , they have assumed thei b ight and b illiant colo . . +tones we e hu led by these comets. *ou the (owe 3ul, who shine with you s(ea s, shaking even what is unshakable by st ength ...

=u ling the stone in the 3lightN ... ;ll beings a e a3 aid o3 the 6a uts. 9 6ay you ma ch be b illiant, " 6a uts ... +hining like snakes. 6ay that st aight3o wa d sha3t o3 you s, " 6a uts, bounteous give s, be 3a 3 om us, and 3a the stone which you hu lN #0 6eteo ites, when ente ing the ea thBs atmos(he e, make a 3 ight3ul din. +o did the 6a uts> ?ven by day the 6a uts c eate da kness ... :hen 3 om the shouting o3 the 6a uts ove the whole s(ace o3 the ?a th, men eeled 3o wa d. ## :his da kness and this din we e na ated in sc i(tu al and abbinical sou ces, in 9oman t aditions, and in hymns to Ne gal. ;s the simila ity o3 the desc i(tion o3 the Ete ible onesE in the Vedic =ymns and in Aoel is st iking, but has not been noticed, a 3ew mo e Fuotations should 3ollow he e. :he comets, <ust beginning to whi l, looked like evolving to ches o w ithing snakesH they assumed the 3o m o3 s(inning wheels, and the celestial (hantasmago ia a((ea ed like swi3t cha iotsH changing thei 3o ms, the 6a uts looked like ho ses acing along the sky, and then again like a host o3 wa io s, lea(ing, climbing, i esistible. :he ve ses o3 the second cha(te o3 Aoel (2>2/##) a e given in thei o de , inte s(e sed with ve ses taken 3 om a numbe o3 Vedic =ymns dedicated to the 6a uts. Aoel 2>2> ; day o3 da kness and o3 gloominess, a day o3 clouds and o3 thick da kness, as the mo ning s( ead u(on the mountains> a g eat (eo(le and a st ongH the e hath not been eve the like, neithe shall be any mo e a3te it, even to the yea s o3 many gene ations. Vedic =ymns> ?ven by day the 6a uts c eate da kness. #2 :he te ible 6a ut/host o3 eve youth3ul he oes. #1 ;ll beings a e a3 aid o3 the 6a uts> they a e men te ible to behold, like kings. #2 Aoel 2>1> ; 3i e devou eth be3o e themH and behind them a 3lame bu neth ... Nothing shall esca(e them. Vedic =ymns> !ike a blast o3 3i e... ,la5ing in thei st ength, b illiant like 3i es, and im(etuous. #$ Aoel 2>2> :he a((ea ance o3 them is as the a((ea ance o3 ho ses> and as ho semen, so shall they un. Vedic =ymns> ;t thei acings, the ea th shakes,

as i3 b oken, when on the heavenly (ath they ha ness 3o victo y. :hey wash thei ho ses like ace s in the cou ses, they hasten with the (oints o3 the eed on thei Fuick steeds. #0 Aoel 2>$> !ike the noise o3 cha iots on the to(s o3 mountains shall they lea(, like the noise o3 a 3lame o3 3i e that devou eth the stubble, as a st ong (eo(le set in battle a ay. Vedic =ymns> :hey a e like headlong cha iotee s on thei ways. :hey who a e b illiant, o3 te ible design, (owe 3ul, and devou e s o3 3oes. "n you cha iots cha ged with lightning ... =ost o3 you cha iots, te ible 6a ut host. #Aoel 2>0> ,e3o e thei 3ace the (eo(le shall be much (ained> all 3aces shall gathe blackness. Vedic =ymns> ;t you a(( oach the son o3 man holds himsel3 down ... *ou have caused men to t emble, you have caused mountains to t emble. #. Aoel 2>-> :hey shall un like mighty menH they shall climb the wall like men o3 wa H and they shall ma ch eve y one on his ways, and they shall not b eak thei anks. Vedic =ymns> *ou conFuest is violent, s(lendid, te ible, 3ull and c ushing ... :he te ible t ain o3 unti ing 6a uts ... Gull o3 te ible designs, like giants. #9 Aoel desc ibes how these wa io s, coming with 3i e and clouds, will un u(on the wall, ente in at the windows, un to and 3 o in the city, and the swo d can do them no ha m. In simila te ms the Vedic =ymns desc ibe the conFuest by this te ible host. I3 the e is any doubt as to the natu e o3 the Ete ible ones,E the 3ollowing wo ds should dissi(ate it> Aoel 2>#0> :he ea th shall Fuake be3o e themH the heavens shall t embleH the sun and the moon shall be da k, and the sta s shall withd aw thei shining. 6a uts a e o3ten called Eshake s o3 heaven and ea th.E Vedic =ymns> *ou shake the sky. :he te ible ones ... even what is 3i m and unshakable is being shaken. 8hen they whose ma ch is te ible have caused the ocks to t emble, o when the manly 6a uts have shaken the back o3 heaven. =ide the hideous da kness,

make the light which we long 3o N 20 :he ea th g oaned, the meteo ites / the host o3 the !o d / 3illed the sky with a battle c y Eove the whole s(ace o3 the ?a th,E and Emen eeled 3o wa d.E :hese we e, in AoelBs wo ds, the Ewonde s in the heavens and in the ea th, blood, and 3i e, and (illa s o3 smoke,E when the Esun is tu ned into da kness, and the moon into blood.E :he clouds, the 3i e, the te i3ying din, the da kness in the middle o3 the dayH the 3antastic 3igu es on the sky o3 s(eeding cha iots, unning ho ses, ma ching wa io sH the t embling o3 the ea th, the eeling o3 the 3i mament, we e visuali5ed, 3elt, and 3ea ed on the sho es o3 both the 6edite anean +ea and the Indian "cean, 3o they we e not local distu bances, but dis(lays o3 cosmic 3o ces in cosmic dimensions. Aoel did not co(y 3 om the Vedas no the Vedas 3 om Aoel. In mo e than this one instance it is (ossible to show that (eo(les, se(a ated even by b oad oceans, have desc ibed some s(ectacle in simila te ms. :hese we e (ageants, ( o<ected against the celestial sc een, that, a 3ew hou s a3te they we e seen in India, a((ea ed ove Nineveh, Ae usalem, and ;thens, sho tly the ea3te ove 9ome and +candinavia, and a 3ew hou s late ove the lands o3 the 6ayas and Incas. :he s(ectato s saw in the celestial ( odigies eithe demons, as the ? inyes o3 the ) eeks o the Gu ies o3 the !atins, o gods whom they invoked in ( aye s, as in the Vedas o3 the =indus, o the eCecuto s o3 the !o dBs w ath, as in Aoel and Isaiah. In the +ection EIsaiahE we maintained that the a my o3 the !o d was not the ;ssy ian host, but a celestial host. Isaiah called the a my o3 the 6ost =igh Ethe te ible ones.E ;nd he will li3t u( an ensign to the nations 3 om 3a , and will hiss unto them 3 om the end o3 the ea th> and, behold, they shall come with s(eed swi3tly> None shall be wea y no stumble among themH none shall slumbe no slee(H neithe shall the gi dle o3 thei loins be loosed, no the latchet o3 thei shoes be b oken> 8hose a ows a e sha (, and all thei bows bent, thei ho sesB hoo3s shall be counted like 3lint, and thei wheels like a whi lwind. :hei oa ing shall be like a lion ... they shall oa like young lions ... like the oa ing o3 the sea> and i3 one look unto the land, behold da kness and so owH and the light is da kened in the heavens the eo3. 2# :he mighty oa ing, the wheels evolving like a whi lwind, the ho ses with hoo3s o3 3lint, the light da kened in heaven a e once mo e common 3eatu es. Vedic =ymns> :hese st ong, manly, st ong a med 6a uts do not st ive among themselvesH 3i m a e the ho ns, the wea(ons on you cha iot, and on you 3aces a e s(lendou s. 22 :hey who by thei own might seem to have isen above heaven and ea th ... they a e glo ious like b illiant he oes, they shine 3o th like 3oe/dest oying youths. 21 :hey who a e oa ing and hasting like winds, b illiant like the tongues o3 3i e,

(owe 3ul like mailed soldie s ... who hold togethe like the s(okes o3 cha iot/wheels, who glance 3o wa d like victo ious he oes, who a e swi3t, like the best o3 ho ses. 22 :he d ead3ul 3igu es scatte ed a hail o3 meteo ites that bomba ded walls with hot g avel and 3lew into windowsH simultaneously cities we e tu ned into hea(s by the lea(ing g ound. E:he multitude o3 the te ible onesE is Elike small dust,E thei invasion Eshall be at an instant suddenly,E says Isaiah. 2$ :he !o d shall send his host Ewith thunde , and with ea thFuake, and g eat noise, with sto m and tem(est, and the 3lame o3 devou ing 3i e.E :hese 6a uts a e men b illiant with lightning, they shoot with thunde bolts, they bla5e with the wind, they shake the mountains. 20 Isaiah (2$>2) says that Ethe blast o3 the te ible ones is as a sto m against the wall.E :hou Ithe !o dJ shalt b ing down the noise o3 st ange s ... the b anch o3 the te ible ones shall be b ought low. 2:he 6a uts a e o3ten called Ethe te ible ones,E the same te m Isaiah used. E:he te ible onesE o3 the Vedas we e not common sto m clouds, no we e the Ete ible onesE o3 Aoel and Isaiah human beings. 'e tainly only by chance did the simila ity o3 names and (ictu es in the Vedas and the P o(hets esca(e the attention o3 students o3 eligion. :he 6a uts a e unde stood he e as comets which in g eat numbe s sta ted to whi l in the sky on sho t o bits, a3te the im(act o3 6a s and Venus. :hey 3ollowed and ( eceded the (lanet 6a s. :he name 6a s (genitive, 6a tis) would be o3 the same o igin as 6a ut. It is the e3o e g ati3ying to ead that the (hilological elation has al eady been established. 2. It is even mo e satis3acto y that this (hilological eFuation was made without knowledge o3 the actual elation between the (lanet 6a s and Ethe te ible ones.E ,y com(a ing =eb ew histo ical, 'hinese ast onomical, and !atin ecclesiastical mate ial, we have established that it was the (lanet 6a s which caused a se ies o3 catast o(hes in the eighth and seventh centu ies be3o e this e a. :he ) eek e(os eC(lained how it ha((ened that Venus ceased and 6a s began to be a th eat to the ea th. In heavenly battles, ; es o Ne gal, both known as the (lanet 6a s, had an entou age o3 demoniac 3igu es. :he name 6a s is de ived 3 om the Indian 6a utH 6a uts, Ethe te ible ones,E a e Ethe te ible onesE o3 Isaiah and Aoel. :he o igin o3 the ) eek name ; es was debated by (hilologists, 29 and easons against a common oot with the identical 6a s we e admitted. It seems to me that <ust as 6a s is de ived 3 om 6a ut, Ethe te ible onesE o3 the Vedas, so ; es was 3o med 3 om the Ete ible oneE o3 the =eb ew, which, as used by Aoel and Isaiah, is a i5. In a no longe eCtant (assage o3 Pliny the e was something said about comets being ( oduced by (lanets. 10 ;lso the +oochow 'ha t e3e s to occasions in the (ast when comets we e bo n 3 om (lanets, 3 om 6a s, Venus, and othe s.
777777777777777777777777777777 # ,etween 6a s and Au(ite a e ove a thousand aste oids that have been thought to have once been a (lanet. ). ;. ;twate Fue ies whethe they could have esulted 3 om the encounte between 6a s and Venus. 2 ,Wllen Yche > )ebete und =ymnen an Ne gal, (. 29. 1 G agments o3 this (oem we e 3ound ( esumably at el/;ma na. It is ve y likely that the ?thio(ians, who subdued ?gy(t in the eighth centu y, occu(ied ;khet/;ten (:ell/el/;ma na), and that some (a ts o3 the a chives may have been de(osited by them. 2 A. )e33cken> E?umenides, ? inyesE in ?ncyclo(aedia o3 9eligion and ?thics, ed. A. =astings, Vol. V. $ ?u i(ides> I(higenia in :au is, #. 90.H ;eschylus> ?umenides. 0 Vedic =ymns (t ansl. G. 6aC 6Ylle , #.9#). - Ibid., 6andala I, =ymn #-#. . Ibid., =ymn #-2.

9 Ibid., =ymn .$. #0 Ibid., =ymn #-2. ## Ibid., =ymn 2.. #2 Ibid., =ymn 1.. #1 Ibid., 6andala V, =ymn $1, #2 Ibid., 6andala I, =ymn .$. #$ Ibid., =ymns 19, #-2. #0 Ibid., =ymns .0, #-2. #- Ibid., =ymns #-2, #9, 10H 6andala V, =ymn $1. #. Ibid., 6andala I, =ymn 1-. #9 Ibid., =ymns #0., 02. 20 Ibid., =ymns #0., #0-, #00, 1., .0. 2# Isaiah $>2033. 22 6andala VIII, =ymn 20. 21 6andala L, =ymn --. 22 Ibid., =ymn -.. 2$ Isaiah 29>$. 20 Vedic =ymns, 6andala V, =ymn $2. 2- Isaiah 2$>$. 2. E8hy should we ob<ect to 6a s, 6a tis as a (a allel 3o m o3 6a utsM I do not say the two wo ds a e identical, I only maintain that the oot is the same ... I3 the e could be any doubt as to the o iginal identity o3 6a ut and 6a s, it is dis(elled by the @mb ian name ce 3o 6a tio, which, as ) assmann (4uhnBs Deitsch i3t, LVI, #90, etc.) has shown, co es(onds eCactly to the eC( ession sa dha/s ma uta/s, the host o3 the 6a uts. +uch minute coincidences can ha dly be accidental.E G. 6aC 6Ylle > Vedic =ymns (#.9#), I, CCv. 29 Ibid., (. CCvi. 10 '3. Pauly/8issowa> 9eal/?ncyclo(^die, Vol. LI, 'ol. ##$0. 777777777777777777777777777777

+am(les 3 om the Planets

In the Vedic =ymns the 6a uts a e im(lo ed to Ebe 3a 3 om us and 3a the stone which you hu l.E 8hen comets (ass close to the ea th, stones occasionally 3allH the classic case is that o3 the meteo ite that 3ell at ;egos(otami when a comet shone in the sky. # :he =indu book o3 Va ahasanhita sees in the meteo ites (o tents o3 devastation by 3i e and ea thFuake. 2 +ince the (lanets we e gods, stones hu led by them o by the comets c eated in thei encounte s, we e 3ea ed as divine missiles, 1 and when they 3ell and we e 3ound, they we e wo shi(ed. :he stone o3 ' onus at %el(hi, 2 the image o3 %iana at ?(hesus, which, acco ding to ;cts (#9>1$), was the image which 3ell down 3 om Au(ite , the stones o3 ;mon and +eth at :hebes, $ we e meteo ites. ;lso the image o3 Venus on 'y( us was a stone which 3ell 3 om the sky. 0 :he Palladium o3 : oy was a stone that 3ell on the ea th E3 om Pallas ;theneE (the (lanet Venus). :he sac ed stone o3 :y e, too, was a meteo ite elated to ;sta te, the (lanet Venus. E: aveling about the wo ld, she I;sta teJ 3ound a sta 3alling 3 om ai , o sky, which she taking u(, consec ated on the holy island I:y eJ.E . ;t ;(haca in +y ia a meteo ite 3ell which Ewas thought to be ;sta te he sel3,E and a tem(le to ;sta te was built the eH 3estivals Ewe e egula ly timed to coincide with the a((ea ance o3 Venus as the 6o ning o ?vening +ta .E 9 :he stone on which the :em(le o3 +olomon was built / ?ben +hetiya, o 3i e stone / is a bolide that 3ell in the beginning o3 the tenth centu y, in the time o3 %avid, when a comet, which bo e the a((ea ance o3 a man with a swo d, was seen in the sky. #0 :he sac ed shield o3 Numa at 9ome, the ancile o3 9oman 6a s, was a bolideH it 3ell 3 om the sky ## in the beginning o3 the seventh centu y and its o igin was connected with 6a s. In the yea s when the (lanet 6a s had long been (aci3ied, its (osition was still watched

when meteo ites 3ell. :hus the 'hinese w ote in /2##> E:he (lanet 6a s being in the neighbo hood o3 ;nta es, a sta 3ell at :oung/4iun, and a iving to the g ound, it changed to a stone.E #2 :he (eo(le o3 the (lace cut a ( o(hecy o3 evil 3o the em(e o on the stone, and the em(e o had it dest oyed. 'a ving messages to (eo(les o kings on 3allen stones was known be3o e and has been ( acticed since. "ne o3 the stones that 3ell 3 om the sky is still wo shi(ed today / it is the black stone o3 4aaba in 6ecca. Now its su 3ace is black 3 om being touched and kissed innume able times, but unde its cove o3 di t it etains its o iginal eddish colo . It is the holiest thing in 6ecca, built into the wall o3 4aaba, and (ilg ims t avel thousands o3 miles to kiss it. 4aaba is olde than 6ohammedanism. 6ohammed, in the ea ly (a t o3 his ca ee , wo shi(ed Venus (al/@55a) and othe (laneta y gods, which even today en<oy g eat vene ation among the 6oslems as the Edaughte s o3 the god.E #1 :he black stone o3 4aaba, acco ding to 6oslem t adition, 3ell 3 om the (lanet VenusH #2 but anothe legend says that it was b ought down by the ; changel )ab iel. #$ ) anted that this legend may conceal some in3o mation about the o igin o3 the stone, we ought to ask ou selves> 8ho is the ; changel )ab ielM
777777777777777777777777777777 # ; istotle> 6eteo ologica i. -. 2 G a5e > ;3te math (su((lement to :he )olden ,ough) (#910), (. 1#2. :wo ) eek cities, ,u a and =elice, we e dest oyed by ea thFuake and tidal wave and swallowed by the ea th and sea in the yea /1-1, when a comet shone in the sky. 1 ;cco ding to 6ohammed, stones that 3ell on the sin3ul t ibes we e insc ibed with the names o3 those whom they we e destined to kill. 2 ). ;. 8ainw ight> E:he 'oming o3 I on,E ;ntiFuity, L (#910), 0. $ 8ainw ight> Aou nal o3 ?gy(tian ; chaeology, LIL (#911), 29/$2. 0 "livie > 6eteo s, (. 1. - '3. ,anc o3t> :he Native 9aces, III, 102. . 9. 'umbe land> +anchoniathoBs Phoenician =isto y (#-20), (. 10. !ucian says that ;sta te was the 3allen sta o3 +anchoniathon. Ibid., (. 12#. +ee also G. 6ove s> %ie PhWni5ie , I, 019. 9 G a5e > :he )olden ,ough, V, 2$.33. '3. the +ection E8o shi( o3 the 6o ning +ta ,E note #.. #0 I 'h onicles 2#H II +amuel 22. +ee : actate *oma $, 2H c3. : actate +ota 2.bH also )in5be g> !egends, V, #$. ## "livie > 6eteo s, (. 1. #2 ;bel/9Umusat> 'atalogue des bolides et des aU olithes obse vUs \ la 'hine , (. -. #1 8ellhausen> 9este a abischen =eidentums, (. 12. #2 G. !eno mant> !ett es assy iologiFues (#.-# / #.-2), II, #20. #$ Ibid. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he ; changels
In the sc i(tu es the dest uction o3 the a my o3 +ennache ib is said to have been caused by a Eblast,E and a 3ew ve ses late it is said to have been the act o3 an angel o3 )od. # :he :almudic and 6id ashic sou ces, which elate that the a my o3 +ennache ib was dest oyed by a blast and scou ge accom(anied by a te ible din on the night 3ollowing the day when the shadow o3 the sun etu ned ten deg ees, a e mo e s(eci3ic> the scou ge was in3licted by the ; changel )ab iel Ein the guise o3 a column o3 3i e.E 2 In the ( esent esea ch it has been established that it was the wo k o3 6a s. ; e a changels (lanetsM E;n old t adition, dating back to )aonic times, had it that the e a e seven a changels, each o3 whom is associated with a (lanet.E 1 E:he seven a changels we e believed to (lay an im(o tant (a t in the unive sal o de th ough thei association with the (lanets and the constellations. :he e is some va iation, in the di33e ent ve sions, in the angels assigned to the (lanets.E 2 In some medieval w itings )ab iel is associated with the moon, but in one o two with 6a s. $ :he 3ollowing, howeve , makes the identi3ication o3

)ab iel (ossible> )ab iel is connected with the 3oundation o3 9ome. :he Aewish legend says that when +olomon took the daughte o3 Pha aoh to wi3e, Ethe ; changel )ab iel descended 3 om heaven and inse ted a eed in the sea. ;bout this eed mo e and mo e ea th was g adually de(osited, and, on the day on which Ae oboam e ected the golden calves, a little hut was built on the island. :his was the 3i st dwelling/(lace o3 9ome.E 0 =e e )ab iel is cast in the ole the 9omans asc ibed to 6a s, that o3 the 3ounde o3 9ome. - "u assum(tion that it was the (lanet 6a s which caused the dest uction o3 the a my o3 +ennache ib in the s( ing o3 /0.- is im(lied also by abbinical sou ces> +ince the ; changel )ab iel is anothe name 3o the (lanet 6a s, the ancient Aews knew the o igin o3 the EblastE and the identity o3 Ethe angel o3 the !o dE who dest oyed the ;ssy ian a my. )ab iel is the angel a((ointed ove 3i eH he is also, acco ding to " igen, . the angel o3 wa . :hus we again ecogni5e in him 6a s/Ne gal. :he abbinical t adition says that the ;ssy ians o3 the host o3 +ennache ib, be3o e they died, we e (e mitted by )ab iel to hea Ethe song o3 the celestials,E which can be inte ( eted as the sound caused by a close a(( oach o3 the (lanet. :he wo ds o3 Isaiah (11>1), Eat the noise o3 the tumult IhamonJ the (eo(le 3led,E should, acco ding to the Aewish t adition as elated by Ae ome, e3e to )ab iel, =amon being anothe o3 his names. 9 :he (lanet 6a s is ed, and E6aadimE (the ed o the one who eddens) is the name 3o 6a s in the =eb ew ast onomical teCts. "ne teCt says> E:he =oly "ne c eated 6a s / 6aadim / that he should th ow them Ithe nationsJ down into hell.E #0 ; 3ew abbinical sou ces att ibute the dest uction o3 +ennache ibBs a my to the action o3 the ; changel 6ichaelH some asc ibe it to both a changels. ## 8ho, then, is the ; changel 6ichaelM :he enti e sto y o3 ?Codus is connected with the ; changel 6ichael. In ?Codus #2>#9 the (illa o3 3i e and o3 cloud is called ;ngel o3 )od. ;cco ding to the 6id ash, #2 it was the ; changel 6ichael who made himsel3 Ea wall o3 3i eE between the Is aelites and the ?gy(tians. 6ichael is said to be made o3 3i e. :he =aggadah states> E6ichael was a((ointed =igh P iest o3 the celestial sanctua y at the same time that ;a on was made high ( iest o3 Is ael,E that is, in the time o3 the ?Codus. 6ichael was also the angel who a((ea ed to Aoshua, son o3 Nun. :he celestial st uggle at the +ea o3 Passage is de(icted in the 3amilia image o3 the ; changel 6ichael slaying the d agon. 6ichael ( oduces 3i e by touching the ea th, and it was the emanation o3 this a changel that was seen in the bu ning bush. =e has his abode in heaven and is the 3o e unne o3 +hehina o )odBs ( esence, but as !uci3e , 6ichael 3alls 3 om heaven and his hands a e bound by )od. ;ll these att ibutes and acts o3 the ; changel 6ichael #1 lead us to ecogni5e which (lanet he e( esents> it is Venus. :he ; changel 6ichael, o the (lanet Venus, and the ; changel )ab iel, o the (lanet 6a s, saved the (eo(le o3 Is ael on two d amatic occasions. ;t the +ea o3 Passage, when the hosts o3 ?gy(t, (u suing the 3leeing slaves, could be seen in the distance (Ethe child en o3 Is ael li3ted u( thei eyes, and, behold, the ?gy(tians ma ched a3te themH and they we e so e a3 aidE #2), the sea was to n a(a t, and the slaves walked on the bottom o3 the sea and eached the othe sho e. :hei enemies we e th own high by the eleased tides, which 3ell down when a s(a k (assed between Venus and the ea th. ?ight hund ed yea s (assed a3te the ?Codus. :he ;ssy ian hosts, which a gene ation ea lie had emoved the :en : ibes o3 Is ael to an eCile 3 om whence they neve etu ned, invaded Audea with the eC( ess (u (ose o3 c ushing ebellious Audah and emoving him 3 om his homeland and 3 om the scene o3 histo y. ; blast 3 om the (lanet 6a s 3ell u(on the cam( o3 the ;ssy ians and annihilated it. :hose abbinical sou ces which asc ibed this act to both a changels we e not w ong. Venus (ushed 6a s towa d the ea th, and thus both

we e inst umental in the dest uction. :he autho o3 the a(oc y(hal book o3 the ;scension I;ssum(tionJ o3 6oses knew that EVenus and 6a s a e each as la ge as the whole ?a th.E #$ ,ecause o3 thei inte vention at moments when the national eCistence o3 Is ael was at stake, 6ichael and )ab iel we e looked u(on as Egua dian angelsE o3 the ete nal (eo(le. )ab iel is the =eb ew =e cules (=e acles). ;ctually the classic autho s made it clea that =e cules is anothe name 3o the (lanet 6a s. #0 In the )os(el o3 !uke (#>20) )ab iel is the angel o3 ;nnunciation to the Vi gin. In the 9oman 'atholic 'hu ch 6ichael is the conFue o o3 +atan, Ehead o3 the host o3 heaven and 3i st o3 the saints a3te 6a y.E
777777777777777777777777777777 # II 4ings #9>- and 1$H Isaiah 1->-H 1->10. 2 ,abylonian :almud, : actate +anhed in 9$bH :ose3ta :a gum Isaiah #0>12H ;ggadat +hi $, 19 and ., 2$H Ae ome on Isaiah 10>2. 1 A. : achtenbe g> Aewish 6agic and +u(e stition (#919), (. 9.. 2 Ibid., (. 2$0. $ Ibid., (. 2$#. 0 )in5be g> !egends, VI, #2. and 2.0, based on : actate +habbat $0b and othe sou cesH also 6. ) Ynbaum> )esammelte ;u3s^t5e 5u +( ach/ und +agenkunde (#90#), ((. #0933. - !ivy> =isto y o3 9ome, i. P e3aceH 6ac obius> +atu nalia Cii. . " igen> %e ( inci(iis i. .. E; (a ticula o33ice is assigned to a (a ticula angel ... to )ab iel the conduct o3 wa s.E '3. : actate +habbat 22. 9 Ae ome on Isaiah #0>1H ;ggadat +hi $, 19H )in5be g> !egends, VI, 101. '3. V. Vikentiev> E!e %ieu B=emen,BE 9ecueil de : avauC (#910), GacultU des !ett es. @nive sitU ?gy(tienne, 'ai o. #0 Pesikta 9aba 20, 1.b. ## 6id ash +hemot 9aba (ed. Vilna, #..-) #.>$H :ose3ta :a gum II 4ings #9>1$. #2 Pi kei 9abbi ?liese 22. #1 ;n eCtensive lite atu e on the ; changel 6ichael can be 3ound in )in5be g> !egends, IndeC Volume, unde E6ichael.E #2 ?Codus #2>#0. #$ )in5be g> !egends, II, 10-. #0 +ee the section, E:he 8o shi( o3 6a sE, note 2. Pluta ch w ote in "3 the Go tune o3 9omans, 'ha(. LII> EIt is asse ted that =e cules was conceived in a long night, the day having been olled back and eta ded against the o de o3 natu e and the sun a ested.E 777777777777777777777777777777

Planet 8o shi( in Audea in the +eventh 'entu y

In the No the n 4ingdom the ( ocess o3 disassociating the deity 3 om the celestial ob<ect had not yet been com(leted when the 4ingdom was dest oyed (/-21 o /-22), and its (o(ulation was led away into ca(tivity, 3 om which they did not etu n. E;nd they Ithe t ibes o3 the No the n 4ingdomJ le3t all the commandments o3 the !o d thei )od, and made them molten images, even two calves, and made a g ove, and wo shi(ed all the host o3 heaven and se ved ,aalE (II 4ings #->#0). "nly a 3ew yea s a3te the delive ance o3 Audea 3 om the hand o3 +ennache ib, 6anasseh, son o3 =e5ekiah, Ebuilt alta s 3o all the host o3 heaven in the two cou ts o3 the house o3 the !o dE (II 4ings 2#>$). EGo he I6anassehJ built again high (laces which =e5ekiah his 3athe had b oken down, and he ea ed u( alta s 3o ,aalim, and he made g oves, and wo shi((ed all the host o3 heaven, and se ved themE (II 'h onicles 11>1). It was in the time o3 Aosiah, g andson o3 6anasseh, and sho tly be3o e the eCile o3 Audah to ,abylon, that a (u e monotheism eme ged as an outcome o3 the ( og ess the Aewish (eo(le had made du ing its long st uggle 3o national eCistence, on the one hand, and 3o (u i3ication o3 its conce(t o3 )od, on the othe . E;nd the king IAosiahJ commanded =ilkiah the =igh P iest ... to b ing 3o th out o3 the :em(le o3 the !o d all the vessels that we e made

