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Tense Signal words every day something happens repeatedly so"e%i"es how often something happens always one action follows another Simple Present of%en things in general &s&ally seldo" never firs% ... %hen now a% %he "o"en% Loo'+ Lis%en+ las% ... ... ago in 0112 yes%erday action took place in the past, mostly connected with an e$pression of time (no connection to the present) reg lar! Infini%ive + -ed irreg lar! 3. S$al%e something is happening at the same time of speaking or aro nd it f t re meaning! when yo have already decided and arranged to do it (a fi$ed plan, date) %o ,e -a".are.is/ + Infini%ive + ing I"m wor'ing. #e"s wor'ing. I"m going. #e"s going. I wor'ed. #e wor'ed. I wen%. #e wen%. I"m no% wor'ing. #e isn(% wor'ing. I"m no% going. #e isn(% going. I didn(% wor'. #e didn(% wor'. I didn(% go. #e didn(% go. A" I wor'ing* Is he wor'ing* A" I going* Is he going* )id I wor'* )id he wor'* )id I go* )id he go* with the following verbs (to love, to hate, to think, etc.) f t re meaning! timetables, programmes he/she/it + -s I go. #e goes. I don(% go. #e doesn(% go. )o I go* )oes he go* Infini%ive #e wor's. #e doesn(% wor'. )oes he wor'* I wor'. I don(% wor'. )o I wor'* se !or" E#a"$les affir"a%ive E#a"$les nega%ive E#a"$les in%erroga%ive

Present Progressive

Simple Past

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an action happened in the middle of another action Past Progressive while someone was doing sth. at a certain time (in the past) % yo don"t know whether it was finished or not was.were + Infini%ive + -ing I was wor'ing. #e was wor'ing. I was going. #e was going. I wasn(% wor'ing. #e wasn(% wor'ing. I wasn(%going. #e wasn(% going. 4as I wor'ing* 4as he wor'ing* 4as I going* 4as he going*

5&s% ye% never ever Simple Present Perfect already so far6 &$ %o now6 since for recen%ly all day %he whole day Present Perfect Progressive how long since for how long the action has been happening e"$hasis7 leng%h of %i"e of an ac%ion have.has + ,een + Infini%ive + -ing I have ,een wor'ing. #e has ,een wor'ing. I have ,een going. #e has ,een going. I haven(% ,een wor'ing. #e hasn(% ,een wor'ing. Have I ,een wor'ing* Has he ,een wor'ing* I have wor'ed. #e has wor'ed. I have gone. #e has gone. I haven(% wor'ed. #e hasn8% wor'ed. I haven(% gone. #e hasn8% gone. Have I wor'ed* Has he wor'ed* Have I gone* Has he gone*

yo say that sth. has happened or is finished in the past and it has a connection to the present action started in the past and contin es p to the present

have.has + $as% $ar%ici$le9 '(infinitive + %ed) or ((rd col&"n of %a,le of irreg&lar ver,s/

action began in the past and has & st stopped

I haven(% ,een going. Have I ,een going* #e hasn(% ,een going. Has he ,een going*

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I had wor'ed. #e had wor'ed. I had gone. #e had gone. I had ,een wor'ing. #e had ,een wor'ing. I had ,een going. #e had ,een going. predictions abo t the f t re (yo think that sth will happen) will % f t re will + Infini%iveyo decide to do sth. spontaneo sly at the time of speaking, yo haven"t made a main cla se in type I of the if cla ses I"ll wor'. #e"ll wor'. I"ll go. #e"ll go. I"m going %o wor'. when yo have already decided to do sth. in the f t re what yo think what will happen #e"s going %o wor'. I"m going %o go. #e"s going %o go. I hadn(% wor'ed. #e hadn(% wor'ed. I hadn(% gone. #e hadn(% gone. I hadn(% ,een wor'ing. #e hadn(% ,een wor'ing. I hadn(% ,een going. #e hadn(% ,een going. I won(% wor'. #e won(% wor'. I won(% go. #e won(% go. I"m no% going %o wor'. #e"s no% going %o wor'. I"m no% going %o go. Had I wor'ed* Had he wor'ed* Had I gone* Had he gone* Had I ,een wor'ing* Had he ,een wor'ing* Had I ,een going* Had he ,een going* 4ill I wor'* 4ill he wor'* 4ill I go* 4ill he go* A" I going %o wor'* Is he going %o wor'* A" I going %o go*