3o ,aal and 3o the g ove, and 3o all the host o3 heaven> and he bu ned them without Ae usalem in the 3ields o3 4id on, and ca ied the ashes o3 them into ,ethel. ;nd he (ut down the idolat ous ( iests, whom the kings o3 Audah had o dained to bu n incense in the high (laces in the cities o3 Audah, and in the (laces ound about Ae usalemH them also that bu ned incense unto ,aal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the (lanets, and to all the host o3 heavenE (II 4ings 21>2/$). :he +c i(tu es do not hide the 3act that in Audea, as well as in Is ael, the (laneta y cult was the o33icial cult with the ( iests and with kings, with many ( o(hets and with the (eo(le. :hus Ae emiah, contem(o a y o3 4ing Aosiah, says> E;t that time, saith the !o d, they shall b ing out the bones o3 the kings o3 Audah, and the bones o3 his ( inces, and the bones o3 the ( iests, and the bones o3 the ( o(hets, and the bones o3 the inhabitants o3 Ae usalem, out o3 thei g aves> and they shall s( ead them be3o e the sun, and the moon, and all the host o3 heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have se ved, and a3te whom they have walked, and whom they have sought, and whom they have wo shi((edE (Ae emiah .>#/ 2). ;nd again he says> E;nd the houses o3 Ae usalem, and the houses o3 the kings o3 Audah, shall be de3iled as the (lace o3 :o(het, because o3 all the houses u(on whose oo3s they have bu ned incense unto all the host o3 heavenE (Ae emiah #9>#1). In the days o3 Ae emiah and 4ing Aosiah, a sc oll was 3ound in a chambe o3 the :em(le (II 4ings 22). It is gene ally thought that it was the book o3 %eute onomy, the last book o3 the Pentateuch. :he teCt o3 the sc oll made a st ong im( ession on the king. E;nd lest thou li3t u( thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the sta s, even all the host o3 heaven, shouldest be d iven to wo shi( them, and se ve them, which the !o d thy )od hath divided unto all nations unde the whole heavenE (%eute onomy 2>#9). E:hou shalt not make thee any g aven image, o any likeness o3 any thing that is in heaven above, o that is in the ea th beneath ... E ($>.), which is a (assage o3 the %ecalogue (?Codus 20>2) ve batim. EI3 the e be 3ound among you ... man o woman, that hath w ought wickedness ... and hath gone and se ved othe gods, and wo shi((ed them, eithe the sun, o moon, o any o3 the host o3 heaven, which I have not commanded ... then shalt thou b ing 3o th that man o that woman ... and shall stone them with stones, till they dieE (#->2/$). :hus we see the centu ies/long st uggle 3o the Aewish )od, ' eato and not unanimated (lanet, itsel3 a c eation, being ca ied on in the closing decades be3o e the eCile to ,abylon with the hel( o3 the book whose autho shi( was asc ibed to 6oses. 8hen the (eo(le o3 Ae usalem we e eCiled to ,abylon, and g ou(s o3 e3ugees succeeded in esca(ing to ?gy(t, taking with them Ae emiah, they said to him> E,ut we will ce tainly ... bu n ou incense unto the Fueen o3 heaven, and to (ou out d ink o33e ings unto he , as we have done, we, and ou 3athe s, ou kings, and ou ( inces, in the cities o3 Audah, and in the st eets o3 Ae usalem> 3o then had we (lenty o3 victuals and we e well, and saw no evil. ,ut since we le3t o33 to bu n incense to the Fueen o3 heaven, and to (ou out d ink o33e ings unto he , we have wanted all things, and have been consumed by the swo d and by the 3amineE (Ae emiah 22>#-/#.). It is a((a ent 3 om this (assage that the (o(ulation o3 Ae usalem that sought e3uge in ?gy(t thought the national catast o(he 3ell u(on thei (eo(le, not because they had le3t the !o d )od, but because in the days o3 Aosiah and his sons they had ceased to wo shi( the (laneta y gods o3 6anasseh and es(ecially the Kueen o3 =eaven, the (lanet Venus. "3 this emnant o3 the (eo(le that went to ?gy(t in the beginning o3 the siCth centu y a milita y colony was established in ?bb (?le(hantine) in southe n ?gy(t. %ocuments ((a(y i) o3 this colony we e unea thed in the beginning o3 this centu y. :he Aewish colony in ?le(hantine 3aith3ully wo shi((ed *ahu (*ahwe), the !o d o3 the sky, as the theo(ho ic

names o3 many membe s o3 the colony testi3y. +chola s we e (u55led, howeve , to 3ind on one o3 the (a(y i the name ;nat/*ahuH they we e unce tain whethe it belonged to a goddess o a (lace o a (e son. E;nat is the 3amilia name o3 the 'anaanite goddess identi3ied with ;thene in a 'y( ian insc i(tion.E # :he histo ical 3acts evealed in the ( esent esea ch make the unde standing o3 such cult easie . :he da k t adition that it was the (lanet Venus that (layed such an im(o tant ole in the days when the 3o ebea s o3 these e3ugees in ?gy(t le3t that land and (assed th ough cataclysms o3 3i e and wate , sea and dese t, was es(onsible 3o this sync etism o3 names. :he Aewish (eo(le did not obtain all o3 its Esu( emacyE in that one day at the 6ountain o3 !awgivingH this (eo(le did not eceive the message o3 monotheism as a gi3t. It st uggled 3o itH and ste( by ste(, 3 om the smoke ising 3 om the ove tu ned valley o3 +odom and )omo ah, 3 om the 3u nace o3 a33liction o3 ?gy(t, 3 om the delive ance at the 9ed +ea amid the sky/high tides, 3 om the wande ing in the cloud/ensh ouded dese t bu ning with na(htha, 3 om the inte nal st uggle, 3 om the sea ch 3o )od and 3o <ustice between man and man, 3 om the des(e ate and he oic st uggle 3o national eCistence on its na ow st i( o3 land against the ove whelming em(i es o3 ;ssy ia and ?gy(t, it became a nation chosen to b ing a message o3 the b othe hood o3 man to all the (eo(les o3 the wo ld.

777777777777777777777777777777 # ?. +achau> ; am^ische Pa(y us and "st aka aus eine <Ydischen 6ilit^ kolonie 5u ?le(hantine (#9##), (. CCv. 2 +. ;. ,. 6e ce > :he +u( emacy o3 Is ael (#92$). 777777777777777777777777777777

; 'ollective ;mnesia
;t any ate they seem to have been st angely 3o get3ul o3 the catast o(he. / Plato> !aws iii (t ansl. 9. ,u y)

'ha(te 0

I: I+ ;N established 3act in the lea ning about the human mind that the most te i3ying events o3 childhood (in some cases even o3 manhood) a e o3ten 3o gotten, thei memo y blotted out 3 om consciousness and dis(laced into the unconscious st ata o3 the mind, whe e they continue to live and to eC( ess themselves in bi5a e 3o ms o3 3ea . "ccasionally they may be conve ted into sym(toms o3 com(ulsion neu oses and even cont ibute to the s(litting o3 the (e sonality. "ne o3 the most te i3ying events in the (ast o3 mankind was the con3lag ation o3 the wo ld, accom(anied by aw3ul a((a itions in the sky, Fuaking o3 the ea th, vomiting o3 lava by thousands o3 volcanoes, melting o3 the g ound, boiling o3 the sea, subme sion o3 continents, a ( imeval chaos bomba ded by 3lying hot stones, the oa ing o3 the cle3t ea th, and the loud hissing o3 to nadoes o3 cinde s. :he e occu ed mo e than one wo ld con3lag ationH the most ho ible one was in the days o3 the ?Codus. In hund eds o3 (assages in thei ,ible, the =eb ews desc ibed what ha((ened. 9etu ning 3 om the ,abylonian eCile in the siCth and 3i3th centu ies be3o e this e a, the =eb ews did not cease to lea n and e(eat the t aditions, but they lost sight o3 the 3ea 3ul eality o3 what they lea ned. ;((a ently, the (ost/?Cile gene ations looked u(on all these desc i(tions as the (oetical utte ances o3 eligious lite atu e. :he talmudists in the beginning o3 this e a dis(uted whethe a deluge o3 3i e, ( o(hesied in old t aditions, would take (lace o notH those who denied that it might come, based thei a gument on the divine ( omise 3ound in the ,ook o3 )enesis, that the %eluge would not be e(eatedH those who a gued to the cont a y, easoning that though the deluge o3 wate would not ecu , the e might come a deluge o3 3i e, we e attacked 3o const uing too na owly the ( omise o3 the !o d. # ,oth sides ove looked the most ( ominent (a t o3 thei t aditions> the histo y o3 the ?Codus and all the (assages about the cosmic catast o(he, endlessly e(eated in ?Codus, Numbe s, and the P o(hets, and in the est o3 the +c i(tu es. :he ?gy(tians in the siCth ( e/'h istian centu y knew about the catast o(hes that ove whelmed othe count ies. Plato na ates the sto y which +olon hea d in ?gy(t about the wo ld dest oyed in deluges and con3lag ations> E*ou emembe but one deluge, though many catast o(hes had occu ed ( eviously.E :he ?gy(tian ( iests who said this and who maintained that thei land was s(a ed on these occasions, 3o got what ha((ened to ?gy(t. 8hen, in the Ptolemaic age, the ( iest 6anetho sta ts his sto y o3 the invasion o3 the =yksos by acknowledging his igno ance o3 the cause and natu e o3 the blast o3 heavenly dis(leasu e that be3ell his land, it becomes a((a ent that the knowledge which was (ossibly alive in ?gy(t in the days when +olon and Pythago as visited the e, had al eady sunk into oblivion in the Ptolemaic age. "nly some ha5y t adition about a con3lag ation o3 the wo ld was e(eated, without knowing when o how it occu ed. :he ?gy(tian ( iest, desc ibed by Plato as conve sing with +olon, su((osed that the memo y o3 the catast o(hes o3 3i e and 3lood had been lost because lite ate men (e ished in them, togethe with all the achievements o3 thei cultu e, and these u(heavals Eesca(ed you notice because 3o many gene ations the su vivo s died with no (owe to eC( ess themselves in w iting.E 2 ; simila a gument is 3ound in Philo the ;leCand ian, who w ote in

the 3i st centu y o3 this e a> E,y eason o3 the constant and e(eated dest uctions o3 wate and 3i e, the late gene ations did not eceive 3 om the 3o me the memo y o3 the o de and seFuence o3 events.E 1 ;lthough Philo knew about the e(eated dest uctions o3 the wo ld by wate and 3i e, it did not occu to him that a catast o(he o3 con3lag ation was desc ibed in the ,ook o3 ?Codus. No did he think that anything o3 this so t took (lace in the days o3 Aoshua o even o3 Isaiah. =e thought that the ,ook o3 )enesis com( ised the sto y o3 Ehow 3i e and wate w ought g eat dest uction o3 what is on the ea th,E and that the dest uction by 3i e, about which he knew 3 om the teachings o3 the ) eek (hiloso(he s, was identical with the dest uction o3 +odom and )omo ah. :he memo y o3 the cataclysms was e ased, not because o3 lack o3 w itten t aditions, but because o3 some cha acte istic ( ocess that late caused enti e nations, togethe with thei lite ate men, to ead into these t aditions allego ies o meta(ho s whe e actually cosmic distu bances we e clea ly desc ibed. It is a (sychological (henomenon in the li3e o3 individuals as well as whole nations that the most te i3ying events o3 the (ast may be 3o gotten o dis(laced into the subconscious mind. ;s i3 oblite ated a e im( essions that should be un3o gettable. :o uncove thei vestiges and thei disto ted eFuivalents in the (hysical li3e o3 (eo(les is a task not unlike that o3 ove coming amnesia in a single (e son.
777777777777777777777777777777 # '3. )in5be g> E6abul shel eshE in =a/go en, VIII, 1$ / $#. 2 Plato> :imaeus 21 '. 1 Philo> 6oses ii. 777777777777777777777777777777

Golklo e
%ay unto day utte eth s(eech, and night unto night showeth knowledge. :he e is no s(eech no language, whe e thei voice is not hea d. / Psalms #9>2/1

:he schola s who dedicate thei e33o ts to gathe ing and investigating the 3olklo e o3 (eo(les a e constantly awa e that 3olk tales eFui e inte ( etation, 3o , in thei o(inion, these tales a e not innocent and unambiguous ( oducts o3 the imagination, but veil some inne and mo e signi3icant meaning. :he legends o3 classic (eo(les, 3i st among them the ) eeks, also belong to 3olklo e. ;s ea ly as ( e/'h istian times these legends we e sub<ected to inte ( etation, many inte ( ete s ecogni5ing the symbolic cha acte o3 mythology. 8ith 6ac obius in the 3ou th 'h istian centu y, the e begins a tendency to see in many gods o3 ?gy(tian and ) eek antiFuity the (e soni3ication o3 the sun. 6ac obius com(a ed "si is to the sun, and Isis to the moon, dis ega ding the o(inion o3 ea lie autho s. =e also inte ( eted Au(ite as the sun. ;s the ole the (lanets (layed in the histo y o3 the wo ld et eated eve 3u the into oblivion, the inte ( etation o3 natu e myths as e3e ing to the sun o the moon became mo e and mo e wides( ead. In the nineteenth centu y it was the vogue to eC(lain the old myths as ins(i ed by the movement o3 the sun and the moon, du ing the day, night, month, and yea . Not only 9a, ;mon, 6a duk, PhaPthon, and even Deus, # but also king/he oes, like "edi(us, became sola symbols. 2 :his eCclusive ole o3 sun and moon in mythology is a e3lection o3 thei signi3icance in natu e. =oweve , in 3o me times the (lanets (layed a decidedly mo e im(o tant ole in the imagination o3 (eo(les, to which 3act thei eligions give testimony. : ue, sun and moon

(+hamash and +in, =elios, ;(ollo, and +elene) we e also numbe ed among the (lanet/gods, but usually they we e not the most im(o tant ones. :hei enume ation among the seven (lanets sometimes sta tles the mode n schola , because these two lumina ies a e so much mo e cons(icuous than the othe (lanetsH the dominance o3 +atu n, Au(ite , Venus, and 6a s must sta tle us even mo e as long as we do not know what was dis(layed on the celestial scene a 3ew thousand yea s ago. 6ode n 3olklo ists occu(y themselves mainly with the 3olklo e o3 ( imitive (eo(les, mate ial uns(oiled by gene ations o3 co(yists and inte ( ete s. ,eing eceived at its sou ce, it is su((osed to shed light not only on the mentality o3 these ( imitive (eo(les, but also on many ( oblems o3 sociology and (sychology in gene al. :he sociological method eC(lo es mythology 3o evidence o3 social usages. Golklo ists like Aames G a5e eC(ended thei e33o ts on this as(ect. G eud, the (sychologist, cente ed his attention on the moti3 o3 3athe /mu de ((at icide), ( esenting it as though it had been a egula institution in ancient times. =e makes it a((ea a gene al ( actice in the (ast and a subconscious u ge in ( esent/day man. =oweve , egula institutions and ( actices in the li3e o3 the 3amily would not give ise to myths. ; w ite on this sub<ect has co ectly (ointed out this 3act> E8hat is Fuite no mal in natu e and society a ely eCcites the myth/making imagination which is mo e likely to be kindled by the abno mal, some sta tling catast o(he, some te ible violation o3 the social code.E 1 ?ven less than daily t ibal li3e do the daily occu ences in natu e give ise to legends. :he sun ises eve y mo ning, it t avels 3 om east to westH the moon ente s a new (hase 3ou times a monthH the yea has 3ou seasons / such egula changes do not sti the imagination o3 (eo(les, because they contain nothing uneC(ected in themselves. %aily things do not evoke astonishment and in3luence but little a (eo(leBs c eative 3aculty. +un ise and sunset, mo ning dew and evening mist, a e common eC(e iences, and i3 a single s(ectacle im( esses itsel3 u(on us in the cou se o3 li3e, the many sun ises and the many sunsets in ou memo y (ale and each looks like the othe . +easonal snowsto ms o thunde sto ms do not leave indelible memo ies. "nly st iking, (e tu bing eC(e iences o3 a social o (hysical o de a e designed to sti the imagination o3 (eo(les. +eneca says> EIt is 3o this ve y eason that the assembly o3 sta s that lends beauty to the immense 3i mament does not com(el the attention o3 the massesH but when a change occu s in the o de o3 the unive se, all looks a e 3iCed on the sky.E 2 ?ven local catast o(hes, ega ded as ve y violent, do not se ve 3o the c eation o3 cosmic myths. Gi st in (owe to im( ess the aces o3 the ea th a e the cataclysms o3 the (ast, and on this we have dwelt at length. 'omets, because o3 thei causal elation to wo ld catast o(hes, and also because o3 thei te i3ying a((ea ance, we e the kind o3 (henomenon to kindle the imagination o3 (eo(les. ,ut 3o some eason, the im( ession they must have made on the (eo(les o3 antiFuity is not conside ed in eC(lanation o3 myths and legends. +ince the invention o3 the ( inting ( ess, the g eat agitation and mass hyste ia caused by the mo e b illiant comets can be t aced in contem(o a y books and (am(hlets. 8e e the ancients immune to these 3eelingsM I3 not, then why a e the eCegetes o3 the ,ible and the commentato s on the e(ic com(ositions o3 antiFuity so emiss as not to think o3 (henomena that could not but im( ess the ancientsM " did no comets a((ea in the sky du ing ancient timesM :his, o3 cou se, is only a heto ical Fuestion. 4ee(ing this in mind, we shall be able to answe the Fuestion about the st iking simila ity o3 ce tain conce(ts among (eo(les o3 di33e ent cultu es, sometimes se(a ated by oceans.
777777777777777777777777777777 # In the PhaPthon sto y, "vid makes it clea that +un and Deus a e two se(a ate deities. 2 In a se(a ate wo k I intend to t ace the histo ical ( ototy(e o3 the legend o3 "edi(us 9eC IVelikovsky, Immanuel> "edi(us and ;khnaton> 6yth and =isto y (#900)J

1 !. 9. Gamell> E:he value and the methods o3 mythological study,E P oceedings o3 the , itish ;cademy, #9#9/ #920, (. 2-. 2 Natu ales Fuaestiones vii. 777777777777777777777777777777

"3 EP e/eCisting IdeasE in the +ouls o3 Peo(les

:he simila ity o3 moti3s in the 3olklo e o3 va ious (eo(les on the 3ive continents and on the islands o3 the oceans (osed a di33icult ( oblem 3o the ethnologists and anth o(ologists. :he mig ation o3 ideas may 3ollow the mig ation o3 (eo(les, but how could unusual moti3s o3 3olklo e each isolated islands whe e the abo igines do not have any means o3 c ossing the seaM ;nd why did not technical civili5ation t avel togethe with s(i itualM Peo(les still living in the stone age (ossess the same, o3ten st ange, moti3s as the cultu ed nations. :he (a ticula cha acte o3 some o3 the contents o3 3olklo e makes it im(ossible to assume that it was only by me e chance that the same moti3s we e c eated in all co ne s o3 the wo ld. :he ( oblem is so (e (leCing to the scientists that, 3o lack o3 a bette ( o(osition, an eC(lanation was o33e ed acco ding to which the moti3s o3 3olklo e a e a ( e/eCisting (ossession in the soul o3 (eo(lesH (eo(les a e bo n with these ideas <ust as an animal is bo n with an u ge to ( o(agate its kind, to nu se its o33s( ing, to build a lai o a nest, and to t avel in he ds o mig ate in 3locks to 3a /away count ies. ,ut it is not so sim(le to eC(lain in these te ms why, 3o instance, the abo igines o3 ;me ica imagined a witch as a woman iding on a b oom ac oss the sky, eCactly as the ?u o(ean (eo(les imagined he . E:he 6eCican witch, like he ?u o(ean siste , ca ied a b oom on which she ode th ough the ai , and was associated with the sc eech owl. Indeed, the Fueen o3 witches, :lagoltiotl, is de(icted as iding on a b oom and as wea ing the witchBs (eaked hat.E # ;s with the witch on he b oom, so also with hund eds o3 othe odd 3antasies and belie3s. :he answe to the ( oblem o3 the simila ity o3 the moti3s in the 3olklo e o3 va ious (eo(les is, in my view, as 3ollows> ; g eat many ideas e3lect eal histo ical content. :he e is a legend, 3ound all ove the wo ld, that a deluge swe(t ove the ea th and cove ed hills and even mountains. 8e have a (oo o(inion o3 the mental abilities o3 ou ancesto s i3 we think that me ely an eCt ao dina y ove 3low o3 the ?u(h ates so im( essed the nomads o3 the dese t that they thought the enti e wo ld was 3looded, and that the legend so bo n wande ed 3 om (eo(le to (eo(le. ;t the same time, geological ( oblems o3 the o igin and dist ibution o3 till, o diluvial de(osit, a e awaiting eC(lanation. :he (eo(les o3 ancient times, who, like the ( imitive (eo(les o3 the ( esent, lacked mode n ( otection against the elements o3 natu e, and who lived in the insecu ity o3 t o(ical sto ms and to nadoes o 3 ost and snowsto ms, must have been mo e accustomed to seasonal distu bances than we a e, and would not have been im( essed by the ove 3low o3 a ive to such a deg ee as to ca y thei eC(e ience to all (a ts o3 the wo ld as a sto y o3 a cosmic u(heaval. : aditions about u(heavals and catast o(hes, 3ound among all (eo(les, a e gene ally disc edited because o3 the sho tsighted belie3 that no 3o ces could have sha(ed the wo ld in the (ast that a e not at wo k also at the ( esent time, a belie3 that is the ve y 3oundation o3 mode n geology and o3 the theo y o3 evolution. EP esent continuity im(lies the im( obability o3 (ast catast o(hism and violence o3 change, eithe in the li3eless o in the living wo ldH mo eove , we seek to inte ( et the changes and laws o3 (ast time th ough those which we obse ve at the ( esent time. :his was %a winBs sec et, lea ned 3 om !yell.E 2 It has been shown in this book, howeve , that 3o ces which at ( esent do not act on the ea th, did so act in histo ical times, and that these 3o ces a e o3 a (u ely (hysical cha acte . +cienti3ic ( inci(les do not wa ant maintaining that a 3o ce which does not act now, could not have acted ( eviously. " must we be in (e manent collision with the (lanets and comets in

o de to believe in such catast o(hesM

777777777777777777777777777777 # !ewis +(ence> :he =isto y o3 ;tlantis (#910), (. 222. 2 =. G. "sbo n> :he " igin and ?volution o3 !i3e (#9#.), (. 22. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he Pageants o3 the +ky

'osmic (e tu bations took (lace, catast o(hes swe(t the globe, but did witches 3ly th ough the ai on b oomsM :he eade would ag ee that cosmic catast o(hes, i3 they occu ed, could leave, and must have le3t, simila memo ies all a ound the wo ldH but the e a e 3antastic images that do not a((ea to e( esent ealities. 8e shall 3ollow this ule> i3 the e eCists a 3antastic image that is ( o<ected against the sky and that e(eats itsel3 all a ound the wo ld, it is most ( obably an image that was seen on the sc een o3 the sky by many (eo(les at the same time. "n one occasion a comet took the st iking 3o m o3 a woman iding on a b oom, and the celestial (ictu e was so clea ly de3ined that the same im( ession was im(osed on all the (eo(les o3 the wo ld. It is well known how, in mode n times, the 3o ms o3 comets im( ess (eo(le. "ne comet was said to look like Eun c uci3iC tout sanglant,E anothe like a swo dH actually eve y comet has its (eculia sha(e which may also change du ing the visibility o3 the comet. :o illust ate what is said he e by anothe eCam(le, it may be asked> 8hat induced the 6ayas to call by the name o3 +co (ion the constellation known to us and to the ancients by the same nameM # :he outlines o3 this constellation do not esemble the sha(e o3 this insect. It is Eone o3 the most ema kable coincidences in nomenclatu e.E 2 :he constellation, which is not at all like a sco (ion, ( obably was called by this name because a comet that looked like a sco (ion a((ea ed in it. ;ctually, we ead on one o3 the ,abylonian ast onomical tablets that Ea sta 3la ed u( and its light adiated b ight as day, and as it bla5ed, it lashed its tail like an ang y sco (ion.E 1 I3 it was not this (a ticula a((ea ance o3 a comet that caused the constellation to be called +co (ion, the e must have been a simila occu ence on anothe date. ;nothe eCam(le is the d agon. ;ll a ound the wo ld this image is ( ominent in lite atu e and a t and also in the eligion o3 (eo(les. :he e is ( obably no nation that does not use this symbol o this c eatu e as an im(o tant moti3, yet it does not eCist. +eve al schola s thought that (ossibly it e( esented some eCtinct menace that im( essed mankind to a much g eate deg ee than any othe c eatu e since it a((ea s on the 'hinese 3lag, and in (ictu es showing ; changel 6ichael o +t. )eo ge in battle with it, in ?gy(tian mythology, in 6eCican hie ogly(hics and bas/ elie3s, and in ;ssy ian bas/ elie3s. =oweve , bones o3 this ( esumably eCtinct e(tile have not been 3ound. G om the desc i(tion o3 the comet :y(hon that s( ead like an animal ove the sky with its many heads and winged body, with 3i e 3laming 3 om its mouths, as desc ibed in a ( evious cha(te by Fuotations 3 om ;(ollodo us and othe s, we ecogni5e the o igin o3 this wides( ead moti3.
777777777777777777777777777777 # +ahagun, in the 3ou th cha(te o3 the seventh book o3 his histo ical wo k, says that the (eo(le o3 6eCico called the constellation +co (ion (+co (io) by this ve y same name. 2 +ele > )es. ;hhand. 5u ame . +( ach/ und ;lte thumskunde , II (#901), 022. =is su mise, disag eeing with the asse tion o3 %e +ahagun, was that +co (ion o3 the ancients was mo e to the south. =oweve , with the dis(lacement o3 the (oles, the sta s acFui ed new (ositions. 1 4ugle > ,abylonische Deito dnung, (. .9. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he +ub<ective Inte ( etation o3 the ?vents and :hei ;uthenticity

8hat hel(ed to disc edit the t aditions o3 the (eo(les about the catast o(hes was thei sub<ective and magical inte ( etation o3 the events. :he sea was to n a(a t. :he (eo(le att ibuted this act to the inte vention o3 thei leade H he li3ted his sta33 ove the wate s and they divided. "3 cou se, the e is no (e son who can do this, and no sta33 with which it can be done. !ikewise in the case o3 Aoshua who commanded the sun and the moon to halt in thei movements. ,ecause the scienti3ic mind cannot believe that a man can make the sun and the moon to stand still, it disbelieves also the alleged event. 8hat cont ibutes to this is the 3act that least o3 all do we (lace 3aith in books that demand belie3, eligious books, though we swea on these. :he (eo(les o3 the (ast we e ( e(a ed to see mi acles in unusual occu encesH 3o this eason mode n man, who does not believe in mi acles, e<ects the event togethe with the inte ( etation. ,ut as we 3ind the same event in the t aditions o3 many (eo(les, and as each (eo(le has di33e ently com( ehended it, its histo icity can be checked, and this in addition to the cont ol o33e ed by natu al science. Go eCam(le, i3 the geog a(hical (oles changed thei location, o the aCis its inclination, the ancient sola clock would not show the co ect timeH o , i3 the magnetic (oles became eve sed at some time in the (ast, the lava o3 ea lie volcanic activity must show eve sed magnetic o ientation. ,ut the e is also a check by 3olklo e. Isaiah 3o etold to 4ing =e5ekiah, ( obably a 3ew hou s be3o e the event, that the shadow o3 the sundial would etu n ten deg ees. (;s we know now, the (lanet 6a s was at that moment ve y close to the ea th, and Isaiah could make an estimate based on eC(e iences du ing ( evious (e tu bations o3 the ea th by 6a s.) :he 'hinese eC(lained this (henomenon as having occu ed to hel( thei ( inces in thei st ategy, o to settle a Fua el among them. :he ) eek (eo(le thought the (henomenon was an eC( ession o3 heavenly w ath at the c ime o3 the ; give ty ants. :he !atins thought the (henomenon was an omen associated with 9omulus, son o3 6a s. In the Icelandic e(os the same event has a di33e ent (u (ose, in the Ginnish e(os anothe , and yet othe s in Aa(an and 6eCico and Polynesia. :he ;me ican Indians say that the sun went backwa ds seve al deg ees 3o 3ea o3 a boy who t ied to sna e it o because o3 some animal that te i3ied it. P ecisely because the e a e g eat di33e ences in the sub<ective evaluation o3 the causes o (u (oses o3 the (henomenon, we can assume that the 3olklo e o3 di33e ent (eo(les deals with one and the same 3actual event, and only the magical eC(lanations o3 the mi acle a e sub<ective inventions. 6any accom(anying details a e ( ese ved in the va iants o3 di33e ent (eo(les, which could not have been invented without an adeFuate knowledge o3 the laws o3 motion and the modynamics. It is inconceivable that the ancients o the ( imitive aces would, 3o instance, by shee chance invent the tale that a huge con3lag ation envelo(ed the ;me ican ( ai ies and 3o ests as soon as the sun, 3 ightened o33 by the sna e , etu ned a little on its way. I3 a (henomenon had been simila ly desc ibed by many (eo(les, we might sus(ect that a tale, o iginating with one (eo(le, had s( ead a ound the wo ld, and conseFuently the e is no ( oo3 o3 the authenticity o3 the event elated. ,ut <ust because one and the same event is embodied in t aditions that a e ve y di33e ent indeed, its authenticity becomes highly ( obable, es(ecially i3 the eco ds o3 histo y, ancient cha ts, sundials, and the (hysical evidence o3 natu al histo y testi3y to the same e33ect. In the +ection EVenus in the Golklo e o3 the IndiansE a 3ew illust ations we e o33e ed to illuminate this thesis. In o de to illust ate it with additional eCam(les, we choose the natu e/3olklo istic moti3 o3 the sun being a ested in its movement ac oss the 3i mament in the tales o3 the Polynesians, =awaiians, and No th ;me ican Indians.

:he best known legend cycle on the Paci3ic islands is that which has 3o its he o the semigod 6aui. # :his cycle com( ises a t ilogy> E"3 the many eC(loits o3 6aui th ee seem to be most widely s( ead> they a e 3ishing u( o3 the land, sna ing the sun and the Fuest o3 3i e.E 2 :he e a e two ve sions o3 this cycle, one in New Dealand and one in =awaii, but both a e va iants o3 a common t adition. :he =awaiian ve sion o3 the sna ing o3 the sun uns thus> E6auiBs mothe was much t oubled by the sho tness o3 the day, occasioned by the a(id movement o3 the sunH and since it was im(ossible to d y ( o(e ly the sheets o3 ta(a used 3o clothing, the he o esolved to cut o33 the legs o3 the sun, so that he could not t avel 3ast.E E6aui now went o33 eastwa d to whe e the sun climbed daily out o3 the unde wo ld, and as the lumina y came u(, the he o noosed his legs, one a3te the othe , and tied the o(es st ongly to g eat t ees. Gai ly caught, the sun could not get away, and 6aui gave him a t emendous beating with his magic wea(on. :o save his li3e, the sun begged 3o me cy, and on ( omising to go mo e slowly eve a3te , was eleased 3 om his bonds.E :he E3ishing u( o3 islandsE o the a((ea ance o3 new islands took (lace at the same timeH the causal elation to the cosmic change in the sky is evident. In one o3 the ve sions told in Polynesia about the 3ishing u( o3 the islands, it is said that a sta was used as bait. :he 3ollowing is a tale told by the 6enomini Indians, an ;lgonFuin t ibe. 1 E:he little boy made a noose and st etched it ac oss the (ath, and when the +un came to that (oint the noose caught him a ound the neck and began to choke him until he almost lost his b eath. It became da k, and the +un called out to the maBnidos, B=el( me, my b othe s, and cut this st ing be3o e it kills me.B 2 :he maBnidos came, but the th ead had so cut into the 3lesh o3 the +unBs neck that they could not seve it. 8hen all but one had given u(, the +un called to the 6ouse to t y to cut the st ing. :he 6ouse came u( and gnawed at the st ing, but it was di33icult wo k, because the st ing was hot and dee(ly imbedded in the +unBs neck. ;3te wo king at the st ing a good while, howeve , the 6ouse succeeded in cutting it, when the +un b eathed again and the da kness disa((ea ed. I3 the 6ouse had not succeeded, the +un would have died.E :he sto y about sna ing the sun associates itsel3 in ou mind with one o3 the occasions when the sun was dis u(ted in its movement ac oss the sky. :he sto y contains an im(o tant detail and enables us to unde stand a natu al (henomenon. In a ( evious section we discussed the va ious ve sions o3 the annihilation o3 +ennache ibBs a my and the (hysical (henomena which caused it. ;cco ding to the +c i(tu es, in the days o3 Isaiah the sun was inte u(ted in its cou se, tu ning back ten deg ees on the sundial. :hat night the a my o3 +ennache ib was dest oyed by a blast. In ?gy(t this victo y ove the common enemy o3 the Aews and the ?gy(tians was obse ved in a 3estival at !eto(olis, Ethe city o3 the thunde boltEH the holy animal o3 the city was a mouse, and b on5e mice insc ibed with the ( aye s o3 (ilg ims a e 3ound in its soil. =e odotus saw the e a statue o3 a god with a mouse in his hand, commemo ating the annihilation o3 the a my o3 +ennache ib. :he sto y he hea d gave as the cause o3 the event an invasion o3 mice that gnawed the st ings o3 the bows. =e also told the sto y o3 the changed movements o3 the sun di ectly 3ollowing the eco d o3 the dest uction o3 the ;ssy ian a my. 8e ecogni5ed that the image o3 the mouse must have had some elation to the cosmic d ama. :he best we could do was to inte ( et the mouse as a symbol o3 a simultaneous (lague, eCem(li3ied by the illness o3 4ing =e5ekiah. :he tale o3 the Indians that combines the sna ing o3 the sun with the deed o3 the mouse eC(lains the elation o3 these two elements to each othe . ;((a ently the atmos(he e o3 the celestial body that a((ea ed in the da kness and was illuminated took on the elongated 3o m o3 a mouse. :his eC(lains why the blast that dest oyed the a my o3 +ennache ib was commemo ated by the emblem o3 a mouse. :he Indian tale g ew 3 om the (ictu e on the

celestial sc een whe e a g eat mouse 3 eed the sna ed sun. :hus we see how a 3olk sto y o3 the ( imitives can solve an unsettled ( oblem between Isaiah and =e odotus. ; 3ou /legged animal in the sky a(( oaching the sun was visuali5ed as a mouse by the ?gy(tians and the 6enomini Indians. In the tale o3 the southe n @te Indians, the cottontail is the animal that is connected with the dis u(tion o3 the movement o3 the sun. $ =e went to the east with the intention o3 b eaking the sun in (ieces. :he e he waited 3o the sun to ise. E:he sun began to ise, but seeing the cottontail, it went down again. :hen it ose slowly again and did not notice the animal. =e st uck the sun with his club, b eaking o33 a (iece, which touched the g ound and set 3i e to the wo ld. :he 3i e (u sued 'ottontail, who began to 3lee. =e an to a log and asked i3 it would save him i3 he got inside. BNo, I bu n u( enti ely.B +o he an again and asked a ock with a cle3t in it. BNo, I cannot save you, when I am heated I bu st. ...B ;t last he got to a ive . :he ive said, BNo, I cannot save youH IBll boil and you will get boiled.BE "n the (lain, 'ottontail an th ough the weed, but the 3i e came ve y close, the weed bu ned and 3ell on his neck, Ewhe e cottontails a e yellow now.E EG om eve ywhe e he saw smoke ising. =e walked a little way on the hot g ound and one o3 his legs was bu ned u( to the kneeH be3o e that he had been long/legged. =e walked on two legs, and one o3 them bu ned o33. =e <um(ed on one till that also bu ned o33.E In this ve sion o3 the attack on the sun, two (oints wo thy o3 mention a e the wo ld 3i e 3ollowing the dis u(tion in the movement o3 the sun, and the change in the wo ld o3 animals accom(anied by st ong mutations. In the section, EPhaPthon,E we wonde ed how the 9oman (oet "vid could have known o3 the elation between the inte u(ted movement o3 the sun and a wo ld 3i e unless such a catast o(he had eally occu ed. :he same easoning a((lies to the Indians. :he sto y o3 sna ing the sun o attacking the sun is told in many va iants, but the wo ld 3i e is a consistent esult. Go ests and 3ields bu n, mountains smoke and vomit lava, ive s boil, caves in the mountains colla(se, and ocks bu st when the sun (ee(s above the ho i5on and then disa((ea s and again comes ove the ho i5on. :he e is one instance mo e in the Indian sto y o3 the sun being im(eded on its (ath and the ensuing wo ld con3lag ation. ,e3o e the catast o(he, Ethe sun used to go ound close to the g ound.E :he (u (ose o3 the attack on the sun was to make Ethe sun shine a little longe > :he days a e too sho t.E ;3te the catast o(he Ethe days became longe .E :he ancesto s o3 the +hoshonean Indians, a t ibe o3 @tah, 'olo ado, and Nevada, a((ea to have lived in the days o3 +ennache ib and =e5ekiah at such a longitude that the sun was <ust on the easte n ho i5on when it changed its di ection and went back and then came u( again.
777777777777777777777777777777 # E"3 all the myths 3 om the Polynesian a ea, ( obably none have been mo e 3 eFuently Fuoted than those which ecount the deeds and adventu es o3 the semi/god 6aui. :he 6aui cycle is one o3 the most im(o tant 3o the study o3 this whole a ea.E %iCon> "ceanic 6ythology, (. 2#. 2 Ibid., (. 22. 1 =o33man> 9e(o t o3 the ,u eau o3 ;me ican ?thnology, LIV, #.#, e( oduced by +. :hom(son> :ales o3 the No th ;me ican Indians (#929). 2 6aBnido is Ea s(i it o s(i itual being> any (e son o sub<ect endowed with s(i itual (owe .E $ 9. =. !owie> E+hoshonean :ales,E Aou nal o3 ;me ican Golklo e, LLLVII (#922), 0#33. 777777777777777777777777777777

Poles @( ooted

'ha(te -

8=;: '=;N)?+ IN the motion o3 ea th, moon, and 6a s esulted 3 om the contacts in the eighth and seventh centu iesM :he moon, being smalle than 6a s, would have been g eatly in3luenced by 6a s i3 it came close enough to that (lanet. It could have been d awn nea e to the ea th o (ulled away to a mo e emote o bit. It is the e3o e o3 inte est to investigate whethe , in the time sho tly a3te /0.-, e3o ms o3 the luna calenda we e unde taken. ;lso, the ea th could have been E emoved 3 om he (lace,E which would have meant a change in the o bital ci cum3e ence and thus in the length o3 the yea , o in the inclination o3 the te est ial aCis to the (lane o3 the ecli(tic and thus in the seasons, in the (osition o3 the (oles on the te est ial globe, in the velocity o3 aCial otation, and in the length o3 the day, and so on. +ome o3 these changes could be t aced i3 a cha t o3 the sky, d awn in a (e iod ( io to /0.-, could be eCamined. +uch a cha t does eCistH it is (ainted on the ceiling o3 the tomb o3 +enmut, the ?gy(tian vi5ie . ;s eC(lained ( eviously, # the tomb dates 3 om a time 3ollowing the ?Codus but be3o e the days o3 ;mos and Isaiah. :he cha ts o3 +enmut show the sky ove ?gy(t at two di33e ent e(ochs> one o3 them de(icts the sky o3 ?gy(t be3o e the (oles we e inte changed ( obably in the catast o(he that te minated the 6iddle 4ingdomH the othe e( esents the sky o3 ?gy(t in the li3etime o3 +enmut. :he 3i st cha t sta tled the investigato s because in it west and east a e eve sed. :hei <udgment o3 the othe cha t, in which west and east a e not eve sed, is as 3ollows> EIt is su ( ising to 3ind that the celestial cha ts which have been ( ese ved until ou time did not co es(ond to di ect obse vations, no to the calculations made at the moment o3 e ection o3 the monument on which these cha ts a e (ictu ed.E 2 6ode n ast onomy does not admit, o even conside , the (ossibility that at some histo ical time east and west as well as south and no th we e eve sed. 'onseFuently, the 3i st cha t could not have been inte ( eted at all. :he othe cha t, with its dis(laced constellations, suggested to the autho o3 the above Fuotation that it de(icted some mo e ancient t adition. :he only change, acco ding to mode n ast onomy, comes 3 om the ( ecession o3 the eFuinoCes o the slow movement o3 the (ola aCis which desc ibes a ci cle in the cou se o3 about twenty/siC thousand yea s. :he com(utation o3 the ( ecession is insu33icient by 3a to eC(lain the (osition o3 the constellations on the cha t i3 we ely on the conventional ch onology (and even mo e so i3 we 3ollow the evised ch onology, which b ings the age o3 +enmut and Kueen =atshe(sut close to mode n times). :he changes in the geog a(hical (osition and cosmic di ection o3 the (oles caused by the catast o(hes o3 the eighth and seventh centu ies, as well as those b ought about by the catast o(hes o3 the 3i3teenth centu y, can be studied with the hel( o3 the ast onomical cha ts o3 +enmut. ;cco ding to +eneca the ) eat ,ea had been the (ola constellation. ;3te a cosmic u(heaval shi3ted the sky, a sta o3 the !ittle ,ea became the (ola sta . =indu ast onomical tablets com(osed by the , ahmans in the 3i st hal3 o3 the 3i st millennium be3o e the ( esent e a show a uni3o m deviation 3 om the eC(ected (osition o3 the sta s at the time the obse vations we e made (the ( ecession o3 the eFuinoCes being taken into conside ation). 1 6ode n schola s wonde ed at this, in thei o(inion ineC(licable, e o . In view o3 the geomet ical methods em(loyed by =indu ast onomy and its detailed method o3 calculation, a mistake in obse vation eFual to even a 3 action o3 a deg ee would be di33icult to account 3o .

In Aaiminiya/@(anisad/, ahmana it is w itten that the cente o3 the sky, o the (oint a ound which the 3i mament evolves, is in the ) eat ,ea . 2 :his is the same statement we 3ound in :hyestes o3 +eneca. In ?gy(t, too, Ethe ) eat ,ea (layed the (a t o3 the Pole +ta .E $ E:he ) eat ,ea neve set.E 0 'ould it be that the ( ecession o3 eFuinoCes shi3ted the di ection o3 the aCis so that, th ee o 3ou thousand yea s ago, the (ola sta was among the sta s o3 the ) eat ,ea M - No. I3 the ea th moved all the time as it moves now, 3ou thousand yea s ago the sta nea est the No th Pole must have been /% aconis. . :he change was suddenH the ) eat ,ea Ecame bowing down.E 9 In the =indu sou ces it is said that the ea th eceded 3 om its wonted (lace by #00 yo<anas, #0 a yo<ana being 3ive to nine miles. :hus the dis(lacement was estimated at 3 om $00 to 900 miles. :he o igin o3 the (ola sta is told in many t aditions all ove the wo ld. :he =indus o3 the Vedas wo shi(ed the (ola sta , %h u a, Ethe 3iCedE o Eimmovable.E In the Pu anas it is na ated how %h u a became the (ola sta . :he !a((s vene ate the (ola sta and believe that i3 it should leave its (lace, the ea th would be dest oyed in a g eat con3lag ation. ## :he same belie3 is 3ound among the No th ;me ican Indians. #2 :he day on which the sho test shadow is cast at noon is the day o3 the summe solsticeH the longest shadow at noon is cast on the day o3 the winte solstice. :his method o3 dete mining the seasons by measu ing the length o3 the shadows was a((lied in ancient 'hina, as well as in othe count ies. 8e (ossess the 'hinese eco ds o3 the longest and sho test shadows at noontime. :hese eco ds a e att ibuted to /##00. E,ut the sho test and the longest shadows eco ded do not eally e( esent the t ue lengths at ( esent.E #1 :he old 'hinese cha ts eco d the longest day with a du ation which Edoes not e( esent the va ious geog a(hical latitudes o3 thei obse vato ies,E and the e3o e the 3igu es a e su((osed to have been those o3 ,abylonia, bo owed by ancient 'hinese, a athe unusual con<ectu e. #2 :he length o3 the longest day in a yea de(ends on the latitude, o the distance 3 om the (ole, and is di33e ent at di33e ent (laces. )nomons o sundials can be built with g eat ( ecision. #$ :he ,abylonian ast onomical tablets o3 the eighth centu y ( ovide eCact data, acco ding to which the longest day at ,abylon was eFual to #2 hou s 22 minutes, whe eas the mode n dete mination is #2 hou s #0 minutes and $2 seconds. E:he di33e ence between the two 3igu es is too g eat to be att ibutable to e3 action, which makes the sun still visible ove the ho i5on a3te it has set. :hus, the g eate length o3 the day co es(onds to latitude 12Q $-B, and (oints to a (lace 2SQ 3u the to the no thH we stand the e3o e be3o e a st ange iddle Ivo einem me kwY digen 9atselJ. "ne t ies to decide> eithe the tablets o3 +ystem II do not o iginate 3 om ,abylon Ithough e3e ing to ,abylonJ, o this city actually was situated 3a I3a the J to the no th, about 1$Q away 3 om the eFuato .E #0 +ince the com(utations o3 the ast onomical tablets did e3e to ,abylon, the e is a (ossible solution that ,abylon was situated at a latitude o3 1$Q 3 om the eFuato , much 3a the to the no th than the uins o3 this city. 'laudius Ptolemy, who, in his ;lmagest, made com(utation 3o contem(o aneous and ancient ,abylon, a ived at two di33e ent estimates o3 the longest day at that city, and conseFuently o3 the latitude at which it was located, #- one o3 his estimates being ( actically o3 the ( esent/day value, the othe coinciding with the 3igu e o3 the ancient ,abylonian tables, #2 hou s 22 minutes. :he ; abian medieval schola ; 5achel com(uted 3 om ancient codices that in mo e ancient times ,abylon was situated at a latitude o3 1$Q 0B 3 om the eFuato , while in late times it was situated mo e to the south. Aohannes 4e(le d ew attention to this calculation o3

; 5achel and to the 3act that between ancient and mode n ,abylon the e was a di33e ence in latitude. #. :hus Ptolemy, and likewise ; 5achel, com(uted that in histo ical times ,abylon was situated at latitude 1$Q. 6ode n schola s a ived at identical esults on the basis o3 ancient ,abylonian com(utations. E:his much, the e3o e, is ce tain> ou tables I+ystem II, and I alsoJ, and the ast onome s mentioned as well, (oint to a (lace about 1$Q no th latitude. Is it (ossible that they we e mistaken by 2Q to 2SQM :his is sca cely believable.E #9 ;s the e was but one ,abylon, its location, at some histo ical time, at 1$Q no th latitude signi3ies that at the longitude o3 ,abylon the ea th since then has tu ned towa d the south, and the di ection o3 the (ola aCis, o its geog a(hical location, o both, have unde gone dis(lacement. +ome o3 the classic autho s knew that the ea th had changed its (osition and had tu ned towa d the southH not all o3 them, howeve , we e awa e o3 the eal cause o3 this (e tu bation. %iogenes !aP tius e(eated the teaching o3 !euci((us> E:he ea th was bent o inclined towa ds the south because the no the n egions g ew igid and in3leCible by the snowy and cold weathe which ensued the eon.E 20 :he same idea is 3ound in Pluta ch, who Fuoted the teaching o3 %emoc itus> E:he no the n egions we e ill tem(e ate, but the southe n we e wellH whe eby the latte becoming 3 uit3ul, waCed g eate , and, by an ove weight, ( e(onde ated and inclined the whole that way.E 2# ?m(edocles, Fuoted by Pluta ch, taught that the no th was bent 3 om its 3o me (osition, whe eu(on the no the n egions we e elevated and the southe n de( essed. ;naCago as taught that the (ole eceived a tu n and that the wo ld became inclined towa d the south. ;s we have seen, +eneca in :hyestes co ectly asc ibed the dis(lacement o3 the (ole to a cosmic catast o(he.
777777777777777777777777777777 # +ee the +ection E?ast and 8est.E 2 ;. Pogo> E;st onomie Ugy(tienne du tombeau de +enmout,E 'h oniFue dB]gy(te, #91#. 1 A. ,entley> ; =isto ical View o3 the =indu ;st onomy (#.2$), (. -0. 2 :hibaut> E;st onomie. ;st ologie und 6athematik,E (. 0. $ ). ;. 8ainw ight> E" ion and the ) eat +ta ,E Aou nal o3 ?gy(tian ; chaeology, LLII (#910). 0 8ainw ight> E!eto(olis,E Aou n. ?gy(t. ; chaeol., LVIII (#912). - 8ainw ight in the +tudies ( esented to G. !. ) i33ith, ((. 1-9/1.0. . '3. =. Ae33 eys> E?a th,E ?ncyclo(aedia , itannica (#2th ed.). 9 8ainw ight> Aou n. ?gy(t. ; chaeol., LVIII, (. #02. #0 A. =e tel> %ie =immelsto e im Veda und im ;westa (#922), (. 2.. ## 4unike> E+temmythologie,E 8elt und 6ensch, IL/LH ;. ,. 4eith> Indian 6ythology (#9#-), (. #0$. #2 :he Pawnee 6ythology (collected by ). ;. %o seyH #900), Pt. I, (. #1$. #1 A. N. !ockye > :he %awn o3 ;st onomy (#.92), (. 02H c3. 6. 'anto > Vo lesungen Ybe )eschichte de 6athematik (2nd ed.. #.92), (. 9#. !a(lace made e33o ts to 3ind an eC(lanation 3o these 3igu es. #2 4ugle > +te nkunde und +te ndienst in ,abel, I, 220/22-. #$ ; gnomon (2-- 3eet high), built by :oscanelli in #20., du ing the 9enaissance, 3o the cathed al in Glo ence, shows midday to within hal3 a second. 9. 8ol3, =andbuch de ;st onomie (#.90/#.91), n. #02. #0 4ugle > %ie babylonische 6ond echnung> Dwei +ysteme de 'hald^e Ybe den !au3 des 6ondes und de +onne (#900), (. .0. #- Ptolemy> ;lmagest, ,k. #1 (ed. =alma)H ,k. 2, 'ha(. #0H also idem> )eog a(hy, ,k. ., 'ha(. 20. '3. 4ugle > %ie babylonische 6ond echnung, (. .#H also 'anto > Vo lesungen Ybe )eschichte de 6athematik, ((. .233. #. A. 4e(le > ;st onomi o(e a omnia (ed. '. G isch), VI (#.00), $$-> E?t Fuia altitudinem (oli vete i ,abyl. assignat 1$Q 0B, novae 10Q 1#B.E #9 4ugle > %ie babylonische 6ond echnung, (. .#. 20 :his is a t anslation by 8histon in his New :heo y o3 the ?a th. :he mode n ve sion o3 !. %. =icks di33e s g eatly. 2# Pluta ch> E8hat Is the 'ause o3 the 8o ldBs InclinationME in Vol. =I o3 6o als (t ansl. evised by 8. )oodwin). 777777777777777777777777777777

:em(les and "belisks

In classic autho s e3e ences can be 3ound to the 3act that the tem(les o3 the ancient wo ld we e built 3acing the ising sun. # " ientation towa d the sun is, at the same time, o ientation towa d the visible (lanets, as all o3 them t avel th ough the signs o3 the 5odiac o in the ecli(tic. :he sun changes the (oint o3 its ising and setting 3 om one day to anothe , and the ecli(tic makes a co es(onding slow swing 3 om one solstice to anothe . :he e3o e, 3o the (u (oses o3 accu ate obse vation o3 whethe the te est ial (ole shi3ted in a sudden way, it was necessa y to build the tem(le obse vato ies, not sim(ly 3acing the east and the west, but with a device that would (e mit checking the (osition o3 the sun on the days o3 the ve nal and autumnal eFuinoCes, when the sun ises eCactly in the east and sets eCactly in the west. :he : actate ? ubin o3 the Ae usalem :almud 2 eco ds Ethe su ( ising 3actE 1 that the :em(le o3 Ae usalem was so built that on the two eFuinoctial days the 3i st ay o3 the ising sun shone di ectly th ough the easte n gateH the easte n gate was ke(t closed du ing the yea , but was o(ened on these two days 3o this ve y (u (ose. :he 3i st ay o3 the eFuinoctial sun shone th ough the easte n gate and into the ve y hea t o3 the :em(le. 2 :he e was no sun wo shi( in this a angementH it was dictated by the events o3 the (ast, when the (osition o3 the ea th, in elation to the ising and setting (oints o3 the sun, was moved in wo ld catast o(hes. :he 3all eFuinoC was obse ved as New *ea Bs day. :his ce emony with the eFuinoctial sun was old. :he ,abylonian tem(les, also, had Ethe gate o3 the ising sunE and Ethe gate o3 the setting sun.E $ 8ith the g owing belie3 that the e would be no mo e changes in the wo ld system, a belie3 eC( essed also by %eute o/Isaiah (00>22), the easte n gate o3 the Ae usalem :em(le was closed 3o eve > it will be o(ened in 6essianic times. ;lthough unawa e o3 these ancient ( actices and lite a y e3e ences to the o ientation o3 the tem(les, a w ite o3 the end o3 the nineteenth centu y came to the conclusion that the tem(les o3 the ancient wo ld 3aced the sun ise. 0 =e 3ound conside able evidence in the (osition o3 tem(les, but he wonde ed also that the e we e delibe ate changes in the o ientation o3 the 3oundations o3 some olde tem(les. E:he many changes in di ection o3 the 3oundations at ?leusis evealed by the G ench eCcavations we e so ve y st iking and suggestiveE that the autho asked Ewhethe the e was (ossible ast onomical o igin 3o the di ection o3 the tem(le and the va ious changes in di ection.E Gu the investigation by othe autho s evealed the 3act that gene ally only the tem(les o3 a late time 3aced the east, and that ea lie tem(les, built be3o e the seventh centu y, had thei 3oundations (u (osely di ected / the same o ientation can be t aced in a numbe o3 a chaic 3oundations / away 3 om the ( esent east. . 4nowing by now that the ea th e(eatedly shi3ted the di ection o3 the sun ise and sunset, we unde stand the changes in the o ientation o3 the 3oundations as the esult o3 changes in natu e. :hus, we have in the 3oundations o3 the tem(les, like that o3 ?leusis, a eco d o3 the changing di ection o3 the te est ial aCis and the (osition o3 the (oleH the tem(le was dest oyed by catast o(hes and ebuilt each time with a di33e ent o ientation. ,esides the tem(les and thei gates, the obelisks also se ved the (u (ose o3 3iCing the di ection o3 east and west, o o3 sun ise and sunset on eFuinoctial days. ;s this (u (ose was not (e ceived, the ob<ect 3o which the obelisks we e built seemed enigmatic> E:he o igin and eligious signi3icance o3 the obelisks a e somewhat obscu e.E 9 :wo (illa s we e e ected be3o e the :em(le o3 +olomon, #0 but thei (u (ose is not evealed in the +c i(tu es. In ;me ica, obelisk/(illa s we e built, too. +ometimes a ing was set on the ve teC o3 the (illa 3o the sunBs ays to (ass th ough. E:he solstices and eFuinoCes we e ca e3ully obse ved. +tone (illa s we e e ected eight on the east and eight on the west side o3 'u5co, to

obse ve the solstices ... ;t the heads o3 the (illa s the e we e discs 3o the sunBs ays to ente . 6a ks we e made on the g ound, which had been levelled and (aved. !ines we e d awn to ma k the movement o3 the sun ... E E:o asce tain the time o3 the eFuinoCes the e was a stone column in the o(en s(ace be3o e the tem(le o3 the sun, in the cente o3 a la ge ci cle ... :he inst ument was called inti/ huatana, which means the (lace whe e the sun is tied u( o enci cled. :he e a e Inti/ huatanas on the height o3 "llantay/tam(u, at Pissac, at =atuncolla, and in othe (laces.E ## :he ?gy(tian obelisk could se ve as a gnomon, o shadow clock. :he length o3 the shadow and its di ection would indicate the hou o3 the day. "belisks (laced in (ai s se ved as a calenda . "n the ve nal and autumnal eFuinoCes thei shadows would be continuous 3o the length o3 the day, the sun ising eCactly in the east and setting eCactly in the west. :hat the (u (ose 3o which the obelisks we e e ected was to check on the shadow o3 the sun (and the (osition o3 the ea th) can be (lainly seen 3 om this (assage o3 Pliny> E:he obelisk Io3 +esothis, b ought 3 om ?gy(tJ that has been e ected in the cam(us 6a tins Iin 9omeJ has been a((lied to a singula (u (ose by the late ?m(e o ;ugustus> that o3 ma king the shadow ( o<ected by the sun, and so measu ing the length o3 the days and nights.E :he e then 3ollows this ema k> EGo nea ly the last thi ty yea s, howeve , the obse vations de ived 3 om this dial have been 3ound not to ag ee> whethe it is that the sun itsel3 has changed its cou se in conseFuence o3 some de angement o3 the heavenly systemH o whethe that the whole ea th has been in some deg ee dis(laced 3 om the cente , a thing that, I have hea d say, has been ema ked in othe (laces as wellH o whethe that some ea thFuake, con3ined to this city only, has w enched the dial 3 om its o iginal (ositionH o whethe it is that in conseFuence o3 the inundations o3 the :ibe , the 3oundations o3 the mass have subsided.E #2 :he (assage indicates that Pliny envisaged eve y (ossible cause, not eCcluding the one known to have occu ed in ea lie times when, in the language o3 Pluta ch, Ethe Pole eceived a tu n o inclination,E o in the wo ds o3 "vid, E?a th sank a little lowe than he wonted (lace.E
777777777777777777777777777777 # Pluta ch> !ives, E!i3e o3 NumaE> E:em(les 3ace the east and the sun.E 2 Ae usalem :almud, : actate ? ubin V, 22c. 1 A. 6o genste n> E:he ,ook o3 the 'ovenant,E =eb ew @nion 'ollege ;nnual , V, #92-, (. 2$. 2 6o genste n> E:he )ates o3 9ighteousness,E =eb ew @nion 'ollege ;nnual, VII, #929. $ 8inckle > 4eilinschn3tliche ,ibliothek, III, Pa t 2 (#.90), (. -1. 0 !ockye > :he %awn o3 ;st onomy. - Ibid, (. viii . =. Nissen> " ientation, +tudien 5u )eschichte de 9eligion (#900)H ?. P3ei33e > )esti ne und 8ette im g iechischen Volksglauben (#9#2), (. -. +ee also G. ). Pen ose> Philoso(hical : ansactions o3 the 9oyal +ociety o3 !ondon '!LLLIV, #.91, .0$/.12, and 'L', #.9-, 21/0$. 9 9. ?ngelbach> :he P oblem o3 the "belisks (#921), (. #.. #0 I 4ings ->#$. ## 6a kham> :he Incas o3 Pe u, ((. ##$, ##0. #2 Pliny> Natu al =isto y, CCCvi. #$ (t ansl. ,ostock and 9iley). 777777777777777777777777777777

:he +hadow 'lock

:he (oles changed thei locationsH all latitudes we e dis(lacedH the aCis changed its di ectionH the numbe o3 days in the yea inc eased 3 om 100 to 10$b, a 3act demonst ated in a 3ollowing sectionH the length o3 the day ( obably also alte ed. "3 cou se, a sundial o shadow clock 3 om be3o e /0.- can no longe se ve the (u (ose 3o which it was devised, but it might well be o3 use in ( oving ou assum(tion. +uch a clock, o iginating 3 om the (e iod between ci ca /.$0 and /-20, was 3ound in Gai<um

in ?gy(t at latitude 2-Q. ; ho i5ontal slab with hou ma ks has at one end a shadow/casting ve tical hob. # :his shadow clock cannot show co ectly the change o3 time in Gai<um o elsewhe e in ?gy(t. ; schola who investigated its wo king came to the conclusion that it must have been ke(t with its head to the east in the 3o enoon and to the west in the a3te noon, and seve al schola s ag eed that this was the way to use the clock. ,ut this a angement by itsel3 did not make it (ossible to ead the time. E+ince all actual hou shadows lie substantially close to the hob than the co es(onding ma ks o3 the inst ument, the shadow/casting edge must have been highe ove the shadow/ eceiving (lane than we 3ind it to be. :he u((e edge cannot be the shadow/caste o3 the inst umentH it must have been on a (a allel line above this edge.E 2 E:he ma ks we e also not made on the basis o3 actual obse vations, but must have been taken 3 om some theo y o othe .E 1 ,ut, as a c itic ema ked, Ethis theo y im(lies that at no season o3 the yea did the clock denote the hou s co ectly, without an hou ly alte ation o3 the height o3 that (a t o3 the inst ument which cast the shadow.E 2 ;s the clock has no device to ad<ust the height o3 the head, it is im( obable that this hou ly mani(ulation took (lace. ,esides, in o de to change the height o3 the head eve y hou , in itsel3 an im( actical method, it would have been necessa y to have anothe clock to show the hou s without any mani(ulation, thus indicating the eCact moment when the 3i st clock had to be ad<usted. ,ut i3 the e was a clock that could show the hou s co ectly without ad<ustment, what (u (ose did the shadow clock se veM ;nothe eC(lanation has the e3o e been o33e ed 3o the manne in which the ?gy(tian sundial was used. :he autho o3 the new idea su((oses that at some ea ly date (the ( ecession o3 the eFuinoCes being taken into conside ation) the shadow clock was used at some latitude in ?gy(t on the day o3 the summe solstice. =e admits> E;ccount has, howeve , not been taken o3 change in the declination o3 the sun between sun ise and sunset ... Go othe seasons o3 the yea it would be necessa y at each hou o each clock eading, eithe to alte the height o3 the hob, o tilt the stBt IclockJ o both. Indeed, when the sun had south declination, and even when it had slight no th declination, it would always be necessa y to do both. :he in3e ence is, the e3o e, that the clock was o iginally used at o nea the time o3 the summe solstice.E $ :he ( oblem o3 ad<ustment 3o each eading once mo e c o(s u( in this eC(lanation, again eFui ing some bette means o3 knowing the eCact time. :he conclusion at which the autho o3 this eC(lanation a ives / that o iginally the clock was built 3o a single day in the yea / is athe odd and de3ies the ve y (u (ose 3o which clocks a e const ucted. ;nd even i3 a clock we e to be ead only once a yea , the autho o3 this theo y could not make the s(ecimen 3ound in Gai<um wo k, but only a simila clock that had been 3ound b oken in (iecesH and this he could do only by having ecou se to the ( ecession o3 the eFuinoCes and by e3e ing the clock to a (e iod many hund eds o3 yea s ea lie than ch onologists assume. :he shadow clock 3ound at Gai<um, built unde the !ibyan %ynasty, between about /.$0 and /-20 be3o e the ( esent e a, may hel( us to lea n the length o3 the day, the inclination o3 the (ole to the ecli(tic, and the latitudes o3 ?gy(t in that histo ical (e iod. ; change in any o3 these th ee 3acto s would have made the clock obsolete as an inst ument 3o time eading, and ( obably all th ee 3acto s did change. 8e do not (ossess the sundial o3 4ing ;ha5, but we do have the shadow clock used in ?gy(t in the (e iod be3o e the last catast o(he o3 /0.- and (ossibly be3o e the catast o(he o3 /-2-.
777777777777777777777777777777 # :he ?gy(tian day was divided into hou s that e( esented eFual (o tions o3 time between sun ise and sunset, inde(endently o3 the length o3 the day. 2 !. ,o cha dt> E;lt^gy(tische +onnenuh en,E Deitsch i3t 3Y ^gy(tische +( ache und ;lte tumskunde , L!VIII (#9##), #2. 1 Ibid., (. #$.