already Simple Past Perfect 5&s% never

mostly when two actions in a story had + $as% are related to each other! the $ar%ici$le9 action which had already happened is p t into past perfect, the other '(infinitive + %ed) or action into simple past ((rd col&"n of %a,le of irreg&lar ver,s/ the past of the Present Perfect

how long Past Perfect Progressive since for how long something had been happening before something else happened had + ,een + Infini%ive + ing

going to % f t re

,e -a".are.is/ + going %o + Infini%ive

#e"s no% going %o go. Is he going %o go*

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I"ll ,e wor'ing. )n action will be in progress at a certain time in the f t re. *his + t re Progressive #e"ll ,e wor'ing.action has beg n before the certain will + ,e + Infini%ive time. + ing I"ll ,e going. Something happens beca se it normally happens. #e"ll ,e going. will + have + $as% $ar%ici$le9 sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the f t re '(infinitive + %ed) or ((rd col&"n of %a,le of irreg&lar ver,s/ I"ll have wor'ed. #e"ll have wor'ed. I"ll have gone. #e"ll have gone. I"ll have ,een wor'ing. sth. will already have happened before a certain time in the f t re e"$hasis7 leng%h of %i"e of an ac%ion #e"ll have ,een wor'ing. I"ll have ,een going. #e"ll have ,een going. I wo&ld wor'. sth. that might happen ,onditional Simple main cla se in type II of the if cla ses wo&ld + Infini%ive I wo&ld go. #e wo&ld go. I wo&ldn(% go. #e wo&ldn(% go. 4o&ld I wor'* 4o&ld he wor'* #e wo&ld wor'. I won(% ,e wor'ing. 4ill I ,e wor'ing*

#e won(% ,e wor'ing. 4ill he ,e wor'ing* I won(% ,e going. #e won(% ,e going. 4ill I ,e going* 4ill he ,e going*

I won(% have wor'ed. 4ill I have wor'ed* #e won(% have worked. I won(% have gone. #e won(% have gone. I won(% have ,een wor'ing. #e won(% have ,een wor'ing. I won(% have ,een going. #e won(% have ,een going. I wo&ldn(% wor'. #e wo&ldn(% wor'. 4ill he have wor'ed* 4ill I have gone* 4ill he have gone* 4ill I have ,een wor'ing* 4ill he have ,een wor'ing* 4ill I have ,een wor'ing* 4ill he have ,een wor'ing* 4o&ld I wor'* 4o&ld he wor'*

+ t re Perfect Simple

+ t re Perfect Progressive

will + have + ,een + Infini%ive + ing

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I wo&ld ,e wor'ing. sth. that might happen ,onditional Progressive e"$hasis7 leng%h of %i"e of an ac%ion wo&ld + ,e + Infini%ive + ing #e wo&ld ,e wor'ing. I wo&ld ,e going. #e wo&ld ,e going. I wo&ld have wor'ed. sth. that might have happened in the past ,onditional Perfect (It"s too late now.) main cla se in type III of the if cla ses wo&ld + have + $as% #e wo&ld have $ar%ici$le9 wor'ed. '(infinitive + %ed) or ((rd col&"n of %a,le of irreg&lar ver,s/ I wo&ldn(% ,e wor'ing. #e wo&ldn(% ,e wor'ing. I wo&ldn(% ,e going. #e wo&ldn(% ,e going. I wo&ldn(% have wor'ed. #e wo&ldn(% have wor'ed. I wo&ld have gone. #e wo&ld have gone. I wo&ld have ,een wor'ing. sth. that might have happened in the past ,onditional Perfect Progressive (It"s too late now.) e"$hasis7 leng%h of %i"e of an ac%ion wo&ld + have + ,een + Infini%ive + ing #e wo&ld have ,een going. I wo&ld have ,een going. #e wo&ld have ,een going. I wo&ldn(% have gone. #e wo&ldn(% have gone. 4o&ld I ,e wor'ing* 4o&ld he ,e wor'ing* 4o&ld I ,e going* 4o&ld he ,e going* 4o&ld I have wor'ed* 4o&ld he have wor'ed* 4o&ld I have gone* 4o&ld he have gone*

I wo&ldn(% have ,een 4o&ld I have ,een wor'ing.wor'ing* #e wo&ldn(% have ,een going. 4o&ld he have ,een wor'ing*

I wo&ldn(% have ,een 4o&ld I have ,een going.going* #e wo&ldn(% have ,een going. 4o&ld he have ,een going*

-e sometimes se ,ontin o s instead of Progressive. Some signal words can be fo nd in more tenses. -e did not list signal words in the f t re . )lways remember what action is described.

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