2 A. 6acNaughton> E:he @se o3 the +hadow 'lock o3 +eti I,E Aou nal o3 the , itish ;st onomical ;ssociation , !IV, No. - (+e(t. #922). $ Ibid. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 8ate 'lock

,esides the gnomon o sundial, the ?gy(tians used the wate clock, which had the advantage ove the 3o me o3 showing time du ing the night as well as du ing the day. ; com(lete eCam(le was 3ound in the ;mon :em(le o3 4a nak (:hebes), 2$.$Q no th o3 the eFuato . :his wate clock dates 3 om the time o3 ;menhote( III o3 the ?ighteenth %ynasty, 3athe o3 Ikhnaton. :he <a has an o(ening th ough which wate 3lows outH ma ks a e incised on the inne su 3ace o3 the <a to indicate the time. +ince the ?gy(tian day was divided into hou s which changed in length with the length o3 the day, the <a has di33e ent sets o3 ma kings 3o the va ious seasons o3 the yea . Gou time (oints a e ( ominently im(o tant> the autumnal eFuinoC, the winte solstice, the ve nal eFuinoC, and the summe solstice. :he eFuinoCes have eFual days and nights in all latitudes. ,ut on the solstices, when eithe the day o the night is the longest o3 the yea , the length o3 the daylight va ies with the latitude> the 3a the 3 om the eFuato , the g eate is the di33e ence between the day and the night on the day o3 the solstice. :his di33e ence also de(ends on the inclination o3 the eFuato to the (lane o3 the o bit o ecli(tic, which is at ( esent 21SQ. +hould this inclination change, o in othe wo ds, should the (ola aCis change its ast onomical (osition (di ection), o should the (ola aCis change its geog a(hical (osition with each (ole shi3ting to anothe (oint, the length o3 the day and night (on any day eCce(t the eFuinoCes) would change, too. :he wate clock o3 ;menhote( III ( esented its investigato with a ve y st ange time scale. # 'alculating the length o3 the day o3 the winte solstice, he 3ound that the clock was const ucted 3o a day o3 ## hou s #. minutes, whe eas the day o3 the solstice at 2$Q no th latitude is #0 hou s 20 minutes, a di33e ence o3 3i3ty/two minutes. +imila ly, the builde o3 the clock eckoned the night o3 the winte solstice to be #2 hou s 22 minutes, whe eas it is #1 hou s 12 minutes / 3i3ty/two minutes too sho t. "n the summe solstice, the longest day, the clock antici(ated a day o3 #2 hou s 2. minutes, whe eas it is #1 hou s and 2# minutes, and a night o3 ## hou s #2 minutes, whe eas it is #0 hou s #9 minutes. "n the ve nal and autumnal eFuinoCes the day is ## hou s and $0 minutes long, and the clock actually shows ## hou s and $0 minutesH the night is #2 hou s 2 minutes long, and the clock shows eCactly #2 hou s 2 minutes. :he di33e ence between the ( esent values and the values o3 the day 3o which the clock is ad<usted is ve y consistent> on the winte solstice the day o3 the clock is 3i3ty/two minutes longe than the ( esent day o3 the winte solstice in 4a nak, and the night is 3i3ty/two minutes sho te H on the summe solstice the day is 3i3ty/th ee minutes sho te on the clock and the night 3i3ty/th ee minutes longe . :he 3igu es on the clock show a smalle di33e ence between the length o3 daylight on the solstices o between the longest and the sho test days o3 the yea than is obse ved at 4a nak at the ( esent time. :hus the wate clock o3 ;menhote( III, i3 it was co ectly built and co ectly inte ( eted, indicates that eithe :hebes was close to the eFuato o that the inclination o3 the eFuato towa d the ecli(tic was less than the ( esent angle o3 21SQ. In eithe case the climate o3 the latitudes o3 ?gy(t could not have been the same as it is in ou age. ;s we 3ind 3 om the ( esent esea ch, the clock o3 ;menhote( III became obsolete in the

middle o3 the eighth centu yH and the clock that might have e(laced it at that time would have been made obsolete in the catast o(hes o3 the end o3 the eighth and the beginning o3 the seventh centu ies, when once mo e the aCis changed its di ection in the sky and its (osition on the globe as well.
777777777777777777777777777777 # !. ,o cha dt> %ie alt^gy(tische Deit echnung (#920), ((. 0/2$. 777777777777777777777777777777

; =emis(he e : avels +outhwa d

,ehold the wo ld bowing with its massive dome / ea th and eC(anse o3 sea and heavenBs de(thN / Vi gil> ?clogues iv, $0

:he change in the (osition o3 the (oles ca ied the (ola ice outside the new (ola ci cle, while othe egions we e b ought into the (ola ci cle. :he e is nothing im(e ative in the ( esent (osition o3 the (ole o in the di ection o3 the (ola aCis. No known ast onomical o geological law eFui es the ( esent di ection o3 the aCis and the ( esent (osition o3 the (ole. I 3ind a simila thought in the w itings o3 +chia(a elli> E:he (e manence o3 the geog a(hical (oles in the ve y same egions o3 the ?a th cannot yet be conside ed as incontestably established by ast onomical o mechanical a guments. +uch (e manence may be a 3act today, but it emains a matte still to be ( oven 3o the ( eceding ages o3 the histo y o3 the globe.E E"u ( oblem, so im(o tant 3 om the ast onomical and mathematical stand(oint, touches the 3oundations o3 geology and (aleontologyH its solution is tied to the I( oblem o3 theJ most g andiose events in the histo y o3 the ?a th.E # :he ( esent (ole was not always the te est ial (ole, no did the changes occu in a slow ( ocess. :he glacial sheet was a (ola cove H the ice ages te minated with catast o(hic suddennessH egions o3 mild climate moved instantly into the (ola ci cleH the ice sheet in ;me ica and ?u o(e sta ted to meltH g eat Fuantities o3 va(o ising 3 om the su 3ace o3 the oceans caused inc eased ( eci(itation and the 3o mation o3 a new ice cove . )igantic waves that t aveled ac oss continents, mo e than the movement o3 the ice, we e es(onsible 3o the d i3t, es(ecially in the no th, and 3o the boulde s that we e ca ied long distances and (laced ato( un elated 3o mations. I3 we look at the dist ibution o3 the ice sheet in the No the n =emis(he e, we see that a ci cle, with its cente somewhe e nea the east sho e o3 ) eenland o in the st ait between ) eenland and ,a33in !and nea the ( esent no th magnetic (ole, and a adius o3 about 1,000 kilomete s, emb aces the egion o3 the ice sheet o3 the last glacial age. No theaste n +ibe ia is outside the ci cleH the valley o3 the 6issou i down to 19Q no th latitude is within the ci cle. :he easte n (a t o3 ;laska is included, but not its weste n (a t. No thweste n ?u o(e is well within the ci cleH some distance behind the @ al 6ountains, the line cu ves towa d the no th and c osses the ( esent (ola ci cle. Now we e3lect> 8as not the No th Pole at some time in the (ast 20Q o mo e distant 3 om the (oint it now occu(ies / and close to ;me icaM In like manne , the old +outh Pole would have been oughly the same 20Q 3 om the ( esent (ole. 2 :he , ahman cha ts o3 the sky show a la ge di33e ence 3 om what mode n ast onome s would eC(ect to 3ind. 'alcutta being emoved #.0Q longitude 3 om ,a33in !and, the , ahman cha ts would athe co es(ond to a (osition o3 the ea th in which the aCis would (ie ce the globe at ,a33in !and, close to the ( esent magnetic (ole. :he change in latitude o3 othe egions to the west and to the east o3 India would have been smalle . It is ( obable that twenty/seven centu ies ago, o (e ha(s thi ty/3ive, the ( esent No th Pole was at ,a33in !and o close to the ,oothia GeliC Peninsula o3 the ;me ican mainland.

:he sudden eCte mination o3 mammoths was caused by a catast o(he and ( obably esulted 3 om as(hyCiation o elect ocution. :he immediately subseFuent movement o3 the +ibe ian continent into the (ola egion is ( obably es(onsible 3o the ( ese vation o3 the co (ses. 1 It a((ea s that the mammoths, along with othe animals, we e killed by a tem(est o3 gases accom(anied by a s(ontaneous lack o3 oCygen caused by 3i es aging high in the atmos(he e. ; 3ew instants late thei dying o dead bodies we e moving into the (ola ci cle. In a 3ew hou s no theaste n ;me ica moved 3 om the 3 igid 5one o3 the (ola ci cle into a mode ate 5oneH no theaste n +ibe ia moved in the o((osite di ection 3 om the mode ate 5one to the (ola ci cle. :he ( esent cold climate o3 no the n +ibe ia sta ted when the glacial age in ?u o(e and ;me ica came to a sudden end. It is assumed he e that in histo ical times neithe no theaste n +ibe ia no weste n ;laska we e in the (ola egions, but that as a esult o3 the catast o(hes o3 the eighth and seventh centu ies this a ea moved into that egion. :his assum(tion im(lies that these lands, to the eCtent that they we e not cove ed by the sea, we e most ( obably (laces o3 human habitation. ; chaeological wo k should be unde taken in no theaste n +ibe ia with the (u (ose o3 establishing whethe these now uninhabited tund as we e sites o3 cultu e twenty/seven centu ies ago. In #919 and #920 Eone o3 the most sta tling and im(o tant 3inds o3 the centu yE (?. +te3ansson) was made at Point =o(e in ;laska, on the sho es o3 ,e ing +t ait> an ancient city o3 about eight hund ed houses, whose (o(ulation had been la ge than that o3 the mode n city o3 Gai banks, was discove ed the e, no th o3 0.Q, about #10 miles within the ; ctic 'i cle. 2 EI(iutak, as the location o3 this ancient city is called by the ( esent ?skimos, must have been built be3o e the 'h istian e aH two thousand yea s is thought a conse vative estimate o3 its age. :he eCcavations have yielded beauti3ul ivo y ca vings unlike any known ?skimo o othe ;me ican Indian cultu e o3 the no the n egions. Gashioned o3 logs, the st ange tombs gave u( skeletons which sta ed u( at the eCcavato s with a ti3icial eyeballs ca ved o3 ivo y and inlaid with <et ... Nume ous delicately made and eng aved im(lements, also 3ound in the g aves, esembled some o3 those ( oduced in No th 'hina two o th ee thousand yea s agoH othe s esemble ca vings o3 the ;inu (eo(les in no the n Aa(an and the natives o3 the ;mu 9ive in +ibe ia. :he mate ial cultu e o3 these (eo(le was not a sim(le one, o3 the kind usually 3ound in the ; ctic, but elabo ate and that o3 a so(histicated (eo(le, in this sense mo e advanced than any known ?skimos, and clea ly de ived 3 om easte n ;sia.E $ In 'ent al ;laska, whe e the g ound has been 3 o5en 3o many centu ies, animals with 3lesh still attached to thei bones have been eCcavated. E,ones o3 eCtinct as well as living s(ecies o3 mammals have been 3ound in most o3 the egions ... :hey emain not as 3ossili5ed bones but in a 3 o5en state, and in some cases, ligaments, skin, and 3lesh adhe e to the bones.E 0 %u ing the season o3 #91., Ealmost the enti e skin o3 a su(e /bison, the hai emaining,E was 3ound in the Gai banks a ea. E+ome o3 the a ti3acts 3ound a3te the st i((ing at de(ths o3 #. to 20 mete s below the o iginal su 3ace may have been on o nea the su 3ace o iginally, but the (osition o3 othe s tends to associate them with eCtinct animal bones at g eat de(ths. :he ecogni5able a ti3acts a e im(lements o3 chi((ed stone, bone and ivo y.E In #910/#91-, in a small a ea designated as ?ste , seve al im(lements we e 3ound, as well as nume ous bu ned stones, in association with mammoth, mastodon, bison, and ho se bones, at the bottom o3 the muck de(osits in ?ste ' eek, some twenty mete s below the o iginal su 3ace. . In #91. simila 3inds we e made at ?nginee ' eek at the bottom o3 the muck, 3o ty mete s below the o iginal su 3ace o3 the soil. 9 :hese vestiges o3 li3e and cultu e 3a beneath the su 3ace o3 the g ound a e, 3o the most

(a t, emnants bu ied in catast o(hes ( io to that desc ibed in the ( esent cha(te H among them a e also emains o3 cultu e and li3e engul3ed in the cataclysms o3 the eighth and seventh centu ies. 8hen the ea thBs otation was distu bed, waves o3 t anslation moved eastwa d, because o3 ine tia, and (olewa d, because o3 the ecession o3 the wate s 3 om the eFuato ial bulge whe e they a e held by the otation o3 the ea th. :hus ;laska must have been swe(t by wate s 3 om the Paci3ic. :owns simila to those unea thed in ;laska, and (ossibly la ge ones, will most likely be 3ound in 4amchatka, o 3a the to the no th on the 4oluma o !ena ive s 3lowing into the ; ctic "cean. :he conditions that ( ese ved mammoths with 3lesh and skin on thei bones must have had the same e33ect on human beings, and it is not eCcluded that human bodies encased in ice will be 3ound, too. ; ( oblem the a chaeologists will have to solve is that o3 cla i3ying whethe the eCte mination o3 li3e in these egions o3 no thwest ;me ica and no theast ;sia, esulting in the death o3 mammoths, took (lace in the eighth and seventh o 3i3teenth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a (o ea lie ) / in othe wo ds, whethe the he ds o3 mammoths we e annihilated in the days o3 Isaiah o in the days o3 the ?Codus.
777777777777777777777777777777 # ). V. +chia(a elli> %e la otation de la te e sous IBin3luence des actions gUologiFues (+t. Pete sbu g, #..9), (. 1#. 2 In the di ection o3 Kueen 6a y !and o3 the ;nta ctic continent. 1 ) eek autho s e3e ed to the mummi3ying Fuality o3 amb osiaH they desc ibed the ( ocess o3 (ou ing the 3luid amb osia into the noses o3 the deadH this was the ( ocess used by the ?gy(tians also in a((lying thei d ugs 3o mummi3icationH the ,abylonians used honey 3o that (u (ose. 2 ,y G. ). 9ainey and his colleagues unde the s(onso shi( o3 the ;me ican 6useum o3 Natu al =isto y in New *o kH the esults o3 thei eC(edition we e (ublished in the anth o(ological (a(e s o3 the museum. $ %esc i(tion by ?velyn +te3ansson in he book, =e e Is ;laska (#921), ((. #1.33. 0 G. ). 9ainey> E; chaeology in 'ent al ;laska,E ;nth o(ological Pa(e s o3 the 6useum o3 Natu al =isto y , LLLV, Pt. IV (#919), 19#33. - Ibid., (. 191. . ,y P. 6aas. 9 ,y A. !. )iddings. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he *ea o3 100 %ays

'ha(te .

P9I"9 :" :=? last se ies o3 cataclysms, when, as we assume, the globe s(un on an aCis (ointed in a di33e ent di ection in s(ace, with its (oles at a di33e ent location, on a di33e ent o bit, the yea could not have been the same as it has been since. Nume ous evidences a e ( ese ved which ( ove that ( io to the yea o3 10$ days, the yea was only 100 days long. No was that yea o3 100 days ( imo dialH it was a t ansitional 3o m between a yea o3 still 3ewe days and the ( esent yea . In the (e iod o3 time between the last o3 the se ies o3 catast o(hes o3 the 3i3teenth centu y and the 3i st in the se ies o3 catast o(hes o3 the eighth centu y, the du ation o3 a seasonal evolution a((ea s to have been 100 days. # In o de to substantiate my statement, I invite the eade on a wo ld/wide <ou ney. 8e sta t in India. :he teCts o3 the Veda (e iod know a yea o3 only 100 days. E;ll Veda teCts s(eak uni3o mly and eCclusively o3 a yea o3 100 days. Passages in which this length o3 the yea is di ectly stated a e 3ound in all the , ahmanas.E 2 EIt is st iking that the Vedas nowhe e mention an inte cala y (e iod, and while e(eatedly stating that the yea consists o3 100 days, nowhe e e3e to the 3ive o siC days that actually a e a (a t o3 the sola yea .E 1 :his =indu yea o3 100 days is divided into twelve months o3 thi ty days each. 2 :he teCts desc ibe the moon as c escent 3o 3i3teen days and waning 3o anothe 3i3teen daysH they also say that the sun moved 3o siC months o #.0 days to the no th and 3o the same numbe o3 days to the south. :he (e (leCity o3 schola s at such data in the , ahmanic lite atu e is eC( essed in the 3ollowing sentence> E:hat these a e not conventional ineCact data, but de3initely w ong notions, is shown by the (assage in Nidana/+ut a, which says that the sun emains #1S days in each o3 the 2- Naksat as, and thus the actual sola yea is calculated as 100 days long.E EGi3teen days a e assigned to each hal3/moon (e iodH that this is too much is nowhe e admitted.E $ In thei ast onomical wo ks, the , ahmans used ve y ingenious geomet ic methods, and thei 3ailu e to disce n that the yea o3 100 days was $ days too sho t seemed ba33ling. In ten yea s such a mistake accumulates to 3i3ty/two days. :he autho whom I Fuoted last was 3o ced to conclude that the , ahmans had a Ewholly con3used notion o3 the t ue length o3 the yea .E "nly in a late (e iod, he said, we e the =indus able to deal with such obvious 3acts. :o the same e33ect w ote anothe )e man autho > E:he 3act that a long (e iod o3 time was necessa y to a ive at the 3o mulation o3 the 10$ day yea is ( oved by the eCistence o3 the old =indu 100/day +avana/yea and o3 othe 3o ms which a((ea in the Veda lite atu e.E

=e e is a (assage 3 om the ; yabhatiya, an old Indian wo k on mathematics and ast onomy> E; yea consists o3 twelve months. ; month consists o3 10 days. ; day consists o3 00 nadis. ; nadi consists o3 00 vinadikas.E ; month o3 thi ty days and a yea o3 100 days 3o med the basis o3 ea ly =indu ch onology used in histo ical com(utations. :he , ahmans we e awa e that the length o3 the yea , o3 the month, and o3 the day changed with eve y new wo ld age. :he 3ollowing is a (assage 3 om +u ya/+iddhanta, a classic o3 =indu ast onomy. ;3te an int oduction, it ( oceeds> E"nly by eason o3 the evolution o3 the ages, the e is he e a di33e ence o3 times.E . :he t anslato o3 this ancient manual su((lied an annotation to these wo ds> E;cco ding to the commenta y, the meaning o3 these last ve ses is that in successive ) eat ;ges ... the e we e slight di33e ences in the motion o3 the

heavenly bodies.E ?C(laining the te m Ebi<aE, which means a co ection o3 time in eve y new age, the book o3 +u ya says that Etime is the dest oye o3 the wo lds.E :he sace dotal yea , like the secula yea o3 the calenda , consisted o3 100 days com(osing twelve luna months o3 thi ty days each. G om a(( oCimately the seventh ( e/'h istian centu y on, the yea o3 the =indus became 10$b days long, but 3o tem(le (u (oses the old yea o3 100 days was also obse ved, and this yea is called EsavanaE. 8hen the =indu calenda acFui ed a yea o3 10$b days and a luna month o3 twenty/nine and a hal3 days, the olde system was not disca ded. E:he natu al month, containing about twenty/nine and a hal3 days mean sola time, is then divided into thi ty luna days (EtithiE), and this division, although o3 so unnatu al and a bit a y a cha acte , the luna days beginning and ending at any moment o3 the natu al day and night, is, to the =indu, o3 the most ( ominent ( actical im(o tance, since by it a e egulated the (e 3o mances o3 many eligious ce emonies, and u(on it de(end the chie3 conside ations o3 ( o(itious and un( o(itious times, and the like.E 9 :he double system was the im(osition o3 a new time measu e u(on the old. :he ancient Pe sian yea was com(osed o3 100 days o twelve months o3 thi ty days each. In the seventh centu y 3ive )atha days we e added to the calenda . #0 In the ,undahis, a sac ed book o3 the Pe sians, the #.0 successive a((ea ances o3 the sun 3 om the winte solstice to the summe solstice and 3 om the summe solstice to the neCt winte solstice a e desc ibed in these wo ds> E:he e a e a hund ed and eighty a(e tu es IE oginEJ in the east, and a hund ed and eighty in the west ... and the sun, eve y day, comes in th ough an a(e tu e, and goes out th ough an a(e tu e ... It comes back to Va ak, in th ee hund ed and siCty days and 3ive )atha days.E ## )atha days a e E3ive su((lementa y days added to the last o3 the twelve months o3 thi ty days each, to com(lete the yea H 3o these days no additional a(e tu es a e ( ovided ... :his a angement seems to indicate that the idea o3 the a(e tu es is olde than the ecti3ication o3 the calenda which added the 3ive )atha days to an o iginal yea o3 100 days.E #2 :he old ,abylonian yea was com(osed o3 100 days. #1 :he ast onomical tablets 3 om the (e iod antedating the Neo/,abylonian ?m(i e com(ute the yea at so many days, without mention o3 additional days. :hat the ancient ,abylonian yea had only 100 days was known be3o e the cunei3o m sc i(t was deci(he ed> 'tesias w ote that the walls o3 ,abylon we e 100 3u longs in com(ass, Eas many as the e had been days in the yea .E #2 :he 5odiac o3 the ,abylonians was divided into thi ty/siC decans, a decan being the s(ace the sun cove ed in elation to 3iCed sta s du ing a ten/day (e iod. E=oweve , the 10 decans with thei decades eFui e a yea o3 only 100 days.E #$ :o eC(lain this a((a ently a bit a y length o3 the 5odiacal (ath, the 3ollowing con<ectu e was made> E;t 3i st the ast onome s o3 ,abylon ecogni5ed a yea o3 100 days, and the division o3 a ci cle into 100 deg ees must have indicated the (ath t ave sed by the sun each day in its assumed ci cling o3 the ea th.E #0 :his le3t ove 3ive deg ees o3 the 5odiac unaccounted 3o . :he old ,abylonian yea consisted o3 twelve months o3 thi ty days each, the months being com(uted 3 om the time o3 the a((ea ance o3 the new moon. ;s the (e iod between one new moon and anothe is about twenty/nine and a hal3 days, students o3 the ,abylonian calenda 3ace the (e (leCity with which we a e al eady 3amilia in othe count ies. E6onths o3 thi ty days began with the light o3 the new moon. =ow ag eement with ast onomical eality was e33ected, we do not know. :he ( actice o3 an inte cala y (e iod is not yet known.E #- It a((ea s that in the seventh centu y 3ive days we e added to the ,abylonian calenda H they we e ega ded as un( o(i tious, and (eo(le had a su(e stitious awe o3 them. :he ;ssy ian yea consisted o3 100 daysH a decade was called a sa usH a sa us consisted o3

1,000 days. #. E:he ;ssy ians, like the ,abylonians, had a yea com(osed o3 luna months, and it seems that the ob<ect o3 ast ological e(o ts which elate to the a((ea ance o3 the moon and sun was to hel( to dete mine and 3o etell the length o3 the luna month. I3 this be so, the yea in common use th oughout ;ssy ia must have been luna . :he calenda assigns to each month thi ty 3ull daysH the luna month is, howeve , little mo e than twenty/nine and a hal3 days.E #9 EIt would ha dly be (ossible 3o the calenda month and the luna month to co es(ond so eCactly at the end o3 the yea .E 20 ;ssy ian documents e3e to months o3 thi ty days only, and count such months 3 om c escent to c escent. 2# ;gain, as in othe count ies, it is eC(licitly the luna month that is com(uted by the ;ssy ian ast onome s as eFual to thi ty days. =ow could the ;ssy ian ast onome s have ad<usted the length o3 the luna months to the evolutions o3 the moon, mode n schola s ask themselves, and how could the obse vations e(o ted to the oyal (alace by the ast onome s have been so consistently e oneousM :he month o3 the Is aelites, 3 om the 3i3teenth to the eighth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, was eFual to thi ty days, and twelve months com( ised a yea H the e is no mention o3 months sho te than thi ty days, no o3 a yea longe than twelve months. :hat the month was com(osed o3 thi ty days is evidenced by %eute onomy 12>. and 2#>#1, and Numbe s 20>29, whe e mou ning 3o the dead is o de ed 3o Ea 3ull month,E and is ca ied on 3o thi ty days. :he sto y o3 the Glood, as given in )enesis, eckons in months o3 thi ty daysH it says that one hund ed and 3i3ty days (assed between the seventeenth day o3 the second month and the seventeenth day o3 the seventh month. 22 :he com(osition o3 this teCt a((a ently dates 3 om the time between the ?Codus and the u(heaval o3 the days o3 @55iah. 21 :he =eb ews obse ved luna months. :his is attested to by the 3act that the new/moon 3estivals we e o3 g eat im(o tance in the days o3 Audges and 4ings. 22 E:he new moon 3estival anciently stood at least on a level with that o3 the +abbath.E 2$ ;s these (luna ) months we e thi ty days long, with no months o3 twenty/nine days in between, and as the yea was com(osed o3 twelve such months, with no additional days o inte calated months, the ,ible eCegetes could 3ind no way o3 econciling the th ee 3igu es> 1$2 days, o twelve luna months o3 twenty/nine and a hal3 days eachH 100 days, o a multi(leC o3 twelve times thi tyH and 10$b days, the ( esent length o3 the yea . :he ?gy(tian yea was com(osed o3 100 days be3o e it became 10$ by the addition o3 3ive days. :he calenda o3 the ?be s Pa(y us, a document o3 the New 4ingdom, has a yea o3 twelve months o3 thi ty days each. 20 In the ninth yea o3 4ing Ptolemy ?ue getes, o /21., a e3o m (a ty among the ?gy(tian ( iests met at 'ano(us and d ew u( a dec eeH in #.00 it was discove ed at :anis in the %elta, insc ibed on a tablet. :he (u (ose o3 the dec ee was to ha moni5e the calenda with the seasons Eacco ding to the ( esent a angement o3 the wo ld,E as the teCt states. "ne day was o de ed to be added eve y 3ou yea s to the Eth ee hund ed and siCty days, and to the 3ive days which we e a3te wa ds o de ed to be added.E 2:he autho s o3 the dec ee did not s(eci3y the (a ticula date on which the 3ive days we e added to the 100 days, but they do say clea ly that such a e3o m was instituted on some date a3te the (e iod when the yea was only 100 days long. "n a ( evious (age I e3e ed to the 3act that the calenda o3 100 days was int oduced in ?gy(t only a3te the close o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom, in the days o3 the =yksos. :he 3ive e(igomena must have been added to the 100 days subseFuent to the end o3 the ?ighteenth %ynasty. 8e have no mention o3 E3ive daysE in all the nume ous insc i(tions o3 the

?ighteenth %ynastyH the e(igomena o , as the ?gy(tians called them, Ethe 3ive days which a e above the yea ,E 2. a e known 3 om the documents o3 the seventh and 3ollowing centu ies. :he (ha aohs o3 the late dynasties used to w ite> E:he yea and the 3ive days.E :he last day o3 the yea was celeb ated, not on the last o3 the e(igomena, but on the thi tieth o3 6eso i, the twel3th month. 29 In the 3i3th centu y =e odotus w ote> E:he ?gy(tians, eckoning thi ty days to each o3 the twelve months, add 3ive days in eve y yea ove and above the numbe , and so the com(leted ci cle o3 seasons is made to ag ee with the calenda .E 10 :he ,ook o3 +othis, e oneously asc ibed to the ?gy(tian ( iest 6anetho, 1# and )eo gius +yncellus, the ,y5antine ch onologist, 12 maintain that o iginally the additional 3ive days did not 3ollow the 100 days o3 the calenda , but we e int oduced at a late date, 11 which is co obo ated by the teCt o3 the 'ano(us %ec ee. :hat the int oduction o3 e(igomena was not the esult o3 ( og ess in ast onomical knowledge, but was caused by an actual change in the (laneta y movements, is im(lied in the 'ano(us %ec ee, 3o it e3e s to Ethe amendment o3 the 3aults o3 the heaven.E In his Isis and "si is 12 Pluta ch desc ibes by means o3 an allego y the change in the length o3 the yea > E=e mes (laying at d aughts with the moon, won 3 om he the seventieth (a t o3 each o3 he (e iods o3 illumination, and 3 om all the winnings he com(osed 3ive days, and inte calated them as an addition to the 100 days.E Pluta ch in3o ms us also that one o3 these e(igomena days was ega ded as inaus(iciousH no business was t ansacted on that day, and even kings Ewould not attend to thei bodies until night3all.E :he new/moon 3estivals we e ve y im(o tant in the days o3 the ?ighteenth %ynasty. "n all the nume ous insc i(tions o3 that (e iod, whe eve the months a e mentioned, they a e eckoned as thi ty days long. :he 3act that the new/moon 3estivals we e obse ved at thi ty/ day inte vals im(lies that the luna month was o3 that du ation. 9eca(itulating, we 3ind conco dant data. :he 'ano(us %ec ee states that at some (e iod in the (ast the ?gy(tian yea was only 100 days long, and that the 3ive days we e added at some late dateH the ?be s Pa(y us shows that unde the ?ighteenth %ynasty the calenda had a yea o3 100 days divided into twelve months o3 thi ty days eachH othe documents o3 this (e iod also testi3y that the luna month had thi ty days, and that a new moon was obse ved twelve times in a (e iod o3 100 days. :he +othis book says that this 100/day yea was established unde the =yksos, who uled a3te the end o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom, ( eceding the ?ighteenth %ynasty. In the eighth o seventh centu y the 3ive e(igomena days we e added to the yea unde conditions which caused them to be ega ded as un( o(itious. ;lthough the change in the numbe o3 days in the yea was calculated soon a3te it occu ed, neve theless, 3o some time many nations etained a civil yea o3 100 days divided into twelve months o3 thi ty days each. 'leobulus, who was counted among the seven sages o3 ancient ) eece, in his 3amous allego y e( esents the yea as divided into twelve months o3 thi ty days> the 3athe is one, the sons a e twelve, and each o3 them has thi ty daughte s. 1$ G om the days o3 :hales, anothe o3 the seven sages, who could ( edict an ecli(se, the =ellenes knew that the yea consists o3 10$ daysH :hales was ega ded by them as the man who discove ed the numbe o3 days in the yea . ;s he was bo n in the seventh centu y, it is not im(ossible that he was one o3 the 3i st among the ) eeks to lea n the new length o3 the yea H it was in the beginning o3 that centu y that the yea achieved its ( esent length. ; contem(o a y o3 :hales and also one o3 the seven sages, +olon was ega ded as the 3i st among the ) eeks to 3ind that a luna month is less than thi ty days. 10 %es(ite thei knowledge o3 the co ect measu e o3 the yea and the month, the ) eeks, a3te +olon and

:hales, continued to kee( to the obsolete calenda , a 3act 3o which we have the testimony o3 =i((oc ates (E+even yea s contain 100 weeksE), Leno(hon, ; istotle, and Pliny. 1- :he (e sistence o3 eckoning by 100 days is accounted 3o not only by a ce tain eve ence 3o the ea lie ast onomical yea , but also by its convenience 3o eve y com(utation. :he ancient 9omans also eckoned 100 days to the yea . Pluta ch w ote in his !i3e o3 Numa that in the time o3 9omulus, in the eighth centu y, the 9omans had a yea o3 100 days only. 1. Va ious !atin autho s say that the ancient month was com(osed o3 thi ty days. 19 "n the othe side o3 the ocean, the 6ayan yea consisted o3 100 daysH late 3ive days we e added, and the yea was then a tun (100/day (e iod) and 3ive daysH eve y 3ou th yea anothe day was added to the yea . E:hey did eckon them a(a t, and called them the days o3 nothing> du ing which the (eo(le did not anything,E w ote A. de ;costa, an ea ly w ite on ;me ica. 20 G ia %iego de !anda, in his *ucatan be3o e and a3te the 'onFuest, w ote> E:hey had thei (e 3ect yea like ou s, o3 10$ days and siC hou s, which they divided into months in two ways. In the 3i st the months we e o3 10 days and we e called B@B which signi3ies the moon, and they counted 3 om the ising o3 the new moon until it disa((ea ed.E 2# :he othe method o3 eckoning, by months o3 twenty daysB du ation (Euinal hunekehE), e3lects a much olde system, to which I shall etu n when I eCamine mo e a chaic systems than that o3 the 100/day yea . %e !anda also w ote that the 3ive su((lementa y days we e ega ded as Esiniste and unlucky.E :hey we e called Edays without name.E 22 ;lthough the 6eCicans at the time o3 the conFuest called a thi ty/day (e iod Ea moon,E they knew that the synodical moon (e iod is 29.$209 days, 21 which is mo e eCact than the ) ego ian calenda int oduced in ?u o(e ninety yea s a3te the discove y o3 ;me ica. "bviously, they adhe ed to an old t adition dating 3 om the time when the yea had twelve months o3 thi ty days each, 100 days in all. 22 In ancient +outh ;me ica also the yea consisted o3 100 days, divided into twelve months. E:he Pe uvian yea was divided into twelve Kuilla, o moons o3 thi ty days. Give days we e added at the end, called ;llcacanFuis.E 2$ :he ea3te , a day was added eve y 3ou yea s to kee( the calenda co ect. 8e c oss the Paci3ic "cean and etu n to ;sia. :he calenda o3 the (eo(les o3 'hina had a yea o3 100 days divided into twelve months o3 thi ty days each. 20 ; elic o3 the system o3 100 days is the still (e sisting division o3 the s(he e into 100 deg eesH each deg ee e( esented the diu nal advance o3 the ea th on its o bit, o that (o tion o3 the 5odiac which was (assed ove 3 om one night to the neCt. ;3te 100 changes the stella sky etu ned to the same (osition 3o the obse ve on the ea th. 8hen the yea changed 3 om 100 to 10$b days, the 'hinese added 3ive and a Fua te days to thei yea , calling this additional (e iod 4he/yingH they also began to divide a s(he e into 10$b deg ees, ado(ting the new yea /length not only in the calenda , but also in celestial and te est ial geomet y. 2;ncient 'hinese time eckoning was based on a coe33icient o3 siCtyH so also in India, 6eCico, and 'haldea, siCty being the unive sal coe33icient. :he division o3 the yea into 100 days was hono ed in many ways, 2. and, indeed, it became an incentive to ( og ess in ast onomy and geomet y, so that (eo(le did not eadily disca d this method o3 eckoning when it became obsolete. :hey etained thei EmoonsE o3 thi ty days, though the luna month in 3act became sho te , and they ega ded the 3ive days as not belonging to the yea . ;ll ove the wo ld we 3ind that the e was at some time the same calenda o3 100 days, and that at some late date, about the seventh centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, 3ive days we e added at the end o3 the yea , as Edays ove the yea ,E o Edays o3 nothing.E

+chola s who investigated the calenda s o3 the Incas o3 Pe u and the 6ayas o3 *ucatan wonde ed at the calenda o3 100 daysH so did the schola s who studied the calenda s o3 the ?gy(tians, Pe sians, =indus, 'haldeans, ;ssy ians, =eb ews, 'hinese, ) eeks, o 9omans. 6ost o3 them, while debating the ( oblem in thei own 3ield, did not sus(ect that the same ( oblem tu ned u( in the calenda o3 eve y nation o3 antiFuity. :wo matte s a((ea ed (e (leCing> a mistake o3 3ive and a Fua te days in a yea could ce tainly be t aced, not only by ast onome s, but even by anal(habetic 3a me s, 3o in the sho t s(an o3 3o ty yea s / a (e iod that a (e son could eadily obse ve / the seasons would become dis(laced by mo e than two hund ed days. :he second (e (leCity conce ns the length o3 a month. EIt seems to have been a ( evailing o(inion among the ancients that a lunation o synodical month lasted thi ty days.E 29 In many documents o3 va ious (eo(les, it is said that the month, o the Emoon,E is eFual to thi ty days, and that the beginning o3 such a month coincides with the new moon. +uch decla ations by ancient ast onome s make it clea that the e was no such thing as a conventional calenda with an admitted e o H as a matte o3 3act, the eCistence o3 an inte national calenda in those days is eCt emely unlikely. ;3te centu ies o3 o(en sea lanes and inte national eCchange o3 ideas, no uni3o m calenda 3o the whole wo ld has as yet been devised> the 6oslems have a luna yea , based on the movements o3 the moon, which is systematically ad<usted eve y 3ew yea s to the sola yea by inte calationH many othe c eeds and (eo(les have systems o3 thei own containing many vestiges o3 ancient systems. :he eckoning o3 months as eFual to thi ty and thi ty/one days is also a elic o3 olde systemsH the 3ive su((lementa y days we e divided among the old luna months. ,ut at ( esent the almanac does not asc ibe an inte val o3 thi ty days between two lunations o a (e iod o3 100 days 3o twelve lunations. :he eason 3o the unive sal identity o3 time eckoning between the 3i3teenth and the eighth centu ies lay in the actual movement o3 the ea th on its aCis and along its o bit, and in the evolution o3 the moon, du ing that histo ical (e iod. :he length o3 a luna evolution must have been almost eCactly 10 days, and the length o3 the yea a((a ently did not va y 3 om 100 days by mo e than a 3ew hou s. :hen a se ies o3 catast o(hes occu ed that changed the aCis and the o bit o3 the ea th and the o bit o3 the moon, and the ancient yea , a3te going th ough a (e iod ma ked by disa anged seasons, settled into a Eslow/moving yea E (+eneca) o3 10$ days, $ hou s, 2. minutes, 20 seconds, a luna month being eFual to 29 days, #2 hou s, 22 minutes, 2.seconds, mean synodical (e iod.
777777777777777777777777777777 # 8. 8histon, in New :heo y o3 the ?a th (#090), eC( essed his belie3 that be3o e the %eluge the yea was com(osed o3 100 days. =e 3ound e3e ences in classic autho s to a yea o3 100 days, and as he ecogni5ed only one ma<o catast o(he, the %eluge, he elated these e3e ences to the antediluvian e a. 2 :hibaut> E;st onomie, ;st ologie und 6athematik,E ) und iss de indo/a ischen Philologie und ;lte thumskunde (#.99), III, -. 1 Ibid. 2 Ibid. $ Ibid. 0 G. 4. )in5el> E'h onologie,E ?ncyklo(^die de mathematischen 8issenscha3ten (#902/#91$), Vol. VI. - :he ; yabhatiya o3 ; yabhatta, an ancient Indian wo k on mathematics and ast onomy (t ansl. 8. ?. 'la k, #910), 'ha(. 1, E4alak iya o the 9eckoning o3 :ime,E (. $#. . +u ya/+iddhanta> ; :eCt ,ook o3 =indu ;st onomy (t ansl. ?bene5e ,u gess, #.00). 9 Ibid., comment by ,u gess in note to (. -. #0 E:welve months ... o3 thi ty days each ... and the 3ive )atha/days at the end o3 the yea .E E:he ,ook o3 %enka t,E in =. +. Nybe g> :eCte 5um ma5dayasnischen 4alende (@((sala, #912), (. 9. ## ,undahis (t ansl. 8est), 'ha(. V. #2 Note by 8est on (. 22 o3 his t anslation o3 the ,undahis. #1 ;. Ae emias> %as ;lte de babylonischen ;st onomie (2nd ed., #909), ((. $.33. #2 :he G agments o3 the Pe sika o3 4tesias ('tesiae Pe sica), ed. A. )ilmo e (#...), (. 1.H %iodo us ii. -.

#$ 8. )undel> %ekane und %ekanste nbilde (#910), (. 2$1. #0 'anto > Vo lesungen Ybe )eschichte de 6athematik, I, 92. #- E+inE in 9osche > !eCikon de g iech. und Wm. 6ythologie , 'ol. .92. #. )eo gius +yncellus, ed. Aacob )oa (Pa is, #0$2), ((. #-, 12. #9 9. '. :hom(son> :he 9e(o ts o3 the 6agicians and ;st ologe s o3 Nineveh and ,abylon in the , itish 6useum, II (#900), CiC. 20 Ibid., (. CC. 2# !angdon and Gothe ingham> :he Venus tablets o3 ;mmi5aduga, ((. 2$/20H '. =. 8. Aohns> ;ssy ian %eeds and %ocuments, IV (#921), 111H A. 4ohle and ;. @ngnad> ;ssy ische 9echtsu kunden (#9#1) 2$., 1H 201, $H 029, $. 22 )enesis ->## and 22H .>2. 21 :he othe va iant o3 the sto y o3 the Glood ()enesis ->#-H .>0) has the %eluge lasting 20 days instead o3 #$0. 22 I +amuel 20>$ /0H II 4ings 2>21H ;mos .>$H Isaiah #>#1H =osea 2>##H ?5ekiel 20>#, 1. In the ,ible the month is called EhodeshE, o Ethe new (moon),E which testi3ies to a lunation o3 thi ty days. 2$ A. 8ellhausen> P olegomena to the =isto y o3 Is ael (#..$), (. ##1. 20 '3. ). !egge in 9ecueil de t avauC elati3s \ la (hilologie et \ lBa chUologie Ugy(tiennes et assy iennes (!a 6ission 3 angaise du 'ai e, #909). 2- +. +ha (e> :he %ec ee o3 'ano(us (#.-0). 2. ?. 6eye > Edgy(tische 'h onologie,E Philos. und hist. ;bhandlungen de P euss. ;kademie de 8issenscha3ten (#902), (. .. 29 Ibid. 10 =e odotus> =isto y, ,k. ii. 2 (t ansl. ;. %. )odley). 1# +ee volume o3 6anetho in !oeb 'lassical !ib a y. 12 )eo gii 6onachi 'h onog a(hia (ed. P. Aacobi )oa , #0$2), (. #21. 11 In the days o3 the =yksos 4ing ;seth. ,ut see the +ection E'hanges in the :imes and the +easons.B 12 : anslated by G. '. ,abbit. 1$ +ee %iogenes !aP tius> !ives o3 ?minent Philoso(he s, E!i3e o3 :hales.E 10 P oclus> :he 'ommenta ies on the :imaeus o3 Plato (#.20)H %iogenes !aP tius> !ives> E!i3e o3 +olonEH Pluta ch> !ives, E!i3e o3 +olon.E 1- ; istotle> =isto ia animalium vi. 20H Pliny> Natu al =isto y, CCCiv. #2 (t ansl. ,ostock and 9iley). 1. Pluta ch> !ives, E:he !i3e o3 Numa,E Cviii. 19 '3. )eminus> ?lementa ast onomiae viiiH c3. also 'leomedes> %e motu ci cula i co (o um celestium Ci. 2. 20 A. de ;costa> :he Natu al and 6o al =isto ies o3 the Indies, #..0 (=isto ia natu al y mo al de las Indias, +eville, #$90). 2# %iego de !anda> *ucatan, (. $9. 22 %. ). , inton> :he 6aya 'h onicles (#..2). 21 )atesB note to %e !anda> *ucatan, (. $9. 22 9. '. ?. !ong> E'h onology/6aya,E ?ncyclo(aedia , itannica (#2th ed.)> E:hey Ithe 6ayasJ neve used a yea o3 10$ days in counting the distance o3 time 3 om one date to anothe .E 2$ 6a kham> :he Incas o3 Pe u, (. ##-. 20 Aose(h +calige > "(us de emendatione tem(o um, (. 22$H 8. =ales> New ;nalysis o3 'h onology (#.09/ #.#2), I, 1#H 8. =. 6edhu st, notes to ((. 20$/200 o3 his t anslation o3 :he +hoo 4ing (+hanghai, #.20). 2- =. 6u ay, A. ' aw3o d, and othe s> ;n =isto ical and %esc i(tive ;ccount o3 'hina ((. 21$)H :he 'hinese 'lassics, III, Pt. 2, ed. !egge (+hanghai, #.0$), note to (. 2#. '3. also 'anto > Vo lesungen, (. 92> EDue st wu de von den ;st onomen ,abylons das Aah von 100 :agen e kannt, und die 4 eisteilung in 100 ) ade sollte den 8eg ve sinnlichen welchen die +onne bei ih em ve meintlichen @mlau3e u n die ? de <eden :ag 5u Ycklegte.E 2. '. G. %u(uis (!B" igine de tous les cultes I#.1$/#.10J, the ?nglish com(endium being :he " igin o3 ;ll 9eligious 8o shi( I#.-2J, (. 2#) gathe ed mate ial on the numbe 100, Ewhich is that o3 the days o3 the yea without the e(igomena.E =e e3e s to the 100 gods in the Etheology o3 " (heus,E to the 100 eons o3 the gnostic genii, to the 100 idols be3o e the (alace o3 %ai i in Aa(an, to 100 statues Esu ounding that o3 =obal,E wo shi(ed by the ancient ; abs, to the 100 genii who take (ossession o3 the soul a3te death, Eacco ding to the doct ine o3 the 'h istians o3 +t. Aohn,E to the 100 tem(les built on the mountain o3 !owham in 'hina, and to the wall o3 100 stadia Ewith which +emi amis su ounded the cityE o3 ,abylon. :his mate ial did not convey to its collecto the idea that an ast onomical yea o3 100 days had been the eason 3o the sac edness o3 the numbe 100. 29 6edhu st> :he +hoo 4ing. 777777777777777777777777777777

%isa anged 6onths

;s a esult o3 e(eated (e tu bations, the ea th changed 3 om an o bit o3 100 daysB du ation

to one o3 10$b days, the days ( obably not being eCactly eFual in both cases. :he month changed 3 om thi ty to twenty/nine and a hal3 days. :hese we e the values at the beginning and at the end o3 the centu y o3 Ethe battle o3 the gods.E ;s a esult o3 the (e tu bations o3 this centu y, the e we e inte media y values o3 the yea and the month. :he length o3 the yea ( obably anged between 100 and 10$b days, but the moon, being a smalle (o weake ) body than the ea th, su33e ed g eate (e tu bations 3 om the contacting body, and the inte mediate values o3 the month could have been sub<ected to g eate changes. Pluta ch decla es that in the time o3 9omulus the (eo(le we e Ei ational and i egula in thei 3iCing o3 the months,E and eckoned some months at thi ty/3ive days and some at mo e, Et ying to kee( to a yea o3 100 days,E and that Numa, 9omulusB successo , co ected the i egula ities o3 the calenda and also changed the o de o3 the months. :his statement suggests the Fuestion> 6ight it not have been that du ing the (e iod between consecutive catast o(hes the moon eceded to an o bit o3 thi ty/3ive o thi ty/siC daysB du ationM I3, in the (e iod o3 con3usion, the moon actually changed 3o a while to such an o bit, it must have been an elli(se o a ci cle o3 a adius la ge than be3o e. In the latte case, each o3 the 3ou moon (hases must have been o3 nine daysB du ation. It is o3 inte est, the e3o e, to ead that in many sagas dealing with the moon, the numbe nine is used in measu es o3 time. # ; se ies o3 schola s 3ound that nine days was 3o a while a time (e iod o3 many ancient (eo(les> the =indus, the Pe sians, 2 the ,abylonians, 1 the ?gy(tians, 2 and the 'hinese. $ In eligious t aditions, lite atu e, and ast ological wo ks, seven days and nine days com(ete as the measu e o3 the monthBs Fua te . In the time o3 the =ome ic e(ics, the nine/day week became ( evalent in the ) eek wo ld. :he seven/day week and the nine/day week a e both 3ound in =ome . 0 :he 9omans, too, etained the ecollection o3 a time when the week had been o3 nine daysB du ation. :he change 3 om a seven/day (hase to a nine/day (hase is 3ound in the t aditions o3 the (eo(les o3 9umania, !ithuania, and +a dinia, and among the 'elts o3 ?u o(e, the 6ongols o3 ;sia, and the t ibes o3 8est ;3 ica. . In o de to eC(lain this st ange (henomenon in time eckoning, obviously connected with the moon, the suggestion was made that, in addition to the seventh/day (hase o3 the moon, a nine/day (hase was also obse ved, which is a thi d (a t o3 the month. 9 ,ut this idea must be e<ected, because a thi d (a t o3 a month o3 twenty/nine and a hal3 days would mo e nea ly be ten days and not nine. #0 ,esides, the Fua te /month (hases a e easily obse vable (e iods du ing which the moon inc eases 3 om new moon to hal3 moon, to 3ull moon, and then dec eases acco dinglyH but a nine/day (e iod 3alls between these (hases. :he e3o e, and in view o3 the vast mate ial 3 om many (eo(les, we conclude that at one time du ing the centu y o3 (e tu bations, 3o a (e iod between two catast o(hes, the moon eceded to an o bit o3 thi ty/3ive to thi ty/siC daysB du ation. It emained on such an o bit 3o a 3ew decades until, at the neCt u(heaval, it was ca ied to an o bit o3 twenty/nine and a hal3 daysB du ation, on which it has ( oceeded since then. :hese E(e tu bed monthsE occu ed in the second hal3 o3 the eighth centu y, at the beginning o3 9oman histo y. ## 8hat is mo e, we have actual dates like Ethe 11 d day o3 the month,E cited in the ,abylonian tablets o3 that (e iod. #2 :hus the month which was eFual to thi ty days changed to thi ty/siC and then to twenty/ nine and a hal3 days. :he last change was simultaneous with the change o3 the te est ial o bit to one o3 10$b daysB du ation.
777777777777777777777777777777 # E:he numbe nine occu s cons(icuously in so many sagas which, 3o othe easons, I ecogni5ed to be moon sagas, that I am convinced that the holiness o3 this numbe has its o igin in its ve y ancient a((lication in time division.E :he autho o3 this (assage (?. +iecke> %ie !iebesgeschichte des =immels, @nte suchungen 5u indoge manischen +agenkunde I#.92J) did not su((ose a change in the natu e o3 the luna cycles, and also was

not awa e o3 the wo k o3 the schola e3e ed to in the 3ollowing 3ootnote, yet he was 3o ced to believe that nine was connected with a time subdivision o3 a month. 2 ;. 4aegi> E%ie Neun5ahl bei den "sta ien.E in the volume dedicated to =. +chwei5e /+idle (#.9#). 1 4ugle > E%ie +ymbolik de Neun5ahl,E ,abylonische Deito dnung, (. #92. 2 ?. Naville> : ansactions o3 the +ociety o3 ,iblical ; chaeology, IV (#.-$), #/#.. $ 9osche > E%ie enneadischen und hebdomadischen G isten und 8ochenE, Vol. LLI, No. 2, o3 ;bhandlungen de (hilol. /histo . 4lasse de 4gl. s^chs. )es. de 8issenscha3ten (#901). 0 9osche > E%ie +ieben/ und Neun5ahl im 4ultus und 6yihus de ) iechenE, Ibid., Vol. LLIV, No. # (#902)> E%ie beiden ; ten von G isten schon bei =ome und ebenso auch im ^ltesten 4ultus nebeneinande vo kommenE ((. $2). EIn de Deit des ^lte en ?(os he schend gewo dene 9/t^gige 8ocheE ((. -1). - '3. "vid> 6etamo (hoses vii. 2133.H Ciii. 9$#H Civ. $-. . 9osche > %ie +ieben/ und Neun5ahl. 9 9osche > G isten und 8ochen. #0 :he side eal month, o the (e iod o3 time du ing which the moon com(letes a evolution in elation to the 3iCed sta s is 2- days, - hou s, 21 minutes. ,ut the (hases o3 the moon change acco ding to the synodical month o3 29 days, #2 hou s, 22 minutesH a3te a synodical month the moon etu ns to the same (osition in elation to the sun as viewed 3 om the ea th. ## It was ( obably these changes that caused the gods in :he 'louds o3 ; isto(hanes to accuse the moon o3 having b ought diso de in the calenda and in the cult. ; isto(hanes> :he 'louds ##. 0#$33. #2 4ugle > ,abylonische Deito dnung, (. #9#, note, 777777777777777777777777777777

*ea s o3 :en 6onths

8hen the month was about thi ty/siC days and the yea between 100 and 10$b days, the yea must have been com(osed o3 only ten months. :his was the case. ;cco ding to many classical autho s, in the days o3 9omulus the yea consisted o3 ten months, and in the time o3 Numa, his successo , two months we e added> Aanua y and Geb ua y. "vid w ites> E8hen the 3ounde o3 the city I9omeJ was setting the calenda in o de , he o dained that the e should be twice 3ive months in his yea ... =e gave his laws to egulate the yea . :he month o3 6a s was the 3i st, and that o3 Venus the second ... ,ut Numa ove looked not Aanus and the ancest al shades IGeb ua yJ and so to the ancient months he ( e3iCed two.E # )eminus, a ) eek ast onome o3 the 3i st centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, says simila ly that it was 9omulus who (in the eighth centu y) established the yea o3 ten months. 2 ;ulus )ellius, a second centu y autho , w ites in his ;ttic Nights> E:he yea was com(osed not o3 twelve months, but o3 ten.E 1 Pluta ch ema ks that in his day the e was a belie3 that the 9omans, in the time o3 9omulus, com(uted the yea Enot in twelve months, but in ten, by adding mo e than thi ty days to some o3 the months.E 2 ;t the beginning o3 NumaBs eign the ten/month yea was still the o33icial one. $ E6a ch was conside ed the 3i st month until the eign o3 Numa, the 3ull yea be3o e that time containing ten months,E w ote P oco(ius o3 'aesa ea, who lived in the closing yea s o3 the 9oman ?m(i e. 0 :he 3act that, in 9omulusB time, the 3i st month was named in hono o3 6a s and the second in hono o3 Venus shows the im(o tance o3 these two deities in that (e iod o3 histo y. Auly was named Kuintilis (the 3i3th). :he di33e ence o3 two months still su vives in the names +e(tembe , "ctobe , Novembe , and %ecembe , which denote the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth months, but acco ding to ( esent/day eckoning they a e the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twel3th months, es(ectively. Not only was the yea divided into 3ewe than twelve months, but also the 5odiac, o the (ath o3 the sun and the moon ac oss the 3i mament, at ( esent consisting o3 twelve signs, at one time had eleven and at anothe time ten signs. ; 5odiac o3 3ewe than twelve signs was em(loyed by the ast ologe s o3 ,abylonia, ancient ) eece, and othe count ies. - ; Aewish song in the ; amaic language which is included in the +ede +e vice e3e s to eleven

constellations o3 the Dodiac. :he calenda s o3 the ( imitive (eo(les disclose thei ea ly o igin by the 3act that many o3 them a e com(osed o3 ten months, and some o3 eleven months. I3 the time o3 the luna evolution was thi ty/3ive days and some hou s, the yea was something ove ten months long. :he *u ak +amoyeds eckon eleven months to the yea . . :he natives o3 Go mosa, too, have a yea o3 eleven months. 9 :he yea o3 the 4amchadals is made u( o3 ten months, Eone o3 which is said to be as long as th ee.E #0 :he inhabitants o3 the 4ingsmill Islands in the Paci3ic, also called the )ilbe t Islands, nea the eFuato , use a ten/month (e iod 3o thei yea . ## In the 6a Fuesas (in Polynesia south o3 the eFuato ) ten months 3o m a yea (EtauE o E(uniE), but the actual yea o3 10$ days is also known. #2 :he :o ad<a o3 the %utch ?ast Indies com(ute time in moon/months. ?ach yea , howeve , a (e iod o3 two o th ee months is not b ought into the com(utation at all, and is omitted in time eckoning. #1 :he 'hams o3 Indo/'hina have a calenda o3 only ten months to the yea . #2 :he natives in some islands o3 the Indian "cean also obse ve ten months to the yea . #$ :he abo igines o3 New Dealand do not count two months in the yea . E:hese two months a e not in the calenda > they do not eckon themH no a e they in any way accounted 3o .E #0 E;mong the *o uba o3 +outh Nige ia the th ee months / Geb ua y, 6a ch, ;( il / a e gene ally given no s(eci3ic name.E #:hese calenda s o3 ( imitive (eo(les a e simila to the old 9oman calenda . :hey we e not invented in dis ega d o3 the sola yea (E*ea s with less than twelve months a e to us the st angest o3 (henomenaE #.)H thei 3ault is that they a e mo e constant than the evolution o3 the ea th on he o bit a ound the sun. :he wo k o3 ada(ting the old systems to a new o de is still evident in the systems o3 the abo igines o3 4amchatka, +outh Nige ia, the %utch ?ast Indies, and New Dealand. Instead o3 int oducing two additional months, as in the e3o m o3 Numa, one o3 the months is eCtended to t i(le its length, o a (e iod eFuivalent to two months is not counted at all in the calend ic system. :he abundance o3 ( oo3s o3 the eCistence o3 a ten/month yea is even emba assing. +ince the (e iod when the yea was com(osed o3 ten months o3 thi ty/3ive to thi ty/siC days each was sho t, how could this ten/month yea leave so many vestiges in the calenda systems all ove the wo ldM :he answe to this Fuestion will become sim(le when we shall 3ind that this was the second time in the histo y o3 the wo ld that the yea was com(osed o3 ten months. In a much ea lie age, when the yea was o3 an enti ely di33e ent length, one evolution o3 the ea th was also eFual in time to ten evolutions o3 the moon. 8e shall t ace this (e iod in histo y in a succeeding volume o3 this wo k.
777777777777777777777777777777 # "vid> Gasti i. 2-33. 2 )eminus> EInt oduction auC (hUnomTnesE in Petau> @ anologion (#010). 1 ;ulus )ellius> Nodes ;tticae iii. #0. 2 Pluta ch> :he 9oman Kuestions, CiC. $ ?ut o(ius> , eva ium etu n o nano um i. 1 says> ENuma Pom(ilius divided the yea into ten months.E :his must e3e to the beginning o3 NumaBs eign, when the calenda o3 9omulus was still valid. 0 P oco(ius o3 'aesa ea> =isto y o3 the 8a s, ,k. V, E:he )othic 8a E (t ansl. =. ,. %ewing, #9#9), +ec. 1#. - ,oll> +te nglaube und +te ndeutung, (. 92H ;. del 6a > :he 8o shi( o3 ;ugustus 'aesa , ((. 0, ##, with e3e ences to "vid, Vi gil, Pliny, +e vius, and =yginus. . 6. P. Nilsson> P imitive :ime/9eckoning (#920), (. .9. 9 ;. 8i th> E:he ;bo igines o3 Go mosa,E :he ;me ican ;nth o(ologist, #.9-. #0 ;. +chie3ne > ,ulletin de lB;cadUmie de +t. Pete sbou g, =ist. /(hil. 'l., LIV (#.$-), #9., 20#3. ## =. =ale> ?thnog a(hy and Philology> @.+. ?C(lo ing ?C(edition, #.1./22, VI (#.20), #00, #-0. #2 ). 6athias> !ett es su les Isles 6a Fuises (#.21), 2##. #1 N. ;d iani and ;. '. 4 ui<t> %e ,a U/s( ekende :o ad<aBs (#9#2/#9#2), II, 202. #2 G a5e > "vidBs Gasti (#91#), (. 1.0.

#$ Ibid. #0 8. *ate (?nglish missiona y in the ea ly (a t o3 the nineteenth eentu y), Fuoted in G a5e > "vidBs Gasti, (. 1.0. #- Ibid. #. Nilsson> P imitive :ime/9eckoning, (. .9. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 9e3o ming o3 the 'alenda

In the middle o3 the eighth centu y the calenda then in use became obsolete. G om the yea /-2- until the last o3 the catast o(hes on the twenty/thi d o3 6a ch, /0.-, the sola and luna movements changed e(eatedly, necessitating ad<ustments o3 the calenda . 9e3o ms unde taken du ing this time soon became obsolete in thei tu n, and we e e(laced by new onesH only a3te the last catast o(he o3 /0.-, when the ( esent wo ld o de was established, did the calenda become (e manent. +ome o3 the clay tablets o3 Nineveh 3ound in the oyal lib a y o3 that city # contain ast onomical obse vations made du ing the (e iod be3o e the ( esent o de in the (laneta y system was established. "ne tablet 3iCes the day o3 the ve nal eFuinoC as the siCth o3 Nisan> E"n the siCth o3 the month Nisan, the day and night a e eFual.E ,ut anothe tablet (laces the eFuinoC on the 3i3teenth o3 Nisan. E8e cannot eC(lain the di33e ence,E w ote a schola . 2 Audging by the accu ate methods em(loyed and the ( ecision achieved in thei obse vations, the sta ga5e s o3 Nineveh would not have e ed by nine days. In the ast onomical tablets o3 Nineveh Eth ee systems o3 (lanetsE a e eCtensively e( esentedH single (lanets a e 3ollowed in all thei movements in th ee di33e ent schedules. Go the movements o3 the moon the e a e two di33e ent systems. 1 ?ach o3 these systems is ca ied out down to the smallest detail, but only the last system o3 the (lanets and o3 the moon con3o ms to the ( esent wo ld o de . ;cco ding to :ablet No. 91, the (e ihelion, o the (oint on the ea thBs o bit that is nea est the sun, is de3ined as the twentieth deg ee o3 the sign o3 the 5odiac called the ; che H at a(helion, when the ea th is 3a thest 3 om the sun, the sun is said to be at the twentieth deg ee o3 )emini. ;cco dingly, these (oints a e designated as stations o3 the 3astest and slowest sola motion. E,ut the eal (osition o3 the a(sides decidedly cont adicts these statements.E 2 ;nothe tablet, No. 2-2, seventy yea s younge than the 3i st, gives ve y di33e ent data 3o the (e ihelion and a(helion, and schola s wonde at this. ;ll the nume ous data on sola movements in one o3 the systems lead to one and the same conclusion. E:he solstitial and eFuinoctial (oints o3 the ecli(tic lay 0Q too 3a to the east.E $ E:he distances t aveled by the moon on the 'haldean ecli(tic 3 om one new moon to the neCt a e, acco ding to :ablet No. 2-2, on the ave age 1Q #2B too g eat.E 0 :his means that du ing a luna month the moon moved a g eate distance in elation to the 3iCed sta s than ( esent obse vation shows. In :ablet No. 12, the movement o3 the sun along the 5odiac is ( ecisely calculated in deg ees, and the station o3 the sun at the beginning o3 each luna month is dete mined eCactlyH but it is Ea (e (leCing ( esentation o3 the ununi3o m movement o3 the sun. :he Fuestion is insistent> 8hy is it that the ,abylonians 3o mulated the nonuni3o mity o3 the sola movement ( ecisely in this wayME ;s the va ious systems eco ded in the ast onomical tablets o3 Nineveh show, the wo ld o de changed e(eatedly in the cou se o3 a single centu y. =ence, the 'haldean ast onome s had the task o3 e(eatedly ead<usting the calenda . EG om ce tain (assages in the ast ological tablets it is easy to see that the calculation o3 times and seasons was one o3 the chie3 duties o3 the ast ologe s in 6eso(otamia.E . :he schola s ask> =ow could those

men, em(loyed 3o that ve y (u (ose, have made the eg egious mistakes eco ded in the tablets, and ca ied these mistakes ove into systems in which the movements o3 the sun, the moon, and the 3ive (lanets we e eco ded with e(etitions at egula inte vals, these movements and inte vals being consistently di33e ent 3 om those o3 the ( esent celestial o de M =ow could the sta ga5e s who com(osed the ea lie tablets be so ca eless as to maintain that the yea is 100 days long, a mistake that in siC yea s accumulates to a 3ull month o3 dive genceH o how could the ast onome s o3 the oyal obse vato ies announce to the king the movements o3 the moon and its (hases on w ong dates, though a child can tell when the moon is new, 9 and then eco d all this in ve y schola ly tablets eFui ing advanced mathematical knowledgeM #0 =ence schola s s(eak o3 Eenigmatic mistakes.E ## =oweve , it a((ea s to us that the tablets with thei changing ast onomical systems e3lect the changing o de o3 the wo ld and conseFuent attem(ts to ad<ust the calenda to the changes. 8hen the cataclysm o3 the 21 d o3 6a ch, /0.- b ought about anothe distu bance in the length o3 the yea and the month, the new standa ds emained unce tain until they could be calculated anew in a se ies o3 investigations. G om the time o3 that catast o(he until about the yea /009 o /00-, no New *ea 3estivals we e obse ved at ,abylon. #2 E?ight yea s unde +ennache ib, twelve yea s unde ?sa haddon> 3o twenty yea s ... the New *ea Bs 3estival was omitted,E says an ancient ch onicle on a clay tablet. #1 ;cco ding to cunei3o m insc i(tions, in the days o3 +a gon II a new wo ld age began, and in the days o3 his son +ennache ib anothe wo ld age. #2 In the days o3 ;ssu bani(al, son o3 ?sa haddon, son o3 +ennache ib, the (laneta y movements, the ( ecession o3 the eFuinoCes, and the (e iodic etu ns o3 the ecli(ses we e ecalculated, and these new tablets, togethe with the olde ones o co(ies o3 the olde ones, we e sto ed in the (alace lib a y at Nineveh. :he tablets 3 om Nineveh ( ovide the best (ossible o((o tunity to lea n how the o de o3 the wo ld changed in the eighth and seventh centu ies. 9e(eated changes in the cou se o3 the sun ac oss the 3i mament led the ast onome s o3 ,abylonia to distinguish th ee (aths o3 the sun> the ;nu (ath, the ?nlil (ath, and the ?a (ath. :hese th ee (aths c eated much di33iculty 3o the w ite s on ,abylonian ast onomy, and many eC(lanations we e o33e ed and as many e<ected. #$ :he ;nu, ?nlil, and ?a (aths o3 the (lanets ac oss the sky a((ea to denote the successive ecli(tics in va ious wo ld ages. !ike the sun, the (lanets in di33e ent times moved along the ;nu, ?nlil, and ?a (aths. In the :almud #0 a numbe o3 scatte ed (assages deal with a calend ic change made by =e5ekiah. :he :almud was w itten about a thousand yea s a3te =e5ekiah, and not all details o3 the e3o m a e ( ese vedH it states that =e5ekiah doubled the month o3 Nisan. In late times, in o de to ad<ust the luna yea to the sola yea , an inte cala y month was added eve y 3ew yea s by doubling the last month o3 the yea , ;da . :his system o3 an inte cala y ;da is ( ese ved in the =eb ew calenda to this day. :he abbis wonde ed why =e5ekiah added anothe Nisan (the 3i st month). :he sto y is told in the +c i(tu es that =e5ekiah, instead o3 celeb ating Passove in the 3i st month, (ut o33 the 3east to the second month. #- :he :almud eC(lains that it was not the second month, but an additional Nisan. It must be noted that in Audea in the days o3 =e5ekiah the months we e not called by ,abylonian names, and the e3o e the situation should be stated as 3ollows> =e5ekiah, a3te the death o3 ;ha5, and be3o e the second invasion o3 +ennache ib, added a month and (ost(oned the 3east o3 Passove . ;cco ding to the :almud this was done to make the luna yea co es(ond mo e closely to the sola yea . ;s we shall see, the e a((ea s to be some simila ity between this action and that by Numa at about the same time.

8hat (e manent changes =e5ekiah int oduced in the calenda is not stated, but it is a((a ent that at that time calenda eckoning became a com(licated matte . ;s 6oses in his day Ecould not unde stand how to com(ute the calenda until )od showed him the movements o3 the moon (lainly,E so in the days o3 =e5ekiah the dete mination o3 the month and o3 the yea became a matte , not o3 calculation, but o3 di ect obse vation, and could not be (e 3o med much in advance. Isaiah called the ast ologe s Ethe monthly ( ognosticato s.E

;s we have al eady said, the e is in the :almud #9 the in3o mation that the :em(le o3 +olomon was built so that on the eFuinoctial days o3 the yea the di ection o3 the ays o3 the ising sun could be tested. ; gold (late o disc was a33iCed to the easte n gateH th ough it the ays o3 the ising sun 3ell into the hea t o3 the :em(le. :he Gestival o3 the :abe nacle (+ukkoth) Ewas o iginally an eFuinoctial 3estival as ?Codus 21>#0 and 12>22 state eC(licitly, celeb ated du ing the last seven days o3 the yea , and immediately ( eceding the New *ea Bs %ay, the day o3 the 3all eFuinoC, u(on the tenth o3 the seventh month.E 20 In othe wo ds, New *ea Bs %ay, o the day o3 the autumnal eFuinoC, was obse ved on the tenth day o3 the seventh month, the day when the sun ose eCactly in the east and set eCactly in the west, the %ay o3 ;tonement 3alling on the same day. 2# :he ea3te , the day o3 the New *ea was moved back to the 3i st day o3 the seventh month. 8e may note that not only on the Aewish calenda , but also acco ding to the ,abylonian tablets, the eFuinoctial dates we e dis(laced by nine days> one tablet says that in the s( ing day and night a e eFual on the 3i3teenth o3 the month NisanH anothe tablet says that it takes (lace on the siCth o3 the same month. :his indicates that the change in the calenda o3 the 3easts obse ved in Ae usalem 3ollowed ast onomical changes. :he easte n gate o3 the :em(le o3 Ae usalem was no longe co ectly o iented a3te the ca dinal (oints had become dis(laced. "n his accession to the th one 3ollowing the death o3 ;ha5, =e5ekiah Einaugu ated a swee(ing eligious e3o mation.E 22 II 'h onicles 29>133. says> E=e in the 3i st yea o3 his eign, in the 3i st month, o(ened the doo s o3 the house o3 the !o d, and e(ai ed them.E ;((a ently the natu al changes in te est ial otation which took (lace in the days o3 @55iah and again on the day o3 the bu ial o3 ;ha5, necessitated a e3o m. =e5ekiah the e3o e gathe ed the ( iests Einto the east st eetE and s(oke to them, saying that Eou 3athe s have t es(assedE and Ehave shut u( the doo s o3 the (o ch.E In the ( e/?Cilic (e iod it was held Eto be o3 im(e ative necessity that on two days o3 the yea the sun shone di ectly th ough the easte n gate,E and Eth ough all the easte n gates o3 the :em(le a anged in line, di ectly into the ve y hea t o3 the :em(le ( o(e .E 21 :he easte n gate, also called Esun gate,E se ved not only to check on the eFuinoCes, when the sun ises eCactly in the east, but on the solstices as well> a device on the easte n gate was designed to e3lect the 3i st ays o3 the sun on the summe and winte solstices, when the sun ises in the southeast and the no theast, es(ectively. ;cco ding to :almudic autho ities, the ea ly ( o(hets eC(e ienced much di33iculty in making this a angement wo k. 22 G om biblical times vestiges o3 th ee calenda systems emain, 2$ and this assumes a s(ecial inte est in view o3 the 3act we noted some (ages back, namely, that the tablets 3 om Nineveh eco d th ee di33e ent systems o3 sola and (laneta y movements, each o3 which is com(lete in itsel3 and di33e s 3 om the othe s at eve y (oint. It a((ea s that the ad<ustment o3 the calenda , 3ollowing the initiation o3 the new wo ld o de in the days o3 =e5ekiah, was a long and tedious ( ocess. ;s late as one hund ed yea s a3te =e5ekiah, du ing the ,abylonian eCile, in the days o3 +olon and :hales, Ae emiah, ,a uch, and ?5ekiel d ew u( the calenda 3 om yea to yea . 20 8hen the Aews etu ned 3 om the ,abylonian eCile, they b ought with them thei ( esent calenda , in which the months a e called by ;ssy o/,abylonian names.

EGo as the new heavens and the new ea th, which I will IdoJ make, shall emain be3o e me, saith the !o d, so shall you seed and you name emain,E eads the closing cha(te o3 the ,ook o3 Isaiah. ;ll 3lesh will come to wo shi( the !o d E3 om one new moon to anothe , and 3 om one sabbath to anothe .E :he Enew heavensE means a sky with constellations o lumina ies in new (laces. :he ( o(het ( omises that the new sky will be eve lasting and that the months will kee( 3o eve thei established o de . %aniel, the Aewish sage at the cou t o3 Nebuchadne55a , king o3 the ?Cile, when blessing the !o d, said to the king> E=e changeth the times and the seasons.E 2- :his is a ema kable sentence which is also ( ese ved in many Aewish ( aye s. ,y the change o3 seasons o Ea((ointed datesE (EmoadimE) is meant an alte ation in the o de o3 natu e, with shi3ting o3 solstitial and eFuinoctial dates and the 3estivals connected with them. E:he change o3 timesE could e3e not only to the last change, but to the ( evious ones also, and it was Ethe change o3 the times and the seasonsE that was 3ollowed by calenda e3o ms. :he old =indu ast onomical obse vations o33e a set o3 calculations di33e ent 3 om those o3 the ( esent day. E8hat is eCt ao dina y a e the du ations assigned to the synodical evolutions ... :o meet in =indu ast onomy with a set o3 nume ical Fuantities widely di33e ing 3 om those gene ally acce(ted is indeed so sta tling that one at 3i st 3eels st ongly inclined to doubt o3 the soundness o3 the teCt ... 6o eove , each 3igu e is given twice ove .E

In the ast onomical wo k o3 Va aha 6ihi a, the eco ded synodical evolutions o3 the (lanets, which a e easy to calculate against the backg ound o3 the 3iCed sta s, a e about 3ive days too sho t 3o +atu n, ove 3ive days too sho t 3o Au(ite , eleven days too sho t 3o 6a s, eight o nine days too sho t 3o Venus, less than two days too sho t 3o 6e cu y. In a sola system in which the ea th evolves a ound the sun in 100 days, the synodical (e iods o3 Au(ite and +atu n would be about 3ive days sho te than they a e at ( esent, and that o3 6e cu y less than two days sho te . ,ut 6a s and Venus o3 the synodical table o3 Va aha 6ihi a must have had o bits di33e ent 3 om thei ( esent ones, even i3 the te est ial yea was only 100 days. 'alend ic changes in India we e e33ected in the seventh centu y> at that time, as in 'hina also, the ten/month yea was su((lanted by a twelve/month yea . 29 In the eighth centu y a calenda e3o m was made in ?gy(t. 8e have al eady e3e ed to a cataclysm du ing the eign o3 the Pha aoh "so kon II o3 the !ibyan %ynastyH anothe distu bance o3 a cosmic natu e took (lace a 3ew decades late , still in the time o3 the !ibyan %ynasty. In the 3i3teenth yea o3 the eign o3 +osenk III Ethe e occu ed a ema kable ( odigy o3 unce tain natu e, but in some way connected with the moon.E 10 :he contem(o aneous document w itten by the oyal son, the high ( iest "so kon, eads> EIn the yea #$, 3ou th month o3 the thi d season, 2$th day, unde the ma<esty o3 his august 3athe , the divine ule o3 :hebes, be3o e heaven devou ed (o > not devou ed) the moon, g eat w ath a ose in this land.E 1# +oon the ea3te "so kon Eint oduced a new calenda o3 o33e ings.E 12 :he mutilated condition o3 the insc i(tion makes it im(ossible to dete mine the eCact natu e o3 the calend ic e3o m. 11 It a((ea s that the same o a simila distu bance in the movement o3 the moon is the sub<ect o3 an ;ssy ian insc i(tion, which s(eaks o3 the moon being obst ucted on its way. E%ay and night it was handica((ed. In its august station it did not stand.E ,ecause o3 the du ation o3 the (henomenon, it is concluded that Eit could not mean an ecli(se o3 the moon.E 12 :he e3e ence to the moonBs unwonted (osition also ( ecludes such an

inte ( etation. ;t the end o3 the eighth o the beginning o3 the seventh centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, the (eo(le o3 9ome int oduced a calenda e3o m. In the ( eceding section we e3e ed to "vidBs statement in Gasti conce ning the e3o m o3 9omulus, who divided the yea into ten months, and the e3o m o3 Numa, who E( e3iCedE two months. Pluta chBs E!i3e o3 NumaE contains the 3ollowing (assage, (a t o3 which has al eady been Fuoted> E=e INumaJ a((lied himsel3, also, to the ad<ustment o3 the calenda , not with eCactness, and yet not altogethe without ca e3ul obse vation. Go du ing the eign o3 9omulus, they had been i ational and i egula in thei 3iCing o3 the months, eckoning some at less than twenty days, some at thi ty/3ive, and some at mo eH they had no idea o3 the ineFuality in the annual motions o3 the sun and moon, but held to the ( inci(le only, that the yea should consist o3 th ee hund ed and siCty days.E 1$ Numa e3o med the calenda , and the Eco ection o3 the ineFuality which he made was destined to eFui e othe and g eate co ections in the 3utu e. =e also changed the o de o3 the months.E 10 Numa was a contem(o a y o3 =e5ekiah. 1In the second hal3 o3 the seventh centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, the length o3 the new month and the new yea was calculated by the ) eeks. %iogenes !aP tius ega ded :hales the 6ilesian, one o3 the Eseven sages o3 antiFuity,E as the man who discove ed the numbe o3 days in the yea and the length o3 the seasons. In his !i3e o3 :hales he w ote> E=e was the 3i st to dete mine the sunBs cou se 3 om solstice to solstice.E ;nd again> E=e is said to have discove ed the seasons o3 the yea and to have divided it into 10$ days.E 1. =e was Ethe 3i st to ( edict ecli(ses o3 the sun and to 3iC the solstices.E 19 :hales is said to have w itten two t eatises, one E"n the +olsticeE and the othe E"n the ?FuinoC,E neithe o3 which is eCtant. I3 the natu al yea always was what it is now, it is ve y st ange that this discove y should have been att ibuted to a sage who lived as late as the seventh centu y, when ?gy(t and ;ssy ia we e al eady ve y old kingdoms, and when the dynasty o3 %avid was in its last decades. :he longest and sho test days o3 the yea , and thus the length o3 the yea , a e easily dete mined by the length o3 the shadow. :hales is said to have been bo n in the 3i st yea o3 the thi ty/3i3th "lym(iad o /020. :he ( og ess o3 cultu e would ha dly leave to one and the same (e son the calculation o3 the days in a yea , which is a sim(le matte , and the calculation o3 3o thcoming ecli(ses, which is an advanced achievement. +imila ly, the 3act, as stated by Pluta ch and %iogenes !aP tius, that +olon, anothe sage o3 the same (e iod, ad<usted the months to the motion o3 the moon a3te 3inding that the time 3 om one new moon to anothe is hal3 a day sho te than thi ty days, must be unde stood as an ad<ustment o3 the calenda to the new o de in natu e. :he s(an o3 time 3 om one new moon to anothe is a natu al time division, almost as easily obse vable as day and nightH ( imitive (eo(les, unable to ead and w ite, know that the (e iod is less than thi ty days. "n the othe side o3 the globe, the (eo(le o3 Pe u eckoned time 3 om the day o3 the last cataclysm, and this method o3 com(utation was in use when the ?u o(eans eached that count y in the beginning o3 the siCteenth centu y. 20 ;3te the last cataclysm, the times and the seasons we e com(uted anew. 4ing Inti/'a(ac/ *u(anFui o de ed ast onomical obse vations and calculations to be made, the esult o3 which was a calenda e3o m, and the yea , ( eviously o3 100 days, Ewas changed to 10$ days and 0 hou s.E 2# E:his *nca a((ea s to have been the 3i st to o de and settle ce emonies ... =e it was who established the twelve months o3 the yea , giving a name to each, and o daining the

ce emonies that we e to be obse ved in each. Go although his ancesto s used months and yea s counted by the Fui(us, yet they we e neve ( eviously egulated in such o de until the time o3 this lo d.E 22 E;ll :oltec histo ies mention an assembly o3 sages and ast ologe s that was convoked in the city o3 =uehue/:la(allan 3o the (u (ose o3 wo king on the co ection o3 the calenda , and the e3o ming o3 the com(utation o3 the yea , which was ecogni5ed as e oneous and which had been em(loyed until that time.E 21 =al3 a wo ld away, ac oss the Paci3ic "cean, a calenda was int oduced in Aa(an in /000, and the eckoning o3 yea s in that count y sta ts 3 om that yea . In 'hina, the ast onome */hang in the yea /-2# announced to the ?m(e o =iuen/tsong that the o de o3 the sky and the movements o3 the (lanets had changed which made it im(ossible to ( edict ecli(sesH and he e3e ed to othe autho ities who asse ted that in the time o3 :sin the (lanet Venus used to move 20 deg ees to the south o3 the ecli(tic and ecli(se the sta +i ius. */hang eC(lained that the cou se o3 the (lanet Venus changed in the days o3 :sin. 22 ;ll a ound the globe the yea s 3ollowing /0.- saw activity di ected towa d e3o ming the calenda . ,etween /-2- and /0.- the calenda was in a chaotic state, the length o3 the yea and o3 the month, and ( obably also o3 the day, e(eatedly changing. ,e3o e the eighth centu y the e was a com(a atively long s(an o3 time when the yea had 100 days and the luna month consisted o3 almost eCactly thi ty days. Neithe the calenda , no the celestial cha ts, no the sundials, no the wate clocks o3 the time be3o e /0.- we e adeFuate 3o thei (u (ose a3te that yea . Values subseFuently established in di33e ent (a ts o3 the te est ial globe have emained ( actically unchanged down to the ( esent save 3o ve y small im( ovements esulting 3 om the mo e ( ecise calculations o3 mode n times. :his stability o3 the calenda is due to the 3act that the celestial o de has emained unalte ed> no changes in the heavenly o de we e obse ved eCce(t 3o mino (e tu bations between the (lanets which have no visible e33ect on thei motion. :hus we a e lulled into the belie3 / which is wish3ul thinking / that we live in an o de ly unive se. In the language o3 a mode n scientist> E:hough the o de o3 the succession o3 events in the heavens is o3ten somewhat com(leC, it is neve theless systematic and inva iable. :he unning o3 no clock eve a(( oached in ( ecision the motions o3 the sun, the moon, and the sta s. In 3act, to this day clocks a e co ected and egulated by com(a ing them with the a((a ent diu nal motions o3 the heavenly bodies. +ince not me ely a 3ew but hund eds o3 celestial (henomena we e long ago 3ound to be (e 3ectly o de ly, it was g adually (e ceived that ma<estic o de ( evails unive sally in those egions in which, be3o e the bi th o3 science, ca( icious gods and goddesses we e believed to hold domain.E 2$ =oweve , as we have lea ned 3 om the eco ds o3 ancient times, the o de today is not the ( imeval o de H it was established less than twenty/seven centu ies ago, when the moon was (laced in o bit, when the silve sun was (lanted, when the ,ea was 3i mly stationed. 20
777777777777777777777777777777 # :he (alace o3 Nineveh was the esidence o3 +a gon II, +ennache ib, ?sa haddon, and ;ssu bani(al. 2 A. 6enant> !a ,ibliothTFue du (alais de Ninive (#..0), (. #00. 1 4ugle > %ie babylonische 6ond echnung> Dwei +ysteme de 'hald^e Ybe den !au3 des 6ondes und de +onne, ((. 20-/209. 2 Ibid., (. 90. $ Ibid., (. -2. 0 Ibid., (. 90.

- Ibid., (. 0. 9. '. :hom(son> :he 9e(o ts o3 the 6agicians and ;st ologe s o3 Nineveh and ,abylon , II, Cviii. 9 E:he class o3 magicians who calculated the length o3 the months and (ublished in3o mation conce ning them 3o med a ve y im(o tant section o3 the ,abylonian and ;ssy ian ( iesthood.E Ibid., (. CCiii. #0 '. ,e5old> E;st onomie, =immelschau und ;st alleh e bei den ,abylonie n,E in +it5ungsbe ichte de =eidelbe ge ;kademie de 8issenscha3ten, (hilos. /histo . 4lasse , #9##, eC( esses the o(inion that be3o e the siCth centu y the ,abylonians we e unawa e o3 the elative lengths o3 the sola yea and #2 luna months. +ee also )undel> %ekane und %ekanste nbilde , (. 1-9. ## 4ugle > %ie 6ond echnung, (. 90. #2 +. +mith> ,abylonian =isto ical :eCts, (. 22. #1 Ibid., (. 2$. #2 ;. Ae emias> %e alte " ient und die ^gy(tische 9eligion (#90-), (. #-H 8inckle > Go schungen, III, 100. #$ ,e5old> Denith/ und ;eFuato ialgesti ne am babylonischen GiCste nhimmel (#9#1), (. 0H 6. Aast ow> :he 'ivili5ation o3 ,abylonia and ;ssy ia (#9#$), (. 20#. #0 : actate ,e akhot #0bH Pesahim $0aH othe sou ces in )in5be g> !egends, VI, 109. I- II 'h onicles 10. #. Isaiah 2->#1. #9 :almudic e3e ences may be 3ound in the a ticle cited in the 3ollowing 3ootnote. 20 6o genste n> E:he )ates o3 9ighteousness,E =eb ew @nion 'ollege ;nnual , VI (#929), (. 1#. 2# 6o genste n says> E@(on the tenth o3 the seventh month ancient Is ael celeb ated o iginally, not the %ay o3 ;tonement, but the New *ea Bs day.E Ibid., (. 1-. 22 Ibid., (. 11. 21 Ibid., ((. #-, 1#. 22 :he Ae usalem :almud, : actate ? ubin 22c. 2$ 6o genste n> E:he :h ee 'alenda s o3 ;ncient Is ael,E =eb ew @nion 'ollege ;nnual, I (#922), #1/-.. 20 :he Ae usalem :almud, : actate +anhed in I, #9a. 2- %aniel 2>2#. 2. ). :hibaut> (. Clvii o3 his t anslation o3 the Panchasiddhantika, the ast onomical wo k o3 Va aha 6ihi a (,ena es, #..9). 29 ;. del 6a > :he 8o shi( o3 ;ugustus 'aesa , (. 2. 10 , easted> 9eco ds o3 ?gy(t, IV, +ec. -$-. 1# Ibid., +ec. -02. +ee cont ove sy in Deitsch i3t 3Y ^gy(tische +( ache, VI (#.0.). 12 , easted> 9eco ds o3 ?gy(t, IV, +ec. -$0. 11 ;. ? man> Deitsch i3t 3Y ^gy(tische +( ache, L!V (#90.), #/-. 12 P. Aensen> %ie 4osmologie de ,abylonie , (. 19. 1$ Pluta ch> !ives, E:he !i3e o3 NumaE (t ansl. ,. Pe in). 10 Ibid. 1- '3. ;ugustine> :he 'ity o3 )od, ,k. LVIII, 'ha(. 2-. 1. %iogenes !aP tius> !ives o3 ?minent Philoso(he s (?nglish t ansl. 9. %. =icks, #92$). 19 Ibid.H see also =e odotus i. -2. 20 , asseu > 6anusc it : oano, (. 2$. 2# G. 6ontesinos (3l. #02.X#019)> 6emo ias antiguas histo iales del Pe i, II, 'ha(. -. 22 'h istoval de 6olina (3l. #$-0 to #$.2)> ;n ;ccount o3 the Gables and 9ites o3 the *ncas, t ansl. and ed. '. 9. 6a kham (#.-1), (. #0. 21 , asseu > =istoi e des nations civilisUes du 6eCiFue, (. #22. ;mong his sou ces we e ICtlilCochitl, +uma ia elaciZn, etc.H 6. Veytia (#-#./#--9)> =isto ia antigua de 6UCico, I (#922), 'ha(. 2. 22 ;. )aubil> =istoi e de lBast onomie chinoise (#-12), ((. -1/.0. 2$ G. 9. 6oulton> :he 8o ld and 6an as +cience +ees :hem, (. 2. 20 4alevala, 9une 1. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he 6oon and Its ' ate s

'ha(te 9

:=? 6""N 9?V"!V?+ a ound the ea th and, togethe with the ea th, a ound the sun, showing one and the same 3ace to the inhabitants o3 the ea th. It can be seen in the telesco(e that the su 3ace o3 the moon is cove ed with seas o3 d ied lava and with g eat c ate like 3o mations. +ince it has no atmos(he e, the contou s o3 its su 3ace a e clea ly visible, and a city o village, i3 it eCisted the e, could be seen th ough the Paloma telesco(e. ,ut it is a dead (lanet and ve y inhos(itable. Go a hal3/month any (lace on it is in cold night and 3o the othe hal3/month in hot sunshine. :he e is no wate on the (lanet, no vegetation, and ( obably no li3e at all. :he ancients we e inte ested to know whethe the moon had human settlements, but mode ns a e conce ned with the ( oblem o3 the o igin o3 the luna c ate s. :he e a e two theo ies> one sees in them g eat eCtinct volcanoesH the othe , 3o mations ( oduced by the bomba dment o3 g eat meteo ites on the semiliFuid mass o3 the moon be3o e it solidi3ied. :he e a e mo e than thi ty thousand such c ate s, small and la ge. +ome o3 these ci cula c ests ise as high as 20,000 3eet above the (lain / thei height is measu ed by the length o3 thei shadowsH some, like 'lavius nea the moonBs south (ole, a e one hund ed and 3i3ty miles in diamete . :his t emendous width su (asses anything com(a able among volcanoes on ea th. It is the e3o e Fuestioned whethe these ci cula mountain 3o mations e( esent t ue volcanoes. :he la gest known c ate ( oduced by the im(act o3 a body that 3ell on the ea th is in ; i5onaH it is 3ou 3i3ths o3 a mile in diamete and much smalle than the c ate 3o mations on the moon. ;s is eadily seen, both theo ies o3 luna c ate s im(ly a g eat catast o(hic occu ence. Go such c ate s to have been 3o med, t emendous 3o ces must have acted 3 om inside o 3 om withoutH i3 these 3o mations we e caused by im(act on a viscous mass, g eat meteo s must have come 3lying 3 om many di ections. , ight st eaks o E aysE u( to ten miles wide adiate 3 om some o3 the c ate sH thei o igin, too, is not known. :he e a e also cle3ts, i egula in 3o m, about hal3 a mile wide and o3 unknown de(th. In the cosmic catast o(hes desc ibed in this book the moon was e(eatedly involved. :ogethe with the te est ial globe it (assed th ough the 3ab ic o3 the g eat comet o3 the time o3 the ?Codus, and in the con3licts o3 the eighth centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, the moon was mo e than once dis(laced 3 om its o bit by 6a s. %u ing these catast o(hes the moonBs su 3ace 3lowed with lava and bubbled into g eat ci cula 3o mations, which a(idly cooled o33 in the long luna night, un( otected by an atmos(he e 3 om the coolness o3 cosmic s(aces. In these cosmic collisions o nea contacts the su 3ace o3 the moon was also ma ked with cle3ts and i3ts. :he E(layE o3 6a s with the moon was ega ded by the ) eeks and the 9omans as a love a33ai . # G om the Iliad we lea n that ;(h odite (the ) eek goddess o3 the moon) was wa ned by Au(ite /Deus not to battle ; es/6a s, but to leave this task to =e a/?a th and Pallas ;thene, being he sel3 ( edestined to the sweet wo k o3 love. Inte (laneta y contacts in the celestial s(he e a e in some es(ects simila to cong ess and ge mination in the biological wo ld. In these contacts the bodies o3 the (lanets ove 3low with lava / 3e tile g ound 3o vegetation / and comets bo n o3 such contacts 3ly ac oss the sola system and ain gases and stones and (ossibly also s(o es, ge ms, o la vae on (lanets. :hus the notion o3 the ancients that love a33ai s we e being ca ied on among the (laneta y gods and goddesses is a tale 3o the common (eo(le and a (hiloso(hical meta(ho 3o the inst ucted. :he g eat seas o3 d ied lava and the g eat c ate s on the dead (lanet devoid o3 ai and wate

bes(eak the d ead3ul devastations, even death itsel3, that inte (laneta y contacts can leave in thei wake. :he g eat 3o mations o3 c ate s, mountains, i3ts, and (lains o3 lava on the moon we e 3o med not only in the u(heavals desc ibed in this book, but also in those which took (lace in ea lie times. :he moon is a g eat unma ked cemete y 3lying a ound ou ea th, a eminde o3 what can ha((en to a (lanet.
777777777777777777777777777777 # 6a s had nea contacts with the moon and with the (lanet Venus, and as a esult o3 these two E omancesE the goddess Venus (;(h odite) became associated in mythology with the moon as well as with the (lanet o3 that name. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he Planet 6a s
:he (lanet 6a s, at the ( esent time, com(letes one evolution a ound the sun in 0.te est ial days. Its o bit is enti ely outside the ea thBs o bit, and is an elli(se, like that o3 the ea th, but mo e st etched out, so that the (lanetBs distance 3 om the sun va ies conside ably du ing a evolution. 8hen 6a s and the ea th a e on di33e ent sides o3 the sun, the distance between them ises to ove 200,000,000 miles and may each 22.,000,000 miles. G om this moment on, as the distance between the two (lanets diminishes, 6a s nightly g ows mo e and mo e luminous, changing 3 om an incons(icuous (oint o3 light to a most b illiant sta , b ighte than any 3iCed sta . %u ing a (e iod o3 little mo e than a yea , it g ows 3i3ty/3ive times b ighte . ;mong the (lanets it eCceeds then even Au(ite in b illiance. :he ea th and 6a s a(( oach each othe eve y -.0 days, this being the synodical (e iod o3 6a s. ,ut because o3 the elli(ticity o3 the two o bits and the di33e ence in the di ection in which thei longe adii a e tu ned, the closeness o3 6a s and the ea th is not the same at eve y o((osition. ;t each seventh a(( oach, which occu s eve y 3i3teen yea s, when 6a s (asses th ough that (a t o3 its o bit which is closest to the sun, and the ea th simultaneously (asses the segment o3 its o bit which is 3a thest 3 om the sun, the con<unction o3 the two (lanets is es(ecially close and is Ethe 3avo able o((osition.E :hese occasions a e eage ly awaited by ast onome s, 3o no celestial body, with the eCce(tion o3 the moon, is mo e eadily obse vable than 6a s when at E3avo able o((osition.E :he distance between 6a s and the ea th at the o((ositions va ies 3 om 0#,000,000 miles to 1$,$00,000 miles (E3avo able o((ositionE)H the distance at va ious times du ing the (e iod o3 3i3teen yea s va ies g eatly, 3 om 22.,000,000 to 1$,$00,000 miles. :wo cosmic distu bances eco ded by =eb ew t adition / one on the day when =e5ekiahBs 3athe , ;ha5, was entombedH the othe , when +ennache ibBs a my invaded Palestine / we e se(a ated by a (e iod o3 3ou teen o 3i3teen yea s, i3 the 3igu e in II 4ings #.>#1 e3e s to the invasion which ended in the disaste . ; seemingly a bit a y (e iod o3 3i3teen yea s o3 g ace, mentioned in Isaiah 1.>$ and in II 4ings 20>0, may also have had some elation to the (e iodicity o3 the catast o(hes. :he yea s /--0, /-2-, /-#- o /-02, and /0.- a((a ently we e yea s o3 3avo able o((ositions o3 6a s, when (e tu bations, a egula (henomenon in o((ositions, eached catast o(hic dimensions. I3, because o3 othe easons, contact between 6a s and the ea th in the (ast is admitted, the combined sha(e o3 the o bits, with (oints o3 nea est a(( oach being eached at ( esent eve y 3i3teen yea s, could be ega ded as a vestige o3 a contact o se ies o3 contacts at simila inte vals in the (ast between the two (lanets then evolving on cu ved o bits that we e close to each othe . 6a s bea s a st iking esemblance to the ea th in the inclination o3 its aCis o3 otation to the (lane o3 its o bit and in the (e iod o3 its diu nal otation. 8he eas the eFuato o3 the ea th

is inclined 21S deg ees to the (lane o3 the ecli(tic, the eFuato o3 6a s is inclined 22 deg ees to the (lane o3 its o bit, a simila ity uneFualed among othe (lanets in the sola system. :he mean time o3 aCial otation o3 the ea th is 21 hou s, $0 minutes, 2 seconds, that o3 6a s 22 hou s, 1- minutes, 21 seconds. No othe two (lanets a e so alike in the du ation o3 thei day, conceding that no conclusive data a e available 3o the length o3 the day on Venus. Is it (ossible that the aCis o3 otation and the velocity o3 otation o3 6a s, stabili5ed and su((o ted in thei ( esent (osition and ate by ce tain 3o ces, we e in3luenced o iginally by the ea th at the time o3 contactM 6a s, being small as com(a ed with the ea th, in3luenced to a lesse deg ee the otation o3 the ea th and the (osition o3 its (oles. :he su 3ace o3 6a s is c issc ossed with a netwo k o3 Ecanals.E :hei discove e , +chia(a elli, assumed that geological 3o ces we e a 3acto in thei 3o mationH on the othe hand, he was Eve y ca e3ul not to combat this su((osition, which includes nothing im(ossible,E o3 the ( esence o3 intelligent beings on 6a s who could have built these canals. Pe cival !owell s(ent his li3e in a c usade to convince 3ellow schola s and othe contem(o a ies that intelligent human beings live on 6a s and that the canals a e thei wo k. G om his obse vato y in Glagsta33, ; i5ona, he believed he discove ed wate on 6a s. =e inte ( eted the (ola ca(s as ice massesH because o3 the dea th o3 wate , the intelligent beings dug the canals to b ing wate to dese t a eas. # In the ea ly yea s o3 the twentieth centu y, (lans we e devised to communicate by light signals with the hy(othetical men on 6a sH acco ding to one (lan a se ies o3 light/sending stations was to be built into a geomet ic 3igu e on the (lanes o3 +ibe ia. :he 3igu e was to e( esent the Pythago ean theo em o3 the elation o3 the th ee sides o3 a ight/angle t iangle. I3 the e a e intelligent beings on 6a s, some w ite s a gued, they should be able to notice and inte ( et the signalsH i3 they a e not intelligent enough to notice the signals and unde stand thei meaning, we should not be so eage to communicate with them. :he eC(e iment was not ca ied out. :he contacts o3 6a s with othe (lanets la ge than itsel3 and mo e (owe 3ul make it highly im( obable that any highe 3o ms o3 li3e, i3 they ( eviously eCisted the e, su vived on 6a s. It is, athe , a dead (lanetH eve y highe 3o m o3 li3e, o3 whateve kind it might have been, most ( obably had its !ast %ay. :hei wo k could not su vive eithe . :he EcanalsE on 6a s a((ea to be a esult o3 the (lay o3 geological 3o ces that answe ed with i3ts and c acks the oute 3o ces acting in collisions.
777777777777777777777777777777 # P. !owell> 6a s (1 d ed., #.9-)H idem> 6a s and Its 'anals (#900). 777777777777777777777777777777

:he ;tmos(he e o3 6a s
:he atmos(he e o3 6a s is invisible. I3 the e a e any living c eatu es on that (lanet, and i3 they a e endowed with o gans o3 sight, they see a black sky, not a blue one as we do. :he atmos(he e o3 6a s was the ob<ect o3 many investigations which ( oduced con3licting and a((a ently unsatis3acto y esults. :his gaseous envelo(e is t ans(a ent, (e mitting clea obse vation on the contou s o3 the (lanet. 6a sB seasonal (ola ca(s a e ( oducts o3 distillation> a (ola ca( disa((ea s when summe a ives in its hemis(he e and ea((ea s in winte . It is not known whethe these ca(s a e com(osed o3 ca bon dioCide o o3 ice, whethe they a e clouds 3loating ove (ola egions o laye s o3 coagulated masses. :he gene al Fuestion as to the ( esence o3 wate va(o in the atmos(he e o3 6a s was answe ed in the a33i mative by one g ou( o3 obse ve s (!owell "bse vato y), and in the negative by anothe g ou( (!ick "bse vato y). ;t ( esent it is ega ded as almost ce tain

that the e is on 6a s only a low absolute content o3 wate va(o , about one/twentieth o3 that in the atmos(he e o3 the ea th. :his is the view su((o ted by esults announced by ast onome s at 6ount 8ilson "bse vato y. :he obse vations conce ning oCygen in the atmos(he e o3 6a s a e somewhat inconclusiveH it is gene ally su((osed that oCygen on 6a s, i3 the e is any, is less than 0.# (e cent o3 the oCygen content in the atmos(he e o3 the ea th (e unit o3 su 3ace a ea. # :he di33iculty o3 a s(ect al analysis o3 the atmos(he e o3 the (lanets lies in the 3act that thei light is the e3lected light o3 the sun, and conseFuently it has in it the s(ect al (ictu e o3 the atmos(he e o3 the sun (emission lines o3 the s(ect um), and also in the 3act that the atmos(he e o3 the ea th, th ough which this e3lected light t avels, im( esses its own cha acte istic s(ect al lines (o3 abso (tion) on the light e3lected 3 om the (lanets. :he conclusion d awn and communicated to the gene al (ublic is that E6a sB s(ect um is ( actically that o3 e3lected sunlight onlyE (?. %oolittle). :his would suggest that the e is no atmos(he e on 6a s o that it is ve y tenuous. =oweve , the e is a change in the dist ibution o3 light th ough the s(ect um as com(a ed with the light that a ives di ectly 3 om the sun. :he ( esence o3 an atmos(he e on 6a s can be ( oved by anothe set o3 obse vations, which indicate that it eCtends to about siCty miles above the su 3ace o3 the (lanet. ;lso, its su((osed thinness is in cont adiction to 3indings obtained by (hotog a(hs made in violet and in ed 3ight. "ne se ies o3 clouds is seen in the (hotog a(hs taken in violet light, but not in those taken in ed lightH a second se ies o3 clouds is seen in the ed, but not in the violet, light. In the ( esent study o3 cosmic catast o(hes the endeavo has been to establish the 3act that in the eighth and seventh centu ies be3o e this e a the ea th was e(eatedly a(( oached by a celestial bodyH that this body was the (lanet 6a sH that ( eviously 6a s had been dis(laced 3 om its (ath by contact with Venus, which u( to that time had c ossed the o bit o3 the ea th, and that Venus, the ea th, and 6a s, as a conseFuence, assumed new (ositions in the sola system. In all these contacts between Venus, the ea th, and 6a s the e was an eCchange o3 atmos(he es, the ea th acFui ing the ca bon clouds o3 Venus and also some o3 the atmos(he e o3 6a s. :he white ( eci(itated masses on 6a s, which 3o m the (ola ca(s, a e ( obably o3 the natu e o3 ca bon, having been acFui ed 3 om the t ailing (a t o3 Venus, and only the di33e ence in atmos(he ic conditions on 6a s as com(a ed with the ea th, togethe with a di33e ence in tem(e atu e, kee(s this EmannaE 3 om being (e manently dissolved unde the ays o3 the sun. :he main ing edients o3 the atmos(he e o3 6a s must be ( esent in the atmos(he e o3 the ea th. 6a s, Ethe god o3 wa ,E must have le3t (a t o3 his ( o(e ty on his visits. ;s oCygen and wate va(o a e not the main ing edients o3 the atmos(he e o3 6a s, some othe elements o3 the te est ial atmos(he e must be the main com(onents o3 its atmos(he e. It could be nit ogen, but the ( esence o3 nit ogen on 6a s / o its absence / has not yet been established. ,esides oCygen and nit ogen, the main com(onents o3 the te est ial atmos(he e, a gon and neon a e ( esent in detectable Fuantities in the ai . :hese a e gases eCcite s(ect al lines only when in a hot stateH conseFuently, they cannot be detected th ough lines o3 emission 3 om a com(a atively cool body such as 6a s. :he abso (tion lines o3 a gon and neon have not yet been investigated. 8hen a study o3 these lines will make (ossible a s(ect al sea ch 3o these a e gases on (lanets, 6a s should be submitted to the test. I3 analysis should eveal them in ich amounts, this would also answe the Fuestion> 8hat cont ibution did 6a s make to the ea th when the two (lanets came into contactM
777777777777777777777777777777 # 8. +. ;dams and :. %unham> 'ont ibutions 3 om the 6ount 8ilson "bse vato y, No. 2.. (#912). 777777777777777777777777777777

:he :he mal ,alance o3 6a s

:he eFuato ial diamete o3 6a s is about 2,200 milesH when com(a ed with that o3 the ea th, the atio in volume is #$ to #00H the atio in mass is su((osed to be #0.. to #00. 6a s is one/siCth the volume o3 Venus, and Venus is conside ed to be seven and a hal3 times heavie than 6a s. %ue to the eccent icity o3 6a sB o bit, the insolation at a(helion is much smalle than at (e ihelion (the atio being about $>0), and in the southe n hemis(he e the summe is much hotte but much sho te than in the no the n hemis(he e. ,ecause o3 the g eate mean distance o3 6a s 3 om the sun, it is su((osed to eceive less than hal3 the light and wa mth (e unit o3 a ea that the ea th eceivesH and 3o this eason its tem(e atu e must be some 0$Q '. below that o3 the ea th, and neve above 3 ee5ing. :he mean tem(e atu e o3 a yea on the eFuato ial latitudes o3 6a s must be simila to that o3 the (ola egions o3 the ea th. :he adiomet ic measu ement o3 the tem(e atu e o3 6a s actually shows an eCcess o3 heat. # 6a s emits mo e heat than it eceives 3 om the sun. %oes this eCcess o3 heat come 3 om the inte io o3 the (lanetM 6a s is a smalle body than the ea thH it has mo e su 3ace (e unit o3 volume, and it must have cooled down Fuicke than the ea th, es(ecially i3 it was eleased 3 om the nebulous sun by a cent i3ugal 3o ce be3o e the ea th was (4ant/!a(lace), but also i3 they both o iginated as (lanets simultaneously millions o3 yea s ago (tidal theo y). 8hat, then, is the cause o3 the eCcess o3 heat in 6a sM :he assumed contacts with the ea th would have caused much g eate changes in and on 6a s than in and on the ea th, because o3 the di33e ence in mass. ;n inte (laneta y contact must have caused a conve sion o3 motion into heat, and conseFuently esulted in an eCcess o3 the mal adiation ove the Fuantity o3 heat b ought to the (lanet by insolation. :he contacts o3 6a s with Venus, and in a lesse deg ee with the ea th, less than th ee thousand yea s ago ( obably a e es(onsible 3o the ( esent tem(e atu e o3 6a sH inte (laneta y elect ic discha ges could also initiate atomic 3issions with ensuing adioactivity and emission o3 heat.
777777777777777777777777777777 # 8. 8. 'oblent5 and '. ". !am(land at the !owell "bse vato y, and ?. Pettit and +. ,. Nicholson at the 6ount 8ilson "bse vato y. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he )ases o3 Venus

; (a t o3 the gaseous t ail o3 Venus emained attached to the ea th, anothe (a t was to n away by 6a s, but the main mass o3 gases 3ollowed the head o3 the comet. "3 the (a t which emained with the ea th, some became a de(osit o3 (et oleumH some, in the 3o m o3 clouds, envelo(ed the ea th 3o many yea s, slowly ( eci(itating. :he (a t etained by Venus bu ned o smoked 3o a long time, as long as the oCygen ca ied 3 om the ea th lastedH what emained 3o ms today the envelo(e o3 ca bon clouds o3 the 6o ning +ta . :o the de(th (enet ated by s(ect osco(ic analysis, oCygen and wate va(o a e absent. :he (lanet is cove ed with clouds o3 dust. 'a bon dioCide is an ing edient o3 VenusB atmos(he e. # :he b illiant envelo(e o3 Venus is the emnant o3 its tail o3 the days when, th ee thousand yea s ago, it was a comet. :he e3lecting (owe (albedo) o3 Venus is g eate than that o3 any othe (lanet. It is 0.-$ as com(a ed with 0.22 3o 6a s, and 0.#1 3o the moon. 2 :he e3lecting ca(acity o3 Venus is not only much g eate than that o3 dese t sand, but is almost eFual to that o3 newly 3allen snow. "n the basis o3 this esea ch, I assume that Venus must be ich in (et oleum gases. I3 and

as long as Venus is too hot 3o the liFue3action o3 (et oleum, the hyd oca bons will ci culate in gaseous 3o m. :he abso (tion lines o3 the hyd oca bon s(ect um lie 3a in the in3 a ed whe e usual (hotog a(hs do not each. 8hen the techniFue o3 (hotog a(hy in the in3 a ed is (e 3ected so that hyd oca bon bands can be di33e entiated, the s(ect og am o3 Venus may disclose the ( esence o3 hyd oca bon gases in its atmos(he e, i3 these gases lie in the u((e (a t o3 the atmos(he e whe e the ays o3 the sun (enet ate. I3 the (et oleum that (ou ed down on the ea th on its contact with the comet Venus was 3o med by means o3 elect ical discha ges 3 om hyd ogen and gaseous ca bon, Venus must still have (et oleum because o3 the discha ges that (assed, as we assume, between the head and tail o3 the comet when it was inte ce(ted by the ea th and in othe celestial contacts. +ome indi ect conclusion can also be d awn conce ning the ( esence o3 liFuid (et oleum on Au(ite . I3, as is assumed he e, Venus was th own o33 3 om Au(ite in a violent eC(ulsion, and i3 Venus has (et oleum gases, then Au(ite must have (et oleum. :he 3act that methane has been discove ed in the atmos(he e o3 Au(ite / the only known constituents o3 its atmos(he e a e the (oisonous gases methane and ammonia / makes it athe ( obable that it has (et oleumH the so/called Enatu al gasE 3ound in and nea oil 3ields consists la gely o3 methane. :he mode n theo y o3 the o igin o3 (et oleum, based u(on its (ola i5ing Fuality, ega ds (et oleum as o iginating 3 om o ganic, not ino ganic, matte . 'onseFuently, i3 I am not mistaken, Venus and Au(ite must (ossess an o ganic sou ce o3 (et oleum. "n ( eceding (ages it was shown that the e a e some histo ical indications that Venus / and the e3o e also Au(ite / is (o(ulated by ve minH this o ganic li3e can be the sou ce o3 (et oleum.
777777777777777777777777777777 # '. ?. +t. Aohn and A. ,. Nicholson> E:he +(ect um o3 Venus,E 'ont ibutions 3 om the 6ount 8ilson "bse vato y, No. 229 (#922). :he su((osition has been advanced that Venus is cove ed with 3o maldehyde (9. 8ildt) although no s(ect al lines o3 this com(ound have been identi3ied in the atmos(he e o3 Venus. 2 :hese 3igu es a e 3 om ; henius> %as +chicksal de Planeten (#9##), (. 0. ?. ;. ;ntoniadi (!a (lanTte 6e cu e I#919J, (. 29) gives 0.01 3o Venus, 0.#- 3o 6a s, and 0.#0 3o the moon. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he :he mal ,alance o3 Venus

9adiomet ic obse vations at the 6ount 8ilson and Glagsta33 obse vato ies in #922 have shown that Ea conside able amount o3 heatE is emitted by the da k (a t o3 the disc o3 the (lanet Venus. Venus, being nea e to the sun than the ea th, tu ns in succession its illuminated and shaded (a ts towa d the ea th> it shows (hases like the moon. :he tem(e atu e o3 the day and night sides o3 Venus was measu ed by a adiomet ic method and it was 3ound that the e is Ea nea ly uni3o m tem(e atu e ove the (lanetBs su 3ace both on the illuminated and da k hemis(he es.E E:his sentence Io3 ?. Pettit and +. ,. NicholsonJ is a te se statement o3 what is (e ha(s the most valuable single discove y eve made with es(ect to the (lanet Venus.E # +imila esults we e also obtained inde(endently and almost simultaneously by a second (ai o3 esea che s. 2 8hat eC(lanation can be given 3o the (henomenon o3 the nea ly uni3o m tem(e atu e o3 the day and night hemis(he es o3 VenusM :he conclusion d awn was this> :he daily otation o3 the (lanet Venus is ve y a(id and du ing the sho t night the tem(e atu e cannot 3all to any conside able eCtent. ,ut this conclusion stands in com(lete cont adiction to what was believed to be the established 3act o3 the non otation o3 Venus (with es(ect to the sun, o o3 a otation in elation to the 3iCed sta s with a (e iod eFual to the time o3 one evolution on its (laneta y o bit o 22$ te est ial days). %ue to the cove o3 clouds ove Venus, it is im(ossible to have a di ect im( ession as to whethe Venus has a day/night otation o not.

:he s(ect og a(hic data suggest that the (lanet evolves always with the same side to the sun, <ust as the moon evolves always with the same side to the ea th, o that, at most, it otates ve y slowly. 1 In any case, a sho t (e iod o3 otation is eCcluded by the s(ect og a(hic data. EI3 the (e iod o3 otation o3 Venus is 22$ days, as many obse ve s have been led to believe, it is di33icult to see how the high tem(e atu e o3 the otating laye o3 the night side can be maintained.E 2 'om( omise does not satis3y eithe side. Neithe the adiomet ic data, which suggest a sho t (e iod o3 otation, no the ( ecise s(ect osco(ic data, which indicate a long (e iod o3 otation, may be igno ed, and Ethey will undoubtedly 3u nish mate ial 3o discussion and debate 3o many yea s.E In eality the e is no con3lict between the two methods o3 (hysical obse vation. :he night side o3 Venus adiates heat because Venus is hot. :he e3lecting, abso bing, insulating, and conducting ( o(e ties o3 the cloud laye o3 Venus modi3y the heating e33ect o3 the sun u(on the body o3 the (lanetH but at the bottom o3 the ( oblem lies this 3act> Venus gives o33 heat. Venus eC(e ienced in Fuick succession its bi th and eC(ulsion unde violent conditionsH an eCistence as a comet on an elli(se which a(( oached the sun closelyH two encounte s with the ea th accom(anied by discha ges o3 (otentials between these two bodies and with a the mal e33ect caused by conve sion o3 momentum into heatH a numbe o3 contacts with 6a s, and ( obably also with Au(ite . +ince all this ha((ened between the thi d and 3i st millennia be3o e the ( esent e a, the co e o3 the (lanet Venus must still be hot. 6o eove , i3 the e is oCygen ( esent on Venus, (et oleum 3i es must be bu ning the e. :hese conclusions a e d awn 3 om the histo y o3 Venus as established in this esea ch.
777777777777777777777777777777 # G. ?. 9oss> EPhotog a(hs o3 Venus,E 'ont ibutions 3 om the 6ount 8ilson "bse vato y, No. 101 (#92.). 2 'oblent5 and !am(land> Aou nal o3 G anklin Institute, Vol. #99 (#92$), .02. 1 ?. +t. Aohn and +. ,. Nicholson> E:he +(ect um o3 Venus,E ;st o(hysical Aou nal, Vol. !VI (#922). 2 9oss> EPhotog a(hs o3 Venus,E (. #2. $ Ibid. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he ?nd
:his wo ld will be dest oyedH also the mighty ocean will d y u(H and this b oad ea th will be bu nt u(. :he e3o e, si s, cultivate 3 iendlinessH cultivate com(assion. / E8o ld 'yclesE in Visuddhi/6agga

:he sola system is not a st uctu e that has emained unchanged 3o billions o3 yea sH dis(lacement o3 membe s o3 the system occu ed in histo ical times. No is the e <usti3ication 3o the eCcuse that man cannot know o 3ind out how this system came into being because he was not the e when it was a anged in its ( esent (atte n. 'atast o(hes have e(eatedly educed civili5ation on this ea th to uins. ,ut ou ea th has 3a ed well in com(a ison with 6a sH and <udged by the state o3 civili5ation at which mankind has a ived, conditions 3o li3e ( ocesses have been im( oved in some es(ects. ,ut i3 events o3 this kind ha((ened in the (ast, they may ha((en again in the 3utu e, with (e ha(s a di33e ent / 3atal / esult. :he ea th has come in contact with othe (lanets and comets. ;t ( esent no (lanet has a cou se that endange s the ea th, and only a 3ew aste oids / me e ocks, a 3ew kilomete s in diamete / have o bits that c oss the (ath o3 the ea th. :his was discove ed, to the ama5ement o3 schola s, only ecently. ,ut in the sola system the e eCists a (ossibility that at some date in the 3utu e a collision between two (lanets will occu , not a me e encounte

between a (lanet and an aste oid. :he o bit o3 Pluto, the 3a thest o3 the (lanets 3 om the sun, though much la ge than Ne(tuneBs, c osses that o3 Ne(tune. : ue, the (lane o3 the o bit o3 Pluto is inclined #-Q to the ecli(tic, and the e3o e the dange o3 a collision is not im(ending. =oweve , since the long aCis o3 PlutoBs o bit changes its di ection, 3utu e contact between the two (lanets is ( obable i3 no comet inte venes to dis u(t the inte secting o bits o3 these bodies. ;st onome s will see the (lanets sto( o slow down in thei otation, cushioned in the magnetic 3ields about themH a s(a k will 3ly 3 om one (lanet to anothe , and thus an actual c ushing collision o3 the lithos(he es will be avoidedH then the (lanets will (a t and change thei o bits. It may ha((en that Pluto will become a satellite o3 Ne(tune. :he e is also the (ossibility that Pluto may encounte , not Ne(tune, but : iton, Ne(tuneBs satellite and about one/thi d as la ge as Pluto. 8hethe Pluto will become anothe moon o3 Ne(tune o will be th own into a (osition much close to the sun, o whethe it will 3 ee : iton 3 om being a satellite a e matte s o3 con<ectu e. ;nothe case o3 inte section may be 3ound among the moons o3 Au(ite . :he o bit o3 the siCth satellite is inte locked with the o bit o3 the seventh, and the eighth satellite is highly e atic and c osses the (ath o3 the ninth. "ne should be able to calculate how long the siCth and seventh satellites have moved on thei ( esent (athsH the 3igu es will ( obably not be la ge. ?ach collision between two (lanets in the (ast caused a se ies o3 subseFuent collisions, in which othe (lanets became involved. :he collision between ma<o (lanets, which is the theme o3 the seFuel to 8o lds in 'ollision, b ought about the bi th o3 comets. :hese comets moved ac oss the o bits o3 othe (lanets and collided with them. ;t least one o3 these comets in histo ical times became a (lanet (Venus), and this at the cost o3 g eat dest uction on 6a s and on the ea th. Planets, th own o33 thei (aths, collided e(eatedly until they attained thei ( esent (ositions, whe e thei o bits do not inte sect. :he only emaining cases o3 inte section a e those o3 Ne(tune and Pluto, the satellites o3 Au(ite , and some (lanetoids (aste oids) that c oss the o bits o3 6a s and the ea th. 6o eove , comets may st ike the ea th, as Venus did when it was a cometH in that ma<o catast o(he it was 3o tunate that Venus is a slightly smalle body than the ea th. ; la ge comet a iving 3 om inte stella s(aces may un into one o3 the (lanets and (ush it 3 om its o bitH then chaos may sta t anew. ;lso, some da k sta , like Au(ite o +atu n, may be in the (ath o3 the sun, and may be att acted to the system and cause havoc in it. :he schola ly wo ld assumed that in some hund eds o3 millions o3 yea s the heat o3 the sun would be eChausted, and then, as Glamma ion 3 ightened his eade s, the last (ai o3 human beings would 3 ee5e to death in the ice o3 the eFuato . ,ut this is 3a o33 in the 3utu e. In view o3 mode n knowledge that heat is discha ged in the ( ocess o3 b eaking u( atoms, scientists a e now ( e(a ed to c edit the sun with an immense ese ve o3 heat. :he 3ea , i3 any, is 3ocused on the (ossibility that the sun may eC(lodeH a 3ew minutes late the ea th will become awa e o3 this, and soon the ea3te will no longe eCist. ,ut the one end, that o3 3 ee5ing, is ve y emoteH the othe end, that o3 eC(losion, is ve y im( obableH and the wo ld is thought to have billions o3 (eace3ul yea s ahead. It is believed that the wo ld has gone th ough eons o3 undistu bed evolution, and eFually long eons a e be3o e us. 6an can go 3a in such a s(an o3 time, conside ing that his enti e civili5ation has endu ed less than ten thousand yea s, and in view o3 the g eat technological ( og ess he has made in the last centu y. :he ave age man is no longe a3 aid o3 the end o3 the wo ld. 6an clings to his ea thly (ossessions, egiste s his landholdings and 3ences them inH (eo(les ca y on wa s to ( ese ve and to enla ge thei histo ical 3 ontie s. *et the last 3ive o siC thousand yea s have witnessed a se ies o3 ma<o catast o(hes, each o3 which dis(laced the bo de s o3 the seas,

and some o3 which caused sea/beds and continents to inte change (laces, subme ging kingdoms, and c eating s(ace 3o new ones. 'osmic collisions a e not dive gent (henomena, o (henomena that, in the o(inion o3 some mode n (hiloso(he s, take (lace in de3iance o3 what is su((osed to be (hysical lawsH they a e mo e in the natu e o3 occu ences im(licit in the dynamics o3 the unive se, o , in te ms o3 that (hiloso(hy, conve gent (henomena. E!est by chance est ained by eligion,E / and we may ead BscienceB instead o3 B eligionB / Eyou should think that ea th and sun, and sky, sea, sta s, and moon must needs abide 3o eve lasting, because o3 thei divine body,E think o3 the catast o(hes o3 the (astH and then Elook u(on seas, and lands, and skyH thei th ee3old natu e ... thei th ee teCtu es so vast, one single day shall hu l to uinH and the massive 3o m and 3ab ic o3 the wo ld held u( 3o many yea s, shall 3all headlong.E # E;nd the whole 3i mament shall 3all on the divine ea th and on the sea> and then shall 3low a ceaseless cata act o3 aging 3i e, and shall bu n land and sea, and the 3i mament o3 heaven and the sta s and c eation itsel3 it shall cast into one molten mass and clean dissolve. :hen no mo e shall the e be the lumina iesB twinkling o bs, no night, no dawn, no constant days o3 ca e, no s( ing, no summe , no winte , no autumn.E 2 E; single day will see the bu ial o3 all mankind. ;ll that the long 3o bea ance o3 3o tune has ( oduced, all that has been ea ed to eminence, all that is 3amous and all that is beauti3ul, g eat th ones, g eat nations / all will descend into one abyss, will be ove th own in one hou .E 1 :he vehemence o3 3lames will bu st asunde the 3 amewo k o3 the ea thBs c ust. 2
777777777777777777777777777777 # !uc etius> %e e um natu a, v (t ansl. '. ,ailey, #922). 2 :he +ibylline " acles, t ansl. !ancheste . 1 +eneca> Natu ales Fuaestiones III, CCC (t ansl. A. 'la ke). 2 +eneca> ?(istolae mo ales, ?(istle Ccl (t ansl. 9. 6. )umme e). 777777777777777777777777777777

Gacing 6any P oblems
IN :=I+ ,""4, containing the 3i st (a t o3 a histo ical cosmology, I have endeavo ed to show that two se ies o3 cosmic catast o(hes took (lace in histo ical times, thi ty/3ou and twenty/siC centu ies ago, and thus only a sho t time ago not (eace but wa eigned in the sola system. ;ll cosmological theo ies assume that the (lanets have evolved in thei (laces 3o billions o3 yea sH we claim that they have been t aveling along thei ( esent o bits 3o only a 3ew thousand yea s. 8e maintain also that one (lanet / Venus / was 3o me ly a comet and that it <oined the 3amily o3 (lanets within the memo y o3 mankind, thus o33e ing an eC(lanation o3 how one o3 the (lanets o iginated. 8e con<ectu ed that the comet Venus o iginated in the (lanet Au(ite H then we 3ound that smalle comets we e bo n in contacts between Venus and 6a s, thus o33e ing an eC(lanation o3 the ( inci(le o3 the o igin o3 the comets o3 the sola system. :hat these comets a e only a 3ew thousand yea s old eC(lains why, des(ite dissi(ation o3 the mate ial o3 thei tails in s(ace, they have not yet disinteg ated enti ely. G om the 3act that Venus was once a comet we lea ned that comets a e not nea ly immate ial bodies o E ien visible,E as was thought because sta s a e usually seen th ough thei tails and, on the (assage o3 one o two o3 them in 3 ont o3 the sun, thei heads we e not (e ce(tible. 8e claim that the ea thBs o bit changed mo e than once and with it the length o3 the yea H that the geog a(hical (osition o3 the te est ial aCis and its ast onomical di ection changed e(eatedly, and that at a ecent date the (ola sta was in the constellation o3 the ) eat ,ea . :he length o3 the day alte edH the (ola egions shi3ted, the (ola ice became dis(laced into mode ate latitudes, and othe egions moved into the (ola ci cles. 8e a ived at the conclusion that elect ical discha ges took (lace between Venus, 6a s, and the ea th when, in ve y close contacts, thei atmos(he es touched each othe H that the magnetic (oles o3 the ea th became eve sed only a 3ew thousand yea s agoH and that with the change in the moonBs o bit, the length o3 the month changed too, and e(eatedly so. In the (e iod o3 seven hund ed yea s between the middle o3 the second millennium be3o e the ( esent e a and the eighth centu y the yea consisted o3 100 days and the month o3 almost eCactly thi ty days, but ea lie the day, month, and yea we e o3 di33e ent lengths. 8e o33e ed an eC(lanation o3 the 3act that the noctu nal side o3 Venus emits as much heat as the sunlit sideH and we eC(lained the o igin o3 the canals o3 6a s and o3 the c ate s and seas o3 lava on the moon as b ought about in st ess and nea collisions. 8e believe we came close to solving the ( oblem o3 mountain building and the i u(tion o3 the seaH the eCchange o3 (lace between sea and landH the ise o3 new islands and volcanic activityH sudden changes in climate and the dest uction o3 Fuad u(eds in no the n +ibe ia and the annihilation o3 enti e s(eciesH and the cause o3 ea thFuakes. Gu the mo e, we 3ound that eCcessive eva(o ation o3 wate 3 om the su 3ace o3 the oceans and seas, a (henomenon that was (ostulated to eC(lain eCcessive ( eci(itation and 3o mation o3 ice cove s, was caused by eCt ate est ial agents. :hough in such occu ences we see the o igin o3 the Gimbul winte , we a e inclined to ega d the e atic boulde s and till, o g avel, clay, and sand on the subst atum o3 ock as having been ca ied, not by ice, but by on ushing gigantic tides caused by change in the otation o3 the te est ial globeH thus have we accounted 3o mo aines that mig ated 3 om the eFuato towa d highe latitudes and altitudes (=imalayas) o 3 om the eFuato ac oss ;3 ica towa d the +outh Pole. 8e ecogni5ed that the eligions o3 the (eo(les o3 the wo ld have a common ast al o igin.

:he na ative o3 the =eb ew ,ible conce ning the (lagues and othe wonde s o3 the time o3 the ?Codus is histo ically t ue and the ( odigies eco ded have a natu al eC(lanation. 8e lea ned that the e was a wo ld con3lag ation and that na(htha (ou ed 3 om the skyH that only a small ( o(o tion o3 (eo(le and animals su vivedH that the (assage o3 the sea and the theo(hany at 6ount +inai a e not inventionsH that the shadow o3 death o twilight o3 the gods ()Wtte d^mme ung) e3e s to the time o3 the wande ing in the dese tH that manna o amb osia eally 3ell 3 om the sky, 3 om the clouds o3 Venus. 8e 3ound also that AoshuaBs mi acle with the sun and the moon is not a tale 3o the c edulous. 8e lea ned why the e a e common ideas in the 3olklo e o3 (eo(les se(a ated by oceans, and we ecogni5ed the im(o tance o3 wo ld u(heavals in the content o3 legends and why the (lanets we e dei3ied and which (lanet was e( esented by Pallas ;thene, and what is the celestial (lot o3 the Iliad and in what (e iod this e(ic was c eated, and why the 9oman (eo(le made 6a s thei national god and ( ogenito o3 the 3ounde s o3 9ome. 8e came to unde stand the eal meaning o3 the messages o3 the =eb ew ( o(hets ;mos, Isaiah, Aoel, 6icah, and othe s. 8e we e able also to asce tain the yea , month, and day o3 the last cosmic catast o(he and to establish the natu e o3 the agent that dest oyed +ennache ibBs a my. 8e disce ned the cause o3 the g eat wande ings o3 (eo(les in the 3i3teenth and eighth centu ies. 8e lea ned the o igin o3 the belie3 in the chosenness o3 the Aewish (eo(leH we t aced the o iginal meaning o3 the a changels, and the sou ce o3 eschatological belie3s in doomsday. In giving this enume ation o3 the claims made and ( oblems dealt with in this book, we a e awa e that mo e ( oblems have a isen than have been solved. :he Fuestion be3o e histo ical cosmogony is this> I3 it is t ue that cosmic catast o(hes occu ed such a sho t time ago, how about the mo e emote (astM 8hat can we 3ind out conce ning the %eluge, at ( esent thought to have been a local 3looding o3 the ?u(h ates that im( essed the ,edouins coming 3 om the dese tM In gene al, what can be b ought to light conce ning the wo ldBs mo e distant (ast and ea lie celestial battlesM ;s eC(lained in the P e3ace, the sto y o3 catast o(hes as they can be econst ucted 3 om the eco ds o3 man and o3 natu e is not com(leted in this volume. =e e a e ( esented only two cha(te s / two wo ld ages / Venus and 6a s. I intend to go 3u the back into the (ast and (iece togethe the sto y o3 some ea lie cosmic u(heavals. :his will be the sub<ect o3 anothe volume. :he e I ho(e to be able to tell a little mo e o3 the ci cumstances ( eceding the bi th o3 Venus 3 om the body o3 Au(ite and na ate at length why Au(ite , a (lanet which only a 3ew (e sons out o3 a c owd know how to 3ind in the sky, was the main deity o3 the (eo(les o3 antiFuity. In that book an attem(t will be made to answe some mo e o3 the Fuestions aised in the 3i st (ages o3 the P ologue o3 this volume. =isto ical cosmogony o33e s a chance to em(loy the 3act that the e we e catast o(hes o3 global eCtent in establishing a synch oni5ed histo y o3 the ancient wo ld. P evious e33o ts to build ch onological tables on the basis o3 ast onomical calculations / new moons, ecli(ses, heliacal ising o culmination o3 ce tain sta s / cannot be co ect because the o de o3 natu e has changed since ancient times. ,ut g eat u(heavals o3 cosmic cha acte may se ve as (oints o3 de(a tu e 3o w iting a evised histo y o3 the nations. +uch a synch oni5ation o3 the histo ies o3 the ancient wo ld is attem(ted in ;ges in 'haos. Its sta ting (oint is the simultaneity o3 (hysical catast o(hes in the count ies o3 the ancient ?ast and the com(a ison o3 eco ds e3e ing to such catast o(hes among the (eo(les o3 antiFuity. Go the est, I have ( oceeded by collating (olitical eco ds and a cheological mate ial o3 the ancient ?ast cove ing a (e iod o3 ove a thousand yea s, 3 om the end o3 the 6iddle 4ingdom in ?gy(t to the time o3 ;leCande o3 6acedonia> going ste( by ste( 3 om centu y to centu y, the esea ch a ives at an enti ely evised seFuence o3 events in ancient histo y and discloses a disc e(ancy o3 a numbe o3 centu ies in the conventional

ch onology. :he develo(ment o3 eligion, including the eligion o3 Is ael, comes unde a new light. :he 3acts established he e may hel( in t acing the o igin and the g owth o3 (laneta y wo shi(, animal wo shi(, human sac i3ices / also the sou ce o3 ast ological belie3s. :he autho 3eels an obligation to eC(and the sco(e o3 his wo k in o de to include the ( oblem o3 the bi th o3 eligion and o3 monotheism in (a ticula . Investigation should be made into why and how the Aewish (eo(le, who had the same eC(e iences as othe (eo(les and who sta ted with an ast al eligion like the est o3 the nations, ea ly cast o33 ast al deities and 3o bade the wo shi( o3 images. :he +c i(tu es invite a new a(( oach to ,ible c iticism, one that will make it (ossible to see the ( ocess o3 t ansition 3 om an ast al eligion to monotheism with its idea o3 a single ' eato , not a sta , not an animal, and not a human being. ;n int iguing ( oblem ( esents itsel3 in (sychology. G eud sea ched 3o ( imo dial u ges in mode n man. ;cco ding to him, in the ( imitive society o3 the stone age, when the sons g ew u(, they looked 3o a chance to dis(ose o3 the 3athe , once all/(owe 3ul and now aging, and to wo k thei will on thei mothe H and this u ge is (a t o3 the he itage that mode n man ca ies ove 3 om his ( ehisto ic ancesto s. ;cco ding to the theo y o3 anothe (sychologist, 'a l Aung, the e eCists a collective unconscious mind, a ece(tacle and ca ie o3 ideas de(osited the e in ( imeval times, which (lays an im(o tant ole in ou conce(ts and actions. In the light o3 these theo ies, we may well wonde to what eCtent the te i3ying eC(e iences o3 wo ld catast o(hes have become (a t o3 the human soul and how much, i3 any, o3 it can be t aced in ou belie3s, emotions, and behavio as di ected 3 om the unconscious o subconscious st ata o3 the mind. # In the ( esent volume geological and (aleontological mate ial was discussed only occasionally / when we dealt with ocks being ca ied conside able distances and (laced on to( o3 3o eign 3o mationsH with mammoths being killed in a catast o(heH with the changes o3 climate, the geog a(hical contou s o3 the (ola ice in the (ast, mo aines in ;3 ica, and emains o3 human cultu e in the no th o3 ;laskaH with the sou ce o3 a substantial (a t o3 oil de(osits, the o igin o3 volcanoes, the cause o3 ea thFuakes. =oweve , geological, (aleontological, and anth o(ological mate ial elated to the ( oblems o3 cosmic catast o(hes (as (a tly ( esented in the volume ?a th in @(heaval) is vast and may give a com(lete (ictu e o3 (ast events no less than histo ical mate ial. 8hat can we establish conce ning the disa((ea ance o3 s(ecies and even o3 gene a, the theo y o3 evolution ve sus the theo y o3 catast o(hic mutations, and the develo(ment o3 animal and (lant li3e in gene al, o the time when giants lived o when b ontosau i (o(ulated the ea thM :he subme sion and eme sion o3 land, the o igin o3 the salt in the sea, the o igin o3 dese ts, o3 g avel, o3 coal de(osits in ;nta ctica, and the (alm g owth in the a ctic egionsH the building o3 sedimenta y ocksH the int usion o3 igneous ock above levels containing bones o3 ma ine and land animals and o3 i on in the su(e 3icial laye s o3 the ea thBs c ust, the times o3 geological e(ochs and the age o3 man on the ea th / all these ask 3o t eatment in the light o3 the theo y o3 cosmic catast o(hism. :hen the e a e (hysical ( oblems. :he accounts given in this book about (lanets changing thei o bits and the velocities o3 thei otation, about a comet that became a (lanet, about inte (laneta y contacts and discha ges, indicate a need 3o a new a(( oach to celestial mechanics. :he theo y o3 cosmic catast o(hism can, i3 eFui ed to do so, con3o m with the celestial mechanics o3 Newton. 'omets and (lanets (ushing one anothe could change thei o bits, although it is singula how, 3o instance, Venus could achieve a ci cula o bit, o how the moon, also 3o ced 3 om its (lace, could hold to an almost ci cula o bit. Neve theless, the e

a e ( ecedents 3o such a conce(t. :he (lanetesimal theo y (ostulates innume able collisions between small (lanetesimals / that 3lew out o3 the sun, g adually ounded thei o bits, and 3o med (lanets and satellitesH the tidal theo y also ega ds the (lanets as de ivatives o3 the sun swe(t by a (assing sta into a di ection and with a 3o ce that, togethe with the g avitational att action o3 the sun, c eated nea ly ci cula o bits, the same having occu ed to the moons in elation to thei (a ent (lanets. 2 ;nothe ( ecedent 3o ci cula o bits 3o med unde eCt ao dina y ci cumstances can be 3ound in the theo y that ega ds the et og ade satellites as ca(tu ed aste oids which succeeded, a3te being ca(tu ed, in achieving a(( oCimately ci cula o bits. I3 such e33ects 3 om contacts between two sta s o 3 om ca(tu e o3 a smalle body by a la ge body a e not incom(atible with celestial mechanics, then the o bits esulting 3 om wo lds in collision should be ega ded as in ha mony with it, too. :he (hysical e33ects o3 eta dation o eve sal o3 the ea th in its diu nal otation a e di33e ently evaluated by va ious scientists. +ome eC( ess the o(inion that a total dest uction o3 the ea th and volatili5ation o3 its enti e mass would 3ollow such slowing down o stasis. :hey concede, howeve , that dest uction o3 such dimensions would not occu i3 the ea th continued to otate and only its aCis we e tilted out o3 its (osition. :his could be caused by the ea thBs (assing th ough a st ong magnetic 3ield at an angle to the ea thBs magnetic aCis. ; otating steel to(, when tilted by a magnet, continues to otate. :heo etically, the te est ial aCis could be tilted 3o a ce tain length o3 time, and at any angle, and also in such a 3ashion that it would lie in the (lane o3 the ecli(tic. In that case, one o3 the two hemis(he es / the no the n o the southe n / would emain in ( olonged day, the othe , in ( olonged night. :he tilting o3 the aCis could ( oduce the visual e33ect o3 a et og essing o a ested sunH a g eate tilting, a multi(le day o nightH and in the case o3 still g eate tilting, a eve sal o3 (oles with east and west eCchanging (lacesH all this without a substantial dis u(tion in the mechanical momentum o3 the otation o evolution o3 the ea th. "the scientists maintain that a theo etical slowing down o even sto((age o3 the ea th in its diu nal otation would not by itsel3 cause the dest uction o3 the ea th. ;ll (a ts o3 the ea th otate with the same angula velocity, and i3 the theo etical sto((age o slowing down did not u(set the eFuality o3 the angula velocity o3 the va ious (a ts o3 the solid globe, the ea th would su vive the slowing down, o stasis, o even a eve sal o3 otation. =oweve , the 3luid (a ts / the ai and the wate o3 the oceans / would ce tainly have thei angula velocity dis u(ted, and hu icanes and tidal waves would swee( the ea th. 'ivili5ations would be dest oyed, but not the globe. ;cco ding to this eC(lanation, the actual esults o3 such a slowing down o3 the angula velocity o3 otation would de(end on the manne in which it occu ed. I3 the a((lication o3 an eCte nal medium, say a thick cloud o3 dust, acted eFually on all (a ts o3 the su 3ace o3 the globe, the globe would change its s(eed o3 otation o might even cease otating, and the ene gy o3 its otation would be t ans3e ed to the cloud o3 dustH heat would develo( as the esult o3 the bomba dment by the (a ticles o3 dust st iking the atmos(he e and the g ound. :he ea th would be bu ied unde such a thick laye o3 dust that its mass would noticeably inc ease. :he cessation o3 the diu nal otation could also be caused / and most e33iciently / by the ea thBs (assing th ough a st ong magnetic 3ieldH eddy cu ents would be gene ated in the su 3ace o3 the ea th, 1 which in tu n would give ise to magnetic 3ields, and these, inte acting with the eCte nal 3ield, would slow down the ea th o b ing it to a otational stasis. It is (ossible to calculate the mass o3 a cloud o3 (a ticles and also the st ength o3 the magnetic 3ield that would cause the ea th to sto( otating o to slow down, say, to hal3 its

o iginal otational velocity. ; ough calculation shows that i3 the mass o3 this cloud we e eFual to the mass o3 the ea th and consisted o3 i on (a ticles magneti5ed close to satu ation, it would c eate a magnetic 3ield st ong enough to sto( the otation o3 the ea thH i3 the magnetic 3ield we e hal3 as st ong it would slow the otation o3 the ea th to hal3 its o iginal velocity. =oweve , i3 the cloud we e elect ically cha ged, the st ength o3 its magnetic 3ield would de(end on its cha ge. I3 the inte action with the magnetic 3ield caused the ea th to enew its s(inning, it would almost ce tainly not be enewed at the same s(eed. I3 the magma inside the globe continued to otate at a di33e ent angula velocity than the shell, it would tend to set the ea th otating slowly. In the tidal theo y the o igin o3 the ea thBs otation is asc ibed to the action o3 meteo ites. I3 the angula velocity o3 the va ious st ata o segments o3 the globe we e dis u(ted by some st ess, these st ata o segments would shi3t, and heat would be c eated as the esult o3 the 3 iction. ' acks and i3ts would a((ea , seas would e u(t, land would subme ge o ise in mountain idges, with Ethe midmost o3 the ea th t embling with te o and the u((e laye s o3 the ea th 3alling away.E 2 :he st esses between the va ious st ata that would esult in all this might also conve t some o3 the ene gy o3 otation, not into heat, but into othe 3o ms o3 ene gy, including elect ical. ; discha ge o3 g eat magnitude between the ea th and the oute body (o cloud) could take (lace in this way. :hus celestial mechanics does not con3lict with cosmic catast o(hism. I must admit, howeve , that in sea ching 3o the causes o3 the g eat u(heavals o3 the (ast and in conside ing thei e33ects, I became ske(tical o3 the g eat theo ies conce ning the celestial motions that we e 3o mulated when the histo ical 3acts desc ibed he e we e not known to science. :he sub<ect dese ves to be discussed in detail and Fuantitatively. ;ll that I would ventu e to say at this time and in this (lace is the 3ollowing> :he acce(ted celestial mechanics, notwithstanding the many calculations that have been ca ied out to many decimal (laces, o ve i3ied by celestial motions, stands only i3 the sun, the sou ce o3 light, wa mth, and othe adiation ( oduced by 3usion and 3ission o3 atoms, is as a whole an elect ically neut al body, and also i3 the (lanets, in thei usual o bits, a e neut al bodies. Gundamental ( inci(les in celestial mechanics including the law o3 g avitation, must come into Fuestion i3 the sun (ossesses a cha ge su33icient to in3luence the (lanets in thei o bits o the comets in thei s. In the Newtonian celestial mechanics, based on the theo y o3 g avitation, elect icity and magnetism (lay no ole. 8hen (hysicists came u(on the idea that the atom is built like a sola system, the atoms o3 va ious chemical elements di33e ing in the mass o3 thei suns (nuclei) and the numbe o3 thei (lanets (elect ons), the notion was looked u(on with much 3avo . ,ut it was st essed that Ean atom di33e s 3 om the sola system by the 3act that it is not g avitation that makes the elect ons go ound the nucleus, but elect icityE (=. N. 9ussell). ,esides this, anothe di33e ence was 3ound> an elect on in an atom, on abso bing the ene gy o3 a (hoton (light), <um(s to anothe o bit, and again to anothe when it emits light and eleases the ene gy o3 a (hoton. ,ecause o3 this (henomenon, com(a ison with the sola system no longe seemed valid. E8e do not ead in the mo ning news(a(e s that 6a s lea(ed to the o bit o3 +atu n, o +atu n to the o bit o3 6a s,E w ote a c itic. : ue, we do not ead it in the mo ning (a(e sH but in ancient eco ds we have 3ound simila events desc ibed in detail, and we have t ied to econst uct the 3acts by com(a ing many ancient eco ds. :he sola system is actually built like an atomH only, in kee(ing with the smallness o3 the atom, the <um(ing o3 elect ons 3 om one o bit to anothe , when hit by the ene gy o3 a (hoton, takes (lace many times a second, whe eas in acco d with the vastness o3 the sola

system, a simila (henomenon occu s the e once in hund eds o thousands o3 yea s. In the middle o3 the second millennium be3o e the ( esent e a, the te est ial globe eC(e ienced two dis(lacementsH and in the eighth o seventh centu y be3o e the ( esent e a, it eC(e ienced th ee o 3ou mo e. In the (e iod between, 6a s and Venus, and the moon also, shi3ted. 'ontacts between celestial bodies a e not limited to the domain o3 the sola system. G om time to time a nova is seen in the sky, a bla5ing 3iCed sta which until then had been small o invisible. It bu ns 3o weeks o months and then loses its light. It is thought that this may be the esult o3 a collision between two sta s (a (henomenon that, acco ding to the tidal theo y, occu ed to the sun o to its theo etical com(anion). 'omets a iving 3 om othe sola systems may have been bo n in such collisions. I3 the activity in an atom constitutes a ule 3o the mac ocosm, then the events desc ibed in this book we e not me ely accidents o3 celestial t a33ic, but no mal (henomena like bi th and death. :he discha ges between the (lanets, o the g eat (hotons emitted in these contacts, caused metamo (hoses in ino ganic and o ganic natu e. "3 these things I intend to w ite in anothe volume, whe e ( oblems o3 geology and (aleontology and the theo y o3 evolution will be discussed. =aving discove ed some histo ical 3acts and having solved a 3ew ( oblems, we a e 3aced with mo e ( oblems in almost all 3ields o3 scienceH we a e not 3 ee to sto( and est on the oad on which we sta ted when we wonde ed whethe AoshuaBs mi acle o3 sto((ing the sun was a natu al (henomenon. ,a ie s between sciences se ve to c eate the belie3 in a scientist in any (a ticula 3ield that othe scienti3ic 3ields a e 3 ee 3 om ( oblems, and he t usts himsel3 to bo ow 3 om them without Fuestioning. It can be seen he e that ( oblems in one a ea ca y ove into othe scienti3ic a eas, thought to have no contact with each othe . 8e eali5e the limitations which a single schola must be awa e o3 on 3acing such an ambitious ( og am o3 inFui y into the a chitectonics o3 the wo ld and its histo y. In ea lie centu ies (hiloso(he s not in3 eFuently attem(ted a synthesis o3 knowledge in its va ious b anches. :oday, with knowledge becoming mo e and mo e s(eciali5ed, whoeve t ies to co(e with such a task should ask in all humility the Fuestion (ut at the beginning o3 this volume> Kuota (a s o(e is tanti nobis committitu / 8hich (a t o3 this wo k is committed to usM
777777777777777777777777777777 # In connection with my idea o3 collective amnesia, ). ;. ;twate suggests a sea ch 3o the vestiges o3 te i3ying eC(e iences o3 the (ast in the ( esent behavio o3 man. 2 "ne o3 the autho s o3 the tidal theo y, =a old Ae33 eys, w ites that 3i st among the Eseve al st iking 3actsE which Estill emain uneC(lainedE by the tidal theo y is Ethe smallness o3 the eccent icities o3 the o bits o3 the (lanets and satellitesE (:he ?a th, 2nd ed. I#929J, (. 2.). 1 In this connection see the desc i(tion o3 a sudden calamity in Numbe s #0>2$/29, in which thousands o3 Is aelites oaming in the dese t we e Econsumed as in a moment.E 2 +ee (. 0-3. 777777777777777777777777777777

:he autho g ate3ully acknowledges (e mission to Fuote 3 om the 3ollowing books> ). ;. %o sey> :he Pawnee> 6ythology, 'a negie Institution o3 8ashington, #900H 6aimonides> :he )uide 3o the Pe (leCed, t anslated 6. G iedlande , ?. P. %utton, Inc., #92.H 'lements 9. 6a kham> :he Incas o3 Pe u, ?. P. %utton, Inc., #9#0H +hauntala and othe w itings o3 4alidasa, t ansl. ;. 8. 9yde , ?ve ymanBs !ib a y, ?. P. %utton, Inc., #9#2H Aames 6o33att> :he ,ible> ; New : anslation, co(y ight, #91$, =a (e & , othe sH :he !oeb 'lassical !ib a y, =a va d @nive sity P ess> =ome > :he Iliad, t ansl. ;. :. 6u ay, #92$H =esiod> :heogony, t ansl. =. ?velyn/8hite, #9#2H ?u i(ides> ?lect a, t ansl. ;. +. 8ay, #9#9H Plato> :imaeus, t ansl. 9. '. ,u y, #929, and :he +tatesman (Politicus), t ansl. =. N. Gowle , #92$H ;(ollodo us> :he !ib a y, t ansl. A. ,. G a5e , #92#H +eneca> :hyestes, t ansl. G. A. 6ille , #9#-H Vi gil> )eo gics, t ansl. =. 9. Gai clough, #920H "vid> 6etamo (hoses, t ansl. G. !. 6ille , #9#0H Philo> :he ?te nity o3 the 8o ld, t ansl. G. =. 'olson, #92#H Pluta ch> !i3e o3 Numa, t ansl. ,. Pe in, #9#2H !ouis )in5be g> :he !egends o3 the Aews, co(y ight, #9#0, #92., :he Aewish Publication +ociety o3 ;me icaH !. de 'amb ey> !a(land !egends, *ale @nive sity P ess, #920H :he Philoso(hy o3 +(ino5a, ed. A. 9atne , co(y ight, #92-, 6ode n !ib a y, 9andom =ouse, Inc.H 9. ;. %aly> "u 6obile ?a th, co(y ight, #920, 'ha les +c ibne Bs +onsH ?velyn +te3ansson> =e e Is ;laska, co(y ight, #921, 'ha les +c ibne Bs +onsH A. G. Gleming> :e est ial 6agnetism and ?lect icity, 6c) aw/=ill ,ook 'om(any, New *o k, #919. P inted in the @nited +tates o3 ;me ica